Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Greece, a south-eastern European country, is also officially known as the Hellenic epublic. The country "occupies the southernmost part of the Balkan Peninsula and borders on the Ionian Sea in the west, on the Mediterranean Sea in the south, on the Aegean Sea in the east, on Turkey and Bulgaria in the northeast, on Macedonia in the north, and on Albania in the northwest" ("Greece," 2012). The largest city and capital of Greece is Athens.
Approximately seventy-five percent of the country is mountainous whereas just about twenty percent of the land is suitable for growing crops. The country can be divided into 4 major geographical regions i.e. Northern Greece, Central Greece, and Southern Greece whereas the fourth region is comprised of numerous islands among which Crete, Zakinthos, the Northern Sporades, the Thasos are the notable ones. There are few rivers in the country and none of them is…
Clogg, R. (1992). A Concise History of Greece (2ndnd ed.). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=H5pyUIY4THYC&printsec=frontcover&dq=A+Concise+History+of+Greece&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3DrHUNmLFMretAbc34GgDA&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA
Greece from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Greece/greece
Kitroeff, A. (n.d.). The Story of Greek Migration to America | The Journey: The Greek American Dream - A documentary film by Maria Iliou. The Journey: The Greek American Dream - A documentary film by Maria Iliou. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.thejourneygreekamericandream.org/historical.htm
Olympic games from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Olympicg/olympic-games
These are largely consequences of the geographical and geostrategic position of the Greek state.
There are other courses of action as well which influence both the EU and Greece which result from Greece's position. Given the proximity of the state towards Africa through the Mediterranean Sea, Greece has an important access to the Middle East. In this sense, it fosters relations both with Israel, as well as with the Arab countries. On this issue, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs points out that "in respect of the Mediterranean countries of Europe these relations fall within, and are largely dictated by, the political, economic and legal framework of the European Union." (2008) Under these general guidelines Greece established the Mediterranean Forum in 1994 and is working in close cooperation with the European Union in the Euro Mediterranean partnership. This aspect is important because it offers a sense of multiple dimensions to the…
Bilgic, T. & Karatzas, P. (2004). The Contraction in Greece-Turkey-EU Triangle: Rapprochements at the Edges. Accessed 16 June 2008, at http://www.econturk.org/Turkisheconomy/turkeygreece.pdf
CIA World Factbook. (2008). Greece. Accessed 16 June 2008, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/gr.html
Dimitrakopoulos, D. (2004) Greece in the European Union. Routledge: New York.
Highet, K. et al. (1995) "Commission of the European Communities v. Hellenic Republic." The American Journal of International Law. Vol. 89, No. 2, 376-385.
Indeed, Elton appears to favor the view that the army itself was a powerful and formidable force, but was divided by often self-serving emperors, which drained it of its energy.
The tragedy of Rome is that it could not maintain what was once a very powerful unified force. While citizens might still have been loyal to Rome and their citizenship, the emperors appear to hardly have been so, and indeed, they appeared both increasingly irrational and selfish in their actions, rather than acting as leaders that would continue their powerful expansion throughout the world. The reason for Rome's longevity lies in the unity, loyalty and mutual support between citizens and their rulers. When this began to collapse, external factors ensured that the collapse would later be complete.
Elton, Hugh. The Collapse of the roman empire - Military Aspects. Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/orb/milex.htm
Muhlburger, teven. Ideology, Identity, and…
Elton, Hugh. The Collapse of the roman empire - Military Aspects. Late Antiquity in the Mediterranean. http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/orb/milex.htm
Muhlburger, Steven. Ideology, Identity, and Empire - the Romans
Ross, Kelly L. The Origin of Philosophy: Why the Greeks? http://www.friesian.com/greek.htm#why
Today, the European Union is an international organization comprised of 25 European countries that governs common economic, social, and security policies. While it was originally restricted solely to the nations of Western Europe, the EU has since expanded to include several central and eastern European countries (Gabel, 2006).
The countries of the EU today are, in alphabetical order, Austria, elgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. Originally, the EU was created by the Maastricht Treaty, which entered into force on November 1, 1993; this treaty was intended to enhance European political and economic integration by creating a single currency (the euro), a unified foreign and security policy, common citizenship rights, and by advancing cooperation in the areas of immigration, asylum, and judicial affairs (Gabel, 2006).
Dale, R. (2003). European Union, properly construed. Policy Review, 122, 39.
Dimitrakopoulos, D.G., & Passas, a.G. (2004). Greece in the European Union. New York: Routledge.
Eriksen, E.O., & Fossum, J.E. (2000). Democracy in the European Union: Integration through deliberation? London: Routledge.
Eriksen, E.O., Fossum, J.E., & Menendez, a.J. (2004). - Developing a constitution for Europe. New York: Routledge.
This flaw creates an incentive for firms to accumulate large sums of unpaid taxes over several years and then enter into negotiations with the tax authorities in order to remit small proportion of taxes. This flaw has been a constant feature of all tax reforms and thus makes the whole tax system less credible and more prone to abuse.
Following the inadequate government intervention, it is clear that, in 2009, the Greek economy was subjected to full blown crisis, where the global market and investors lacked confidence in the monetary regime of Greek economy. As such, it demonstrates the reason why the EU/IMF was not successful in implementing its rescue plan that would have enabled the pressure on Greek government bond yield to subside. The rescue plan was not successful as the Greek government bond yield had a high risk of default and strong expectations from the investors that the…
Arghyrou, M.G., 2006. The effects of the accession of Greece to the EMU: Initial estimates. Centre of Planning and Economic Research (KEPE), Study No 64: Athens.
Arghyrou, M.G., 2009. Monetary policy before and after the euro: Evidence from Greece. Empirical Economics, 36: 621-43.
Arghyrou, M.G. And Chortareas, G., 2008. "Current account imbalances and real exchange rates in the euro area." Review of International Economics, 16: 747-64.
