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Graffiti: An Anthropological Analysis
Graffiti is one of the oldest extant art forms: graffiti has been found on ancient monuments as well as on subways and billboards across the urban landscape of today (Alonso 1998: 3). The piece of graffiti I chose to use was a series of images inscribed on a No Parking sign. I found this piece of graffiti [URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/livenature/235459080/] on a common photo-sharing application known as 'Flickr' in which individuals share various photographs. This photograph came from a California-based photographer and was part of a photo-sharing ring of individuals who specialize in taking photographs of graffiti and street art. The impetus behind the group is to showcase graffiti as an interesting and legitimate art form.
Presentation of information
This particular piece of graffiti is instructive because it involves the desecration of a sign representing the law. The law specifically tells the viewer not to do something…
Alonso, Alex. "Urban Graffiti on the City Landscape." Street Gangs. Presented at Western
Geography Graduate Conference, San Diego State University. 14 Feb 1998. [9 May 2012] http://www.streetgangs.com/academic/alonsograffiti.pdf
"Denver Lane Blood gang graffiti near 109th and Figueroa in 1996." Street gangs.
The video cameras would be donated as an in-kind contribution from a local business or corporation. If there are no video cameras available through donation, a fundraiser must be held to raise the money to buy the cameras.
Trained technicians -- advanced students from a nearby university -- would put the technology together; they would receive credits toward their degrees though the building of and maintenance of this system of surveillance. hen taggers are recorded doing their graffiti on video cameras, the police department then steps in and makes the arrests. Signs are put up all around the school and other places where taggers make their marks that offer $500 for information leading to the arrest and conviction of vandals painting graffiti on buildings. Right next to every sign that offers the reward is another sign that reports the new ordinance enacted by the city council or county supervisors: first-time…
Anti-Defamation League (ADL) (2009). Hate Crimes Laws. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from http://www.adl.org/99hatecrime/federal.asp .
Dedel, Kelly. (2005). School Vandalism and Break-Ins / Guide No. 35. Center for Problem-
Oriented Policing. Retrieved April 9, 2011, from http://www.popcenter.org/problems/vandalism/print .
Grossack, David C. (1994). Citizens' Arrest. Constitutional Business. Retrieved April 9,
GRAFFITI and FAST TIMES AT RIDGEMONT HIGH
Coming of Age in California in American Cinema
Fast Times at Ridgemont High chronicles the lives of adolescents during the early 1980's in the suburban mall culture of California during that era. American Graffiti is also a cinematic chronicle of the latter stages of suburban, Californian adolescence, but of the early 1960's. The mixed group of girls and boys in Amy Heckerling's classic film hang out at the food courts of shopping malls, empty and soulless places of white tile and franchised signs. The lower tiers of the social rungs work at these establishments, unlike the individuals who patronize such places. The boys of American Graffiti hang out at diners that are locally run and not filled with artificial light. But they too, like the adolescent protagonist's of director Amy Heckerling's film and Cameron Crowe's script, are merely wasting time, waiting for their…
Crowe, Cameron. Fast Times at Ridgemont High. Directed by Amy Heckerling. 1982.
Ebert, Robert. "Fast Times at Ridgemont High." Review. The Chicago Sun Times. January 1, 1982. 2 November 2004. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/19820101/REVIEWS/201010322/1023
Lucas, George. "American Graffiti." Written and directed by George Lucas, 1973.
Power of Graffiti and Images
Every day, people read the news in the papers or hear reports on television about various crimes. It is easy to dismiss the words on the page or the anchor people. It is much harder to run away from an image. Long ago, people discovered that images were more potent than written words could be. There is the old expression that a picture is worth one thousand words. In both the articles "Exquisite Corpse" and "The all-Reader" focus on the importance of visual images to convey messages to the world at large. In the first story, Ashraf Rushdy uses the stories of Emmett Till and James Byrd to convey how times have changed between one racially-charged murder and another. In the first case, photos of Till's corpse were made public to teach the world about the horrors of racism and in the second, Byrd's photographs…
Barr, Fiona. "The Wall-Reader." Home | W.W. Norton & Company. Web. Nov. 2011.
Rushdy, Ashraf. "Exquisite Corpse." 2000. 356-365. Print.
American Graffiti and "Easy Rider"
Although, both "American Graffiti" and "Easy Rider" are set in the 1960's, the young people each film reflects are very different. This is due to the fact that perhaps no other decade in the twentieth century changed so much from its beginning until the end than the 1960's.
hen the 1960's began, men wore crew cut hairstyles, slacks with casual shirts, usually plaid, and buttoned down the front. omen and girls looked much like the females on the Donna Reed Show, wearing knee-length dresses or skirts and bouffant hairstyles (http://kclibrary.nhmccd.edu/decade60.html).Elvis, Bobby Darin, Neil Sedaka, Jerry Lee Lewis, Paul Anka, Del Shannon and Frankie Avalon dominated the music charts, along with the new sound of Motown (http://kclibrary.nhmccd.edu/decade60.html).
There was an innocence to the early 60's culture that is wonderfully portrayed in George Lucas' "American Graffiti," a film about the last night before college for Curt Henderson…
American Cultural History: 1960-1969." Kingwood College Library
American Graffiti." Director: George Lucas. 1973.
Easy Rider." Director: Dennis Hopper. 1969.
Local Problems: Graffiti and Vandalism Issues
In the latest edition of oxford dictionary the word graffiti is defined as the unauthorized writing or drawing on a surface in a public place." This also includes the terrible writing, paintings, cartoon and scribbles one sees on house and public fences, underneath bridges, on the empty sides of a building, unfortunate houses and the most common place for graffiti or "tagging" are the subways. The first impression when one looks at graffiti writing are messy words expected to be written by a five-year-old, but on a closer look when the writing becomes clear is when the actual meaning is understood, which in most of the cases is obscene and vulgar. The pretty colors and intricate designs might look appealing and beautiful but the fact that it is a conscious effort to destroy private or state property is an ugly truth. The main problem…
Butterfield, F. (1988). "On New York Walls, the Fading of Graffiti." New York Times, May 6, p. B1.
Castleman, C. (1982). Subway Graffiti in New York. London: MIT Press.
Cheetham, D. (1994). Dealing With Vandalism -- A Guide to the Control of Vandalism. London: Construction Industry Research and Information Association.
