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Human migration has over the course of history shaped the demographics of continents in a manner that no other single phenomenon has ever done. The industrial revolution in Europe saw the advent of a mass displacement of populations from Africa into the Americas with the aim of using the slaves for the extraction and development of raw material that was needed in the industries in Europe. The slaves in the Americas helped fuel the industrial revolution in Europe and the more the industrial revolution caught momentum, the more the demand for raw material that in turn fueled the demand for slaves. With the change in human rights agitation and politics of the time, slave trade came to an end and slavery later on came to a stop and the millions of freed slaves had to settle down and begin their lives as free men with individual purposes. This is…
Richard W., (2015). Trade and Migrations. Retrieved October 29, 2015 from http://www2.newcanaan.k12.ct.us/education/components/scrapbook/default.php?sectiondetailid=5510
A&E Television Networks, (2015). Great Migration. Retrieved October 29, 2015 from http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/great-migration
Lewis F, (2015). Causes of the Great Migration: Searching for the Promised Land. Retrieved October 29, 2015 from
Great all of America? A Bad Idea.
It is widely known that the United States is a country of immigrants. The country's indigenous population constitutes a tiny miniscule of its population, while the rest came mostly from Europe, Latin America, and other parts of the world. Nevertheless, immigration to the United States has always been a divisive and controversial issue. In the nineteenth century, nativist feelings among the ASP (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants) made the East Coast a very inhospitable place for Catholic Irish immigrants, while the legislators in the est Coast targeted immigrants and migrants from the Far East, singling out the Chinese in the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 ("Chinese Exclusion Act"). Today, cross-border movement of people through the southern border of the United States has become a hotly debated issue for ordinary folks, legislators, anti-terrorist law enforcement agencies, Congressmen and Congresswomen as well as Presidential candidates. Criticizing the…
"Chinese Exclusion Act." Harvard University Library Open Collections Program. Web. 14 March 2012
"Environmental Rules Waived for Border Fence." Associated Press. 15 January 2007. Web. 14 March 2012
Drehle, David Von. "The Great Wall of America." Time. 19 June 2008. Web. 14 March 2012
Kenner, Robert, et al. Food, Inc. Los Angeles, CA: Magnolia Home Entertainment, 2009.
America and the Great War" and "The New Era"
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation. Vol. 2: A Concise History of the American People .4th Edition. McGraw-Hill 2004.
What were the causes of WWI in Europe in 1914? Why was President Wilson so reluctant for the U.S. To get involved until 1917 and what finally put the U.S. "over the edge" and decide to enter the conflict directly?
Nationalism, imperialism, and secret treaties all played a role in the instigation of WWI in Europe, but President Wilson was initially reluctant to become involved, because of a long history of American isolationism in regards to entangling European affairs, particularly the secret alliances that stimulated the conflict. His refusal to involve the U.S. In WWI became a crucial part of his re-election campaign. But President Wilson began to protest German violations of American neutrality more vehemently in his public rhetoric than British violations,…
The theme of unrequited love in The Great Gatsby
Discuss the fallibility of youth in The Great Gatsby
Discuss the primacy of socioeconomic status as it manifests in The Great Gatsby: which characters confront it with the most grace? Which with the least?
If Daisy and Jay had been members of the same socioeconomic class would they have ended up together? Why or why not? Provide textual evidence.
Nick Carraway goes to great lengths to show and tell the reader that he is a reliable narrator: discuss three concretes way he does this and how successful they are.
How does the period and place of the novel add to the sense of youth, love, promise or despair?
How does the death of Myrtle Wilson highlight a sense of something rotten underscoring the 1920s? Discuss using the novel and the historical period.
What role does Jordan Baker serve in the…
Theories Of Collapse Of The Mayan Civilization
The Mayan civilization existed between the third and the tenth centuries A.D. In a region that covers the present parts of Guatemala, Yucatan, and Honduras. Historical analysis shows that the Mayan people had a lively trade irrespective of the poor nature of their soil and abundance of dense forest and insects. The marvel cities and advanced calendar system of the Mayan people attest to their prolific knowledge, expertise, and skills. The perfectly written and maintained manuscript compounds to the prowess nature of this population. However, most of the cities of the Mayan people remained deserted past the tenth century. The reasons behind their disappearance remain a mystery. An assortment of theories has been developed to explain their disappearance (Heley, 2010). Therefore, this research paper discusses two of the theories explaining the disappearance of the Mayan people alongside discussing the most effective…
Heley, M. (2010). The Everything Guide to 2012: All you need to know about the theories, beliefs, and history surrounding the ancient Mayan prophecies. Cincinnati: F+W Media.
Foster, L.V. (2007). A brief history of Central America. New York: Facts on File.
Gill, R.B. (2001). The great Maya droughts: Water, life, and death. Albuquerque: Univ. Of New Mexico Press.
Simonian, L. (1995). Defending the land of the jaguar: A history of conservation in Mexico. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Great Depression and the New Deal
The Great Depression
The Great Depression was caused by the stock market crash of 1929. The 1920s had been a roaring good time for Americans: credit was easy and investments were going up. In the 1920s, it was known as the Installment Plan -- and "enjoy while you pay" was a popular expression used to lure buyers into the market who could not otherwise afford to be consumers. Credit was used for everything -- including stock. However, when credit expands in the form of shoddy loans, a credit bubble is created. The bubble, in this case, popped in 1929 when the market realized no more credit was going to be pumped in as a result of too many loans to undeserving customers were being made (i.e., customers who could not pay them back). With the market correction came the margin calls and accounts had…
Brinkley, Alan. Voices of Protest: Huey Long, Father Coughlin, and The Great
Depression. NY: Vintage, 1983.
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Jeansonne, Glen. Transformation and Reaction America 1921-1945. IL: Waveland
Evolution -- Great American Interchange
The natural Panamanian bridge adjoining early North America with early South America is believed to have occurred 3 -- 4 million years ago. By studying evolutionary changes in animal species in North America, Central America and South America, experts formed the theory of the Great American Interchange, a mutual migration of Northern species to South America and of Southern species to North America. The evolutionary changes that came from these migrations are at least partially attributed to a Great American Biotic exchange. Experts traditionally believe that Northern species that migrated to South America were more successful in surviving and evolving because of prior migrations from greater land masses and easier adaptation to the climate of South America. However, as experts make more and more discoveries in the field, there are questions and controversies about the number of migrations from each continent and migrations from sources…
Davies, T Jonathan and Lauren B. Buckley. "Phylogenetic Diversity as a Window into the Evolutionary and Biogeographic Histories of Present-Day Richness Gradients for Mammals." Phiosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1576) (August 2011): 2414-2425. Print.
Forasiepi, Analia M, et al. "Carnivorans at the Great American Biotic Interchange: New Discoveries from the Northern Neotropics." 17 July 2014. www.academia.edu Web site. Web. 18 October 2014.