Arghyrou, M.G. And Tsoukalas, J., 2010. "The option of last resort: A two-currency EMU." Published on 7 February 2010 at www.roubini.com. Available at: http://www.roubini.com/euromonitor/258379/the_option_of_last_resort__a_two-currency_emu
Ancient Greece has been thoroughly investigated by historical scholars. Some of the most beautiful art and the most intelligent science have come to the population of the world through the work of these ancient thinkers. Ancient Greece was also home of some of the world's most beautiful architecture. They were also the founders of modern philosophy and politics, as well as the basic principles of morality and ethics that modern people accept as fact. At the start of Grecian culture, artists and craftsman were seen as relatively unimportant members of society. In around the year 480 BC, art became far more important as it became clear that through artistic media, stories could be written and legacies historicized.[footnoteRef:1] hat is known for a fact about Ancient Greek is limited because, but through the writings and artwork of those that lived so long ago, scholars can piece together an understanding of…
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics.
Dinsmoor, William Bell & William James Anderson. The Architecture of Ancient Greece: an Account of its Historic Development. (New York: Biblo. 1928).
Ebenstein, Alan. Introduction to Political Thinkers. (Wadsworth. 2002). 59
Hodge, Susie. Ancient Greek Art. (Chicago: Heinemann. 2006).
The European Commission on Wednesday adopted a series of recommendations to ensure that the budget deficit of Greece is brought below 3% of GDP by 2012, that the government timely implements a reform programme to restore the competitiveness of its economy and generally runs policies that take account of its long-term interest and the general interest of the euro area and of the European Union as a whole (Europa, 2010)
The opening statement made by Europa, the official website of the EU on February 3, 2010 provided in a nutshell the end result of two significant and yet colliding considerations: the nature of the Greek financial system as it has been for upwards of 100 years, and the administrative shortcomings of the operational realities of the Euro Zone. Both entities have significant problems in their own rights that have resulted in major infrastructural shortcomings and effectively driven them…
Capanoglu, S.G. (2010). The debt crisis in Greece and the Euro Zone. Economic Development Foundation. IKV.
Collignon, S. (2010). Private Union Bonds as an exit from the Greek drama. .
Europa (2010). Commission assesses Stability Programme of Greece; makes recommendations to correct the excessive budget deficit, improve competitiveness through structural reforms and provide reliable statistics. RAPID Press Release, Europa. .
Heritage Foundation. (2012). Greece. Economic Freedom Score. .
Greece and Their Ongoing Financial Crisis
Today's financial crisis has spread way beyond America's borders. Many nations across the globe have found themselves in deep financial hot water. Even the European Union, which was showing such a strong economy, is beginning to unravel. Eurozone countries like Greece are now on the brink of collapse, and so their financial woes are hurting the overall value of the Euro and the state of the European Union itself.
The article by Kyriakidou and Georgiopoulos examines the ongoing crisis within Greece over its failing economy. Prime Minister Antonis Samaras has pledged to do everything in his power to keep the country in the Eurozone, which means that Greece will continue to use the Euro and be involved in the European Union financial environment. This decision comes with a promise to meet all target goals set out in the bail out program that is providing…
Kyriakidou, Dina & Georgiopoulos, George. (2012). Greece bailout targets difficult to reach in current timeline, Prime Minister says. Huffington Post. Web. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/06/greece-bailout-targets_n_1654616.html
Das (2015) discusses the Greek economic crisis, and the hold it has over the public via the media, in the same terms that one would use to describe a classic of Greek theater. He outlines that the Greek financial crisis bears many similarities with the classic tragedies. Among these similarities are the morality element. Greek tragedy always contains a morality element, he argues, and so there are many moral elements to the economic crisis as well. First, the two players (the EU/Germany, and the Greeks) both contain elements of moral ambiguity so essential to good theatre. Whichever you choose as protagonist and whichever as antagonist, there are moral costs to their actions. The European side sees the Greeks as needing punishment for moral transgressions such as profligate spending and rampant tax evasion; the Greeks point to the hardships caused by the austerity policies imposed upon it by the…
Das, S. (2015). My big fat Greek crisis. EconoMonitor. In possession of the author.
FIDH.org (2014). Downgrading rights: The cost of austerity in Greece. Hellenic League for Human Rights. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from https://www.fidh.org/IMG/pdf/grece646a2014.pdf
Although, war was averted when the Greek military regime fell from power, the damage to Turkish-Greek relations was done and the occupation of northern Cyprus by Turkey would be a sticking point in Greco-Turkish relations for decades to come (Ottoman pp). Another complication arose in the 1970's when oil was discovered in the Aegean Sea (Ottoman pp). The Balkan ars of 1913 had given Greece all the Aegean Islands except Gokceada and Bozcaada, some of them only a few miles off the Turkish coast (Ottoman pp). Turkey maintained that the Greek-Turkish maritime border had never been properly defined and so claimed that the seabed resources should be shared by both countries, while Greece insisted that the entire Aegean belonged to the Greeks (Ottoman pp).
In recent years relations between Greece and Turkey have improved considerably, however, the issue of Cyprus has remained unresolved and a constant source of potential conflict…
Turkey and Greece: A History of Colliding." http://www.cyprus-conflict.net/turkey-greece%20history.htm
Meier, Benjamin M. "Reunification of Cyprus: the possibility of peace in the wake of past failure." Cornell International Law Journal. March 22, 2001; Pp.
Ottoman era." http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenic_Holocaust
Bronze Age Architecture in Greece
The Bronze Age had amazing architecture, much of it located in Greece. In order to clearly understand all that the time period had to offer and how what was seen during that time in that particular country influenced others, information about architecture in the Bronze Age in Greece has to be carefully analyzed. Discussed here will be six separate works that address the Bronze Age in Greece and the architecture offered during that time. These articles will show how valuable the architecture was, not just for that period of time but also as society advanced, grew, and changed. Four of the writings deal primarily with Minoan architecture, while another addresses Minoan and Mycenaean styles and the final work is focused more on Cypriot details. By working with all six writings, it is easier to see not only the value of the architecture, but how much…
Ivanova, M. "Domestic architecture in the early Bronze Age of western Anatolia: The row-houses of Troy I." Anatolian Studies 21, no. 6 (2003): 17-33.