Eastel, P., and P. Wilson (1991). Preventing Crime on Transport: Rail, Buses, Taxis, Planes. Canberra, Australia: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Safi Rania Diamond Cell Youth Booster is a new skincare product for women aged 40 years and above who are seeking to prevent and lessen signs of aging. The paper provides a strategic marketing mix analysis that is geared towards successful marketing and advertising the product. This marketing mix analysis is to be presented to the Board of Directors of Graffiti Group, Inc., which has just purchased an operating facility in Malaysia that manufactures the product. The analysis is geared towards influencing the decision of the board in an attempt to have them approve investment and marketing of this product in Canada. Upon approval, the company will market this product to target market of women aged 40 years and above, especially those who want to prevent and lessen signs of aging, under the brand name PureBeauty Diamond Cell Youth Booster. The analysis includes an overview of the product,…
"The immature poet imitates and the mature poet plagiarizes," said T.S. Eliot. If imitation is indeed the finest form of flattery, then does it follow that plagiarism is a worthwhile pursuit? Indeed it can be. Street art, including visual art and music, is both plagiarizer and plagiarized. To imitate without paying full homage to the original creator is to fail in the ultimate pursuit of aesthetic brilliance. The art of Banksy integrates itself fully with popular culture and community. By stealing space and time, Banksy and street artists like him raise poignant political questions about the ownership of public space and the social class hierarchies that determine access to and enjoyment of the public domain. Likewise, Banksy participates in the time-honored tradition of sampling. By mixing and matching, cutting and pasting, Banksy is following in a long and venerable line of artistic genius that revels in the creative potential…
For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…
The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995
The observation unit. Individuals.
The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
Fortune Affect Grand Master Flash's Political Message?
Music is one of the most powerful forms of communication. It utilizes different types of information networks to cut across linguistic and social boundaries. In several occasions music has the potential to relate to politics and power. From the songs of sorrow sung by slaves in the south, to the revolutionary nature of jazz, blues, and rhythym and blues (R&) during the activist days of the Civil Rights Movements, music has been an important part of many social and political changes. In the recent past the power of music has definitely been amplified by increasingly globalized communications such as social media. Nowadays more rapidly than ever, music links and influences people from all over the world (Malone and Martinez).
Hip-hop is considered by some to be one of the most important genres of music. It originated in the ronx, New York in the…
Allmusic.com. Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five. n.d. 8 May 2015. Web
Bakala-ska, prace. Hip hop in American Culture. Thesis. Palackeho, 2012. Web
Bey, Alexander. "Hip-Hop's Musical Evolution of Rap." n.d. http://www.oneonta.edu . 8 May 2015.Web
Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA. About Hip Hop Youth Subculture. Los Angeles: Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, n.d. Web
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
Outline the Minneapolis Domestic violence experiment, cite its findings and discuss the results of its replication studies. Compare and contrast collective and selective incapacitation with suitable examples
The Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment was an evaluation of how effective the Minneapolis police responded to various domestic violence calls. The experiment was conducted between 1982 and 1982 by Lawrence W. Sherman, and the Minneapolis Police Department. Funding was supported by the National Institute of Justice. From a pool of known domestic violence offenders who there was a possibility for arrest, the study required the officers to select randomly one third for arrest, one third for counseling, and one third for separation with their partners Buzawa and Buzawa ()
. From the three methods suggested for dealing with domestic violence offenders, arrest was found to be the most effective. Those arrested during the study had been deterred from committing the offence again. The…
Buzawa, E.S., and C.G. Buzawa. Domestic Violence: The Criminal Justice Response. 1 Oliver's Yard: SAGE Publications, 2003. Print.
Lab, S.P. Crime Prevention: Approaches, Practices, and Evaluations. Maryland Heights, MO 63043: Elsevier Science, 2013. Print.
Wilkinson, P. Terrorism vs. Democracy. Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4SB: Taylor & Francis Group, 2011. Print.
A participant in the study notes, "The gang members were scared to come outside, scared to hang out together.' and, 'it is still working.' He noted that graffiti and other signs of gang activity have declined dramatically. He pointed out that a wall near the park had graffiti 24/7, 365 days a year prior to the injunction, but not lately" (Maxson, et al. vii). Thus, gang injunctions control a variety of gang-related activities, but they can help control the spread of graffiti and the actions of tagging crews, keeping neighborhoods not only safer, but less unsightly for the people who live there.
Alonso, Alex. "Gang Injunctions & Civil Abatement in Los Angeles." StreetGangs.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.streetgangs.com/injunctions/
Editors. "Gang Injunction." County of San Diego District Attorney. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.sdcda.org/protecting/gi_workflow.pdf
Maxson, Cheryl L. Karen Hennigan, David Sloane, and Kathy a. Kolnick. "Can Civil Gang Injunctions Change Communities?…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." Gutenberg.com. 2008. 11 Dec. 2008. http://www.gutenberg.org/files/5200/5200-h/5200-h.htm
Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell
The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference is a book about epidemics. However, Gladwell is not writing about diseases. He is writing about how the behaviors and attitudes of a population change in much the way an epidemic spreads. As Gladwell describes, only one child has to go to school with measles. The next week, almost every child at the school can have measles. It only took one change in this one child to make a significant difference. This situation where seemingly small changes make big differences is the focus of the book. Gladwell uses the metaphor of a spreading virus to explain how ideas, products, messages, and behaviors can all spread in the same way. He explains how something can suddenly become an accepted fashion item, how people's behavior can change on a mass scale, how information can spread via…
Gladwell, M. The Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York: Back Bay Books, 2004.
On the other hand, a new business plan should not be so unrealistic as to fail to take note of existing market conditions and real economic pressures. The balance of personalities of team members, between the more practical and introverted, to the more feeling and extroverted individuals gave our team an excellent personality blend of boldness and caution. There was methodological weight behind the market research we conducted, yet there was also innovative thinking in terms of how the product was structured.
Another great strength of our team was the balance of people who enjoyed beginning new projects, and people who enjoyed bringing tasks to completion. One problem with creative idea-generating techniques such as laddering and SWOT is that so many ideas and potential innovations and obstacles can be generated that idea sessions spiral out of control and there is no grounding in reality and no sense of refining the…
Allen, K.R. (2010). New venture creation (International Edition). 5th ed. South-Western
Bolton, B. & J. Thompson. (2004). Entrepreneurs: Talent, temperament, technique. 2nd ed.