Jablonski, David and j John, Jr. Sepkoski. "Paleobiology, Community Ecology, and Scales of Ecological Pattern." Ecology, 77(5) (July 1996): 1367. Print.
Jimenez, F Agustin, et al. "Four Events of Host Switching in Aspidoderidae (Nematoda) Involve Convergent Lineages of Mammals." Journal of Parasitology, 98(6) (Dec 2012): 1166-75. Print.
(Council of Europe, 2001 This report relates that in the "Implementation of the Provisions of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: Part II, Section I and Article 3 it is stated: (1) Every person belonging to national minorities shall have the right freely to choose to be treated as such and no disadvantage shall result from this choice or from the exercise of the rights, which are connected to that choice; and (2) the persons belonging to national minorities may exercise the rights and enjoy the freedoms flowing from the principles enshrined in the present framework Convention individually as well as in community with others. (Council of Europe, 2001) Additionally reported is that Albanians "have historically claimed distinction for understanding and tolerance towards national minority members, a fact which has determined the exemplary coexistence between them and religious communities." (Council of Europe, 2001) Toward this end, Albania…
Implementation of the Provisions of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities: Part II, Section I and Article 3 (2001) Council of Europe. 26 Jul 2001. http://www.humanrights.coe.int/Minorities/Eng/FrameworkConvention/StateReports/2001/albania/Albania.htm. Onlineavailable at:
Report on Albania: ECRI's country-by-country Approach (1999) European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance. Strasbourg 9 Nov 1999. Council of Europe. Online available at http://www.coe.int/t/e/human_rights/ecri/5-Archives/1-ECRI 's_work/1-Country_by_country/CBC1-Albania.pdf
Vullnetari, Julie (2007) Albanian Migration and Development: State of the Art Review. IMISCOE Working Paper 18. September 2007. Online available at http://www.imiscoe.org/publications/workingpapers/documents/Albanianmigration.pdf
ongaarts (2004) reports that since 1950 the median age in North America, Europe Japan and the rest of the developed world has increased from 29 years to 37 years. In addition by 2050 the median age is expected to increase to 45 years old. However in the developing world, including North America and Africa, the median age is 24 years. Although the median age is lower in the developing world these nations are also experiencing declines in both mortality and fertility rates will increase the median age to 36 by 2050. These facts concerning median age in societies around the world are important to understand because they dictate the public policy decisions.
How does the presence of an aging population affect public pension programs?
How do current immigration laws dictate how replacement immigration might be impacted by immigration laws?
Problem addressed by proposed study
The aging of the population…
Bongaarts, John. Population Aging and the Rising Cost of Public Pensions
Chand, Sheetal and Albert Jaeger. 1996. "Aging populations and public pension schemes," IMF
Occasional Paper Number 147. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund.
This indicates that the government must take necessary measures to limit or reduce the extent of criminal activities within the economy. This can occur through legalization of human smuggling while tightening the rules and regulations governing property or product smuggling.
Smuggling and Price Disparity odel
In the Bhagwati and Hansen odel (Bhagwati-Hansen odel), smuggling is a trade at the world or international prices. This indicates that there is evasion of taxes. This trade involves less favorable transformation curve in comparison to curves under the free trade condition in the absence of the taxation system. This is under the assumption that smuggling involves real cost such as additional transport costs. In their illustration of smuggling and welfare, Bhagwati and Hansen indicate that smuggling has negative effects on welfare. This illustration explains that smuggling reduces welfare in the presence of co-existence between legal and illegal trade (smuggling). Bhagwati and Hansen explain that…
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
Mark M. PiTT. Smuggling and Price Disparity. Journal of International Economics 11 (2001) 447-458. North-Holland Publishing Company
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
Migration Project for Tony's Chip
The focus of this document is to develop an internally hosted Website Migration Project for Tony's Chip Company. The website will have a back-up site that will serve as a failover in case the original site goes down or unavailable. To assist Tony's Chip Company building a dynamic Website that provides a disaster recovery plan, and minimal downtime to ensure that the site is available for 24 hours, the project will design the website using SDLC (system development life cycle). ESTful concept describes web architecture as the protocols that uses the HTTP, and standard operations such as POST, GET, and DELETE. The ESTful also uses the SOAP messaging over the HTTP to assist in enhancing an effective message transfer. Despite the benefits associated to the EST concept, however, its specification is still poor for the development of a dynamic website. However, this project will still…
AlFardan. N. J. Bernstein, D. J. Paterson, K. G. et al. (2013). On the Security of RC4 in TLS (PDF). 22nd USENIX Security Symposium.
Department of Education. (2003). Weaving a Secure Web Around Education: A Guide to Technology Standards and Security. NCES 2003-381. Washington, DC.
Sharks are another vertebrate that are similar to dolphins in many ways and very different from dolphins in other ways. There are more that 250 species of sharks, ranging from the harmless whale shark to the ferocious great white.
The great white shark, known as Carchardon Carcharias, feeds regularly on marine mammals, such as seals, sea lions, otters, dolphins, and whales. They enjoy eating bottle-nosed dolphins whenever they get an opportunity. Samuel Gruber in Discovering Sharks writes that the great white consumes marine mammals when they come across a deceased one. The Great White shark, also known as the white death, is considered the most dangerous shark in the waters. The Great White has a conical instead of a flattened snout, black eyes, and large, serrated, arrowhead-shaped teeth. The upper and lower lobes of the tail are almost equal in size, and the body is blue or brown-gray, not white,…
The Great White Shark. Retrieved December 8, 2006 at http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/vertebrates/Doug/shark.html
Bottlenose Dolphins. Retrieved December 8, 2006 at http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/Bottlenose/home.html .
Undercover Boss is a great show for illustrating core management concepts. A season five episode features the CEO of the Larry H. Miller Company, owner of the Utah Jazz along with eighty other concerns. This episode features issues related to occupational health and safety, customer service and marketing. In the episode about Modell's Sporting Goods, a family-owned business that has been around since 1889, issues related to logistics, wages, and social justice come to the fore. In the first season episode featuring the CEO and president of 7-11, issues related to management and corporate structure, customer service, and quality assurance are brought to light. These three episodes can all be used to better understand textbook concepts, from the particular skills managers need to succeed to ethics and social responsibility. Of these three episodes, the most engaging was the one about Modell's because of the way the owner came to…
Schermerhorn, J.R. (2012). Exploring Management. 3rd edition.