Letesson, Q., & McEnroe, J.C. "Architecture of Minoan crete: Constructing identity in the Aegean Bronze Age." The Classical Review 61, no. 2 (2011): 574-575.
Schoep, I. "Assessing the role of architecture in conspicuous consumption in the Middle Minoan I-II periods." Oxford Journal of Archaeology, (2004): 1-28.
Swiny, S. "Of cows, copper, corners, and cult: The emergence of the Cypriot Bronze Age." Near Eastern Archaeology,12, no. 6 (2008): 41-51.
Country Culture Study of Greece
Denali Products is a company with a range of products and it is planning on opening up its business in Greece. In this report the current economic, political and cultural scenario of Greece has been discussed and it seems that even though the country is facing economic recession, Denali products have a good chance of conducting successful business in the country. The reasons behind this probable success are the business laws of the country which promote foreign investments and businesses to operate within the country. However, the company will have to make a few adjustments especially in their approach of selling the products since the consumers in the country are more focused on buying products that are on deals or discount in order to save money. Therefore, the company will have to come up with deals and other promotional strategies in order to increase their…
2013 Investment Climate Statement - Greece (2013, April) in U.S. Department of State. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2014, from http://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2013/204649.htm
Arcadius, P. (2012, February) Corruption in Greece. Retrieved Sept. 10, 2014 from https://www.academia.edu/1476551/Corruption_in_Greece
Avgerou, Z. (2014) Cost of Living in Greece. In Expat Arrivals. Retrieved Sept. 11, 2014, from http://www.expatarrivals.com/greece/cost-of-living-in-greece
Berg et al. (2006, December) Work and Family Policies in Greece. Retrieved Sept. 11, 2014, from http://www.tulane.edu/~rouxbee/soci626/greece/_aberg1/GreecePolicies.htm
The economic environment of Greece is that of a capitalist economy, but with significant public sector contribution – about 40% of total GDP is from government activity. This speaks more to the relatively small size of the Greek private sector than to excessive government ownership of industry. Tourism is one of the major drivers of the Greek economy, accounting for 18% of GDP (CIA World Factbook, 2017). Thus Greece would be characterized as a mixed economy with some government-owned entities. Greece is a member of the EU, but has also received several bailouts in recent years, and struggles with tax collection, and overall economic development. Tax evasion ranges between 6-9% of total GDP in Greece, which makes it a significant economic problem (Georgakopoulos, 2016).
Recent Macroeconomic Data
In recent years, Greece\'s economy has flatlined. The country has received several infusions of capital from other EU countries, but there…
Political unrest is a worldwide occurrence that manifests itself for brief or long periods in many nations. One nation Greece, witnessed political unrest due to globalization efforts. The 2016 article, "Glocal' disorder: Causes, conduct and consequences of the 2008 Greek unrest" by authors Sappho Xenakis and Leonidas K. Cheliotis examines the Athens-based political unrest and its spread to other Greek cities in late 2008. The authors sought to understand why events occurred as they did in Athens to see how local, national, as well as international arenas play a role in shaping localized incidents of chaos.
The article begins with criminological examination of social unrest and riots that have long been subject to comparative and single case studies where transitional/global dimensions of such events have barely featured. ecently however, criminology has considered global and transitional conditions as being important arenas for exploration. iots in countries are signs of political unrest…
Xenakis, S., & Cheliotis, L. K. (2016). 'Glocal disorder: Causes, conduct and consequences of the 2008 Greek unrest. European Journal of Criminology, 13(5), 639-656. doi:10.1177/1477370816636933
Town of Greece v. Galloway
The Town of Greece County Commission desires to have a clergy-led prayer at the beginning of each meeting and has requested that the managing attorney and legal counsel for the county commission provide her views on the wisdom of opening each monthly meeting with a prayer and whether such prayers are permitted within the realms of the U.S. Constitution. The managing attorney has requested a written analysis of the Supreme Court case Town of Greece v. Galloway.
Facts of the Case
The county commission meetings are similar to the town meetings in the Town of Greece including such as award presentations and ceremonial events at the beginning of the meeting. However, the county commission also has frequent hearings in which citizens speak advocating for certain positions and occasionally experts and citizens given sworn testimony during the meeting. The county is predominantly Christian and Protestant but…
Majority Opinion of Justice Kennedy (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. 572 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Dissenting Opinion of Justice Breyer (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. 572 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.
Concurring Opinion of Justice Alito (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. Supreme Court of the United States. No. 12-696.
Dissenting Opinion of Justice Kagan. (2014) Town of Greece, New York Petitioner v. Susan Galloway, et al. Supreme Court of the United States. No. 12-696.
In both ancient Greece and ancient Rome, women were idealized or demonized in storytelling. Tales of "glamorous mistresses" and "adultresses" characterize some of the ancient Roman literature (Dixon). Like ancient Greek literature, ancient Roman literature also portrayed domesticated women as being highly virtuous to convey social norms and ideals for female behavior.
omen's work was defined and restricted by their gender. omen in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome did household work. In both societies but especially ancient Rome, "women were expected to be involved in cloth production: spinning, weaving and sewing," (Dixon). In ancient Greece, the only public role for women was reserved for a select few: the priestess (Rymer). Only one "authentic voice" of a female poet has survived: that of Sappho (Blundell 66). In ancient Rome, "a few examples of women in higher-status positions such as that of a doctor, and one woman painter is known," (Dixon).…
Blundell, Sue. Women in Ancient Greece. Harvard University Press, 1995.
