Greece Essays (Examples)

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Greek Crisis

Words: 2337 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75228877

Greece Bailout


The Greek government has faced an ongoing fiscal crisis for the past several years. ecently, for the third time, its Eurozone partners have been compelled to offer a bailout to the country. This is done to stabilize Greece's finances and to impose further measures on the Greek government to remedy the nation's budget and to ensure that there are no similar issues in future. The first part of the paper is a brief overview of the situation. The second part will outline some of the key issues that lead both to favor the bailout and to oppose it, and finally there will be analysis and a conclusion about whether or not bailing out Greece is the right thing to do. It will be argued that it is not, at least in the current form.


There are several key issues at work with the Greek bailout. Greece…… [Read More]


BBC. (2013). IMF admits mistakes on Greece bailout. BBC. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from 

Bloomberg. (2012). Greek crisis timeline from Maastricht Treaty to ECB bond buying. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from 

Chu, B. (2012). Interview with economist Paul Krugman: Greece will leave Eurozone within 12 months. The Independent. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from 

Esparza, A. (2013). Chinese investment in Greek port the biggest FDI after the crisis. Marketpulse. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from
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Cultural Dimensions and Cultural Differences

Words: 1360 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49433001

Cultural Dimensions

Cultural Differences/Similarities

Both France and Greece are Mediterranean countries in Europe. They are both part of the EU and have a shared Western Civilization heritage. Both have moderately high power distance and uncertainty avoidance. However, France scores much higher for individualism and Greece for masculinity. Hofstede does not outline time horizon for Greece; France scores as a short-term time horizon society.

II. Cultural Dimensions

There are five dimensions under Hofstede. Power distance "expresses the attitude of the culture towards the inequalities amongst us." A high power distance country would be more accepting of these differences. The second dimension is individualism. This reflects "the degree of interdependence a society maintains among its members." A high individualism society has members who reflect their self-image as I, rather than we. The third dimension in masculinity/femininity. This dimension defines masculinity as desiring achievement and success, with femininity oriented towards caring for others…… [Read More]


Heritage Foundation. (2013). 2013 Index of economic freedom. Heritage Foundation. Retrieved April 8, 2013 from 

Geert Hofstede: France. (2013). Retrieved April 8, 2013 from 

Geert Hofstede: Greece. (2013). Retrieved April 8, 2013 from 

OANDA. (2013). USD/EUR. Retrieved April 8, 2013 from
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Marshall Plan and Its Results

Words: 2005 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62870344

The military dictatorship simply favored specific economic interests, notably large tourist enterprises, urban real estate and construction, and shipowners. The basic weaknesses of the Greek economy, including social inequities and the lack of competitiveness in the country's new manufacturing sector, remained untreated. They would resurface in acute form with the world economic crisis of the early 1970s (Postwar ecovery ("

The initial reaction by Greek politicians was not to accept the aid by the United States as they believed it would make the United States hold to much power over the nation, but it was not long before the political powers realized if they did not take part in the plan they may find themselves at the mercy of communist advances so they accepted the plan and its benefits.


The Marshall Plan was a plan designed by George Marshall and was intended to help the devastated nations in Europe…… [Read More]


Marshall Plan 

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Mills Decisions About International Business Take Into

Words: 2411 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55186592


Decisions about international business take into account a wide range of different factors, including political, economic and social environments, in addition to firm-specific issues such as where to produce, what the company makes and how easy it is to ship the company's product. In this report, the case of General Mills in Europe will be considered. General Mills is a major producer on consumer consumables, and the countries in question are going to be France and Greece. The paper is going to discuss the key issues with respect to each country, keeping in mind the General Mills context.

General Mills produces food under a number of common household brands -- Cheerios, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Haagen-Dazs, Old El Paso, Yoplait and Nature Valley. The company is based in Minneapolis and began in 1860 with two flour mills, hence the name. The company would change its name to Gold Medal Flour…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

ABC. (2012). Brain drain: 120,000 professionals leave Greece amid crisis. Der Spiegel. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from 

General (2013). History & brand heritage. General Mills. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from 

2012 General Mills Annual Report.

Hofstede, G. (2013). France. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from
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Lives of Women in Archaic

Words: 2254 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74821392

Some Ancient Greeks even went as far as to think that women started to have deeper voices consequent to the moment when they lost their virginity (King 28).

