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(Macdonagh-Dumler and Pebbles et al. 1-14)
The Marquette Range, which consisted of huge deposits of high quality iron ore, was discovered in the year 1844, the operations were initiated in the year 1846. Other ranges that were opened by the year 1910, included the Menominee, Gogebic, Vermilion, Cuyuna, and, the Mesabi range in Minnesota, in the year 1892. (Macdonagh-Dumler and Pebbles et al. 1-14)
In the year 1844 the first great deposits of united iron ore were discovered in the region of great lakes by the surveyors of the government of America. By the era of 1850s these deposits were exploited in an aggressive manner by the government. (Macdonagh-Dumler and Pebbles et al. 1-14)
It was established that the Great Lakes region would become the center of the American iron and steel industry because of the following factors; availability of high quality iron ore in abundance in the Great Lakes…
Beeton, Alfred M. And R. Stephen Schneider. "A century of Great Lakes research at the University of Michigan." Journal of Great Lakes Research, 24. 3 (1998): 495 -- 517. Print.
Bowlus, W. Bruce. Iron ore transport on the Great Lakes. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., 2010. Print.
Cooper, Donald R. And Pamela S. Schindler. Business research methods. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1998. Print.
Diamond, Jared M. Guns, germs, and steel. New York: W.W. Norton & Co., 1998. Print.
region's geologic formation from the Precambrian Era forward, as well as the glaciation processes that were primarily responsible for carving out and meltwater filling of the Great Lakes.
The Great Lakes describes a group of five freshwater lakes located in central North America between the U.S. And Canada, and includes Lakes Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie and Superior. The Great Lakes watershed covers about 765,990 km2, with the area being home to approximately one-tenth of the population of the U.S. And one-quarter of the population of Canada. The Great lakes watershed includes some or all of eight U.S. states as well as a Canadian province, and contains the five Great lakes, which taken together represent the largest unfrozen freshwater body on Earth (Larson & Schaetzl, 2001).
The area is rich in natural resources. Oil and natural gas have been produced from subsurface formations in Michigan, Indiana, Ohio and southwest Ontario. Since…
Davis, P. (1998). A simple review of the tectonic evolution of the Great Lakes Region: Outline of tectonic events. University of Minnesota Department of Earth Sciences. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.geo.umn.edu/people/grads/davi0919/srthesis/tectonic%20overview.html
Gillespie, R., Harrison, W.B. III, & Grammer, G.M. (2010). Geology of Michigan and the Great Lakes. Cengage Learning. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://custom.cengage.com/regional_geology/data/Geo_Michigan_Watermarked.pdf
Great Lakes Information Network. (2004). Great Lakes shoreline geology. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.great-lakes.net/teach/geog/shoreline/shore_1.html
Larson, G. & Schaetzl, R. (2001). Review -- Origin and evolution of the Great Lakes. Journal for Great Lakes Research 27(4): 518-46. Retrieved March 9, 2012 from: http://www.geo.msu.edu/schaetzl/PDFs/Larson-Great_lakes.pdf
Navy's Recruit Training Command In Great Lakes
Navy's Recruit Training Command
It was the first day of the training
The training was situated in Great Lakes
From Hawaii we travelled 6-7 hours to get to Chicago
We had arrived earlier than the other recruits
I had feelings of anxiety and nervousness
We were briefed for our training
Items which were essential during our stay were given to us
Underwear -- briefs
Plain white t-shirts iii. Two shirts -- "bulls eyes"
Running shoes vii. Toiletries viii. Hoodie ix. Sweat Pants
Lunch was served
Time to rest for a while was given
Ending the day
The other recruits had arrived
The items were given to them
A brief was given
The commanding officers had given everyone what they had needed
c. I was assigned in division 346
d. We were sent to our living quarters…
Plan of Action to Build Trust: Introduction
The Waasa-Inaabidaa people are the original inhabitants of the Great Lakes region. European settlement in the Great Lakes regions including Wisconsin and Minnesota dramatically transformed the relationships between Waasa-Inaabidaa and each other, and between Waasa-Inaabidaa and their geo-spatial territory. Over a century of conflict and mistrust characterizes the relationship between the aboriginal people and the newer inhabitants of the area, who now claim control over political, economic, and social systems. Therefore, it is important to develop a culturally conscious and culturally competent plan of action to build trust in this diverse community.
Plan for Professional Development (Session)
A professional development session should ideally take place over the course of a month. All teachers need to first view themselves as “agents of change,” who act in “cooperation with community,” (Ahuja, 2015, p. 11). As such, the professional development plan should be focused on…
Lake Erie to the industrial and commercial markets of Northern Ohio, the state of Ohio, and the entire United States.
BACKGROUND ON LAKE ERIE
Lake Erie forms the northern boundary to the state of Ohio, separating the state from Canada. It is the fourth largest of the Great Lakes, and the 12th largest freshwater lake in the world. It provides significant drinking water to the surrounding cities and towns, and is used for recreation and fishing (Hansen). It also provides large quantities of hydroelectric power throughout the region.
The dedication of the St. Lawrence Seaway in 1959 opened Ohio's Lake Erie ports to ships of all flags. Prior to construction of the Seaway, only very small "canalers" could come to the Lakes from the Atlantic, so overseas trade via the Lakes was insignificant. Today, the salt water trade to and from Ohio is an important segment of Great Lakes shipping…
Colman, Jonathon D. "Great Lakes Ports and Shipping." TEACH Great Lakes. 10 Jan. 2002. http://www.great-lakes.net/teach/business/ship/ship_5.html
Editors. "Community Profile." Oregon, Ohio.com. 2002. http://www.oregonohio.com/comprof/story.htm
Green, Nate. "Lake Erie Protection & Restoration Plan." Ohio State Environmental Protection Agency. 6 Sept. 2001. http://www.epa.state.oh.us/oleo/lepr/Shipping.pdf
Hansen, Michael C. "The History of Lake Erie." Ohio Department of Natural Resources. 30 Dec. 1999. http://www.ohiodnr.com/geosurvey/lakeerie/lefact1.htm
Meech Lake Accords
In order to properly examine the Meech Lake Accords and their significance, we must look first at why the Accords were necessary and what led up to them. Until 1982, Canada had been governed by the ritish North America Act, passed by the ritish Parliament in 1867. This act provided for the unification of the Canadian provinces into the Dominion of Canada, and set out the powers of the provincial legislatures. All powers not designated to the provinces were given to the Dominion. Later interpretations by the ritish Privy Council extended property rights in the provinces and developed the doctrine of emergency powers to aid the Dominion in time of war.
Ever since the Statute of Westminster 1931, the ritish government had been willing to give up control of Canada, but Canadian federal and provincial governments were unable to agree on a new formula to allow amendments.…
'1987 Constitutional Accord." June 3, 1987. April 23, 2005. .