Dixon, Suzanne. "Roman Women: Following the Clues." BBC: Ancient History in-Depth. Oct 15, 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/romans/roman_women_01.shtml
Rymer, Eric. "Women in Ancient Greece." 2010. Retrieved online: http://historylink102.com/greece3/women.htm
Thompson, James C. "Women in Ancient Rome." Retrieved online: http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/women_in_ancient_rome.htm
In Greece, judges hear minor crimes in Justice of the Peace Courts while juries hear more serious offenses. Overall, the crime rate in Greece lower compared with its neighboring nations in the Mediterranean region. The offenses with the highest levels of reported crime involve crimes against property, simple assaults, and driving violations. The rates for major crimes in Greece were two rapes and two murders per 100,000 population and 475 thefts per 100,000 members of the population. There has been an increased rate of armed robberies since the 1990s in Greece. However, gun control is strictly enforced.
Greece." (2006) Countries A-Z. Retrieved 5 Jul 2006 at http://www.natinmaster.com/index.php.
Photius, K. (10 Nov 2004) "Greece." (10 Nov 2004) http://www.photius.com/countries/greece/government/greece_government_the_judiciary.html
Greece." (2006) Countries A-Z. Retrieved 5 Jul 2006 at http://www.natinmaster.com/index.php.
Photius, K. (10 Nov 2004) "Greece." (10 Nov 2004) http://www.photius.com/countries/greece/government/greece_government_the_judiciary.html
Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France
This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.
Global Trade and Currency Exchange
Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute…
2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1
EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/
Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf
Among the great features of Gothenburg is the Gothenburg Opera House, the Liseberg amusement park and Universeum, a great place to take the family because kids will love the discovery and science center at Universeum.
Boat trips are available that take visitors out into the harbor and into the archipelago further north. Marstand in the archipelago and is well-known as a great place for yachting and yacht racing, and it is easily located from Gothenburg.
A couple of great Swedish traditions include "The Day of the Herring" (in June) during which Swedes make it a point to eat herring; many chefs have seminars teaching people how to make a "Midsummer herring dish." There is a floating hotel and restaurant (the Salt & Sill), and while on board a visitor can devour a three-course dinner and a night's stay in the Bed and Breakfast for 65 British pounds.
The Port of…
Ernestine Friedl's 1962 text Vasilika: a Village in Modern Greece discusses an anthropological case study which showcases how one city in Greece was evolved from its ancient origin and compares to other modern cities in the country. Vasilika in Boeotia, Greece has a population of 216 people and consequently the interactions between the individual members of the village are intricately connected to one another, but are also limited by the sociology and architecture of the location. Greece is a nation which has existed for centuries and yet the city of Vasilika is still mostly the same as it was before the advent of modern technologies. One of the most important aspects of community-building that Friedl discusses is the random orientation of the building constructions in the village. Unlike some recently designed cities, the random conflagration ensured that the stone materials used and the random spacing severely limited "the ability…
Friedl, Ernestine. Vasilika: a Village in Modern Greece. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. 1962. Print.
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…
Kagan, D., S. Ozment, and F. Turner. (1995). The Western Heritage. NJ: Prentice Hall.
The Greeks were one of the most religious societies in the ancient world. With roots in Minoan culture, West Asian beliefs, and Central Asian gods, religion permeated virtually every aspect of Greeks' life -- from politics and culture to family, morals, agriculture, festivals, games, as well as beliefs about nature and the origin of life (Carr). The Greeks strongly believed that there were invisible, all-powerful gods and goddesses that controlled every occurrence. As a society, therefore, it was important to maintain a good relationship with the gods through prayer, sacrifice, and leading a good (morally upright) life. The prayers and sacrifices were made in sacred sites and temples where the gods were erected in their personified forms (Cartwright). Gods were also believed to reside in mountains.
Religion in ancient Greece was strongly tied to natural phenomena like rain, storms, plagues, earthquakes, and volcanoes (Carr). There were gods for each of…
ar in Egypt, Israel, and Greece
How have wars impacted societies in Israel, Egypt, and Greece? This paper delves into those topics.
Not long after the United Nations approved allowing the State of Israel to come into fruition in 1948, Arab neighbors attacked Israel and tried to destroy the newly established Jewish nation. Egypt, Syria and other forces from nearby squeezed the borders of Israel in an apparent attempt to wipe Israel out. But the Israeli army pushed back on several fronts and by January, 1949, Israel had reclaimed all the lands from the attackers, and had regained the lands that the United Nations had originally agreed to grant to Israel (Swift Maps).
Meanwhile, in 1967, the Jewish state was just 19 years old but it was facing a serious military challenge from Egypt. According to the BBC, the "Voice of the Arabs," Egyptian strong man Gamal Abdul Nasser's…
BBC. "How 1967 defined the Middle East." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://news.bbc.co.uk .
Global Security. "Greek Civil War." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.globalsecurity.org . 2004.
History.com. "June 11, 1967: Six-Day War Ends." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.history.com . 2006
PBS. "General Article: Peace Talks at Camp David, September, 1978. Retrieved
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…
Chan, Michael J. "Egypt." Oxford Biblical Studies Online. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 15
Dec. 2015. .
Hicks, Derek. "Geography and the Early Greeks." Selinsgrove Area School District. Selinsgrove Area School District, 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2015. .
Zank, Michael. "Israelite History in the Context of the Ancient Near East." Boston University.
Athens and Sparta were two most powerful states in Ancient Greece. Athens was known for its undying focus on infrastructural development while Sparta had an unmatched military prowess. As such, Sparta was the most powerful Greek state. Although the two states are very close geographically, they do have contrasting lifestyles, governance structures, military strength and economic systems (Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece. 1998).
Unlike Athens, which was a democracy government, Sparta was an Oligarchy system of government. This means the state was ruled by a few individuals. Two kings acted as leaders who were accompanied by five Ephors. The Kings passed on their crowns to their sons. The Ephors and Kings would attend the general assembly to develop and pass motions, decrees legislations and make civil decisions (Blackwell, 2003).
In Sparta, the goal of education is to yield a well-disciplined and well-drilled marching army. These people believe in…
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…
Aristophanes. (1973). Lysistrata/The Acharnians/The Clouds. Trans. Alan Sommerstein. NY: Penguin Classics, 1973.