In the second painting, it is the human figure that takes the foreground - or rather, a the human figure as death, staring out at us in a distraught manner, reeking of death yet simultaneously posing in a gesture that is full of life. It is asquiat's unique, rhythmic style that makes this painting so special. I would even go so far as to argue that, rather than considering asquiat's style from the vantage point of earlier movements (i.e. Abstract Expressionism and graffiti art), it is perhaps more appropriate to locate those qualities that make a asquiat. His signature style seems to be based largely on the interplay of lines, with smudges and stains of paint occasionally smearing the background, as in this second painting. ut asquiat's painting refutes the "all over" gesturality of Pollock or the contrived messiness of de Kooning in his efforts at balancing received images (from…
Armand, Louis. "Jean-Michel Basquiat: Identity and the Art of (Dis)Empowerment." 2001.
Retrieved November 12, 2007 at http://web.ff.cuni.cz/~lazarus/basquiat.html .
Basquiat, Jean-Michel. Untitled. 1981. Retrieved November 12, 2007 at http://eu.art.com/asp/sp-asp/_/Aff--CONF/CTID--682692304/RFID--978325/TKID--15041968/pd -- 10112338/posters.htm.
Basquiat, Jean-Michel. Untitled. 1981. Retrieved November 12, 2007 at http://www.ihmadrid.com/comunicativo/mini_galeria/images/basquiat-untitled_1981_jpg.jpg .
The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.
arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.
"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…
Barbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"
Biography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.
Benavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance
in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
Honolulu's Impeding Rail System:
Addressing the Necessary Factors to Ensure the Successful Implementation of a Mass Transit Rail System in Honolulu, Hawaii
The Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project has already gone through a plethora of designs and revisions and has recently the project has been approved by the governing authorities. The project is meant to address many issues that can propel Honolulu into a more sustainable direction. Inspiration for this project did not require a great leap in human inventions and technology. In fact, many nations have already successfully constructed such rail systems. Not only have they proven successful, but they have been successfully transporting people for many decades now. However, for whatever reason, the United States has never adopted the efficiency of rail systems to the extent that other cultures around the globe have.
These issues that stand the most room for prosperity from the implementation of…
Au, L. (2008, November 10). Voters on route drive rail victory. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from Honolulu Star Bulletin: http://archives.starbulletin.com/content/20081110_Voters_on_route_drive_rail_victory
Elfes, H. (2011, January 31). Siemens Prepares Bid for U.S. High-Speed Train Project. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-01-31/siemens-prepares-bid-for-u-s-high-speed-train-project-faz-says.html
Environmental Graffiti. (2011). The 5 Best Mass Transit Systems in the World. Retrieved Feburary 2, 2011, from Environmental Graffiti: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/green-living/free-ride-the-five-best-mass-transit-systems-worldwide/1095
Hansen, e. a. (2007). Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 1-35.
Ceramics- exhibition review (New Territories exhibit)
New Territories: Laboratories for Design, Craft and Art in Latin America
If a viewer were to initially wander into the exhibition New Territories: Laboratories for Design, Craft and Art in Latin America, he or she might initially believe that the Museum of Art and Design (MAD) was showcasing a catalogue of traditional works from Latin America. However, upon closer examination, New Territories is actually a series of modern pieces by contemporary artists from the region who make use of techniques such as appropriation and pastiche of traditional designs. These works are reconfigurations of traditional images, hence the expression of 'new territories' in their output.
For example, Les Crayons Noirs (in collaboration with Felipe (Flip) Yung, Herbert Baglione, Sesper, and Thais Beltrame) makes use of traditional images and ways of rendering the human body common to many Latin American traditional works and transposes…
Interactive art usually contains computers, sensors, and other devices that allow the art and the user to interact with each other. Video and computer games have brought a different set of artists to the field. The tools have changed as well with the advent of voice analyzers, robotics, actuators, LED's, and etc.
Is the line between real reality and virtual reality getting blurred? Virtual describes the animated form and how closely it resembles the original. Users and the environment interact freely with each other in worlds that are replicas of our own environments. When we watch movies, we are watching real actors but in a virtual landscape or scene. Is this really different from watching the animatronics characters? Mixed reality refers to environments or situations that contain elements from both the virtual and the real world. The two are entwined to create the optimal effect on the user.
Core77. http://www.core77.com/reactor/rozin_interview.html (accessed April 15, 2010)
Dinkla, S. "The History of the Interface in Interactive Art" 1994. http://www.kenfeingold.com/dinkla_history.html (accessed April 15, 2010)
Interactiveartists.blogspot.com. http://interactiveartists.blogspot.com / (accessed April 15, 2010)
Kwastek, K.; Daniels, D.; and Boltzman, L. "Interaction, Interactivity, Interactive Art" http://media.lbg.ac.at/en/veranstaltungen.php?iMenuID=3&iEventID=112 (accessed April 15, 2010)
Because of all these accomplishments, Mr. Lucas has a list of accolades and awards that would fill pages. His most notable accomplishments however have been the 24 films he has been directly involved with that have either won or been nominated for Academy Awards. He has won four Academy Awards personally for Best Directing and Best Writing for American Graffiti and Best Directing and Writing for Star Wars as well. One of the several companies he has founded, Industrial Light & Magic, has won fourteen Academy Awards on its own. He has also been awarded two of the most prestigious honors in filmmaking in the U.S., the American Film Institute Life Achievement Award and from the Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial Award. Mr. Lucas also donated $180M to his alma mater, University of Southern California, so a new film school could be built. He is…
Bruce Carse. "Keynote Speech: George Lucas: A keynote Q&A with the father of digital cinema." ACM Transactions on Graphics 24.3 (2005): 1.
Lisanti, T. "The "Empire" Celebrates 30. " License! Global 13.3 (2010): L2 -- L5
As abortion became more available, "the decline in the birth of unwanted, often poor and fatherless children in the '70s led to a decline in the number of juvenile delinquents in the '80s and hardened criminals in the '90s' (Brooks 2006).
The logic behind broken windows theory is thus: "fighting the seemingly minor indicators of neighborhood decay and disorder-broken windows, graffiti, even litter-helps prevent major crimes" (Brooks 2006). Broken windows theory suggests that visual 'clues' that the neighborhood is 'bad' results in criminals perpetrating actual crimes, and then more serious crimes. "Kelling and ilson conjured a vision of untended neighborhoods quickly reduced to crime-infested wastelands. First local boys rob a passed-out drunk on a lark; then muggers start robbing anyone who looks like he might have a few big bills in his wallet. Residents begin to view their neighborhood as unsafe, and retreat into their homes-or to the suburbs-abandoning the…
Brook, Daniel. "The cracks in broken windows theory." The Boston Globe. February 19, 2006.
[September 14, 2011] http://www.boston.com/news/globe/ideas/articles/2006/02/19/the_cracks_in_broken_windows/
Hunter, Andrea. "Marijuana a 'gateway drug?'" CBS News. September 2, 2011.