Euripides also acts as one of the principal Ancient Greek scholars who damaged the role of women in his society, given that his writings relate to the role of women as individuals who are generally persecuted by the masses. omen were practically promoted as being responsible for society's problems as characters like Hippolytus put across their opinion concerning females and actually insisted that gods inflicted great damage on humanity through introducing women (Euripides 18).

Ancient Greeks seem to express no interest in acknowledging the role of women as housewives and mothers and focus on presenting them as useless individuals who spend most of their time consuming and generally having a negative influence on the public. Hipponax perfectly (although he somewhat exaggerates) describes…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Aristotle, "Politics," Echo Library, 2006

Demosthenes, "Against Neaera," Retrieved January 17, 2012, from the Perseus Digital Library Website: 

Euripides, "Hippolytus," Hayes Barton Press.

King, Helen, "Hippocrates' Woman: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece," London: Routledge, 1998
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Dark Age and the Archaic Age

Words: 1920 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36563837

Dark Age and the Archaic Age

Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…… [Read More]

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Crossing Aegean Crossing the Aegean An Appraisal

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94707700

Crossing Aegean

Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey is Volume 12 in a Berghahn/Oxford University Press series on forced migration. The series addresses modern and post-modern population migration issues from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Like the other issues in the Studies in Forced Migration series, Crossing the Aegean is a collection of scholarly essays offering nuanced approaches to the delicate subject matter. Edited by enee Hirschon, the book is divided into three core sections. The first provides crucial background information and a general overview. The overview covers the geography and history of the region since ancient times, as the Greek empire did indeed span the Aegean Sea to link what are now two distinct nation-states. Background information provides more of a modern historical perspective, including issues related to the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire. The background information does provide the…… [Read More]


Hirschon, Renee. Crossing the Aegean. New York/Oxford: Berghahn/Oxford University Press, 2003.
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Greek Artifacts the Civilization of

Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27467730

Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).

Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]


New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.

Retrieved at .

Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.

New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
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Xenos and the Hiketes Suppliant

Words: 2041 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83278409

In addition to the diplomatic relationships established between the Greek poleis, in the frame of the political arena, there were also the alliances made between persons, usually high raking members of the ruling classes: "there was a fine-meshed network of personal relationships between prominent persons in the different cities based on 'guest friendship' (xenia): two friends (xenoi) from different poleis could promise to house and help each other when they were in the polis of wither of them" (Hansen, 127). This was the case of Telemachos receiving in Pylos. After he had exposed his intensions and the goals of his trip, Nestor offered him his advice and material support as a manifestation of the friendship and reciprocal aid the leaders of different Greek cities often used to give each other as a result of reciprocity.

From an unwritten law, xenia progressed into becoming an institution, like, for example, in the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Hansen, M.H. Polis: an introduction to the ancient Greek city-state. Oxford University Press, 2006

Gill, C.Postlethwaite, N. Seaford, R. Reciprocity in Ancient Greece. Oxford University Press, 1998

Homer, tr. By Lattimore, R. Odyssey
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Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta

Words: 2198 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88891091

Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.

Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: .

John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:

Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
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Greek History World Civilizations

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92648679

Greek History World Civilizations

What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?

Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.

The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.

It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.

The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]

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Parthenon Was an Architectural Achievement

Words: 1819 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53532653

g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.


In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bruno, Vincent. The Parthenon. NY W.W. Norton & Company, 1996. Print.

Fergusson, James. The Parthenon. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1883.