Homer. (2008). The Iliad. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. UK: Oxford University Press.
Greeks in Western Civilization. There are five references used for this paper.
It is felt that 'Captive Greece made ome captive'. It is important to examine what is meant by this belief in terms of literature, art and philosophy.
Two Captive Countries
When ome conquered the Levant at the end of the Hellenistic era, and "ruled the civilized world, conquered Greece took captive her rude conqueror (Gutzman, 2004)." The poet Horace noted that "the omans conquered Greece only themselves to be enslaved by the superior culture of their captives (Morris, 2002)."
During the era of the "poets Homer and Hesiod, the ancient Greeks associated their polytheistic, anthropomorphic deities with their cities, states, and regions (Matthews, 2000)." The Greeks often symbolized cities on coins with a god or goddess on one side, and their representation on the other. An example of this was the representation of Athens with Athena and her…
Gutzman, Kevin R.C. 01 January, 2004. "The Metropolis of Ancient Egypt. (Alexandria:
City of the Western Mind). Modern Age.
Hegel, G.W.F. 01 January, 1992. "Philosophy of History: Rome From the Second Punic
War to the Emperors. History of the World.
In Ancient Israel, the use of fire is also part of the tradition of warfare. For example, we are not sure whether the prophet Elijah is stating that the fire hurled against the Moabites is divine, or simply falls down upon the enemy from Israelite war machines: "If I am a man of God," Elijah replied, "may fired come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men!" Then the fire of God fell from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men (2 Kings 1:12, New International Version).
Similarly, since most ancient gates were nothing but fortified wood, when the armies of Israel set out to use siege warfare, the rules for such are outlined in Deuteronomy 20: 10-20; however, use of flaming arrows, lit pots of oil shot from frames arranged on the outsides of walls -- more like a slingshot than a catapult, in fact,…
Bradford, a. (2000). With Arrow, Sword, and Spear: A History of Warfare in the Ancient World. Praeger.
Crosby, a. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge De Vaux, R. (1997). Ancient Israel: Its Life and Institutions. Erdmans.
Partington, J. (1998). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Johns Hopkins University
Women of Ancient Greece: The Plays of Euripides
The plays of Euripides reveal how poorly women were viewed in ancient Greece. From Medea to Sthenoboea to Phaedra, Euripides' women cover a wide range of forms: the vengeful, jilted lover; the plotting wife; the incestuous, lustful mother. As Chong-Gossard points out, Euripides does not shy away from "tapping into men's anxieties and frightening them with Medeas and Phaedras...women keeping silent about their devious plots."[footnoteRef:1] If anything, Euripides plays serve to reinforce the notion that in a patriarchal society, a man can never let down his guard against a woman -- because, judging from the works of Euripides, women are some of the most treacherous beings to ever walk the face of the earth. This paper will show how female power was depicted so monstrously in the works of Euripides and what it meant to Greek viewers. [1: James Harvey Kim On…
Chong-Gossard, James Harvey Kim On. Gender and Communication in Euripides'
Plays. MA: Brill, 2008.
Euripides. Andromache. NY: Sparksgroup, 2003.
Euripides. Hippolytus. UK: Oxford University Press, 1973.
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
The Greek government has faced an ongoing fiscal crisis for the past several years. ecently, for the third time, its Eurozone partners have been compelled to offer a bailout to the country. This is done to stabilize Greece's finances and to impose further measures on the Greek government to remedy the nation's budget and to ensure that there are no similar issues in future. The first part of the paper is a brief overview of the situation. The second part will outline some of the key issues that lead both to favor the bailout and to oppose it, and finally there will be analysis and a conclusion about whether or not bailing out Greece is the right thing to do. It will be argued that it is not, at least in the current form.
There are several key issues at work with the Greek bailout. Greece…
BBC. (2013). IMF admits mistakes on Greece bailout. BBC. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-22791248
Bloomberg. (2012). Greek crisis timeline from Maastricht Treaty to ECB bond buying. Bloomberg. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-09-05/greek-crisis-timeline-from-maastricht-treaty-to-ecb-bond-buying.html
Chu, B. (2012). Interview with economist Paul Krugman: Greece will leave Eurozone within 12 months. The Independent. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/interview-with-economist-paul-krugman-greece-will-leave-eurozone-within-12-months-7804753.html
Esparza, A. (2013). Chinese investment in Greek port the biggest FDI after the crisis. Marketpulse. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from http://www.marketpulse.com/20131127/chinese-investment-greek-port-biggest-fdi-crisis/
The military dictatorship simply favored specific economic interests, notably large tourist enterprises, urban real estate and construction, and shipowners. The basic weaknesses of the Greek economy, including social inequities and the lack of competitiveness in the country's new manufacturing sector, remained untreated. They would resurface in acute form with the world economic crisis of the early 1970s (Postwar ecovery (http://greece.russiansabroad.com/country_page.aspx?page=146)."
The initial reaction by Greek politicians was not to accept the aid by the United States as they believed it would make the United States hold to much power over the nation, but it was not long before the political powers realized if they did not take part in the plan they may find themselves at the mercy of communist advances so they accepted the plan and its benefits.
The Marshall Plan was a plan designed by George Marshall and was intended to help the devastated nations in Europe…
THE MARSHALL PLAN (1947)
Decisions about international business take into account a wide range of different factors, including political, economic and social environments, in addition to firm-specific issues such as where to produce, what the company makes and how easy it is to ship the company's product. In this report, the case of General Mills in Europe will be considered. General Mills is a major producer on consumer consumables, and the countries in question are going to be France and Greece. The paper is going to discuss the key issues with respect to each country, keeping in mind the General Mills context.