Coyne, Andrew. "Weighing Accord's Economic Policy Impact." July 20, 1987. April 23, 2005. .
Coyne, Deborah. "Meech Lake and Canada: Perspectives from the West." Canadian Historical Review. Volume 70, Number 4. December 1989. April 23, 2005. .
"Meech Lake Accord Is Unacceptable -- FSIN." Saskatchewan Indian. Summer 1987, Special Edition. p 2.
Beth B. v. Lake Bluff School District 65
This case involved a determination of the appropriate placement for Beth B., a twelve-year-old girl with ett Syndrome. ett Syndrome, a condition that only affects girls, is generally considered a form of Autism and can significantly or profoundly impact a student's ability to function on several different dimensions. It is believed that her motor skills are somewhere in the five to seven-month range. The extent of her cognitive and communicative abilities are greatly disputed and formed much of the factual disputes underlying the case. The student is unable to speak, which, when combined with her motor deficits, makes it impossible to administer the types of tests that would normally be used to assess cognitive and communicative functioning. The professional educators who work with the student estimate her cognitive abilities to be in the 12 to 20-month range, while her parents and private…
Beth B. v. Lake Bluff School District 65
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 20 U.S.C.S. § 1412(a).
Nemours. (2012). Individualized education programs. Retrieved April 7, 2012 from Kids
Health website: http://kidshealth.org/parent/growth/learning/iep.html
The Hearing officer was presented with two separate and different plans for providing an education for the Student. In arriving at his decision, he did not decide between these competing plans. He found that task would have been difficult if not impossible, partly because of the lack of research on Rett Syndrome. He found instead that the law required him only to decide whether or not the plan put forth by the School District would be reasonably calculated to provide educational benefit to the Student. In other words, the question regarding the standard was whether there was a preponderance of evidence that the program the School District offered (a) would provide an educational benefit for the student, or (b) would be reasonably calculated to provide an educational benefit to the Student. The Hearing Officer decided that because of the difficulty in deciding which program was better, the Parents' or…
East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System"
Wood and Guth's article, "East Africa's great rift valley..." details some of the lesser known facts about the shifting of the earth and how continents are formed. The authors are extremely enthusiastic about this topic, and write about it with a familiarity and adherence to scientific principles that edifies the reader. Although the subject matter is fairly dense and filled with unfamiliar vocabulary words, the authors do well to explicate their main points and bring a better understanding of this subject matter. As such, it is a decidedly valuable work of literature.
The main point of this article is to discuss the origins and the significance of rifts in Africa, specifically the Lake Albert Rift and the Albertine Rift (which collectively are known as the East African Rift), and the Ethiopian Rift (which along with the other two comprises the East…
"A prime source for her early art," Sara hitaker Peters writes (Peters 192), was her "...powerful physical reaction to nature and to individuals." The "suggestively layered mountains, canyons, and mesas," Peters continues, seem to be "vestiges" of "female forms"...as if she had decided to inhabit the earth and the sky around her."
It was at Lake George, in fact, that the photography of Stieglitz and of Paul Strand awakened her "to the possibility of taking an objective approach to her own motifs... [and] it happened in Lake George in 1923, where she "...first got down to an effort to be objective" in her depiction of the natural world. Moreover, Peters (135) writes that it was in fact at Lake George (where she eventually would begin to feel confined, hence her permanent relocation to New Mexico) that her subject matter "...began to turn from the uterine-personal to shelter shapes of another…
Messinger, Lisa Mintz. (1988). Georgia O'Keeffe. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Peters, Sarah Whitaker. (2001). Becoming O'Keeffe: The Early Years. New York: Abbeville
Consequently, the social distinctions were not as static as their European counterparts.
Religion was also a major aspect of Aztec life and it has become, perhaps, what they are best known for:
The Great Temple was a place for human sacrifice. Prisoners captured in battle were led up the steps to the platform on top. Here, the prisoners were stretched on their backs over a stone block. That an Aztec priest cut out their hearts with a stone knife. The hearts were burned as offerings to Huitzilopochtli, god of war and the sun, and the bodies were thrown down the steps (Chrisp 2000:16).
This practice was clearly what the conquistadores found most deplorable, most barbaric, and the most incongruous with the rest of Aztec society. The obvious monuments to Aztec achievement -- the towering temples of the sun and the moon -- were used for bloody and horrific shows on…
Berdan, Frances. Indians of North America: The Aztecs. New York: Chelsea House, 1989.
Chrisp, Peter. The Aztecs. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 2000.
Fagan, Brian M. The Aztecs. New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1984.
Hicks, Peter. Look into the Past: The Aztecs. New York: Thomson Learning, 1993.
Fish Speciation: Brazos iver and Lake Bryan
The sample areas of the Brazos iver and Lake Bryan showed clear differences, but also shared a few similarities. The primary difference was the size of the species, which is based on factors including the style of gear used that can tend to skew size of collected populations and the available macroinvertebrates for food. In the Brazos iver, there were much smaller diameters of fish recorded, based on the potential for seine and gill net methods do tend to catch smaller species and high presence of the smaller caddis fly. On the other hand, Lake Bryan showed much larger species of fish, possibly based on the increased presence of the mayfly larvae and the environmental conditions of the lake that provide better for larger, predatory fish. Still, since both locations had fewer mosquito larvae, they both showed low levels in mosquito fish. Ultimately,…
Gaskell, Paul & Gibson, Cheryl. (2003). A teacher's introduction and reference to Mayfly in the Classroom. Wild Trout Tust. Web. http://www.wildtrout.org/sites/default/files/projects/teachers_introduction_to_mayfly_in_the_classroom.pdf
Gray, C. A., Larsen, R. B., & Kennelly, S. J. (2000). Use of transparent netting to improve size selectivity and reduce bycatch in fish seine nets. Fisheries Research, 45(2), 155-166.
Rechulicz, Jacek & Kolejko, Marcin. (2012). Morphological differences between lake and river populations of roach -- Rutilus rutilus. Annales Universitatis Mariare Curie-Sklodowska Lubin. http://wydawnictwo.up.lublin.pl/annales/Zootechnica/2012/1/annales_2012%281%29_zoot_art_06.pdf
Reynolds, J.B. 1996. Electrofishing. Pages 221-253 in B.R. Murphy and D.W. WIllis, eds. Fisheries Techniques, 2nd ed. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
In conclusion, it has been sufficiently demonstrated that elty's recurring motif in "Death of a Traveling Salesman" and in "A orn Path" is the treating of human relationships, which are inherently founded in human nature and which can be evinced from such human principles of love, devotion, and spirituality. The author has purposefully repeated this theme in many of her works to accurately portray real life, since it was the living, breathing world (through the author's interpretation) which engendered these tales. Readers would benefit from the review of these texts, therefore, in order to gain a degree of sapience into the inner workings of people and of the world around them.
