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Greek Mythology and Feminine Divinity
Hesiod's Theogony tells of many goddesses who were wily, powerful and ruled many significant aspects of life. However, the Homeric Hymns to Demeter and Apollo show how limited and domesticated goddesses had become. Though the goddesses retained powers over human beings and their own fertility, they were nevertheless considerably weakened when dealing with other gods.
Greek Mythology Limits and Domesticates a Previous Notion of Power in the Divine Feminine
Hesiod wrote about women like he was going through a tough divorce: "Zeus who thunders on high made women to be an evil to mortal men, with a nature to do evil" (Evelyn-White, The Theogony of Hesiod ll. 590-612). Beginning with Persephone (Evelyn-White, The Theogony of Hesiod ll. 767-774), women keep men poor but are good for bearing children, who can take care of men when they are old (Evelyn-White, The Theogony of Hesiod…… [Read More]
Greek and oman
Greek Mythology: Identification of Heroic Greek Myths in Modern Movies
There are many effective and functional parallels in modern movies to ancient myths. They make us feel and think about many things. Modern movies that have been successful at the box office are inspired by Greek myths. We see common themes, characters and motifs of myth in the modern movies. The goal here is to identify the mythic elements and heroic myths in some of the successful modern movies.
Myth is a system that recurred themes and patterns that were used by people to make some sense out of world. "The Homeric legend of Heracles rescuing Hesione by slaying the Monster of Troy, for example, may have a paleontological origin" (Wilford). Movies such as "The Godfather" and "Godfather II" were praised for excellence; they showed a lust for crimes and violence and explained the details of obsession…… [Read More]
There were many other gods and goddesses and other supernatural beings in both mythologies (Meeks 2002). There were godlings, demigods, river nymphs and tree dryads and other mythical creatures, such as satyrs, comprising the entire belief systems. These systems were polytheistic as well as animistic. The system held that every tree, river and every part of nature had a spirit or energy behind it. Hercules was a famous demigod (Meeks). Mythology was central to the everyday lives specifically of the ancient Greek people (World News 2007). Myths not only explained natural occurrences, the people's varied cultures, conflicts and relationships. They also endowed them with a sense of pride to be related to some mythological hero or god. Quite a few of them even doubted the truth of myths, such as the Trojan War in Homer's two great epics. Military historian Victor Davis Hanson and Classic Professor John Heath at Santa…… [Read More]
One such myth revolves around Atlas's attempt to trick Heracles into taking over his burden. Heracles however in turn tricked Atlas into returning to his position under his burden. Eventually, according to Dixon-Kennedy (59), Atlas grew so weary of his burden that he requested Perseus to use Medusa's head to turn him into stone. Mount Atlas in North Africa is then said to be the basis for this myth.
It is also interesting to note that the Atlas myth is not exclusive to ancient Greece. Dixon-Kennedy (58) notes that Hittite mythology includes a similar figure in the form of Upelluri. According to Homer's mythology on the other hand, Atlas was a marine figure with the task of supporting the pillars between heaven and earth.
The name of Atlas also has several manifestations in the Western culture of today. One of the creators on the upper western quadrant of the moon…… [Read More]
Using this as a foundation, the Ancient Greeks built a society in which women had few rights and were basically the property of men.
But women were only one aspect of Greek culture, a culture that seemed to be based on pessimistic beginnings. Hesiod's "The Five Ages of Man" describe a period in which the world slowly devolved from a paradise into the chaos and horror of the ancient world. The world went from a Golden Age, to a Silver Age, a Bronze Age, the Age of Heroes and finally the ancient world. And the fate of man deteriorated with each passing age. But not only was the world better in the past, the afterlife was also much better. Man went from a death that was little more than sleep, through several stages each more dire than the previous age, and finally to the horrors of Hades. The myth of…… [Read More]
In ancient Greek, the word "myth" literally means "word" or "story." It refers to authorless tales perpetuated by ancient Greek communities. The characters in Greek myths are typically gods and heroic humans. Each story contains moral lessons for humans on earth that they learn from the immortal gods and various kinds of tragic human heroes. Most often, these lessons either concern morality or an explanation of how a feature of nature was created.
The myths are generally believed, at least since the studies of the Swedish scholar Martin Nilsson (1874-1967), to have been acquired during the Mycenaean age being transmitted by poets and minstrels in a monarchic and probably militaristic society in which local kings were vassals of an overlord. Nilsson's assumption in the early 1930s that the Mycenaeans were Greeks was later confirmed when the architect Michael Ventris deciphered the Linear . tablets in 1952 a few…… [Read More]
Thus, the idea of the Morai combined predestination and free will to suggest that a person could choose the actions he or she would take, but was predestined to face the consequences of those choices.