General Mills produces food under a number of common household brands -- Cheerios, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Haagen-Dazs, Old El Paso, Yoplait and Nature Valley. The company is based in Minneapolis and began in 1860 with two flour mills, hence the name. The company would change its name to Gold Medal Flour…
ABC. (2012). Brain drain: 120,000 professionals leave Greece amid crisis. Der Spiegel. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/unemployment-and-recession-in-greece-lead-to-brian-drain-a-893519.html
General Mills.com (2013). History & brand heritage. General Mills. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.generalmills.com/Company/History/Brand_heritage.aspx
2012 General Mills Annual Report.
Hofstede, G. (2013). France. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/france.html
Some Ancient Greeks even went as far as to think that women started to have deeper voices consequent to the moment when they lost their virginity (King 28).
Euripides also acts as one of the principal Ancient Greek scholars who damaged the role of women in his society, given that his writings relate to the role of women as individuals who are generally persecuted by the masses. omen were practically promoted as being responsible for society's problems as characters like Hippolytus put across their opinion concerning females and actually insisted that gods inflicted great damage on humanity through introducing women (Euripides 18).
Ancient Greeks seem to express no interest in acknowledging the role of women as housewives and mothers and focus on presenting them as useless individuals who spend most of their time consuming and generally having a negative influence on the public. Hipponax perfectly (although he somewhat exaggerates) describes…
Aristotle, "Politics," Echo Library, 2006
Demosthenes, "Against Neaera," Retrieved January 17, 2012, from the Perseus Digital Library Website: http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0080%3Aspeech%3D59%3Asection%3D3
Euripides, "Hippolytus," Hayes Barton Press.
King, Helen, "Hippocrates' Woman: Reading the Female Body in Ancient Greece," London: Routledge, 1998
Dark Age and the Archaic Age
Having watched the lectures for the prior learning unit on video, I was prepared to enjoy the video lecture presentation for this learning unit. I previously found the presentation of lectures in the video format to be very convenient because I could observe at my own pace, rewind if I missed part of the lecture, have flexibility about when I was viewing the lecture, and not be distracted by the behavior or questions of other students. I acknowledged that there were some negatives to the video-learning environment, such as missing out on the organic and natural question and answers that develop in a live classroom setting, but had decided that missing those was an acceptable trade-off given the other benefits that I was receiving from the video lecture environment. Therefore, I was surprised to find that I did not enjoy the video lectures for…
Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey is Volume 12 in a Berghahn/Oxford University Press series on forced migration. The series addresses modern and post-modern population migration issues from a cross-disciplinary perspective. Like the other issues in the Studies in Forced Migration series, Crossing the Aegean is a collection of scholarly essays offering nuanced approaches to the delicate subject matter. Edited by enee Hirschon, the book is divided into three core sections. The first provides crucial background information and a general overview. The overview covers the geography and history of the region since ancient times, as the Greek empire did indeed span the Aegean Sea to link what are now two distinct nation-states. Background information provides more of a modern historical perspective, including issues related to the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire. The background information does provide the…
Hirschon, Renee. Crossing the Aegean. New York/Oxford: Berghahn/Oxford University Press, 2003.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
In addition to the diplomatic relationships established between the Greek poleis, in the frame of the political arena, there were also the alliances made between persons, usually high raking members of the ruling classes: "there was a fine-meshed network of personal relationships between prominent persons in the different cities based on 'guest friendship' (xenia): two friends (xenoi) from different poleis could promise to house and help each other when they were in the polis of wither of them" (Hansen, 127). This was the case of Telemachos receiving in Pylos. After he had exposed his intensions and the goals of his trip, Nestor offered him his advice and material support as a manifestation of the friendship and reciprocal aid the leaders of different Greek cities often used to give each other as a result of reciprocity.
From an unwritten law, xenia progressed into becoming an institution, like, for example, in the…
Hansen, M.H. Polis: an introduction to the ancient Greek city-state. Oxford University Press, 2006
Gill, C.Postlethwaite, N. Seaford, R. Reciprocity in Ancient Greece. Oxford University Press, 1998
Homer, tr. By Lattimore, R. Odyssey
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…
Baeck L (1994) the Mediterranean tradition in economic thought. Routledge, New York [Routledge history of economic thought series, vol 5, 1994]. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: https://www.google.com/search?q=Bibliography+on+Political+and+social++impact+of+Greek+on+the+Mediterranean+world&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-U.S.:official&client=firefox-a .
John Boardman (1999). The Greeks Overseas: Their Early Colonies and Trade, 4th edition, Thames and Hudson. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from: http://suite101.com/article/greek-colonization-and-its-impact-on-the-mediterranean-world
Perrotta C (2003) the legacy of the past: ancient economic thought on wealth and development. Eur J. Hist Econ Thought 10(2):177 -- 219. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from:
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…
g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.
In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…
Bruno, Vincent. The Parthenon. NY W.W. Norton & Company, 1996. Print.
Fergusson, James. The Parthenon. London: William Clowes and Sons, Limited, 1883.
"The Greeks: Crucible of Civilization." PBS. Web. 28 Nov 2011.
They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…
Kirk, GS 1974, The Nature of Greek Myths. Overlook. Pp. 38-68.
Ancient Corinth, located in Greece, is located in the northeast area of the Peloponnese at the front of the Gulf of Corinth was one of the largest cities of the ancient world and perfect for trade and commerce since it was strategically located between the Corinthian gulf and the aronic gulf, and possessed two harbors. Imports and exports from and to Asia used the harbor leading to Cenchrea, on the aronic Gulf, whilst ships travelling to and from Europe arrived at Lechaeum, on the Corinthian gulf ([footnoteRef:1]). [1: Excavations in Ancient Corinthhttp://www.ascsa.edu.gr/index.php/excavationcorinth/about-the-corinth-excavations/]
Corinth contained a quarter of a million people and became notorious for its standards of high-living and immorality. One ancient writer, in fact, used the term 'to Corinthianize', as synonymous for engaging in immorality. Its existence as a center of trade also made it a prosperous city.
Excavations of ancient Corinth were initiated in 1896 by the American…
Excavations in Ancient Corinth
Facing the challenge, "The synagogue in Corinth visited by Paul in Acts chapter 18" http://www.facingthechallenge.org/corinth.php
Facing the challenge, "The Judgment seat in Corinth."