Undercover Boss Utah Jazz: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f_Tc3qCOj68&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss Modell's: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8jadl9usH3s&feature=youtu.be
Undercover Boss 7-11:
his League advocated the peaceful and friendly expansion and recognition of African-American culture and roots in Africa. It also helped pave the way for more militant African-American advocacy groups that found their way into popular African-American culture and society during the Harlem Renaissance. he Universal African Legion also had affiliate companies and corporations, which gave African-Americans more cultural, economic, and political clout and representation during this time period. Garvey was a crucial figure in the uniting of African-Americans toward the singular goal of improving their cultural and social conditions inside the U.S.
he New Negro movement was an over-arching hopefulness that African-American culture and society could successfully flourish in the post slavery era. Garvey played a major role in helped to culturally establish the African-American agenda of upward social mobility and desegregation (Locke, 1997). he Harlem Renaissance was a movement with limited scope that took place during the 1920's and…
The Black Power Movement emerged as a separate approach to the issues of civil rights and racial inequality. Those who were frustrated with the status quo, and with the slow progress of the non-violent philosophy, were often quick to back the more militant wing of the Black Power Movement. Some African-Americans felt very strongly that in order to change the status quo there needed to be a real physical threat from African-Americans looking to secure their fair share of power and liberty in America (Cone, 1997). Nowhere was this more apparent than with the Black Panther Movement. These people believed that the power that had been stolen by the whites during and after slavery needed to be forcibly taken back. The national response to this movement was one of fear, and many people saw the Black Panther Movement as illegitimated by the violence they so often advocated.
The Black Power slogan enjoyed a multitude of functions. It functioned as a call to arms for the Black Panthers while also helping to solidify black capitalism and intellectual attitudes in America during this time period. Many consider the Black Power movement to be a direct reaction or result of the Civil Rights Movement, and felt as though stressing Black Nationalism and pride at every level was, to a lesser degree, successful in changing the attitudes of Americans toward African-Americans (Cone, 1997). The impact of this movement can still be seen today. The culturally popular and change-affecting "Black is Beautiful' movement came from the Black Power movement, as did many of the cultural, social, and political attitudes that modern day African-Americans hold relative to their perception of their place in society (Cone, 1997). The Black Power movement helped to define "blackness" as a positive identity, instead of something to be ashamed of. It often functioned as a rallying cry for African-Americans caught up in the struggle for cultural equality directly after the Civil Rights Movement.
Cited: Cone, JH. (1997). Black Theology and Black Power. Orbis Books: Maryknoll, NY.
Not all people who own guns are criminals nor will they end up using their gun, but it does feel better to know that in a worst case scenario situation, one will be able to fight back on even grounds.
Gun regulation is not about banning guns, but about controlling who has access to them. As proposed by the President, background checks are essential when it comes to being able to own a gun (Simon 2013). This is no way violates any sense of privacy or freedom and right to bear arms. It just assures the public that those who do have access and ownership of these powerful weapons will not use them in a hurtful or harmful way, nor will they, most importantly, hurt our children. Although it is difficult enough to protect children at home, no longer do children have that security and safety that used to be…
LaFranchi, Howard. "Big Heels to Fill': What John Kerry Signaled to State Dept. On His First Day ( Video)." The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Monitor, 04 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. .
Elementary School Rampage - CBS News. (n.d.). Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Retrieved February 7, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/2718-201_162-2046/elementary-school-rampage/
Simon, Mallory. "Gun Debate: Where Is the Middle Ground?" CNN. Cable News Network, 01 Feb. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. .
"Inaugural Address." Fifty-Seventh Inaugural Ceremonies to Swear-in the President of the United States. Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, 21 Jan. 2013. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. .
Ida Mae Brandon Gladney
An unfortunate blemish in America's past has been the harsh treatment of African-Americans by the white members of the population. Harsh racial prejudices were most rampant in the American south where African-Americans were deprived the right to vote, were forcibly segregated from the white community, and could be beaten, raped, and murdered on the slightest provocation. For all these reasons, many African-Americans fled the south and migrated into the northern states. Although African-Americans were still treated poorly in many parts of the north, it was far better for them than what they had experienced in the southern states. In Isabel ilkerson's book The armth of Others Suns written in 2010, the author explores what it would have been like for African-Americans who left the oppression of the south in order to find relative freedom from persecution in the north. The book features the stories of three…
Gotham, Kevin. "Racialization and the State: the Housing Act of 1934 and the Creation of the Federal Housing Administration." Sociological Perspectives. (43:2). 2000. 291-317. Print.
Gregory, James. The Southern Diaspora: how the Great Migrations of Black and White
Southerners Transformed America. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2005. Print.
Oshinsky, David. "Freedom Trains." The New York Times. New York Times Company, 2010.
foreign immigrant groups California share similar struggles quest American citizens
Following the development of western countries in the nineteenth century, there emerged a prolonged immigration of Asian communities into the American society. Iran had a shock in their culture. Individual personality such as language proficiency, learning level, and job skill influences their ability to adapt. Immigration is a key life challenge, although well thought-out to be stressful, particularly for women coming from environments with observance to traditional gender roles, through the exposure, organizations of these societies disintegrate.
Shared struggles of Iranian & Mexican immigrants
Economic factors like financial resources, loses and gains in social status intimidates the immigrants. The attitude of the host country with the level of similarity of the two cultures is also an influential factor. Individual factors such as character strength, decision-making skills, declaration of feeling of loss, and the ability to endure uncertainty about gender roles…
Massey, Douglas S, Jorge Durand, and Nolan J. Malone. Beyond Smoke and Mirrors: Mexican
Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation,
Borjas, George J. Mexican Immigration to the United States. Chicago [u.a.: Univ. Of Chicago
In each one, he uses descriptive language and situations to represent the millions of uprooted Europeans coming to America for a better life and opportunities unavailable to them at home. He writes, "Now they would learn to have dealings with people essentially different from themselves. Now they would collide with unaccustomed problems, learn to understand alien ways and alien languages, manage to survive in a grossly foreign environment" (Handlin 1973, 35). Throughout the book, he uses this almost sentimental style to illustrate the difficulties these people faced, and how they managed to survive and thrive in spite of them.
He describes the cramped living conditions in urban ghettos where most of the immigrants first ended up, the difficulties in finding employment, and how they always remained separate and separated from the Americans all around them. He writes, "This street was apart as if a ghetto wall defined it. On other…
Bodnar, John. The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America. Bloomington, in: University of Indiana Press, 1985.
Handlin, Oscar. The Uprooted: The Epic Story of the Great Migrations That Made the American People. Boston, MA: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1973.
Jacobson, Matthew Frye. Barbarian Virtues: The United States Encounters Foreign Peoples at Home and Abroad, 1876-1917. New York: Hill and Wang, 2000.
But many other nationalities also saw a great many prejudices directed at them like the Polish, Russian, and other Baltic state immigrants. Events like the Red Scare sweeping across America as well as mass racism against our own citizens as black soldiers returned home from Europe.