"The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization." PBS. Web. 28 Nov 2011.
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Monolithic Theories of Myth Much

Words: 1499 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60263652

They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kirk, GS 1974, The Nature of Greek Myths. Overlook. Pp. 38-68.
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Excavation of Corinth

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66469593

Ancient Corinth, located in Greece, is located in the northeast area of the Peloponnese at the front of the Gulf of Corinth was one of the largest cities of the ancient world and perfect for trade and commerce since it was strategically located between the Corinthian gulf and the aronic gulf, and possessed two harbors. Imports and exports from and to Asia used the harbor leading to Cenchrea, on the aronic Gulf, whilst ships travelling to and from Europe arrived at Lechaeum, on the Corinthian gulf ([footnoteRef:1]). [1: Excavations in Ancient Corinth]

Corinth contained a quarter of a million people and became notorious for its standards of high-living and immorality. One ancient writer, in fact, used the term 'to Corinthianize', as synonymous for engaging in immorality. Its existence as a center of trade also made it a prosperous city.

Excavations of ancient Corinth were initiated in 1896 by the American…… [Read More]


Excavations in Ancient Corinth 

Facing the challenge, "The synagogue in Corinth visited by Paul in Acts chapter 18" 

Facing the challenge, "The Judgment seat in Corinth."
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Eurozone Crisis the Eurozone Is Currently Facing

Words: 3192 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77914167

Eurozone Crisis

The Eurozone is currently facing a crisis on a number of fronts. The most pressing of these is Greece, which is heavily indebted to other Eurozone countries, creating a budget crisis in the country (Raman, 2011). As the risk of default on Greek sovereign debt increases, this puts downward pressure on the value of the euro. Other nations within the Eurozone are, in order to salvage the integrity of the currency, more or less obligated to back Greek debt. hile Greece is a significant problem for nations within the Eurozone, the currency would not be considered to be in a state of crisis if Greece was the only problem. The reality is that many peripheral Eurozone countries are in various states of financial disarray -- Spain, Italy, Portugal and Ireland all have problems (Ibid). Spain and Italy are in particular a problem, because they are too big to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

BBC. (2001). Greece joins Eurozone. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from /2/hi/business/1095783.stm" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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European in Both the Spanish

Words: 1999 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23852597

After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.

When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:

EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.

However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…… [Read More]


Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.

Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.

Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.

Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
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Alexander the Great There Is

Words: 7146 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79048295

Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.

ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…… [Read More]


Darius III," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2005. New York: Columbia University Press. Online. Available from , Accessed June 5, 2006.

The Columbia Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published by Columbia University and is among the most complete encyclopedias ever produced.

Darius III," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Online.

Available from Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service
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Security and Co-Operation in Europe the Topics

Words: 800 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55020110

Security and Co-Operation in Europe

The topics before the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) are: Combating Human Trafficking; Supporting Post-Conflict Stabilization and Institution- Building in Kyrgyzstan; and Energy Supply as a Factor of Instability. Greece is dedicated to assisting the OCSE to combat human trafficking, to supporting OCSE initiatives to stabilize and build democratic institutions in Kyrgyzstan, and I. Combating Human Trafficking

As a committed member of the United Nations and the European Union, Greece supports the objectives outlined by both organizations to combat human trafficking. . Accordingly in an effort to combat human trafficking, Greece has increased its efforts to disrupt major human smuggling rings and arrest the individuals involved, and coordinated these efforts with similar efforts by both the European Union and the United Nations. The delegation from Greece signals that its enforcement has been stepped up, which is reflected in the increased number of…… [Read More]

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Athens and Sparta -- Was War Inevitable

Words: 2460 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9753311

Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?

Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.

That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.

However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…… [Read More]


Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.

Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.

Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.

Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
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Art of Classical Antiquity in the Ancient

Words: 1563 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18582454

Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]


Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: 

"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: 

"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: 

"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online:
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Return of the Marbles to

Words: 1677 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29178783

Still many within the international museum community believe that such a gesture would lead to a disintegration of the purpose of a museum collection in the first place. It would unleash a flood of demands for other treasures to be returned. If anything such a gesture will change how museums share their information and remain accountable. This could change how historians to take in account such factors and eliminate such debates for the future classify artifacts. There have been talks of loaning the Marbles to the Acropolis Museum but to no avail. As of today, one must travel to London to see one of the most incredible displays of Greek culture and history. It is estimated five million people visit the British Museum each year. Still think of what an increase in tourism and spectacle having five million people travel to Athens would mean for Greece? It seems unfair.