Johnston, Carol Ann. "Eudora elty." The Mississippi riter's Page. 2005. eb. http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/welty_eudora/#T2
Sederberg, Nancy. "elty's Death of a Traveling Salesman." The Explicator. Vol.42 1983. eb. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=96539565
Seltzer, Catherine. "Pondering Hearts: Studies of Eudora elty and Josephine Pinckney."…
Johnston, Carol Ann. "Eudora Welty." The Mississippi Writer's Page. 2005. Web. http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/welty_eudora/#T2
Sederberg, Nancy. "Welty's Death of a Traveling Salesman." The Explicator. Vol.42 1983. Web. http://www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst?docId=96539565
Seltzer, Catherine. "Pondering Hearts: Studies of Eudora Welty and Josephine Pinckney."
The Southern Literary Journal - Volume 41, Number 1, Fall 2008, pp. 145-150 .Print.
6). Beattie, like anyone else, was a product of her times.
She is also, again like anyone else, a product of her own individual circumstances. A further interpretation of the bowl as a symbol of the feminine finds a deeper connection between the circumstances of the fictional Andrea and the real-life Ann Beattie. Though she is not especially forthcoming with personal details, there are some facts with which a correlation can be drawn.
Though (presumably) happily married for many years, Ann Beattie and her husband have no children (Frost, par. 1). Again, she has not shared the reasons for this, nor would it be a reasonable question to pose to her. It is a significant fact to note, however, given the resemblance of the bowl to the female womb. Henningfield suggests an interpretation of the bowl, especially of the husband's turning away from it and Andrea's refusal to let him…
Beattie, Ann. "Janus." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, J. Paul Hunter, Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2005. 280-283.
Brent, Liz. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
Frost, Adam. "Beattie, Ann." Literature Online bibliography. Cambridge, 2002. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. 12 Mar. 2009. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl-ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion-us&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:ref:BIO006220:0
Henningfield, Diane Andrews. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
134). In addition, ussian authorities have also joined with the international community to protect the lake. In this regard, Hudgins adds that, "Increased awareness of such threats to the unique ecology of Lake Baikal has prompted a number of international organizations -- including the Sierra Club and Baikal Watch in the United States -- to join the ussians in their efforts to protect this natural wonder of the world" (1998, p. 135). According to the Sierra Club, "Lake Baikal, arguably ussia's most significant environmental treasure -- it contains a fifth of the world's unfrozen freshwater and is a UNESCO World Heritage site -- is being polluted by toxic waste from a paper mill that Vladimir Putin ordered reopened for economic reasons" (Pollutin' Putin, 2010, para. 2). In fact, the recently reopened paper mill disposes of toxic wastes directly into Lake Baikal's fragile biological system (Hoare, 2008). While the Sierra Club…
Current programs. (2010). Baikal Watch. Retrieved from http://www.earthislandprojects.org / project/campaignPage.cfm?pageID=7&subSiteID=1&CFID=43926225&CFTOKEN=32
Gladkochub, D.P., Donskaya, T.V., Wingate, M.T., Poller, U., Kroner, a., Fedorovsky, V.S.,
Mazukabzov, a.M., Todt, W. & Pisarevsky, S.A. (2008). Petrology, geochronology and tectonic implications of C. 500 Ma metamorphic and igneous rocks along the northern margin of the Central Asian orogen. Journal of the Geological Society, 165, 235-237.
It must the compare it with the returns the company is earning without going for the proposal. The new vessels required for the project will increase the transportation time. Great lakes Carriers must consider the increasing international oil prices and its potential implications on the company's costs.
Supply Chain Considerations
There are a few supply chain issues that are important to be taken into consideration. It is important that Great Lakes Carriers consider the fact that the new proposal will increase the transportation time in many cases as compared to other alternatives such as rail and road. The company will have to see that how many clients will agree to trade off lower transportation time and costs with increased benefits of FID. This is important because in many cases, businesses want their goods to be transported in minimum possible time and increased transportation time will make them reschedule their stocking…
Visich, J., Li, S. & Khumawala, B. (2007). Enhancing product recovery value in closed-loop supply chains with RFID. Journal of Managerial Issues. 19(3), 436-445.
The authors report that such an event would cause flooding and could kill many people (Copeland & Cody 2003).
The authors further assert that Bioterrorism or chemical threats could deliver massive contamination by small amounts of microbiological agents or toxic chemicals, and could endanger the public health of thousands. While some experts believe that risks to water systems actually are small, because it would be difficult to introduce sufficient quantities of agents to cause widespread harm, concern and heightened awareness of potential problems are apparent. Characteristics that are relevant to a biological agent's potential as a weapon include its stability in a drinking water system, virulence, culturability in the quantity required, and resistance to detection and treatment. Cyber attacks on computer operations can affect an entire infrastructure network, and hacking in water utility systems could result in theft or corruption of information or denial and disruption of service (Copeland &…
Anderson R. (September 29, 2003).
Mayors Meet in Chicago to Discuss the Nation's Water Problems. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.usmayors.org/uscm/us_mayor_newspaper/documents/09_29_03/UW_water_summary.asp
Coleman K. (Jan 16, 2005). Protecting the Water Supply from Terrorism. Retrieved August 30, 2006 from; http://www.directionsmag.com/article.php?article_id=735&trv=1
Copeland C. And Cody Betsy. (2003) Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector: Resources, Science, and Industry Division. Report For Congress.
The democratic approach is when you are motivating employees. The basic idea is to help them make their own decisions about: how to provide the best treatment options to customers. This means, that managers must work with everyone, to help them understand how they are a part of the team. In this case, the best approach for Dan Smith to use is the democratic management style. ("Types of usiness Management Techniques," 2010)
What are some of the adjustments that the CEO from Springville General Hospital has to deal with regarding this merger?
There are two adjustments that will be necessary these include: increased collaboration and addressing the differences in the policies / procedures. The increased collaboration means that the CEO must be prepared, to have his actions and those of his employees (that are inefficient) facing increased amount of scrutiny. The reason why, is because some procedures from Springville General…
Types of Business Management Techniques. (2010). Article Alley. Retrieved from: http://www.articlealley.com/article_1572312_15.html
Rodak, R. (2011). The Race is on. Beckers Hospital Review. Retrieved from: http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/hospital-transactions-and-valuation-issues/qthe-race-is-onq-for-hospitals-to-integrate-care.html
Recording health data of recruits in an Access database would also eliminate potential errors in medication administration or other critical issues.
Another potential use for database systems at the U.S. Navy Recruit Training Command includes inventory upkeep. We should be keeping better records of our supplies, including food and medical supplies as well as gear, uniforms, and other essentials. The Recruit Training Command center would avoid costly wait times if databases were more effectively employed.
Finally, all officer data, including data from commanding officers, should be maintained in a database in our office here in Great Lakes. Furthermore, we need to maximize our information technology power by linking to other U.S. Navy databases on a secure network. This way, we will be more in touch, better organized, and operate more efficiently.