In the Oedipus trilogy, however, this view is questioned. Although Oedipus does suffer from a character flaw -- pride -- and he does kill his father and sleep with his mother, he does not know who they are when he does so. In addition, both events can be explained as rational. Oedipus kills his father, King Laius, when he does not know his identity after an altercation at an intersection. Jocusta, Laius's former wife, becomes his wife after the event. Although Oedipus is not a perfect human being, it can be argued that his treatment was unfair, as he did not make a conscious choice to kill his mother and father. Indeed, Stephandies (2009) points…… [Read More]
Twenty days had passed when Atonos decided to test the architect's desire to succeed, and willingness to sacrifice what he loved most for the temple. Atonos concluded he had to send an evil messenger to talk to Karos and convince him of the necessity of human sacrifice in the case of the temple. The messenger was disguised as a mortal passing by. One morning before leaving for the site, Karos saw a man lying on the ground outside their cave, and dragged him inside. Karos made a fire, and asked his wife to make some food for the stranger who appeared to be in bad health. They started talking, and soon Karos found himself opening up and complaining about his misfortune to the stranger. The messenger talked in a calm voice which was reassuring to Karos who believed he could confide in the man he had just met. Karos told…… [Read More]
In fact, while it incorporated Greek mythology, ancient ome had a very permissive attitude towards other forms of religion. Even when the state attempted to restrict various religious practices, the atmosphere still provided a very fertile ground for early cult worship. "The beliefs espoused by many of these cults- moral conduct on earth and eternal life after death- made the inroads of the cult of Christianity possible" (What life was like 1997, p.131). What this demonstrates is that the oman religious pantheon, because it took from a number of different religious backgrounds, exhibited a tremendous flexibility that revealed Greek roots but did not limit itself to the Greek religious tradition.
Campbell, J & Moyers, B 1988, the power of myth, Doubleday, New York.
Cavendish, (ed.) 1980, an illustrated encyclopedia of mythology, Crescent Books, New York.
Jones, P & Pennick, N 1997, a history of pagan Europe, outledge, New…… [Read More]
When the clay tablets that comprise the Akkadian / Old abylonian Epic of Gilgamesh were first pieced together and translated by scholars in the nineteenth century, some aspects of the ancient text seemed remarkably familiar. There was, for example, the account of a great flood, with only a pair of survivors, Utnapishtim and his wife: "How is it that one man has saved himself? / No breath of life was meant to be kept safe / from its obliteration in the flood."[footnoteRef:0] The first translators of Gilgamesh were familiar with at least two versions of this story. The first, which arguably everyone knows (and which in 2014 is about to receive a big-budget Hollywood treatment) is the Old Testament story of Noah's Ark -- and the narrative parallels between Utnapishtim and Noah are numerous. ut the other ancient myth is a Greek one, the story of Deucalion and…… [Read More]
Temptresses like Circe use their sexual wiles to ensnare men. After Circe attracts all of Odysseus' crew, she turns them into swine, to show her greater power over the male sex, much like a haughty fashion model might flirt with men, even though she feels far too superior to really treat them with respect.
Destroyers like Eris, who threw the apple at the feet of Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite marked 'to the fairest' to sow discord between the goddesses also exist today in the form of 'home-wreckers' who destroy marriages -- perhaps like Monica Lewinsky almost destroyed President Clinton's presidency! Heroes who overcome tremendous odds, like the proud Hector who nearly defeats the Greek army in Homer's "Iliad," are also still evident today -- although the current hero lionized in the press, Barak Obama, seems far more moral than any of the more self-serving heroes of Homeric epic, who seem…… [Read More]
They both feature in Greek mythological connotations that are dated back to the period of Greek dominance. They both adapt big screen movies and pictures that are scary and with intent. Medusa is more cryptic unlike Circe. They are fear-representation arts in human life. For instance, it is common to note the similarities of the two pieces of art in what takes place in the big screens
The description of Circe is very scary to the audience. She is a daughter of Titans Hyperion and Perseis. She is a powerful witch that hails from the family of Colchis. She is violet-haired, beautiful, and red-eyed sorcerer. She is a known creature that turns people into animals. As Medusa did, she had innate powers that transcended to her from the family protocols. She turns people into animals called Bestiamorphs. Moreover, she has the ability to control the minds of the people. She…… [Read More]
Mycenaean Greece's relationship to Crete during the two centuries between 1600 and 1400 .C. is complex, as both civilizations competed for control of the Mediterranean Sea. "To judge from the known tablets, there appear to have been a number of distinct kingdoms within Mycenaean Greece, all of which seem to have been independent" (Stanley 277). Following the destruction of Knossos in or about 1400 .C., supremacy was given to the Myceneaens, and the Minoan culture and tradition dominated the mainland (Taylour 1964 57).