There was more to this era than simply immigration into the United States from Europe. There was a strong migration period at the same time. For example, black Americans were beginning to migrate out of the southern states into the north for an opportunity to increase their wealth in northern cities like Chicago and Detroit. The Great Migration as it was known saw hundreds of thousands of Southern Blacks migrate to northern cities. ith that, new Black communities began to flourish in places like Harlem. But the negative side of the migration saw various race riots in cities like St. Louis and Houston.…
Ellis Island. (2005.) Migration. Retrieved on March 2, 2005, from Ed. Monroe K12 at http://www.monroe.k12.fl.us/kls/Immigration/EllisIsland/Ellisisland.htm .
SlaveryInAmerica. (2005) 369th Infantry Division of the United States Army. Retrieved on March 2, 2005, from http://www.slaveryinamerica.org/scripts/sia/glossary.cgi.
Make specific use of at least 3 separate texts in the paper, from the Unit's readings in the Making Connections: Reading American Cultures with accompanying CD-ROM, AIExplorer: Immigration and Migration (You may use the 2000 or 2001 edition of the text; you will need Version 1.2 or Version 1.3 of the CD-Rom)
This has been represented through both advertisement campaigns highlighting individual beauty and greater media attention to those who do not bear resemblance to traditional images of beauty. In "sex, lies and advertising," it is evident that the use of magazines and other advertising mediums are the direct correlation to why so many women feel that they need to change themselves. These images however all false in nature since they do not accurate depict what the feminine form and beauty is. There is no strong conflict of interest between women's magazines and beauty products because the idea of beauty is now so deeply entrenched in social and cultural frameworks those magazines will not shake the desire of women to want to be beautiful. Furthermore, the prevalence of women's magazines only makes the problem appear more subliminal and give people the false sense of acceptance that is not in fact present.
Puerto ico is a Caribbean Island which was formerly settled by two Native American tribes, Caribe and Arawak. In 1493, this Island was captured by Spain and up until about 400 years it was ruled by the Spanish. The native settlers during this time period had become slaves to the Spanish and with time as their population began to lessen, outsiders including black slaves were imported and the Indian race became less prominent. (Whalen)
The association between the United States and Puerto ico goes back to the times of the Spanish-American war which took place in 1898. As a result of this war and due to the terms which were presented under the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain had to let go of Puerto ico. Since then it has been an unincorporated territory of the United States of America. (Duany)
For Puerto ico, the 20th century started under the…
Aranda, Elizabeth. Emotional Bridges to Puerto Rico: Migration, Return Migration, and the Struggles of Incorporation. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print.
Duany, Jorge. The Puerto Rican Nation on the Move: Identities on the Island and in the United States. The University of North Carolina Press, 2001. Print.
Flores, Juan. Divided Arrival: Narratives of the Puerto Rican Migration, 1920-1950. Markus Wiener Publishers, 2003. Print.
Whalen, Carmen. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives. Temple University Press, 2005. Print.
At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.
The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values…
African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,
Encyclopedia Britannica, Jim Crow law, 2007. 28 April 2007 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043641/Jim-Crow-law/
Grossman, James. "Great Migration." The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. 2004. 28 April 2007 http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/545.html
" ith this onslaught of blacks into their communities, there was an "exodus of Jews" (apparently no pun intended vis-a-vis the book Exodus about the Jews seeking a homeland) which created a "vacuum" that was immediately filled by a "housing-starved black population."
On page 415-16, Hirsch writes that the "real tragedy surrounding the emergence of the modern ghetto" is not that it has been "inherited" but that it has been "renewed and strengthened... with government sanction and support."
Finally, on page 416, Hirsch gets down to the bare bones, bottom line social dynamic of the problem that has been allowed to fester in Chicago (at least up to 1983 when he published this essay). hen, he writes, the racial lines began to "harden" after the post-II influx of blacks into the second ghetto, "it was apparent that white hostility was of paramount importance in shaping the pattern of black settlement."…
Hirsch, Arnold R. (1983). "From the First Ghetto to the Second Ghetto," in Making the Second
Ghetto: Race and Housing in Chicago, 1940-1960, Arnold R. Hirsch, 412-419, Cambridge:
The roots of such music can be traced back still further to the gospel hymns, work songs, and field calls that developed amongst slave populations in the south during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Scholastic 2011). The Southern and decidedly African-American sounds of blues and early jazz were brought along with the Great migration, where New Orleans styles like Dixieland met with the calmer strains of the Mississippi blues and other styles (Scholastic 2011). In New York, with the greatest concentration of African-Americans, new collaborations and iterations sprang up quite rapidly.
The Harlem enaissance, named for the neighborhood in Manhattan where the African-American community was concentrated and centralized, was an explosion of artistic, literary, and musical expression largely because it represented the first major community of African-Americans located in a small geographical area (McDougal & Littell 2008). The jazz music that developed in New York as a part of this…
McDougall & Littell. (2008). Creating America. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Kw-WjacYGhEJ:www.quia.com/files/quia/users/nygardgeo/RoaringTwenties/The-Jazz-Age-and-the-Harlem-Renaissance+jazz+harlem+rennaissance&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiTwUV7ZR1UBvIK6Wk5zZj1K7s9dsOtMZZ6U19HXCPtpQ_GchKhK8HsMmQd0Ib5OHiIHJZ7qB5DfaCxk-krvFwwG8-j9-TKWEbF3mkOJwo4-Gn-nejkpsjMWjvQjS66vTchyieT&sig=AHIEtbRLiTwGmw1QGRN1drC4BnuJ9VD4bw
Mintz, S. (2006). The Great Migration. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443
Scholastic. (2011). History of Jazz. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm
Gypsies, otherwise known as Roma, came to the Americas with the very earliest settlers. Throughout the course of the past 500 years, the Roma, their preferred name, have held on to their traditions and practices. Historical written record says that the Portugese exported Gypsies to South America. According to legend, the Portugese did the same thing in what is now South Carolina, long before the English came to settle the area.
The long tradition of Gypsies in the United States is almost as interesting as the origination of Gypsises as a people. Gypsies originated in India over 1000 years ago, migrating to Europe in the Middle Ages. No one knows for sure how or why they began to wander the globe as they have. Today, there are more than twelve million Roma located in many countries around the world. ecause the Romani are almost never included on official census counts,…
Cheverly, MD; Gypsy Lore Society, 1994.
Patrin timeline of Romani History" http://www.geocities.com/Paris/5121/timeline.htm
Bunce, C. "Travelers are the Unhelathiest People in Britain." British Medical
Journal. 19 October 1996
The great migration helped populate the northern industrial cities, and create an industrial revolution in the country that would take it from an agrarian economy to an industrial economy, and one of the industrial leaders of the world, and the migration, with the hoards of cheap black labor, only helped build the foundations of that new prosperity.