If the Navy Recruit Training Command wants to begin including photographs of its recruits in the central database, we…
d.). It has been estimated that in the Midwest, where infestation levels have been notoriously high, that "hundreds of millions of dollars in maintenance and damage repair" have been direct consequences of zebra and quagga mussel invasions (Arizona Game and Fish Department, n.d.). There are as many as 10 trillion quagga and zebra mussels in the Great Lakes today (National Wildlife Federation, n.d.).
Based on what is known about zebra and quagga mussels, it is hypothesized that their populations can be reduced using systematic methods of cleaning boats and monitoring local and especially man-made waterways. It has been shown that man-made waterways such as canals can act as "superhighways" particularly conducive to the rapid spread of the quagga and zebra larvae (National Wildlife Federation, n.d.). Ballast water regulation has been shown to be an effective preventative measure, but it is not the only means by which to curb the growth…
Aquatic Invasive Species of Pennsylvania (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.pserie.psu.edu/seagrant/ais/watershed/mussel.htm
Arizona Game and Fish Department (n.d.). Quagga mussels. Retrieved online: http://www.azgfd.gov/h_f/zebra_mussels.shtml
National Wildlife Federation (n.d.). Invasive mussels. Retrieved online: http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Threats-to-Wildlife/Invasive-Species/Invasive-Mussels.aspx
etlands are the main link between the land and the water, and as such are vitally important to the ecology. etlands have been misunderstood and abused throughout the history of the United States -- and elsewhere in the world -- and that has led to enormous environmental losses. This paper explores all pertinent information with regard to wetlands.
hat are etlands?
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines wetlands as those "…transition zones where the flow of water, the cycling of nutrients," along with the sun's energy, all meet in order to create "…a unique ecosystem characterized by hydrology, soils, and vegetation" (EPA). The four categories of wetlands are swamps, bogs, fens and marshes. The EPA describes marshes as wetlands that are "…dominated by soft-stemmed vegetation"; swamps are quite different, as they are composed of "mostly woody plants."
As for bogs, they are freshwater wetlands that were formed by glacier-made lakes;…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Wetlands Overview: What is a Wetland? Retrieved
July 23, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov .
Moreno-Mateos, David, Power, Mary E., Comin, Francisco A., and Yockteng, Roxana. (2012).
Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland Ecosystems. PloS Biology, 10(1), 1-8.
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov /aboutepa/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…
American Indian Education. http://www.osseo.k12.mn.us/special/stusupport/stuserv/AmInd/LilBuffalo/catalog.htm (Accessed April 30, 2005)
THE IROUK CHARACTER. http://www.icculus.org/~msphil/mythus/campaigns/aerth/irouk / (Accessed May 1, 2005) www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21005756
Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.
Colonial America: Questions
Unlike previous European settlers who came to the New World primarily to make a profit, the Puritans arrived with a commitment to create a new society and genuinely 'settle' on the land. They had no plans to return to England, given that they had been cast out of the Old World because of their religious beliefs. Unlike the settlers at Jamestown, they came prepared to work hard, and did not hope to simply make a quick profit and return to England rich, having done little labor. They believed in the value of hard work as part of their religious philosophy. They believed God had quite literally 'chosen' them to know the truth, which sustained them during times of suffering. During the first years, however, like previous colonists, they did struggle to stay alive. The winter was harsh, and they were forced to adapt their crops and…
"5b. Indentured servants." The Southern Colonies. U.S. History. 2012. [1 Feb 2013]
Pearson, Ellen Holmes. "The New World: A Stage for Cultural Interaction." Teaching History.
[1 Feb 2013.]
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Zebra mussels are a highly destructive invasive species threatening Texas waters. Zebra mussels can fasten to any solid surface and clog water intakes. They foul boat hulls and break engines, as well as boat docks, ramps and navigational buoys. They cause chaos on the environment, negatively impacting fish and native mussel populations as well as making beaches not viable. They also clog up pipes to municipal water intakes, costing taxpayers lots of money. Every year millions of dollars are spent on combating zebra mussels in the United States (Hello Zebra Mussels Goodbye Texas Boating, n.d.).
One adult zebra mussel is about the size of a dime or so. But one zebra mussel can spawn up to a million eggs a year. So they're very productive and they can spread very fast. The zebra mussel's larvae are minuscule and can't see it with the naked eye. Because of…
Hanna, B. (2012). Zebra mussel DNA confirmed in several North Texas reservoirs. Retreived from http://www.star-telegram.com/2012/03/06/3789710/zebra-mussel-dna-confirmed-in.html
Hello Zebra Mussels Goodbye Texas Boating. (n.d.). Retreived from http://www.texasinvasives.org/action/spreadword_creatives/zebramussels_checklist.p df
Preventing Their Spread. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.kdwpt.state.ks.us/news/Fishing/Aquatic-Nuisance-Species/Aquatic -
USACE program funding, compliant with Federal Continuity Directive 1. It will also address processes required for continuing the business continuity plan for the Nation's Survivability and Critical Infrastructure.
The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) identifies itself with the following mission: to offer critical services in the public engineering area, during times of war and peace, for strengthening America's security, mitigating disaster risks, and energizing the nation's economy (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers -- The United States Army). Via its egulatory Program, the USACE oversees and implements CWA (Clean Water Act), Section 404, and the 1899 ivers and Harbors Act's (HA), Section 10. The latter forbids unsanctioned alteration or obstruction of any of America's navigable waters, unless one possesses a USACE permit. The term 'navigable American waters' refers to all waters subject to the tide's rise and fall, which have been in use earlier, or are currently used, or…
(2014). Charleston District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Guidance for Submittals to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by Council Of Government Offices. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.sac.usace.army.mil/Portals/43/docs/regulatory/Guidance_for_Submittals
(n.d.). FEMA.gov -- Federal Emergency Management Agency. Emergency Support Function #3 -- Public Works and Engineering Annex. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-esf-03.pdf
Gibson. (2014). Department of Veterans Affairs. Army Corps identifies need for "transformative change" in VA construction process - VAntage Point. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.blogs.va.gov/VAntage/22620/army-corps-identifies-need-for-transformative-change-in-va-construction-process/
Goodeyon, S. (2013). The Official Home Page of the United States Army -- The United States Army. USACE responds to FEMA mission in aftermath of killer Okla. tornadoes -- Article -- The United States Army. Retrieved May 29, 2016, from http://www.army.mil/article/105191/
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
Since taconite iron ore can be attracted by magnets, it is called a magnetite. Magnetite is abundant in the Minnesota Iron ange as well as the Michigan Iron ange that is located next to Marquette as well as in the Penokee ange in Wisconsin, Minnesota. In Wisconsin-Minnesota's Gogebic-Penokee ange, the taconite iron ore deposits are concentrated on the bands that run from the Mellen area in Ashland County up to the area near Upson in the Iron County.