Conclusion…… [Read More]

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African Athena Everyone Who Has

Words: 1934 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80468431

Therefore, the beliefs of ancient writers cannot be taken as evidence in the same way as the finding of archaeological evidence can. If Egyptians or Phoenicians had permanently colonized Greece, it is likely that someone would have found the remnants of Egyptian or Phoenician buildings, as well as Egyptian writing, tombs, and other physical evidence of their colonization activities. One would expect that if there was an Egyptian influence in the origins of Greek civilization, the Greeks may have built in the Egyptian style, instead of creating a completely unique style of architecture. There has been no evidence discovered that would indicate a large scale, permanent Egyptian or Phoenician colonization.

Martin Bernal does a very good job of analyzing the sociological forces that influenced the creation of the "Aryan" model, however, the fact that the Aryan model has been misused is not evidence that disputes the idea that Greek civilization…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berlinerblau, Jacques. Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy

and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers

UP, 1999. Print.

Bernal, Martin and David Chioni Moore. Black Athena Writes Back:
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Athens and Sparta Were the Two Opponents

Words: 1617 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88823958

Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.

Athens and Sparta: History

The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]


1. "Athens and Sparta: Different Yet the Same." Social Studies for Kids. [database online]; available from ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.

2. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Athens, City, Greece" [database online]; available from Questia, ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.

3. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Sparta" [database online]; available from Questia, ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.

4. Solanki, P. 2012. "Sparta Vs. Athens." Buzzle. [database online]; available from ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
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Philips II the Macedonian King Focuses on

Words: 1322 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85699847

Philips II the Macedonian King focuses on how Philip II expanded the Macedonian empire. This paper also gives a brief background of Philip II before he inherited the thrown. This paper highlights how the Macedonian leader entered Athens and conquered it through his tactics and strategy. The paper also gives a brief account of all the battles fought by Philip II's army and how he played a great role in the evolution of his battalion.

Philips II, The Macedonian King

Philip II, the most significant compatriot and general of his era formed the establishment of the most powerful military, which conquered most of the regions of the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. His great tactics, strenuous strategies, rearrangement of his army and utilization of the heavy phalanx formation transformed him into the master of Greece.

One of the greatest empires of the world ever formed, The Macedonian Empire…… [Read More]

Works Cited

N. Hammond. A History of Greece. Cambridge Ancient History. Vols. I-VI. 1991.

Simon H. The Greek World, 479-323 BC. Third Edition. Paperback Publisher. 2002.
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Public Pension Replacement Rates

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75851129

Pension Plan eplacement ates

Public Pension eplacement ates

The portion of monthly pre-retirement income that will be replaced by monthly pension plan funds is called the pension plan replacement rate (Quadagno, 2011). In the United States, the majority of pre-retirement income replacement comes from Social Security payments (Quadagno, 2011). The actual replacement rate for wage earners with lower incomes is higher than for those who have had higher wages during their working years (Quadagno, 2011). But overall, wealthier recipients of Social Security payments still achieve higher income replacement (Quadagno, 2011). "By 2030, a worker who retires at age 62 will receive only 70% of the whole retirement benefit, and workers who want to receive the maximum benefit will have to wait until they reach age 67" (Quadagno, 2011, p. 10). How does this compare with the situation in other countries? Comparing prior earning replacement rates for Greece and the United…… [Read More]


Current and Prospective Theoretical Pension Replacement Rates. (2006, May 19). Social Protection Committee (SPC), European Commission: Employment, Social Affairs, and Inclusion. Retrieved 


Nektarias, M. (). Financing public pensions in Greece. SPOUDAI, 50 (3-4), University of Piraeus.