These letters and personal recollections make it very clear the north was not the "promised land." There were difficulties there, too. Prices were higher than the south, and so it was difficult for the people to live. There were so many coming north, there were not jobs for everyone, and after World War I it was even worse. What is important about this is that the migrant blacks stayed. They knew that life, no matter how hard, was better in the north, and they knew that they faced better odds of survival and…
Various Authors. "The Journal of Negro History." University of Illinois at Chicago. 2008. 14. Nov. 2008. http://www.uic.edu/educ/bctpi/greatmigration/documents320
African-American Vernacular English can be described as an assortment of American English that is mostly used by urban-working class and mostly bi-dialectical middle-class black Americans. The language is also commonly known as Black Vernacular English or Black English. In some cases, particularly outside the academic community, it is referred to as Ebonics given its distinctive features and similarities with other non-standard English varieties. The similarities with other varieties are evident when compared to various standard and non-standard English languages that are commonly used in the United States and the Caribbean. In the past few years, African-American Vernacular English has been the subject of various public debates and attracted considerable attention among sociolinguists. This paper examines the development of this language, its distinctive features, cultural context, and socio-economic implications of the use of African-American Vernacular English.
oots of African-American Vernacular English
The history and origin of African-American Vernacular English and other…
Fisher, D. & Lapp, D. (2013, May). Learning to Talk Like the Test: Guiding Speakers of African
American Vernacular English. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(8), 634-648.
Harris, Y.R. & Schroeder, V.M. (2013, January 24). Language Deficits or Differences: What We
Know about African-American Vernacular English in the 21st Century. International Education Studies, 6(4), 194-204.
Human esources and Functional Illiteracy
Public Administration Human esources esearch Study Design
Public Sector Human esource Policy and Functional Illiteracy
Public Sector Human esource Policy and Functional Illiteracy
Anderson and icks (1993) examined the role of illiteracy in determining worker status within the public sector, in part because it had not been done before. They were interested in understanding how worker stratification was determined, after scholars had raised the possibility of a worker caste system within government agencies. This issue is still relevant today, given the increasingly diverse workforce both ethnically and linguistically. This report will analyze the research methods used by Anderson and icks (1993) and summarize their findings
The sample studied by Anderson and icks (1993) were human resource professionals currently engaged in managing employees in the public sector. A 41-item questionnaire was used to determine the 'functional literacy' that these managers were noticing on the job,…
Anderson, Claire J. And Ricks, Betty Roper. (1993). Illiteracy -- The neglected enemy in public service. Public Personnel Management, 22(1), 137-152.
History Channel. (2013). Great migration. History.com. Retrieved 13 Feb. 2013 from http://www.history.com/topics/great-migration .
Chippewas of ama First Nation
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
This paper will study the Chippewa people of ama First Nation. The paper will provide a larger context within North American history and Chippewa history to reflect upon this tribe's cultural traditions and heritage. The paper will focus upon several key aspects to the culture such as the interaction with Europeans, reputation within the aboriginal tribes of Canada, and the rich oral history/tradition of the Chippewas of ama First Nation. The paper serves to be informative and comprehensives.
A Brief Examination of the Chippewas of ama First Nation
The Chippewas of ama First Nation are one of numerous tribes that compose the First Nations. The First Nations is a collective term that refers to the aboriginal tribes of Canada, not including those who are Inuit and/or Metis. North American aboriginal tribes have…
"Chippewas of Rama First Nation." 2012 January 2012
"Mnjikaning History." 2012 January 16
"M'njikaning First Nation." 2012 January 16
"Ojibway People." 2012 January 16 < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Nations >
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org/wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.
During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.
The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.
The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."
As racial exclusionary laws…
Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)
Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)
From Slavery to African-American
By the beginning of the Civil ar, there were some four million African-Americans living in the United States, 3.5 million slaves lived in the South, while another 500,000 lived free across the country (African pp). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of 1865 freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation (African pp). During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings (African pp).
This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century (African pp).
From this Great Migration came an intellectual and cultural elite group of African-Americans that grew…
Civil ights Historical Journal Entry
Tonight I awoke to the unmistakable sounds of long restrained rage being freed from its cage. My neighbors are in the street below the grocery store I've owned for nearly two decades, decent folks who are simply trying to earn a living and raise their families the right way. While most of them are Black, and have been since the bigoted practice of "blockbusting" drove most of the Whites to migrate en masse from the neighborhood of Watts (Simpson, 2012), these people are my neighbors, and in most cases, my dear friends. Tonight though, they have become an angry mob growing larger by the minute, a constellation of fierce eyes flashing amidst the darkness, orbiting slowly around a police car, the White cop driving it, and the young Black man he is trying to arrest. As the screams and shouts become more pitched, and the…
Reitman, V., & Landsberg, M. (2005, August 11). Watts riots, 40 years later. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/news/la-me-watts11aug11,0,673501.story
Simpson, K. (2012, February 15). The great migration: Creating a new black identity in los angeles. KCET Connected, Retrieved from http://www.kcet.org/socal/departures/landofsunshine/portraits/the-great-migration - creating-a-new-black-identity.html
Minorities in America 1917-1929
Discrimination ran rampant throughout the era of World War I and the 1920s, having an enormous impact on the lives of minorities living in America and fighting abroad. Black servicemen in the military, though respected by some for their participation in the war effort, often served only in segregated units. They held no positions of command, rather served as mealtime aids, laborers and cargo holders (Azimuth, 2003). Also of significance during this time, a great migration of African-Americans occurred from southern farms to northern cities within the states, sometimes referred to as the "Great Migration" (Azimuth, 2003). Many were looking for bigger and better opportunities. Women, also considered minorities during the 1920s, revolted against their status in "servitude." The era of World War I can only be described as one of radical changes in the racial make up and cultural significance of America.
During the period…
North America 1915-1945" Retrieved February 22, 2003 from, www.bartleby.com/67/2187.html
From Margaret Sanger. Woman and the New Race. New York: Truth Publishing Co., 1921. 1-8.
American Passages." Chapters 22 & 23: Hartcourt College Publishers. Retrieved February 23, 2003 from, http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/MainAP/welcome.html
history of Christianity within the country of Romania goes back to such a degree that the foundation of the country itself is often linked with its Christian theology. "By 360 Dacia was a part of Christendom. "
Miller 28) The foundation of the country is to some degree synonymous with its theology, known today to be largely Orthodox.
Romania occupies, roughly, ancient Dacia, which was a Roman province in the 2D and 3D cent. A.D.; The ethnic character of modern Romania seems to have been formed in the Roman period; Christianity was introduced at that time as well. After the Romans left the region, the area was overrun successively by the Goths, the Huns, the Avars, the Bulgars, and the Magyars.
Romania itself has a rough history of imperial rule and bloody tyranny, yet to some degree each successive conqueror was exposed to if not converted to Christianity…
Alecse, Rev. Fr. Constantin "News, Views, Community Announcements" The Christian Life 2001 Vol. 44 / Issues1-3 Retrieved May, 15, 2004 at: http://biserica.org/Publicatii/2001/NoI/XV_index.html . http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5001871459' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Between 1865 and 1920, industrialization had diverse effects on the life of Americans. While it improved the life of Americans, it also created problems for the society. Following the civil war, the amount of city jobs and factory jobs increased. As urbanization increased, rural populations decreased. Steel production rates and education increased during this period. Transportation was made more available and easier with the growth of railroads. The American society was revolutionized (Oleson & Brown, 1976).