The taconite iron ore extraction process
The mining of taconite iron ore in the Gogebic-Penokee ange is carried out by means of open-pit mining methods. The mining process commences by the drilling of a hole into the ground in order to determine the exact location and quality of the iron ore deposit. The drilling also reveals the characteristics of the rocks that surround the ore. For the rather large modern mines, there…
Broman, A (2011)'Silent Majority' Backs Penokee Mine: Gogebic Taconite President
Cannon, W.F., (1973)The Penokean orogeny in northern Michigan, in Young, G.M., ed., Huronian stratigraphy and sedimentation: Geological Association of Canada Special Paper
Clements, B and Sack, C (2008)Introduction to Mining in the Penokees
Archaeological Sites in the U.S.
This paper examines underwater archaeology in the U.S. The paper discusses excavation techniques, tools and technology and also explores the Clovis theory. The paper also reviews findings at several submerged North American prehistoric archeological sites.
Underwater survey and excavation are typically more expensive and logistically more complex than comparable terrestrial projects. Underwater conditions involve more variability from site to site, and even from hour to hour at the same site. All survey and excavation work is constrained by safety factors; in general the deeper the site, the less time that a scuba diver can remain at that depth. Other factors that are frequently less than ideal include water currents, temperature, and visibility (Merwin, Lynch, and Robinson, 42).
Nonetheless, the potential to recover significant archaeological data outweighs the disadvantages of working underwater. In fact, underwater sites may allow for the preservation of organic materials…
Anderson, David G. And Faught, Michael K. "The Paleoindian Period (ca. 13,000 B.C. To 7,900 B.C.)." National Park Service. n.d. Web. 6 May 2012. .
Faught, Michael K. "Submerged Paleoindian and Archaic Sites of the Big Bend, Florida." Journal of Field Archaeology 29, 3-4, (2004): 273-290.
"Florida's First People" Florida State University 2004. Web. 6 May 2012. .
Merwin, Daria E., Lynch, Daniel P., and Robinson, David, S. "Submerged Prehistoric Sites in Southern New England: Past Research and Future Directions" Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Connecticut 65 (2003): 41-56.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
North America into Sub-Regions
By total area, the United States is the world's third largest country, with landscape that varies from temperate forestland and rolling hills on the East coast, mangrove in Florida, the Great Plains in the center of the country, the Mississippi and Missouri river system, the Great Lakes which are shared with Canada, the Rocky Mountains west of the plains, the deserts and temperate coastal zones west of the Rocky Mountains, the temperate rain forests in the Pacific Northwest, and the tundra of Alaska (United). Canada, the second largest country in the world, occupies the northern half of the North American continent, and is divided into six regions, the Pacific Coast, the Interior Plains, the Canadian Shield, the St. Lawrence Lowlands, the Appalachian Region, and the Arctic Lowlands (Geographic). The majority of the regions of both countries tend to correspond with one another. Aside from the South…
Canadian Shield. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
Exterior Form of North America. Retrieved November 05, 2005 from:
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…
Edmunds, R. David, and Joseph L. Peyser. The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Hagen, William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.
Jones, George O, and Norman S. McVean. History of Wood County, Wisconsin. Publication details unknown, 1923, accessed 22 October 2006; available at http://www.scls.lib.wi.us/mcm/wood_county/ .
Kay, Jeanne. "The Fur Trade and Native American Population Growth." Ethnohistory 31, no. 4 (1984): 265-287.
Commercial Use of Michigan Groundwater
Appropriately named the "Great Lakes State," Michigan is the only state whose borders lie completely within the world's largest system of fresh surface water, the Great Lakes basin, which constitutes 18% of the world's water supply.(4)
Traditionally, Michigan has relied primarily on "riparian" rights analyses derived from English common law to regulate the commercial use of its largest natural resource. Since riparian concepts focus primarily on the relative rights of competing users of surface waters, there has, until very recently, been comparatively little regulation of the underground springs or aquifer system which feeds the surface water system, or of the rights of the state to control removal of water resources for use or sale elsewhere.
On November 25, 2003, Mecosta County Circuit Court Judge Lawrence Root issued a lengthy opinion that finally addressed the problem and defined many of the issues under the laws of…
1. Howlett, D., Water Battle Dredges Up Acrimony; USA Today (June 22, 2003)
Accessed at http://www.greatlakesdirectory.org/mi/062203_great_lakes.htm
2. Michigan Citizens for Water Conservation v. Nestle Waters North America Inc.
49th Judicial Circuit Mecosta County Circuit Court Opinion (Nov 25, 2003) Accessed at http://www.envlaw.com/decisions/MCWC2.txt
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008)
The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great Lakes were among the most contaminated samples. (Steinhart; Doyle; Food esearch Institute, Cochrane, 1995) the paper and pulp industry has also grown with the growth of the economy. However, contaminant discharge from this industry still continues despite the various environmental measures taken by the paper and pulp industry of Canada. This industry has also caused disturbance to the huge boreal landscape of Canada. Approximately 50% of Canada's fresh water is located in these boreal forests. Developmental activities have affected these…
Agioutantis, Zacharias. (2007) "Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development..." SDIMI.
Burton, Philip Joseph; National Research Council Canada; Adamowicz, WL. (2005)
Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest" NRC Research Press.
Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Duncan, Justin. et. al. (2008) "Balancing
As a result, the majority of European business companies that handled the large number of fur trades were English. The largest of such firms was the Hudson's ay Company established in 1670 (elden, 82). This institution was the center of North American fur trading for more than two hundred years. It was founded by two French fur traders English merchant. The English government granted the company sole trading rights within the Hudson ay region. The development of the fur trade resulted in a greater integration between traders and merchants, and created an entire social system based upon this concept.
The French dominance of the marketplace meant that other European players wanted to gain momentum within the industry. ritish Merchants founded the North West Company in Montreal in order to compete with the stranglehold of Canadian fur trading (Innis, 154). y the late 1700's, fur became a much harder commodity to…
Burley, D., J. Scott Hamilton, and Knut R. Fladmark (1996) Prophecy of the Swan: The Upper Peace River Fur Trade of 1794-1823. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver.
Innis, Harold (1956) the Fur Trade in Canada. University of Ontario Press, Totonto.
Rich, E.E. (1966) Montreal and the Fur Trade. McGill University Press, Montreal.
Nevertheless, it is a conceptual change from government-sponsored conservation efforts of the past, which might have focused specifically in the same region on the manatee population, and thus played a pure game of numbers. To regard the Florida manatee instead as part of a larger ecosystem that must be monitored in numerous different ways requires a change in approach which is not always easy for a government agency to implement.