[September 14, 2011] http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-20015429-10391704.html
Broken Window Theory
The "broken windows" theory of crime prevention and control is perhaps one of the most widely discussed and least understood law enforcement paradigms, due to the relative simplicity of the theory and the ostensibly dramatic reductions in crime offered by the first studies of cities in which a "broken windows" policy was implemented. The policy was first proposed in the early 1980s, but it was not until the 1990s, when New York adopted a broken windows policy and saw a drop in crime rates, that the theory became widely popularized. However, subsequent analysis of these drops in crime as well as other detrimental effects of a broken windows policy helps to reveal that the gains initially promised by the results in New York and other cities is not indicative of a broken windows policy in general, and in fact, many of these reductions in crime may be…
Distler, M. (2011). Less debate, more analysis: a meta analysis of literature on broken windows policing. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
EDITORIAL: 'broken windows' and crime (2007). . United States, Washington: McClatchy
Tribune Information Services.
Edwards, S. (2009, May 20). Violent crime on rise in manhattan; fewer tickets issued. National Post, pp. A.24.
Global warming is the trend with which temperatures across the globe are increasing beyond the range of normal fluctuations. The effects of global climate change are real and will result in serious consequences for the generations to come if nothing is done to solve this problem. The problem of global warming has mainly been caused by the emission of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere. These greenhouse gases that are being emitted into the Earth's atmosphere and result in global warming include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Some of the serious effects of the global warming problem include hotter and dry summers, increased flooding as well as lessened snowfall and soil moisture. This problem also results in serious consequences on the agricultural and tourism industries of many countries across the globe. Therefore, there is a need for rapid changes and actions that will help in the reduction of greenhouse…
Lehman, Christine. "Global Warming Problems & Solutions." EHow. EHow, Inc. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Riebeek, Holli. "Why Is Global Warming a Problem?" NASA: Earth Observatory. NASA, 6 July 2010. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Sheldon, Tony. "Reducing Greenhouse Gases Will Have Good Short-Term Effect." BMJ: Helping Doctors Make Better Decisions. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2 Dec. 2000. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Simmons. "5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming." Environmental Graffiti: The Magazine Created By You. Environmental Graffiti. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Lastly, the paper concludes by summarizing the findings of the paper.
Limitations of the Study
It is imperative to analytically assess the outcome and the entire thesis. This is because this thesis has some limitations that should be observed when taking into consideration the importance of the thesis and its assistance. This thesis has concentrated on a subject that has been an extremely large and leading one, that is, the development and influence of hip hop dance: the cultural, sociological, and dance style evolution of street dance. Undoubtedly, this characterizes an extremely difficult assignment for research in spite of the more precise interests that the thesis might have. This wide-ranging and difficult subject has been analyzed from a somewhat limited experimental perception. The choice of the single thesis design obviously draws out numerous limitations in so far as the simplification of the outcome of the thesis is involved. Consequently, the…
1) Hip Hop. Taken at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hiphop
2) Efrem Smith. Hip-Hop as Culture. Youth worker journal. July/Aug 2004. Taken at http://www.youthspecialties.com/articles/topics/urban/hip-hop.php
3) Carl S. Taylor and Virgil Taylor. Hip-Hop and Youth Culture: Contemplations of an Emerging Cultural Phenomenon. Reclaiming Children and Youth. Volume: 12. Issue: 4. 2004.
4) Paul Butler. Much Respect: Toward a Hip-Hop Theory of Punishment. Stanford Law Review. Volume: 56. Issue: 5. 2004.
hat is urban culture(s)?
Hear the words 'urban culture,' and quite often one thinks of hip-hop, the music that is a fusion of black city culture with other ethnic elements of various cities, from Jamaican to Latino sounds. Of course, this is a single example of modern urban culture. hat hip-hop shares in common with other urban cultural expressions of the past is that hip-hop is the product of fusing the diverse cultural elements of a variety of new ethnicities into a new culture. Urban culture is the result of tightly packing people into close apartment structures, neighborhoods and blocks that often allow them to be ethnically or racially 'isolated' from mainstream modern culture, yet creates a proximity that forces urban residents to adapt to a new American environment in a socially 'sharing' way.
The notion of urban culture is older than such modern-day constructions as hip-hop however.…
Schultz, Stanley. Constructing the Urban Culture American Cities and City Planning, 1800-1920. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1989.
Lobo, Daniel G., & Larry Schooler. (2004) "Playing with Urban Life." Technology & Cities. The American City. Issue 6. Retrieved 8 Nov 2005 at http://www.americancity.org/article.php?id_article=21
57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)
Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.
Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…
Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm
Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
CONESED PUBLIC SPACE: MEMORIES & HISORY
Contested Public Space: Memories and History
Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas
he Memory Landscape.
Mary's is a large old-style brick church belonging to the council of the Hanseatic city of Lubeck. On the floor at the rear of the church, broken pieces of two large bells remain where they fell during an air raid in World War II. he third largest church in Germany, it took 100 years to construct St. Mary's but just one Palm Sunday night in March of 1942 to nearly destroy it. As with so many churches ruined by bombing during the war, parishioners debated about restoration. Citizens living on war-torn homeland are caught: here is a lingering desire to preserve physical destruction as a message or signal to subsequent generations, or as an effort to share the horror of war time experience. If the physical evidence of…
The Construction of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin.
A competition for the design of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin was held in April of 1994. Twelve artists were invited to submit a design and a stipend of 50, 000 German Marks was provided to each candidate. The proposals would be reviewed by a jury with representatives from architecture, urban design, art, history, administration, and politics. Interest in the project grew and at the end of the competitive period, 528 proposals had been submitted. Rounds of reviews commenced and 13 proposals were selected. But during the interim period between meetings, the jurors -- who ostensibly were then able to review the critiques of their fellow jurors -- asked that 11 proposals be put back in the running. Two proposals were finally recommended to the foundation for feasibility study. One proposal was designed by Simon Ungers architectural group from Hamburg, and one proposal was designed by Christine Jackob-Marks. Jackob-Marks' work included names of murdered Jews engraved in a large concrete plate, with empty spaces signifying Jews who could not be identified by name. Her proposal also included debris from Massada where the Jewish inhabitants avoided capture by invading Romans by killing themselves. Chancellor Helmut Kohl vetoed this proposal. It was considered too "German" and too similar to the Nazi death rosters. The controversy continued under many different guises.