Major aspects of industrialization during 1865 and 1920 that influenced U.S. society, economy, and politics
Following the civil war, the U.S. embraced steps to become a more industrialized country. Between 1865 and 1920, the effects of industrialization were visible in diverse aspects of the U.S. society. One aspect of American life that improved following this period was steel production. The drastic increase in steel production is linked to new technologies in the…
Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. Wheeling, Ill: H. Davidson.
Johnson, C.D. (1993). Redeeming America: Evangelicals and the road to Civil War. Chicago: I.R. Dee.
Oleson, A. & Brown, S.C. (1976). The pursuit of knowledge in the early American Republic: American scientific and learned societies from colonial times to the Civil War. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Banks, N. (2006). Uplifting the race through domesticity: Capitalism, African-American migration, and the household economy in the Great Migration era of 1916-1930. Feminist Economics, 12, 4, 599-624.
theoretical concepts from parts XII and XIII to the events and actors at the Malheur Wildlife efuge occupation. Be sure to utilize the different sections in your application.
Environmental criminology often focuses on opportunity theory, which is linked with rational choice theory. Opportunity theory suggests that criminal behavior is motivated or prompted by available opportunities to commit the crime. Although the Malheur occupiers were not environmental criminals in the traditional sense of being motivated also by an environmentalist agenda with related ecological goals, the Malheur Wildlife efuge is a nature preserve. There are also compounding issues related to territoriality, the "extent to which a space conveys a sense of being 'owned' or 'private' and has having clearly designated purposes," (XII, p. 459). Territoriality has been a primary driving factor in the occupation. The occupiers, spearheaded by Ammon Bundy and the Hammond brothers "sought to turn the refuge into a symbol…
Bernton, Hal. "Birds -- and staff -- return to Malheur National Wildlife Refuge." Seattle Times. 27 March, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/northwest/birds-and-staff-return-to-malheur-national-wildlife-refuge/
Carpenter, Zoe. "Inside the Bundy Brothers' Armed Occupation." The Nation. Jan 5, 2016. Retrieved online: http://www.thenation.com/article/inside-the-malheur-wildlife-refuge-occupation/
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
The Japanese internment camps are but one manifestation of historic intolerance in the United States. The ghettoization of Jews and other perceived undesirable European groups during the early 20th century also proves that many American urban centers were founded on principles of intolerance. The geographic and cultural landscape of the United States continues to reflect intolerance: in the ways many if not most American cities remain visibly segregated into ethnic enclaves, and also how poverty and race are inextricably linked. Differential educational outcomes and income disparity are some of the hallmark signs that intolerance has become institutionalized in America.
"Since colonial times, Americans have used hatred as a common bond," (eid, et al. 2008, p. 7). Hatred has permitted the creation of social and cultural barriers that prevent passage from one social stratum to another. An in-group/out-group mentality continues to inform American culture. In-group/out-group consciousness has created a plethora of…
Reid, C. Toth, Gordon A. Crew, Catherine E. Burton, Pearson Education, Inc. (2008).
Born in Jackson, Mississippi in 9143, Mildred Taylor was no stranger to racism. Discrimination pervaded everyday life in the segregated south. Almost as soon as Mildred was born, her parents ilbert Lee and Deletha Marie Taylor moved to Ohio: part of the great migration of Africa-Americans.
Yet in spite of moving, the family returned to visit friends and family. Staying in contact with her roots led Mildred Taylor to a career in storytelling. "The telling of family stories was a regular feature of Taylor family gatherings. Family storytellers told about the struggles relatives and friends faced in a racist culture, stories that revealed triumph, pride, and tragedy," (Crowe). hile visiting her family, Taylor learned about her ancestral roots and how slavery played a major part in forming the personal and collective identities of African-Americans like herself.
Back in Toledo, Taylor attended the integrated Scott High School and graduated…
Crowe, Chris. "Mildred D. Taylor." The Mississippe Writers Page. Retrieved: http://www.olemiss.edu/mwp/dir/taylor_mildred/
Taylor, Mildred. Quoted in the Penguin Putnam Books for Young Readers. Retrieved online: http://us.penguingroup.com/nf/Author/AuthorPage/0,,0_1000031974,00.html
2 Taylor, Mildred. Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry. New York: Puffin/Penguin, 1976.
hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."
Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.
That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.
Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…
Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.
Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.
Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from. http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
In years before, America was a collection of Chinese, Germans, Italians, Scots, Croats, etc., all craving freedom. Today, even the simple concept of an English-speaking nation is fading off the continent. In the past, immigrants were taught in English in the public schools. In America today, children are taught in German, Italian, Polish, and 108 other languages and dialects. Most of these schools are funded by 139 million federal dollars. "The linguist's egalitarian attitude toward dialect has evolved into the multicultural notion that dialect as a cultural feature is part of one's identity as a member of that culture."
Due to their ethnic or cultural heterogeneity, multiethnic societies in general are more fragile and have a higher risk of conflicts. In the worst case such conflicts can cause the breakdown of these societies. Recent examples of this were the violent breakdown of Yugoslavia and the peaceful separation of Czechoslovakia. Forced…
Cruz, Barbara C. Multiethnic Teens and Cultural Identity: A Hot Issue. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers, 2001.
Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism in the Twentieth Century: From Triumph to Despair. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Francis, Samuel. "The Other Face of Multiculturalism." Chronicles. April 1998.
Huggins, Nathan I. Revelations: American History, American Myths. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
While there were students of color in the community, their race was rarely, if ever, a source of conflict. The unfortunate outcome, however is that in being "Color Blind," and believed that everyone is being treated the same. In reality, the outcome does not celebrate the uniqueness of those same ethnic groups. The bigger implication in my work will be the study of the blending of economic classes. Prior to the consolidation of the schools, ainier had numerous rural one to four room schoolhouses. Each school had its own distinct area of the county and each group was resistant to blending with the others. This was an area of generational poverty. Families were land rich and money poor.
In the early 1970's, when Portland General Electric began construction on the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant, there were the beginnings of a local population explosion. The first group to come to…
Bolman, L.G. & Deal, T.E. (2000). Escape from cluelessness: A guide for the organizationally challenged. New York: American Management Association.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Feagin, J.R., Orum, a.M. & Sjoberg, G. (1991). A case for the case study. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
The objective of this work is to examine Nathaniel Hawthorne's works and to conduct a comparison of the life of Hawthorne to his short stories and to examine how his life and his works paralleled one another.