2. The chief conservation implication of introduced invasive species is that the invasive species is often very difficult to eradicate without serious disruption to the host ecosystem. An excellent example of an invasive species is presented by the zebra mussel, a small freshwater species of shellfish originally native to the freshwater lakes of southern ussia. The introduction of zebra mussels into the freshwater habitats of North America has allowed them to spread at astonishingly fast rates: the zebra mussel reproduces…
Barnes, C. et al. (2006). "The Ecosystem Goal Team of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration: Exploring an Ecosystem Approach to Management." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved online at: http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/sars/improvement/pdfs/eam_lit_review.pdf
CBC News. "Manitoba to Blast Zebra Mussels in Unique Experiment." May 11, 2014. Retrieved online at: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/manitoba/manitoba-to-blast-zebra-mussels-in-unique-experiment-1.2639258
New states lying north of said parallel would be admitted as non-slave while those lying south would be slave.
The importance of the Missouri Compromise cannot be over-stated. It impacted the boundaries of several other states other than Missouri and led to some of the most hotly contested political debates in United States history.
Interestingly, the boundary established through the Missouri Compromise, that is, the 36?30' parallel, had actually been in use as a boundary line since early colonial days and the Missouri Compromise served to continue its use. The boundary between original thirteen colony members, Virginia and North Carolina, is the 36?30' parallel and the boundary between two of the earlier states admitted to the Union, Kentucky and Tennessee is also the 36?30' parallel.
Map depicting 36?30' parallel
The admission of Texas as a statehood was affected by the Missouri Compromise. Unlike any other state, Texas enjoyed status as…
Dixon, Archibald. The True History of the Missouri Compromise and its Repeal. BiblioBazaar, 2009.
Eastern Michigan University. Bleeding Kansas. http://edit.emich.edu/index.php?title=Bleeding_Kansas (accessed December 4, 2010).
Marshall, Peter C. Envisioning America: English Plan for the Colonization of North America, 1580-1640. Bedford / St. Martin's, 1995.
Mcgreevy, Patrick. Stairway to Empire: Lockport, the Erie Canal, and the Shaping of America. State University of New York Press, 2009.
It had started in the present-day Sahel region of south-eastern Mauritania and western Mali. (The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa) The evidence for this is again not in written records, but archeological evidence, and this also makes it clear that the history of Ghana has been influenced a lot by geographical changes. A similar situation exists with Egypt. There was a discovery by archeologists in the late 20th century that there was human habitation before 8000 BC in an area in the southwestern corner of Egypt, which is near the border with Sudan. Who are these people? They are likely to have been nomads attracted to this area of Egypt because of the hospitable climate and environment. Now it is exceptionally dry, but once that area had grassy plains and temporary lakes which were caused by seasonal rains. (Encyclopedia: History of…
Brass, Mickey. The similarities and differences between the rise of complex societies in West and East Africa. Retrieved at http://www.antiquityofman.com/Complex_WA_EA.html. Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: History of Africa. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Africa . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: History of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/History-of-Ancient-Egypt . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Encyclopedia: Sahara. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Sahara#History . Accessed 14 September, 2005
United States Military Performance Against the British in the War of 1812
In June 1812, the U.S. declared a war against the British and their North American allies. The war, according to Smith, was motivated by America's quest to take control of Britain's North American territories, Britain's punitive trade policy, Britain's support for Native Americans, and the forced enrolment of American sailors into the British navy. As a young nation, the U.S. was eager to safeguard its newly acquired independence. Commonly known as the forgotten war (Hickey 1), the war had important lessons for the U.S. This paper briefly evaluates the performance of the U.S. military in the war.
As depicted in the film The War of 1812, the U.S. initially employed an offensive strategy against the British (Public Broadcasting Service). Since the British navy was the strongest worldwide, the U.S. paid attention to land campaigns, especially in Upper and…
S. - Canadian border. And what makes it all even worse is that even U.S. Border Patrol Agents need to sleep every once in a while so less than a third of the 1,000 are on duty at any one moment. The real number is secret but a safe guess could be that fewer than 250 agents are on-duty defending us from the dozens of known terrorist cells operating in Canada. Of the 22 U.S. Border Patrol Sectors, there are only seven are considered absolutely critical to a secure America (Northern Border, n.d.).
The Detroit Sector for instance is one of these. It is accountable for 804 miles of total wilderness between Michigan and Canada. The Detroit area is home not just to wilderness but to the city of Detroit which has the largest Muslim populace anywhere outside of the Middle East. With a Muslim population exceeding 150,000, Detroit is…
Ackleson, Jason. (2009). From "Thin" to "Thick" (and Back Again?): The Politics and Policies
of the Contemporary U.S. -- Canada Border. Review of Canadian Studies. 39(4), p. 336-
Harwood, Matthew. (2009). DHS to Deploy More Cameras at Northern Border. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Security Management Web site:
This experiment showed that calcium chloride was the most effective substance tested in melting the ice, but only slightly compared to road salt and ammonium nitrate (3.5 minutes versus 4.25 minutes and 5 minutes, respectively). The results also showed that sand and cat litter required far longer (23 and 30 minutes, respectively) to complete the ice melting compared to 45 minutes for the ice that received no treatment at all. These results indicate that although there are alternative substances available that are slightly more effective at melting ice and snow, road salt is a highly effective tool for melting road ice and snow as well, and it is a more cost-effective method as well. Whether these attributes of road salt offset the corresponding environmental impacts remains unclear.
Conclusion. The results of the experiment confirmed the study's hypothesis that all of the substances tested would melt ice faster than no treatment…
Dziuba, G. (2006, February 22). Road crew budgets have weathered well so far this winter.
Daily Herald, 1.
Fields, S. (2005). Great Lakes: Resource at risk. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(3),
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…
EPA. (2013). Midwest Impacts & Adaptation. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved form: http://www.epa.gov /climatechange/impacts-adaptation/midwest.html
Goudie, A.S. (2005). The human impact on the natural environment: past, present, and future. Wiley-Blackwell.
Gregersen, H., Ffolliott, P., & Brookes, K. (2008). Integrated watershed management: Connecting people to their land and water. CABI.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-3-6.html
Obviously, the classes are not so important in themselves but in the fact that they emphasize the social and emotional evolution of the gingerbread man. He thus meets with a variety of dangers and people, and manages to run away from them as long as he hears their threat directly. This image closely resembles human evolution, with its different interactions and experiences. The man manages to escape every time simply because he has the crude instinct of fear and self-defense. What is interesting is that the gingerbread man runs away from his home although the second version of the story emphasizes clearly that the woman had baked him not to eat him but because she could have no children of her own: "I have decided to bake a gingerbread man. Then we will have a little boy to call our very own!"("The Gingerbread Man") Thus, it would seem unclear why…
8 billion, and primary metal manufactures, $1.4 billion (Exports pp). Together, these five manufactured product categories accounted for 61% of the state's total exports of goods in for that year (Exports pp).