The Eurozone is currently facing a crisis on a number of fronts. The most pressing of these is Greece, which is heavily indebted to other Eurozone countries, creating a budget crisis in the country (Raman, 2011). As the risk of default on Greek sovereign debt increases, this puts downward pressure on the value of the euro. Other nations within the Eurozone are, in order to salvage the integrity of the currency, more or less obligated to back Greek debt. hile Greece is a significant problem for nations within the Eurozone, the currency would not be considered to be in a state of crisis if Greece was the only problem. The reality is that many peripheral Eurozone countries are in various states of financial disarray -- Spain, Italy, Portugal and Ireland all have problems (Ibid). Spain and Italy are in particular a problem, because they are too big to…
BBC. (2001). Greece joins Eurozone. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved November 23, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk /2/hi/business/1095783.stm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…
Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.
Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.
Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
Instead, while under false arrest and retreating from the Macedonians, Darius was killed by one of his subjects.
ecause the battle at Gaugamela marked the turning point in the battle between the Macedonians and the Achaemenids, it is clear that if Darius was to have been able to defeat Alexander and his troops, he would have needed to do so before the battle at Gaugamela. Therefore, it is important to look at the opportunities that Darius had to attack Alexander and his troops prior to that battle. Looking at those opportunities, it becomes clear that Darius' best chance to defeat Alexander's army would have been to attack Alexander before he had the chance to gain the support of the Greek city-states. To do that in the most successful manner, Darius would have needed to attack the armies of Parmenion and Attalus. This would have permitted Darius to defeat Alexander before…
Darius III," The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. 2005. New York: Columbia University Press. Online. Available from Bartleby.com http://www.bartleby.com/65/da/Darius3.html , Accessed June 5, 2006.
The Columbia Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published by Columbia University and is among the most complete encyclopedias ever produced.
Darius III," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2006. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Online.
Available from Encyclopaedia Britannica Premium Service
Security and Co-Operation in Europe
The topics before the Organization for Security and Co-Operation in Europe (OSCE) are: Combating Human Trafficking; Supporting Post-Conflict Stabilization and Institution- Building in Kyrgyzstan; and Energy Supply as a Factor of Instability. Greece is dedicated to assisting the OCSE to combat human trafficking, to supporting OCSE initiatives to stabilize and build democratic institutions in Kyrgyzstan, and I. Combating Human Trafficking
As a committed member of the United Nations and the European Union, Greece supports the objectives outlined by both organizations to combat human trafficking. . Accordingly in an effort to combat human trafficking, Greece has increased its efforts to disrupt major human smuggling rings and arrest the individuals involved, and coordinated these efforts with similar efforts by both the European Union and the United Nations. The delegation from Greece signals that its enforcement has been stepped up, which is reflected in the increased number of…
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…
Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.
Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.
Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
Still many within the international museum community believe that such a gesture would lead to a disintegration of the purpose of a museum collection in the first place. It would unleash a flood of demands for other treasures to be returned. If anything such a gesture will change how museums share their information and remain accountable. This could change how historians to take in account such factors and eliminate such debates for the future classify artifacts. There have been talks of loaning the Marbles to the Acropolis Museum but to no avail. As of today, one must travel to London to see one of the most incredible displays of Greek culture and history. It is estimated five million people visit the British Museum each year. Still think of what an increase in tourism and spectacle having five million people travel to Athens would mean for Greece? It seems unfair.
Therefore, the beliefs of ancient writers cannot be taken as evidence in the same way as the finding of archaeological evidence can. If Egyptians or Phoenicians had permanently colonized Greece, it is likely that someone would have found the remnants of Egyptian or Phoenician buildings, as well as Egyptian writing, tombs, and other physical evidence of their colonization activities. One would expect that if there was an Egyptian influence in the origins of Greek civilization, the Greeks may have built in the Egyptian style, instead of creating a completely unique style of architecture. There has been no evidence discovered that would indicate a large scale, permanent Egyptian or Phoenician colonization.
Martin Bernal does a very good job of analyzing the sociological forces that influenced the creation of the "Aryan" model, however, the fact that the Aryan model has been misused is not evidence that disputes the idea that Greek civilization…
Berlinerblau, Jacques. Heresy in the University: The Black Athena Controversy
and the Responsibilities of American Intellectuals. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
UP, 1999. Print.
Bernal, Martin and David Chioni Moore. Black Athena Writes Back:
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…
1. "Athens and Sparta: Different Yet the Same." Social Studies for Kids. [database online]; available from http://www.socialstudiesforkids.com/articles/worldhistory/athenssparta.htm ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
2. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Athens, City, Greece" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117004302 ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
3. The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., s.v."Sparta" [database online]; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117046808 ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
4. Solanki, P. 2012. "Sparta Vs. Athens." Buzzle. [database online]; available from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/sparta-vs.-athens.html ; Internet; accessed 22 July 2012.
Philips II the Macedonian King focuses on how Philip II expanded the Macedonian empire. This paper also gives a brief background of Philip II before he inherited the thrown. This paper highlights how the Macedonian leader entered Athens and conquered it through his tactics and strategy. The paper also gives a brief account of all the battles fought by Philip II's army and how he played a great role in the evolution of his battalion.
Philips II, The Macedonian King
Philip II, the most significant compatriot and general of his era formed the establishment of the most powerful military, which conquered most of the regions of the Mediterranean, Southern Europe and the Middle East. His great tactics, strenuous strategies, rearrangement of his army and utilization of the heavy phalanx formation transformed him into the master of Greece.
One of the greatest empires of the world ever formed, The Macedonian Empire…
N. Hammond. A History of Greece. Cambridge Ancient History. Vols. I-VI. 1991.
Simon H. The Greek World, 479-323 BC. Third Edition. Paperback Publisher. 2002.