The life of Nathaniel Hawthorne many times was played out in his stories as his life events and experiences bled forth into his works demonstrating the struggles that the writer faced within himself and his own life. unning through the threads of the stories of Hawthorne is the theme of Puritanism and this is clearly perceived as one reads the stories of Hawthorne entitled "The Scarlet Letter," "The Minister's Black Veil and "The Birthmark." In order to understand Hawthorne's view it is necessary that one understand what Puritanism is, believes, and represents.
Puritanism was first presented in the works of William Tyndale (1495-1536) as well as in the work of…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1999) The Minister's Black Veil: Boston: Ticknor and Fields 1850. Retrieved from http://eldred.ne.mediaone.net/nh/sl23.html
Hawthorne, Nathaniel (1999) The Scarlet Letter: Boston: Ticknor and Fields 1850, Retrieved from: http://eldred.ne.mediaone.net/nh/sl23.html
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. (1999) The Scarlet Letter: A Romance. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1850.Retrieved from: http://eldred.ne.mediaone.net/nh/sl23.html
Rummel, C. (1996) Puritanism in Nathaniel Hawthorne's Short Stories. 25 7 1996. American Short Stories. Retrieved from: http://bronski.net/works/hawthorne.html
Urban Sprawl is a problem that can have severe consequences for all life if the continuing expansion of developed landscape is left unrestricted. The unrestricted development of the United States and the world is rapidly contributing to the degradation of our ecosystem. Moreover, if over development continues there will be massive human suffering. Air and water quality are in jeopardy and topsoil is being lost at an alarming rate. If something isn't done soon to curtail rampant development there may be no way to prevent its destructive consequences. In order to understand Urban Sprawl it is imperative to understand the history and origin of cities.
As the nation shifted from agricultural society to a manufacturing, and then a technology driven social culture, workers incresingly left the rural life and homestead to find work and social support in the manufacturing centers. This development was based on the marketplace and was designed…
Baker, Linda. "The Fast-Moving Fight To Stop Urban Sprawl." E. May 2000 v11 i3 p26
Binkley, Clark, Bert Collins, Lois Kanter, Michael Alford, Michael Shapiro, Richard Tabors. Interceptor Sewers and Urban Sprawl. D.C.: Heath and Company, 1975
Brecher, Jeremy, & Tim Costello. Global Village or Global Pillage, Economic Reconstruction from the Ground Up. Cambridge, Ma. South End Press, 1998
Gordon, John Steele. "The American environment: the big picture is more heartening than all the little ones." American Heritage, Oct 1993 v44 n6 p30
here is a rather complex juxtaposition between the ideals of the founding of the United States and the presumption of religious conversion. he historical and sociological paradigm of religion in America actually spans the great migration of tribes from Asia over the Alaskan land bridge and evolved into various Native American cultures and the European contact between the early 1600s and even into the 20th century. Most of the Amerindian cultures worshiped a naturalistic religion that focused on harmony with nature, a group of Gods that represented spirits of parts of nature, and ways to explain all the natural phenomenon (weather, birth, death, etc.) that are common to human cultures. Religion was more all-encompassing and an approach to explain the universe. Since everything within the universe was part of the natural order, and therefore sacred, these cultures tended to revere all that was in nature and placed humans as…
This conundrum was not adequately addressed during the Constitutional Convention, and it was not until Thomas Jefferson became President that the issue became publically important. In 1802, for instance, members of the Danbury Baptist Association wrote to Jefferson with concerns about the Constitutional requirement for freedom of religion. Jefferson replied, assuring the coalition that there freedoms would be protected and cherished. He noted his previous work from 1777-79 under the Virginia Statute for religious freedom: "Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free… That even the forcing him to support [a state religion] or that teacher of his own religious persuasion is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions…That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry…yet we are free to declare… the natural rights of mankind" Lippy). This, in essence, formed the basis of the notion that the State cannot make a law establishing a religion or force individual citizens to follow anything other than what they deem appropriate for their own individual belief and need.
Lippy, C. Introducing American Religion. New York: Routledge, 2009.
The Origins of Blues Music
The Blues is a type of music that comes from the Unites States of America. The history of this type of music is closely related to matters of labor, politics, economics, and ethnicity. The Blues is a distinct genre of music and within it there are other subcategories of blues music. Blues did not originate is a vacuum, with respect to musical influences and historical ties. Blues is a form of music that is connected to other musical forms of the past, the present, and the future. There are many precise details about the origins of the blues that are still unknown at this time. There is no specific year of establishment or creation of the blues. There are direct traces or connections to the blues to cultures and musical traditions in Africa, as well as to the musical traditions, predominantly coming from…
Oakley, Giles. The Devil's Music: A History of the Blues. First Da Capo Press, London. 1976, 1997. Print.
Harlem enaissance was a true flourishing of African-American arts, music, and literature, thereby contributing tremendously to the cultural landscape of the nation. Much Harlem enaissance literature reflects the experience of the "great migration" of blacks from the rural south to the urban north. Those experiences included reflections on the intersections between race, class, gender, and power. Many of the Harlem enaissance writers penned memoirs that offer insight into the direct experience of racism, such as ichard Wright's "The Ethics of Living Jim Crow." Poets worked with classic literary devices like symbolism and imagery to convey the intense emotions linked to experiences of prejudice and violence. Emerging in conjunction with social and political justice movements such as women's rights and labor rights, the movement to empower black communities through the arts also spilled beyond the borders of the African-American community. For example, F. Scott Fitzgerald's novels and short stories addressed class…
Brown, S. Bitter fruit of the tree. Retrieved online: http://www.ronnowpoetry.com/contents/brown/BitterFruit.html
Wright, R. The ethics of living Jim Crow. Retrieved online: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ma01/white/anthology/wright.html
Culture is a funny thing. When it comes to the national culture of any given country, the opinions and review of that culture can be in reverence and awe of the culture or it can be a complete and swift condemnation of the culture. Italian culture in particular is one culture that is either revered or condemned depending on who is doing the reviewing and what precisely is being looked at. Indeed, there is no shortage of people that look at movies like Coppola's Godfather trilogy and just stand in awe of Italian culture in general and that of La Cosa Nostra in particular. ather than go for that sort of review and praise, the author of this report will instead focus on the words and observations engaged in during Nanni Moretti's Caro Diario. Translated, this title in English is "Dear Diary.
Moretti dancing to the classic Italian…
IMDb. (2016). Caro diario (1993). IMDb. Retrieved 29 February 2016, from http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0109382/?ref_=fn_al_tt_1
Masquees, L. (2010). Nanni Moretti's Caro Diario - An Italian Culture Analysis -- Les Nuits Masquees. Les-nuits-masquees.blogspot.com. Retrieved 29 February 2016, from http://les-nuits-
In Ralph Ellison's "Battle Royal" the narrator states that "all my life I had been looking for something, and everywhere I turned someone tried to tell me what it was" (442). The narrator admits that he accepted their answers even though he knew they were not logical -- and this compulsion to bow down to or to submit to an external force in a setting that is wholly antagonistic to him is the major theme that runs through the story. Indeed, the Battle Royal in which the young black man is humiliated by being forced to box in a ring is a setting that perfectly represents his internal and external struggles. He is obliges to pleasure the white elites and is compelled to deliver a speech in which he states that the role of the black is to submit and be deferential to whites -- a speech for…
Ellison, Ralph. "Battle Royal."