In June of 1998, Peter Eisenman's design was chosen, but it was scaled down to 2,711 blocks, or stelae, after considerable controversy.[footnoteRef:22] Daniel Liebeskind, who was pupil of Eisenman's, claimed that Eisenman stole his design from the Berlin Jewish Museum's Garden of Exile. In July of 2001, billboards reflecting Holocaust denial sentiments appeared in Berlin triggering a funding controversy. [footnoteRef:23] In October of 2003, there was a major disruption to the project. Degesch, a subsidiary of the German company Degussa, was revealed by a Swiss newspaper to be the same firm that made Zyklon-B, the gas used in the gas chambers to murder Jews in the extermination camps. Degussa had been hired to coat the concrete slabs with an anti-graffiti substance. In fact, many stelae had already been coated and the anti-graffiti substance had been discounted as in-kind sponsorship of the memorial. Degussa had National-Socialist leanings during the war and this fact was ostensibly known to the construction management company and to Lea Rosh. Rosh declared that she had no prior knowledge of the connection, and she is reported to have said that, "Zylon-B is obviously the limit."[footnoteRef:24] Another subsidiary of Degussa had, but this time, already poured the concrete foundation for the stelae. Members of the Jewish community were outraged at Degussa's involvement and wanted them out of the project. Politicians on the Board of the foundation did not want to impose further expense on the project by stopping construction, or worse, destroying any construction that Degasse had already accomplished. The cost of this action was estimated at €2.34 million. One Board member, Wolfgang Thierse, was reported to say, "[T]he past intrudes into our society."[footnoteRef:25] The Zentrairat der Juden in Germany was outspoken about not continuing the work with Degrasse. Hezryk Broder emphasized that, "The Jews don't need this memorial, and they are not prepared to declare a pig sty kosher." [footnoteRef:26] Peter Eisenberg, perhaps in a bid to see his work finished, supported continuing the project with Degrasse. In November 2003, work restarted with Degrasse. In May of 2005, the Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas was completed. At the opening ceremony, Peter Eisenberg spoke about the significance of the Mahnmal, saying that, "It is clear that we won't have solved all the problems -- architecture is not a panacea for evil -- nor will we have satisfied all those present today, but this cannot have been our intention."[footnoteRef:27] [22: Historic Sites -- Berlin, Op. Cit. ] [23: Ibid. ] [24: Translated from "Die Grenze ist ganz klar Zyklon B." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294. ] [25: Translated from "Die Vergangenheit ragt in unsere Gesellschaft hinein." Claus Leggewie and Erik Meyer (2005) "Ein Ort, an den man gerne geht." Das Holocaust-Mahnmal und die deutsche Geschichtspolitik nach 1989. Munich, DE: Carl Hanser Verlag Publisher. Munich. p. 294.] [26: Translated from "Di Juden brauchen dieses Mahnmal nicht, und sind nicht beriet, eine Schweinerei als koscher zu erklaren." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294] [27: Berstein, Richard. (2005, May 11) Holocaust Museum opens in Berlin, The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2005/0511/international/europe/11germany . ]
King and Queen Hatshepsut
Located on the wall of a cave in Deir el-Bahari is a bit of graffiti showing "a man having 'doggie-style' intercourse with a woman wearing a royal headdress." (Tyldesley 2006, 99) Historians have interpreted this vulgar piece of art as ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty's Queen Hatshepsut and a governmental official named Senenmut. At a time when men ruled and women were subservient, it was unusual for a woman to gain power, let alone become a Pharaoh. But this is exactly what Hatshepsut did, she assumed the role of Pharaoh; but in doing so she sentenced herself to virtual non-existence. hile the reign of Hatshepsut is generally though to have lasted about 22 years, from 1479 BC to 1458 BC, the man she usurped from the throne eventually got his revenge. After her death, the next Pharaoh, Thutmose III, all but erased her reign from history…
Kean, Sam. "The scent of a woman pharaoh." American Scholar 80.2 (2011): 17. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 May. 2011.
Lorenzi, Rossella. "Pharaoh Hatshepsut Died in Pain." Discovery News. Web. 8 May 2011. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/07/02/sickmummy_arc_02.html?category=ar chaeology&guid=20070702133030
Ray, John. "Hatshepsut: the female pharaoh." History Today 44.5 (1994): 23+. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 May. 2011.
Roehrig, Catherine, Renee Dreyfus, and Cathleen Keller. Hatshepsut, from Queen to Pharaoh. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. Print.
Modern art in the Asia-Pacific region reflects the rapidly changing geo-political landscapes, as well as becoming increasingly integrated into architecture and urban planning. In the Asia-Pacific region, the art of the 21st century can be large scale and includes ambitious installation projects as well as graphic art, graffiti, and urban art. Although influenced by European trends like abstraction and surrealism, the art of the Asia-Pacific region is dedicated to communicating a localized aesthetic. Contemporary art in the Asia-Pacific region can also be politically powerful, designed to make statements. In some cases, art has become a critical component of social justice and communications. The work of Ai Weiwei reflects the fusion of art with politics at critical junctures. In Japan and Korea, political statements were less concerned about protests against governmental institutions and more about gender and oppression in general. Throughout the 20th century, Korean art aimed to celebrate the history…
Care of Vulnerable Populations
COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT, ANALYSIS, and NURSING INTERVENTION
• Week 1: Windshield Survey and Key Informant Interviews. Complete the First Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 2 and 3 assignments.)
• Week 2: Statistical Analysis of Community Health Problem. Complete the Second Section of the course template and submit. (Keep this section attached to Weeks 1 and 3 assignments.)
• Week 3: Community Health Nursing Intervention. Complete the Third Section of the course template and submit. By now, you should have Sections 1-3 as one whole document.
• Each section of the course template is submitted on a WEEKLY basis, depending on which week you are working on. DO NOT wait to submit all three sections at the end of the third week.
• Please note that students are not to make any changes to the content of the course template,…
New York City is a very complex city. It is full of public spaces and areas. Examples include the subways, the sidewalks, the roads and so forth. However, something that is commonly missing is green space and massive areas of vegetation and landscaping. There is one best example of an exception to this that is also a public space. This, of course, would be Central Park. There are many good to great things to say about that area. However, there are other things that are less than positive, although it depends on one’s thought patterns and perspectives. While Central Park is very much an oasis and an outlier within the greater New York City area, it also has some qualities that are less than positive and encouraging.