Nelson, R.M., Belkin, P., Mix, D.E. (2011, August 18). Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved
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Philip II and the Growth

Words: 1578 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47374289

Overall, Philip's main goal was to create a united Macedonia and thus instill in his people the desire to bring about the collapse of the Persian Empire which in his eyes would bring about much-needed economic changes in Macedonian society, all for the good of its citizens and its king.

One of Philip's most important triumphs as king of Macedonia prior to the rise of Alexander the Great was the creation of the League of Corinth which came about after the battle of Chaeronea in oeotia in 338 .C.E. Although the defeated Greek states were allowed to keep their internal freedoms, they were compelled by Philip to join his alliance with himself as its undisputed leader. The creation of this league was a decisive turning point in the history of ancient Greece, for never again would Greek states be allowed to make their own foreign policies without considering the wishes…… [Read More]


Ginouves, Rene. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman Conquest. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.

Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,

Philip II of Macedon Biography." History of Macedonia. 2003. Internet. Retrieved November 10, 2008 at
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Histories by Herodotus

Words: 1178 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98763112

Histories of Herodotus

In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.

Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…… [Read More]


Rawlinson, George, Trans. Herodotus: Histories. UK: QPD, 1997.
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Eurozone Maastricht Treaty Euro Zone Treaty the

Words: 3044 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71231999

Eurozone Maastricht Treaty

Euro zone Treaty

The European Community established the convergence criteria. These criteria was established in order to allow its EU Member states to take part in the Euro Zone, and using the Euro, as an official currency. The members of the European Union formed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The principle goals of the treaty were to establish an economic and monetary union, strengthen the democratic legitimacy of its institutions, better the effectiveness of its institutions, come up with the community social dimension, and also establish a unified foreign and security policy (Charles 1998).

The criteria contain several principles governing inflation rates, government finance, exchange rate, and long-term interest rates. The percentage points for inflation rates should not be 1.5 higher than the average the top three members states in performance of the EU. Government finance covers both the annual government deficit and the government debt. Under…… [Read More]


Charles K. (1998). Interest Rates: A Decision-Making Approach. New York, NY: Dryden


David, J.H. (1999). "Advertising's Overdue Revolution" Speech delivered at the week

New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
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Hesiod's Works and Days

Words: 1816 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28176705

ancient poem "Works and Days" by Hesiod. Specifically, it will contain an argumentative historical essay on the question, "What kind of social values do you find in Hesiod's advice to his brother in 'Works and Days.' What does this say about Dark Age culture in Greece? Hesiod's advice to his brother Perses is simple and complicated at the same time. Hesiod's social values include the values of work rather than idleness, which he passes on quite clearly to his brother. However, there are many other customs and beliefs in the poem that indicate this was a simple culture based on agriculture and localized government. These values were common in the Dark Age culture in Greece, and represent one of the reasons Greek culture later became so advanced, and a model to other cultures of the age.

Little is known about the Dark Ages in Greece. In fact, some scholars believe…… [Read More]


West, M.L., and Hesiod. Theogony: And, Works and Days. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
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BCE Reasons for the Roman

Words: 392 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96622041

Such self-righteousness coupled with overwhelming military prowess is an intoxicating brew; forcing their way of life on others, usually "for the good of such less developed societies" is the next logical step. In case of ome's annexation of Greece and Asia Minor, the desire of the oman aristocratic elite for personal glory was also an important factor. In the oman society, the greatest fame was bestowed on the commanders who won wars abroad and such opportunities could only arise if the oman Army was busy fighting a foreign war; it is no surprise, therefore, that the oman elite chose to annex Greece and Asia Minor in the 2nd century BC even though they faced no imminent threat from their neighbors to the East. (Ibid.)


Muhlbereger, S. (1998). "The oman Conquest of Greece." History 2055 -- Ancient Civilizations: Nipissing University. etrieved on September 14, 2006 at… [Read More]


Muhlbereger, S. (1998). "The Roman Conquest of Greece." History 2055 -- Ancient Civilizations: Nipissing University. Retrieved on September 14, 2006 at