Trecker, Janice. "The Great Migration: Art as History in Ralph Ellison and Jacob
Lawrence." The Midwest Quarterly, vol. 56, no. 2 (Winter 2015): 169-185.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
The 1899 Liberty Head $5 Gold Half Eagle
The 1899 Liberty Head $5 Gold Half Eagle was designed by Christian Gobrecht, the third Chief Engraver of the U.S. Mint (1840-1844). The coin was circulated with a mintage of 1,710,630 and a metal content of 90% gold and 10% copper. Its diameter was 21.6 mm and weighed approximately 8.36 grams (EBTH). The Liberty Head was just one production of the U.S. half eagle that was produced for circulation for more than a century. This paper will describe the history of the Liberty Head Gold Half Eagle designed by Gorbrecht and what it signified.
The half eagle was the first gold coin minted by the U.S., authorized by the Coinage Act of April 2, 1792 (United States Mint); the first rendition of the coin was the Turban Head design, created by Robert Scot. Minted through 1807, the Turban Head design showed Lady…
Migration, Employment and UK Economy
Point 1: Perception and Reality do not always align
Duffy and Frere-Smith (2013) published their report on perception versus reality where immigration\'s impact on the UK labour market are concerned. The report highlighted several gaps between perception and reality, such as the composition of immigrants being largely asylum-seekers (most are students), and the fact that concerns about immigration have been rising recently. They also highlight that concerns are often surrounding impact on public service and benefits, but ignore positive elements like the tax contribution and economic benefits of immigrants.
This study supports the findings of Dustmann and Preston (2007), which held that residents of the UK were mostly concerned about the impacts of immigrants in terms of paying taxes and using the welfare system. They found two areas where such concerns were disconnected from reality. One being that such concerns were outsized in proportion to…
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…
Maher, K. (2004). Borders and Social Distinction in the Global Suburb. American Quarterly, 781-806.
Zhou, M., Tseng, Y., & Kim, R. (2008). Rethinking Residential Assimilation: The Case of a Chinese Ethnoburb in the San Gabriel Valley, California. Amerasia Journal, 55-83.
Playwright Israel Zangwill
Is United States of America in the second decade of 21st century a melting pot -- the kind of melting pot that was envisaged by Israel Zangwill close to 104 years ago? The answer is an overwhelming no. Today more than ever there is no one idea of Americanness or American culture that is acceptable across the board. Most of this is attributable to the differences in the immigration patterns as they existed in 1908 and today. In 1908 most of the immigrants were of European background with a European heritage. Over a generation or two, these immigrants groups assimilated and integrated fully into American society as Americans. One notable exception was of course the African-American experience.
Latter half of the 20th century however saw migration from areas that were as diverse as China, Vietnam, the Indian subcontinent and the Arab world. These migrants have brought their…
This is certainly suggested in Boy illie's ruthless and callous demeanor with respect to an heirloom for which his father gave his life. Doaker reports at one point that "he say he gonna cut it in half and go on and sell his half. They been around here three days trying to sell them watermelons. They trying to get out to where the white folks live but the truck keep breaking down. They go a block or two and it break down again. They trying to get out to Squirrel Hill and can't get around the corner. He say soon as he can get that truck empty to where he can set the piano up in there he gonna take it out of here and go sell it." (ilson, 29)
Boy illie's representation of the blind ambition to advance casts this path in a particularly negative light, but also denotes…
Boan, D. (1998). Call-and-Response: Parallel 'Slave Narrative' in August Wilson's 'The Piano Lesson.' African-American Review, 32(2), 263-272.
Kubitschek, M.D. (1994). August Wilson's Gender Lesson. Essays on the Drama of August Wilson: University of Iowa Press.
Nadel, A. (1994). May All Your Fences Have Gates: Essays on the Drama of August Wilson. University of Iowa Press.
Wilson, A. (1990). The Piano Lesson. Plume.
History of the Pacific Northwest [...] how the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War impacted regional demographics in the Pacific Northwest. What social ramifications resulted from population shifts in the Northwest (consider rural and urban area)? How did demographics shape/influence Pacific Northwest politics? The Pacific Northwest did not escape the ramifications of the Great Depression, World War II, and the Cold War. No area in the country did. However, since the Pacific Northwest had not been quite as economically successful in the decade leading up to the stock market crash in 1929, its residents were not quite as deeply affected as those who had been more indulgent with their income.
Before the Great Depression in 1929, the Pacific Northwest had been growing significantly. By 1920, the area had grown by 254% from 1900 (Schwantes 365). However, the Great Depression put a stop to the growth and migration.…
Gates, Charles M. "Modern Economic History." The Pacific Northwest: An Overall Appreciation. Eds. Freeman, Otis W. And Howard H. Martin. 2nd ed. New York: Wiley, 1954. 43-50.
Schwantes, Carlos Arnaldo. The Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1989.
Warren, Sidney. Farthest Frontier: The Pacific Northwest. New York: Macmillan, 1949.
Gender Perspectives on Globalization
The social impact of globalization: case of Indian nurses migration
The globalization advent can be dated back to the post WWII era leading to the cold war period where countries increasingly chose the nations that they aligned their diplomatic, political and economic allegiances to. This trend was informed by the global economic trends that prevailed after the WWII and the need for economic allies in order for a country and to some extent a region to survive. The World Bank (2014a) advances globalization as the increased interdependence of countries on each other due to the ever increasing finance, trade, human resources and ideologies at the global level. It is characterized by the significant increase in the international trade patterns and the establishment of cross-border investments and these are noted to be the two major characteristics of globalization as sated by Mrak M. (2000:Pp3-6) and these cannot…
Costinot A. Donaldson D., (2012). Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Advantage: Old Idea, New Evidence. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://economics.mit.edu/files/7536
Gill R., (2011). Nursing Shortage in India with special reference to International Migration of Nurses. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CFUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsocialmedicine.info%2Findex.php%2Fsocialmedicine%2Farticle%2Fdownload%2F517%2F1088&ei=GEF2VJeBA4Ldao7_grgG&usg=AFQjCNF2NHcvOH9zERhetMyAYZN1uKua2A&sig2=VzqxICFENaDFRwkKDJ8YeA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.bGQ
Nagarajan R., (2010). India tops with 56,000 migrant doctors in OECD countries. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/India-tops-with-56000-migrant-doctors-in-OECD-countries/articleshow/7154050.cms
Senior K., (2010). Wanted: 2.4 million nurses, and that's just in India. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/5/10-020510.pdf