People familiar with Central Park also commonly know just how huge it is. They also know how it stands apart…
They predict age and gender variations relate to bullying concerns. Of the 25 cartoons implemented in the study, two depict characters with different shades of skin color where skin color appeared to be an issue. One cartoon relating to sexual orientation was not used in several countries. Smith et al. report Olweus to assert bullying to be characterized by the following three criteria:
1. It is aggressive behavior or intentional "harmdoing"
2. which carried out repeatedly and over time
3. In an interpersonal relationship characterized by an imbalance of power. (Smith et al., 2002, p. 1120)
In their study, Smith et al. (2002), participating researchers in the 14 countries to completed the following
1. Listed and selected bullying terms as well as social exclusion in the applicable language.
2. Used fundamental focus groups with participating children to confirm usage and extensive comprehensive of terms.
3. Using cartoons, sorted tasks to…
Anti-Bullying programs for schools. (2009). NoBully.com. Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://www.nobully.com/index.html
Beaty, L.A., & Alexeyev, E.B. (2008). The Problem of School Bullies: What the Research Tells Us. Adolescence, 43(169), 1+. Retrieved March 3, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5026476147
Beran, T.N., Tutty, L. & Steinrath, G. (2004). An evaluation of a bullying prevention program for elementary schools. Canadian Journal of School Psychology. Vol. 19, Iss. 1/2, p. 99
116 . Retrieved March 3, 2010 from http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1188387401&Fmt=4&clientId=9269&RQT=30
In December of 1970 they started recording their fourth album and their sessions lasted till the next summer due to several factors like the band wanting the album to remain untitled, they wanted nothing written on it and no texts or credits anywhere on the album itself or on its outside or inside sleeves. They wanted their music to the talking but were talked out of it by their label and there were credits added to the albums inside paper sleeve, but it had nothing to help in identifying the album or its distributers on the front cover. It became known unofficially as Led Zeppelin IV and due to its powerfulness; it did manage to reach number two on the charts. Stairway to Heaven was one of the songs in the album and became the band's best song ever and also rock's best song ever.
In 1972, there was less…
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
-- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Currently she is a Scientist III working with the Institute for the Study of Society and Environment (ISSE) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Her research focuses on human exploitation of climate-sensitive natural resources, and the socioeconomic and institutional factors affecting resource management decisions in the context of uncertainty and competing interests.
Dr. Thomas J. ilbank received a Ph. D. In Geography from Syracuse in 1969. He is a recognized expert in energy and environmental policy, developing countries, global change, technology and society, and institution-building. Currently he is employed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the title of Corporate Research Fellow and Leader, Global Change and Developing Country Programs. Dr. ilbank has studied the links between everyday economic and household activities and climate change. He is a contributor to the book, Global Change and Local Places: Estimating, Understanding, and Reducing Greenhouse Gases. This book reports on…
Hansen, James. GISS Personnel Directory. 2010. Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 27 July 2010. .
Miller, Kathleen. Institute for the Study of Society and Environment. 2010. Kathleen Millar's Home Page. 27 July 2010. < http://www.isse.ucar.edu/staff/miller/index.php>.
Simmons. 5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming. NDI. Environmental Graffiti. 27 July 2010. .
Wilbank, Thomas J. Environmental Sciences Division. 2010. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 27 July 2010. < http://www.esd.ornl.gov/people/wilbanks/index.shtml >.
This became an age in which visionary thinkers said, "see, we told you so," and were able to garner additional support from not only the activist type, but the regular citizen.
Malthusian dynamics (overpopulation and resource allocation) became a focus of futurists. Marshall McLuhan, for one, combined futuristic predictions with analysis of global media and advertising trends.
Noam Chomsky was revolutionizing the idea of linguistics as a way to view our innate cultural mechanisms.
Science fiction writers like Clarke, Asimov, and Lem pushed the boundaries of science as far as possible -- insisting that the reader ask very difficult questions about what it truly means to be human, what it truly means to have conservatorship of a planet, and whether or not we have the wisdom to maintain life on earth as we know it.
Chapter 6 -- Fast Forward
Arthur C. Clarke made an interesting remark about…
In both ancient Greece and ancient Rome, women were idealized or demonized in storytelling. Tales of "glamorous mistresses" and "adultresses" characterize some of the ancient Roman literature (Dixon). Like ancient Greek literature, ancient Roman literature also portrayed domesticated women as being highly virtuous to convey social norms and ideals for female behavior.
omen's work was defined and restricted by their gender. omen in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome did household work. In both societies but especially ancient Rome, "women were expected to be involved in cloth production: spinning, weaving and sewing," (Dixon). In ancient Greece, the only public role for women was reserved for a select few: the priestess (Rymer). Only one "authentic voice" of a female poet has survived: that of Sappho (Blundell 66). In ancient Rome, "a few examples of women in higher-status positions such as that of a doctor, and one woman painter is known," (Dixon).…
Blundell, Sue. Women in Ancient Greece. Harvard University Press, 1995.
Dixon, Suzanne. "Roman Women: Following the Clues." BBC: Ancient History in-Depth. Oct 15, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/roman_women_01.shtml
Rymer, Eric. "Women in Ancient Greece." 2010. Retrieved online: http://historylink102.com/greece3/women.htm
Thompson, James C. "Women in Ancient Rome." Retrieved online: http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/women_in_ancient_rome.htm
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…
Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html
Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann
Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…
Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.
Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.
Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.
Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
Burnham spent most of his life in the early, expanding est in Detroit, Michigan. He worked as sign painter as well as a popular artist of portraits, landscapes, and genre scenes like the Young Artist. Burnham did the Lewis and Clark Expedition from his imagination, and many of his works are stylized and idealized types of Americana. The charm of the young boy drawing on a beer barrel to delight his friends, an old woman, and an African-American child (perhaps a servant or a slave, it remains slightly unclear) suggests that this is what true American art is -- and should resemble (Thomas Mickell Burnham, 2009, Ask Art). Burnham was also fond of popular seascapes of ships and sailors, evidently culled from his memory growing up in Boston.
The value of this work is primarily to get a glimpse of what American popular art resembled, and how America saw itself…
Burnham, Thomas. (1840). The Young Artist. Orlando Museum. Retrieved February 26, 2009 at: http://www.omart.org/collections/american-art/thomas-mickell-burnham-young
Thomas Mickell Burnham. (2009). Ask Art. Retrieved February 26, 2009 http://www.askart.com/askart/b/thomas_mickell_burnham/thomas_mickell_burnham.aspx
Thomas Mickell Burnham. (2009). Art Net. Retrieved February 26, 2009 http://www.artnet.com/artist/3364/thomas-mickell-burnham.html
Such works bring to mind Freud's theory of genital anxiety, which is present in both men and women. At the same time - and this is where Bourgeois's revolt against myth occurs - what would otherwise be seen as a fetish object for men is deployed here as a weapon instead. Thus, by subverting the feminine into a weapon, Bourgeois is simultaneously responding to the psychic myths of Western civilization and transgressing them in an effort to posit a new model of the real.