Pension Plan eplacement ates
Public Pension eplacement ates
The portion of monthly pre-retirement income that will be replaced by monthly pension plan funds is called the pension plan replacement rate (Quadagno, 2011). In the United States, the majority of pre-retirement income replacement comes from Social Security payments (Quadagno, 2011). The actual replacement rate for wage earners with lower incomes is higher than for those who have had higher wages during their working years (Quadagno, 2011). But overall, wealthier recipients of Social Security payments still achieve higher income replacement (Quadagno, 2011). "By 2030, a worker who retires at age 62 will receive only 70% of the whole retirement benefit, and workers who want to receive the maximum benefit will have to wait until they reach age 67" (Quadagno, 2011, p. 10). How does this compare with the situation in other countries? Comparing prior earning replacement rates for Greece and the United…
Current and Prospective Theoretical Pension Replacement Rates. (2006, May 19). Social Protection Committee (SPC), European Commission: Employment, Social Affairs, and Inclusion. Retrieved http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/
Nektarias, M. (). Financing public pensions in Greece. SPOUDAI, 50 (3-4), University of Piraeus.
Nelson, R.M., Belkin, P., Mix, D.E. (2011, August 18). Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Research Service. Retrieved http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R41167.pdf
Overall, Philip's main goal was to create a united Macedonia and thus instill in his people the desire to bring about the collapse of the Persian Empire which in his eyes would bring about much-needed economic changes in Macedonian society, all for the good of its citizens and its king.
One of Philip's most important triumphs as king of Macedonia prior to the rise of Alexander the Great was the creation of the League of Corinth which came about after the battle of Chaeronea in oeotia in 338 .C.E. Although the defeated Greek states were allowed to keep their internal freedoms, they were compelled by Philip to join his alliance with himself as its undisputed leader. The creation of this league was a decisive turning point in the history of ancient Greece, for never again would Greek states be allowed to make their own foreign policies without considering the wishes…
Ginouves, Rene. Macedonia: From Philip II to the Roman Conquest. NJ: Princeton University Press, 1994.
Parker, Geoffrey. The Grand Strategy of Philip II. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press,
Philip II of Macedon Biography." History of Macedonia. 2003. Internet. Retrieved November 10, 2008 at http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedoniaPhilipofMacedon.html.
Histories of Herodotus
In his Histories, which chronicles the historical aspects of ancient Greece, Egypt and other regions of Asia Minor, Herodotus focuses in the beginning on the myths associated with these cultures and civilizations from his own distant past which at the time had acquired some relevance based on what was viewed as historical truth. Some of these myths, which now through archeological evidence may have some basis in fact, include the abduction of Io by the Phoenicians, the retaliation of the Greeks by kidnapping Europa, the abduction of Helen from Sparta by Paris and the consequences which resulted in the Trojan War.
Following this, Herodotus examines the activities and consequences of more recent historical myths associated with the cultures of the Lydians, the Egyptians, the Scythians and the Persians, all of which are interspersed with so-called dialogue spoken by the leading figures of these cultures. However, Herodotus' ability…
Rawlinson, George, Trans. Herodotus: Histories. UK: QPD, 1997.
Eurozone Maastricht Treaty
Euro zone Treaty
The European Community established the convergence criteria. These criteria was established in order to allow its EU Member states to take part in the Euro Zone, and using the Euro, as an official currency. The members of the European Union formed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The principle goals of the treaty were to establish an economic and monetary union, strengthen the democratic legitimacy of its institutions, better the effectiveness of its institutions, come up with the community social dimension, and also establish a unified foreign and security policy (Charles 1998).
The criteria contain several principles governing inflation rates, government finance, exchange rate, and long-term interest rates. The percentage points for inflation rates should not be 1.5 higher than the average the top three members states in performance of the EU. Government finance covers both the annual government deficit and the government debt. Under…
Charles K. (1998). Interest Rates: A Decision-Making Approach. New York, NY: Dryden
David, J.H. (1999). "Advertising's Overdue Revolution" Speech delivered at the week
New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
ancient poem "Works and Days" by Hesiod. Specifically, it will contain an argumentative historical essay on the question, "What kind of social values do you find in Hesiod's advice to his brother in 'Works and Days.' What does this say about Dark Age culture in Greece? Hesiod's advice to his brother Perses is simple and complicated at the same time. Hesiod's social values include the values of work rather than idleness, which he passes on quite clearly to his brother. However, there are many other customs and beliefs in the poem that indicate this was a simple culture based on agriculture and localized government. These values were common in the Dark Age culture in Greece, and represent one of the reasons Greek culture later became so advanced, and a model to other cultures of the age.
Little is known about the Dark Ages in Greece. In fact, some scholars believe…
West, M.L., and Hesiod. Theogony: And, Works and Days. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Such self-righteousness coupled with overwhelming military prowess is an intoxicating brew; forcing their way of life on others, usually "for the good of such less developed societies" is the next logical step. In case of ome's annexation of Greece and Asia Minor, the desire of the oman aristocratic elite for personal glory was also an important factor. In the oman society, the greatest fame was bestowed on the commanders who won wars abroad and such opportunities could only arise if the oman Army was busy fighting a foreign war; it is no surprise, therefore, that the oman elite chose to annex Greece and Asia Minor in the 2nd century BC even though they faced no imminent threat from their neighbors to the East. (Ibid.)
Muhlbereger, S. (1998). "The oman Conquest of Greece." History 2055 -- Ancient Civilizations: Nipissing University. etrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/2055/l33anc.htm
Muhlbereger, S. (1998). "The Roman Conquest of Greece." History 2055 -- Ancient Civilizations: Nipissing University. Retrieved on September 14, 2006 at http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/muhlberger/2055/l33anc.htm
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…
Dillon, Sheila. Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects, And Styles. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Dillon, Sheila. The Female Portrait Statue in the Greek World. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
Giannakopoulou, Liana. The Power of Pygmalion: Ancient Greek Sculpture in Modern Greek Poetry, 1860-1960, Volume 3 of Byzantine and Neohellenic Studies. Peter Lang, 2007.