In dollar terms, the leading manufactured export growth category is transportation equipment, rising $294 million between 1999 to 2003, while others included miscellaneous manufactures, up $248 million, processed foods, up $192 million, and primary metal manufactures, up $171 million (Exports pp). In percentage terms, the fastest growing manufactured export category is fabric mill products, which grew 70%, from $99 million in 1999 to $169 million in 2003, while others included processed foods, up 52%, miscellaneous manufactures, up 48%, and beverages and tobacco products, up 48% (Exports pp).
The Port of Pittsburgh is the largest inland river port in the United States and the 11th largest port of any kind (Water pp). The Port Commission is the central point…
Coal Mining in Pennsylvania." Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection. http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/enved/go_with_inspector/coalmine/Coal_Mining_in_Pennsylvania.htm
This is a web page from the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection web site. It provides a history of the state's coal mining industry.
Gordon, John Steele. "Iron and Steel Industry." Readers Companion to American History. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_046100_ironandsteel.htm
The researcher especially appreciated the "Rights, rongs, and hy" (Fielder 31-35) section relating to managing duck nests.
Information about Paul C. Fielder, an avid outdoorsman, who has been a practicing wildlife biologist in ashington State for twenty-three years is plainly positioned to inform the reader. The reader learns that Fielder "manages a ood Duck Nest Box program in the enatchee vicinity of the Columbia River which involves over 100 nest boxes." Fielder's efforts in this program reportedly significantly increased the presence of ood Duck populations in North Central ashington (Fielder 2)
Fielder explains that the individual wood duck hens in ashington lays approximately 6 to 12 eggs per nest; with the average totalling 10 to 11 eggs. "The eggs are pale brown to tannish white and are generally 2 inches by 1-1/2 inches in size" (Fielder 12). The ducklings hatch 28 to 32 days after the female duck…
Ducks Unlimited. 2008 3 Mar. 2009. Ducks Unlimited, Inc. 3 Mar. 2009 http://www.ducks.org/ .
Fielder, Paul C.. Guidelines for Managing Wood Duck Nest Boxes in Washington State. 2000, Feb. 3 Mar. 2009 http://wdfw.wa.gov/wlm/game/water/woodduck.pdf .
Frahm, Randy. Duck Hunting. Capstone Press. 2007 http://books.google.com/books?id=4xI4KKus6KQC&pg=PA30&dq=protecting+duckwetlands&ei=bmitSenpAoXAMqDUmZIF#PPA30,M1 .
Native Societies and Disease
Numerous reports from European traders, missionaries, soldiers and explorers in the 16th and 17th Centuries reveal the same information about the devastating effect smallpox and other epidemic diseases had on the aboriginal populations of the Americas. Europeans were colonizing Africa and Asia at the same time, but "on no other continent in historic times has a combined disease and Construct phenomenon led to the collapse of an entire indigenous population."[footnoteRef:1] In 1492, Native Americans were one-fifth to one-sixth of the global population, but their numbers never came close to equaling that again after all the great epidemics that struck them in waves. Unlike China and India, where smallpox, plague, typhus, measles and influenza already existed, and therefore the local populations had more immunity and greatly outnumbered the European colonizers, aboriginal American societies routinely suffered mortality rates of 80 or 90%. Some forms of smallpox, such as…
Hackett, Paul. "A Very Remarkable Sickness": Epidemics in the Petit Nord, 1670 to 1846. (University of Manitoba Press, 2002).
Trigger, Bruce G. Natives and Newcomers: Canada's "Heroic Age" Revisited (McGill-Queen's University Press, 1985).
Warrick, Garry A., "European Infections, Disease and Depopulation of the Wendat-Tionotate (Huron-Petun)" in Jordan F. Kerber (ed) Archaeology of the Iroquois: Selected Readings and Research Sources (Syracuse University Press, 2007), pp. 269-86.
Watts, Sheldon. Epidemics and History: Disease, Power and Imperialism (Yale University Press, 1997).
Chippewas of ama First Nation
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
This paper will study the Chippewa people of ama First Nation. The paper will provide a larger context within North American history and Chippewa history to reflect upon this tribe's cultural traditions and heritage. The paper will focus upon several key aspects to the culture such as the interaction with Europeans, reputation within the aboriginal tribes of Canada, and the rich oral history/tradition of the Chippewas of ama First Nation. The paper serves to be informative and comprehensives.
A Brief Examination of the Chippewas of ama First Nation
The Chippewas of ama First Nation are one of numerous tribes that compose the First Nations. The First Nations is a collective term that refers to the aboriginal tribes of Canada, not including those who are Inuit and/or Metis. North American aboriginal tribes have…
"Chippewas of Rama First Nation." 2012 January 2012
"Mnjikaning History." 2012 January 16
"M'njikaning First Nation." 2012 January 16
"Ojibway People." 2012 January 16 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations >
TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION IN THE UNITED STATES ETWEEN 1815 AND 1830?
This paper argues that, even prior to the advent of the railroads, a transportation revolution had taken place in the United States in the early nineteenth century. It argues that two developments were most important: steamboat navigation and the construction of the great canals. In particular, the building of the Erie Canal constituted a revolution in its own right. It was on account of the transportation revolution of the 1815-30 period that the American economy was decisively transformed in a capitalist direction.
In 1800, the United States did not lack a transport infrastructure, but it was a very poor one. With the exception of cities and towns located on the Atlantic coastline or along navigable waterways, there was literally no means of transporting agricultural produce and manufactured items to or from market centers other than country roads. These roads were…
Boyer, Paul S. et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin, [YEAR?]
Cornog, Evan. The Birth of Empire: De Witt Clinton and the American Experience 1769-1828. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Frost, James Arthur. Life on the Upper Susquehanna 1783-1860. New York: King's Crown Press, 1951.
Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Origin of Ancient Nepal
Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the distant past, although their culture and artifacts are only slowly being explored. Written references to this region appeared only by the first millennium .C. During that period, political or social groupings in Nepal became known in north India. The Mahabharata and other legendary Indian histories mention the Kiratas (Roberts JM, History of the World), who still inhabited eastern Nepal in 1991.
Some legendary sources from the Kathmandu Valley also describe the Kiratas as early rulers there, taking over from earlier Gopals or Abhiras, both of whom may have been cowherding tribes. These sources agree that an original population, probably of Tibeto-urman ethnicity, lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago, inhabiting small settlements with a relatively low degree of political centralization.
Monumental changes occurred when groups of tribes calling themselves…
Roberts JM History of the World.
Groundwater & Hydrology
Water is the most cast off natural material in the earth. Irrespective of variations in its supply with the pace of time and location its aggregate quantity remains constant. The transformation of the water takes place through a continuation process referred to as hydrological cycle deriving its momentum through the solar energy and gravity. Down pouring of rain consequent upon condensation of clouds are extracted by the roots of plants, flooded over the surface joining the streams and rivers and to some extent absorbed by the earth to form the reservoir of underwater. Vaporization of water from water reservoirs, and transpiration of plants makes the water back to atmosphere.