Throughout the course of his career, Anselm Kiefer has attempted to unite myth and history through an immense terrain of entangled cultural references and pictorial techniques. In doing so, Kiefer has effectively attempted to bear the weight of our collective historical tragedies and redemptive hopes that many artists in the last forty years have attempted to convey. Few of them, however, do it so effectively as…
What resources already exist that can be built upon and developed?
If there are recreational softball leagues, building new fields might be a good idea. If the senior citizen's center exists already, refurbishing it to allow for more wheelchair access and more varied activities might be a good idea. If areas of the community are unsafe, full of graffiti, or unusable, putting money into rehabilitating these efforts might be a good idea.
How do we wish to change and shape the community?
For a community with a lack of a common bond, creating a central meeting place like a park might be a good idea. If the community is suffering particular problems, like obesity and lack of activity, creating an area where there are tracks and fitness runs might be a good idea. Having a monthly 5K run, or a 'let's get healthy day' staffed by volunteer nurses and doctors…
Related to the above is the view that the origins and history of the development of Rap music are strongly related to the resistance to various forms of colonialism and oppression that Black people have experienced and which has shaped the style and form of Rap music. This also refers to ideological and colonial hegemonies and perceived racial and cultural prejudice that has been a major motivating force in this form of artistic expression.
This can be linked to theories of ideological hegemony that are seen as pivotal aspect in the development of Black consciousness and consequently in the musical expression of that consciousness. According to theorists like Gramsci, ideological hegemony functions by control and domination not only through force but also through cultural forms of persuasion. In other words, the best way to achieve control over a subordinate group is by "...means of cultural domination among all sectors…
KEYES C.L. (2002) Rap Music and Street Consciousness. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Kopano, Baruti N. "Rap Music as an Extension of the Black Rhetorical Tradition: "Keepin' it Real." The Western Journal of Black Studies 26.4 (2002): 204+. Questia. 31 Mar. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001926756 .
Some of those are as follows:
1) Affect the environment;
2) Either save or expend energy;
3) Economically feasible or expensive to maintain, heat and cool.
4) Affect student learning;
5) Affect the health of students and teachers alike and 6) Affect the retention of teachers. (Olson and Carney, 2004)
Criteria involved in the design, operation and maintenance of these 'sustainable' buildings are those as follows:
Sustainable site planning and landscaping design that decrease the use of pesticides and provide an outdoor learning environment for students;
Good building envelope design such as efficient windows and high R-value insulation that reduce draftiness and increase student and teacher comfort levels;
Proper lighting along with increased use of daylighting to improve student performance and increase comfort levels;
Good indoor air quality from adequate air filtration and exchange systems and the banning of idling buses or delivery trucks near buildings that eliminate toxins, allergens…
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA, (Apr 2005). 2005 Report Card for America's Infrastructure. Online available at http://www.asce.org/reportcard/2005/
Benner, a.D. 2000. "The Cost of Teacher Turnover." Austin, Texas: Texas Center for Educational Research. Online available at http://www.sbec.state.tx.us/SBECOnline/txbess/turnoverrpt.pdf
Benya, J.R. 2001. "Lighting for Schools." Washington, D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Online available at http://www.edfacilities.org/pubs/lighting.html
Berry, Michael (2002) Healthy School Environment and Enhanced Educational Performance: The Case of Charles Young Elementary School, Washington DC. 12 Jan 2002. The Carpet and Rug Institute.
Anderson, Sherwood. (1919). inesburg, Ohio. New York: B.. Huebsch. Bartleby.com, 1999. 8 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/156/.
Dragan, Edward F. "Setting Boundaries for Sexual Harassment." School Administrator Dec. 2006: 53. Questia. 7 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019026469.
Duffy, Jim, Stacey areham, and Margaret alsh. "Psychological Consequences for High School Students of Having Been Sexually Harassed." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50.11-12 (2004): 811+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008171353.
Lucero, Margaret a., Robert E. Allen, and Karen L. Middleton. "Sexual Harassers: Behaviors, Motives, and Change over Time." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2006): 331+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022552162.
Packman, Jill, illiam J. Lepkowski, Christian C. Overton, and Marlowe Smaby. "e're Not Gonna Take it: A Student Driven Anti-Bullying Approach." Education 125.4 (2005): 546+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009846899.
"Parents Should Speak Up about School Problems." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 5 Nov. 2007: A9. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023891271.
Anderson, Sherwood. (1919). Winesburg, Ohio. New York: B.W. Huebsch. Bartleby.com, 1999. 8 Jan. 2008 www.bartleby.com/156/.
Dragan, Edward F. "Setting Boundaries for Sexual Harassment." School Administrator Dec. 2006: 53. Questia. 7 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019026469 .
Duffy, Jim, Stacey Wareham, and Margaret Walsh. "Psychological Consequences for High School Students of Having Been Sexually Harassed." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 50.11-12 (2004): 811+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008171353 .
Lucero, Margaret a., Robert E. Allen, and Karen L. Middleton. "Sexual Harassers: Behaviors, Motives, and Change over Time." Sex Roles: A Journal of Research (2006): 331+. Questia. 8 Jan. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5022552162 .
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
The portrayal of the central character, by showing non-verbal aspects of his life, like the intensity of his focus when engaged in creative works, or his silent, brooding intensity when confronting the naked racism that patronizing, rich connoisseurs often showed towards his works, helps the viewer better understand the torment that fueled the genius. To know, for example, the fact that Basquiat had a three-hundred dollar a week cocaine habit means little, it does not tell us why he continued to use drugs and still had the drive to create art. Although the film portrays the full arhol milieu, as it was such an integral part of Basquiat's discovery, and provided the environment where his works were created and received, it does not glamorize New York during the 'Studio 54' years. It also does not glamorize drug use, as it stresses that Andy arhol hoped that Basquiat would get off…
Basquiat." 1996. Written and directed by Julian Schnabel.
Hoban, Phoebe. Basquiat: A Quick Killing in Art. New York: Penguin, 1999.
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…
Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.
Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.
Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…
Matthews, D. And Ruzicka, K. (2000) Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime. Capital Center for Government and Law Policy - California Initiative Review. March 2000 initiatives - Proposition 21. Pacific McGeorge School of Law. Online available at http://www.mcgeorge.edu/government_law_and_policy/california_initiative_review/march_2000/ccglp_cir_march2000_prop_21.htm .