The invisible underwater, which is the result of the continuous process of hydrological cycle, constitutes the key source of the water. This is also considered as the primary reservoir of pure water in a nation. Presently, the assessments…
Barringer, T.A; Dunn, D; Battaglin, W; Vowinkel, E.F. (1990) "Problems and Methods involved in Relating Land Use to Ground-Water Quality" Water-Resources Bulletin. Volume: 26; No: 1; pp: 1-9.
Cesare, Dosi. (2001) "Agricultural Use of Groundwater: Towards Integration between Agricultural Policy and Water Resources Management" Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht
Freeze, R. A; Cherry, J.A. (1979) "Groundwater" Prentice Hall, Inc.
Hubbert, M.K. (1956) "Darcy's Law and the Field Equations of the Flow of Underground Fluids" AIME Transact. Volume: 207. pp: 222-239
Future of Renewable Energies
hile the reliance of the United States on natural resources and fossil fuels must give way to renewable and sustainable resources at some point, the ability to change to new technologies is not yet here and further efforts are needed to make the United States both energy-independent and free of fossil fuels.
The USA is one of the greatest countries in the world. This is not just because of its superpower in terms of policing the entire globe, but also being with an extensive source and use of the natural resources. ith the use of these natural resources, the country has been able to feed its population. This population is one of the greatest and is continually growing even with an annual admission of over 700,000 people from other countries. ith the use of the resources, the country developed a strong capacity before the world wars…
CEF. "Alternative Energy Sources - Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Biomass, Ocean And Other
Energy Sources." Conserve Energy Future. N.p., 2017. Web. 1 May 2017.
Cubbage, Frederick Jay O'Laughlin, and M. Nils Peterson. Natural Resource Policy. New York,
NY: Waveland Press, 2016
Multidivisional Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure of Large Corporations
Effective management of any organization is a function of keeping track of the details. hen the day was over, a profitable enterprise is one which can answer the questions of how much was produced, spent, sold, what kind of problems occurred along the way, and what the organization is doing to solve the problems in order to remain on the path toward profitability. hile this list may appear overly simplistic, everything that a business does can be mapped along a path begins by purchasing raw materials and ends at selling a finished product at a significantly higher price. hether the company sells paperclips, pomegranates, or purple SUV's, their purpose is to buy and sell at a profit while satisfying the needs of the consumer and working community which they serve.
During the last century, as businesses morphed from corner stores and family…
Baliga, B.R. & Alfred M. Jaeger. 1984. Multinational corporations: Control systems and delegation issues. Journal of International Business Studies, 15(2): 25-39.
Birkinshaw, Julian, Configurations of strategy and structure in subsidiaries of multinational corporations.. Vol. 26, Journal of International Business Studies, 12-01-1995, pp 729(25).
Chandler, Alfred Jr. (1962) Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the history of the American Industrial Enterprise. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Child, John. 1973. Strategies of control and organizational behavior. Administrative Science Quarterly, March: 1-17.
Under all of that, there is a theoretical angle that he brings to the table, and it is one that most other historians have really said very little about.
There are many participants in the world that White (1991) describes. There are traders, colonial officials, prophets, chiefs, women, missionaries, and warriors. According to White (1991) these people all had to continually construct the rules of a 'game' of sorts. The traditions and cultures these people had were not capable of handling what was happening on their own, so they had to all work together to play this game so that they could reach some kind of conclusion they all could accept. The natives and the Europeans did not just discard the cultural baggage they still carried with them, however. Instead, they used what worked from their own cultures and then took what they needed, wanted, and liked from the other…
White, Richard. (1991). The middle ground: Indians, empires, and republics in the Great Lakes region 1650-1815. Cambridge University Press.
For example, due to prevailing oceanic currents and environmental issues, a significant amount of marine debris is both generated and deposited in Korean Coastal waterways. The Korean government has removed almost 100 tons of debris in the past decade, but realizes the problem is ongoing. To reduce their own costs and improve efficiency, the Korean government incents fishermen to collect marine debris during fishing. This idea, certainly applicable to any nation with coastal waters, bot improves the efficiency of governmental collection programs, and in the long run, helps educate and compensate local fishermen (Cho, 2008).
These, and other management programs, continue to develop among the world's fishing nations. Agencies are focused on three major goals: educate young people in all countries that the world is interdependent and the oceans must be maintained for the health of the planet; educate the public, private, tourist, and fishing populations to their individual…
"South Korean divers combat marine debris and raise funds for underwater conservation on Earth Day." Project Aware. Cited in:
See the treaty, resources, and commentary in "Oceans and Law of the Sea," Cited in: http://www.un.org/los/ .
Typically the highest unemployment rates in these nations are in the most rural of areas, which are precisely the areas where tobacco tax-based dollars are most often investment.
The reliance on taxes from tobacco across the 24 nations profiled in Figure 2 also lead many of the tobacco farmers not just in these nations, but globally, to have a higher level of income stability per acre, and also generate higher income for small and medium farmers. These are critical aspects of the broader and longer-term economic strategies of third-world nations to ensure that their most transient and difficult-to-transfer workers stay in their field of experience, which is agriculture. By incenting agricultural expertise in tobacco farmers, there is also a pronounced focus on how to increase profits per acre, thereby giving farmers and their families a chance to better themselves and also receive better healthcare and education in the process. In…
The World Bank (2003)- the Economics of Tobacco Use & Tobacco Control in the Developing World. The World Bank. Brussels 3-4, February 2003
US Census Bureau (2007) - U.S. Census Bureau, Annual Survey of State and Local Government Finances (01-June-07); and State & Local Government Finance Data Query
State and Local Tobacco Tax Revenue, Selected Years 1977-2005 thousands of dollars)
Jay's legal considerations are several. On some of those issues he is on firm legal standing while on others he should reconsider his position. The first issue facing Jay is how he should resolve the payment of the $15,000 contract payment that Westside Construction Group was promised by Jay in the event that project was completed by March 1. Ordinarily, the terms of a contract are unalterable once agreed upon but the situation presented between Jay and Westside are different and present an exception. The parties' original contract called for the contract to be completed by March 1st so the new contract involving the Port Torrens Football Club does not mark a new completion date but WCG's guarantee of completion provides WCG the capacity to contract with Port Torrens that otherwise they may not be able to do. WCG's assurance, through Tom, makes Jay's contract with Port Torrens a reality…
Air Great Lakes Pty. Ltd. v. KS Easter (Holdings) Pty. Ltd., 2 NSWLR 309 (Supreme Court of New South Wales 1989).
Brereton, P.L. (2007). Equitable Estoppel in Australia: The Court of Conscience in the Antipoded. Sydney: Australian Law Journal Conference.
Bressan v. Squires, 2 NSWLR 460 (Supreme Court of New South Wales 1974).
Chapple, L. (2002). Corporate Authority and Dealings with Officers and Agents. CCH Australia Limited, 1-192.