McKim, J.B. And Rhor, Monica (2007) Justice by Geography (Orange County Register) 3 June 2007. Online available at http://dist08.casen.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC=%7BE917F382-8B46-4C4E-976E-64261965F209%7D&DE=%7BCA01ACE7-2B51-4E14-8DE4-3C7CC3E4DDFB%7D
Governor Scwarzenegger Endorsees Senator Feinstein's Comprehensive Gang Legislation. (2007) United States Senator Dianne Feinstein California. 20 March 2007. Online available at http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=NewsRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=7189577e-cc9b-d379-16f3-c9194d249b56&Region_id=&Issue_id=
Velasquez, N. (2007) L.A. City Attorney Delgadillo Establishes New Policy Regarding Gang Injunction Violations: New Policy Enables Check of Convicted Gang Injunction Violators' Residency Status. 5 April 2007. Online available at http://www.lacity.org/atty/index/attyindex56044369_04052007.pdf .
Further, I believe the best American (and other) literature, has always done that, and does that now, within any age.
However, I also do not feel that American literature should do anything different from other national literatures (except to spring, which it would and does naturally) from the distinct environment in which it was or is written). It should definitely not be confined, either, to focusing only on American topics (another category difficult to actually limit or define). If American literature anthologies or collections are any guide to what the term "American literature" may actually mean, John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity," composed as sermon to be read at sea to the author's fundamentalist flock of Puritan Dissenters sailing toward an unknown New World; and the 20th century ussian emigre Vladimir Nabokov's novel Pnin (about a ussian emigre professor and writer in America), qualify equally well (and is included,…
Literature. (1995). Webster's New American dictionary.
New York: Merriam-
Tocqueville, a. de. (1998). Democracy in America [online text]. Retrieved March
By devoting resources towards the prevention of crime, Anacortes authorities therefore help to ensure that the community remains relatively free from crimes in the first place.
Unfortunately, despite these best efforts, no community is totally free from crime. Large urban areas in particular have shown an increase in violent and drug-related crimes. hen these crimes happen, police officers are tasked with ensuring that the perpetrators are apprehended, so that they are prevented from engaging in more criminal activity, and so that justice could be meted out.
This role is seen in the amount of resources that the Los Angeles Police Department devotes towards responding to gang-related criminal activities.
Last month, the Harbor Gateway area of Los Angeles reeled from the killing of 14-year-old Cheryl Green, an African-American resident who wandered into the Latino territory of the area. Two members of the 204th Street Gang were quickly arrested and…
Kimberley Jackson. (2006). "On the beat." Anacortes American January 16: 6.
McGreevey, Patrick and Richard Winton. (2007). "FBI joins L.A. policing effort in war on gang crime." Los Angeles Times January 19: 1.
Radin, Charles a. (2007). "Police boost forces to stop unruly fans." The Boston Globe. January 20: A1.
San Antonio Police Department. (2006). Downtown foot and bike patrol. Retrieved January 20, 2007, from Official Website of the San Antonio Police
Scattering the Projects
By the 1990s, stakeholders in the public housing discussion had decided that the way to save public housing was to dismantle the core tenet that had defined public housing projects for several generations. While project housing projects had always been designed to be highly dense living spaces, usually relying on high-rise buildings and often housing far more individuals than had originally been planned for. The new model of public housing would be to "scatter" housing for the poor throughout established neighborhoods. This would be accomplished by the federal government getting out of the business of direct funding and construction of housing projects and instead providing vouchers for individuals to use towards renting housing in established middle-class neighborhoods.
The HOPE IV project was centered on this idea of "scattering":
The ostensible motive was to end the isolation of tenants from the wider city. The supposed barriers were twofold.…
Buell Center. (2009). A New Conversation. Retrieved from http://www.gsapp.org/buell/publichousing/_pdf/BUELL-PubHous.pdf .
Hawkins, K. (2010). Chicago shuttes infamous public housing project. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40450463/ .
Jackson, K. (1987). Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Venkatesh, S. & Celimli, I. Tearing Down the Community. Retrieved from www.nhi.org/online/issues/138/chicago.html.
United States has the highest rate of confinement of prisoners per 100,000 population than any other Western country. Analyze this phenomena and discuss actions that you feel are necessary to combat this problem.
The United States currently has the highest incarceration rate of any nation worldwide. For example, greater than 60% of nations have incarceration rates below 150 per 100,000 people (Walmsley, 2003). The United States makes up just about five percent of the world's population and yet it houses 25% of the world's prison population (Walmsley, 2009). In 2008 there were more than 2.3 million people held in United States prisons and jails, a rate of approximately 754 inmates per 100,000 people (Sabol, West, & Cooper, 2009). So if we only count adults in the population that translates into a one in 100 American adults is locked up. ussia is the only other major industrialized nation that comes close…
American Psychiatric Association (APA, 2002). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.
Breggin, P.A. (2008). Brian disabling treatments in psychiatry: Drugs, electroshock, and the psychopharmaceutical complex. (2nd Edition) New York: Springer University
Burton, R. (2002). The Irish institute of nutrition and health. In Diet and criminality.
The ADA does not specifically name all of the impairments that are covered. Title I requires employers with 15 or more employees to provide qualified individuals with disabilities an equal opportunity to benefit from the full range of employment-related opportunities available to others. For example, it prohibits discrimination in recruitment, hiring, promotions, training, pay, social activities, and other privileges of employment. It restricts questions that can be asked about an applicant's disability before a job offer is made, and it requires that employers make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of otherwise qualified individuals with disabilities, unless it results in undue hardship. Religious entities with 15 or more employees are covered under title I. Title I complaints must be filed with the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) within 180 days of the date of discrimination, or 300 days if the charge is filed with a designated…
Fighting Sexual Harassment of Women in my
Sexual harassment is unwelcome behavior directed at the opposite sex that is deliberate or repeated, not asked for or returned and which affects the terms and conditions of employment (Sexual Harassment Policy, p. 2). Courts and employers generally use the definition of sexual harassment contained in the guidelines of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC). This language has also formed the basis for most state laws prohibiting sexual harassment. The guidelines state (see the Free Dictionary "Sexual Harassment"): Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when: 1. submission to such conduct is made either explicitly or implicitly a term or condition of an individual's employment; 2. submission to or rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affecting such individuals;…
Hurtado, A. Equal Rights Advocates, October 2011 Newsletter.
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Seth's Law. 2011. Accessed 27 November 2011. Cached