In Mycenaean culture chaos reigned while Cronus fought his offspring. In mainland Greece and its environs, political chaos appeared to reign, finally resulting in one powerful, unified group who agreed that the son of Cronus, Zeus, should rule the pantheon ("Uranus" Encyclopedia Mythica). At last, Greek dominance over the lands, and thus over the religion, seems to have stopped the creation of creation stories some time during…… [Read More]
Lotus-Eaters: From Literature to Television
Greek myths have long been utilized as backdrops and inspirations for various works of arts from literature to popular media such as television programming. The myth of the Lotus-eaters, or the lotophagi, was first popularized in the epic poem The Odyssey which details Odysseus's quest to return to Ithaca, his home, after having participated in the siege of Troy. Alfred Tennyson used the lotus-eaters myth as the basis for his 1832 poem "The Lotos-Eaters." Moreover, the lotus-eaters myth was referenced in the 2011 season premiere of the television show True Blood. The lotus-eaters have inspired great works of literature, such as Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters," as well as popular media as in the case of HBO's True Blood.
In Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters," the unnamed Odysseus addresses his crew and provides reasons as to why they would indulge in eating the lotus flower. The poem is written…… [Read More]
Historical Issues In Modern Education
There are numerous issues seeded in a Greek civilization, rooting down to the contemporary world; for instance Gender Equity, home schooling, Pledge of allegiance, Unions and collective bargaining just to name a few. Each of the issues would be addressed in due course.
Most notably gender bias as practiced by the Greeks is the major parasitical issue in all avenues of education. A study commissioned by the American Association of University Women (AAUW) in 1991 claims that girl don't receive as much attention and are not put into challenging situations like complex and abstract questioning, as compared to boys, in an average school (Woodward, 1998). Moreover, countable school books portray "stereotypical" image of women. These books are void of any acknowledgements of the abilities and achievements of women altogether. This has also been hinted by Cahill in the chapter Warrior: how to fight and also…… [Read More]
Marriage in Greek Myth
efore we discuss the depictions of marriage in the Theogony, the Homeric Hymn to Demeter and the Odyssey, perhaps we should first discuss the real- life ancient Greek marriage rituals and reveal their attitude towards marriage.
Indeed, many of the things we see in Greek myths happened in real life as well. For example, the Greek girls usually married quite young, around the age of 14, which was meant to ensure that the girl was a virgin and pure in mind and body. "Marriage to a family member was an acceptable alternative and occasionally encouraged in order to consolidate family wealth"- if we look at many of the marriages between gods (taking only this example), we will notice that many of them were affiliated. Remember, for example, that almost all of the Olympian Gods were in some way related, most of them being brothers and sisters,…… [Read More]
Greek Concept to Movie Troy
Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.
The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…… [Read More]
Interestingly, Venus is a goddess of love, beauty, and fertility, which is significant, since she was literally created from the male genitalia, and males were more strongly linked to sexuality than females, even at that point in oman history. In the rest of oman and Greek mythology, Venus/Aphrodite generally plays a benevolent role, though she does use influence women to use their sexuality in inappropriate ways, such as the willful seduction of one's own father.
Botticelli's painting captures all of the prettier elements of the birth of Venus without referencing the uglier parts of the myth. There are no castrated gods or vengeful sons in the painting, merely a beautiful, naked woman emerging from the sea, standing grown in a sea shell. The sea shell symbolized the vulva in art of that time period. Moreover, Venus was a frequent non-religious subject of paintings, because it was considered acceptable to depict…… [Read More]
This is a clear and explicit statement of the gods' selfishness, and in the context of the story of Zeus' in particular. There is no other reason provided for his desire to keep fire away from humanity; it is not out of a prudent and paternal fear of fire's destructive powers, nor because of something divine in the very essence of fire that is not to be sullied by human hands, but merely because it is part of the "stuff of life," and the gods do not feel like sharing. It is one more way in which Zeus can feel superior to man, and though this type of petty selfishness might not be very becoming to the king of gods in the Greek pantheon, maker of thunder and lover of swans, it is certainly appropriate for a villain.
So, too, is the ingenuity with which Zeus goes about punishing mankind…… [Read More]
All of the Greek gods and their interactions were very similar to how humans would naturally act. They are all inclined to be jealous and vengeful of one another, along with having affairs that rival any daytime soap opera. They would choose sides and create massive wars on earth in order to win their way and prove their point.
Although the ancient Greek religion had fundamental elements which were very similar to other ancient religions, there is one thing that set it apart. The quarrelsome Greek gods did not try to teach their human subjects any kind of religious doctrine. Unlike Judaism and Christianity, with its strict rules and commandments, the Greek religion had no specific doctrines which it's followers needed to generally follow. Instead, the ancient tradition relied on mysticism, such as what was seen in the case of the Oracle of Delphi. Many researchers and scholars say that…… [Read More]
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]
The absurdity in Monty Python comedy sketches seem like a philosophical cousin to Albert Camus.
Likewise, Camus is like a distant relative of Buddha. Buddhism asks the individual to cease striving and desiring everything and anything -- including enlightenment itself. Life is suffering, says the Buddha, a concept that clearly reflects the punishment of Sisyphus. The root cause of suffering is not in the punishment, though, it is the desire to be set free or the desire to know why the punishment was meted. Elimination of the "uselessness of suffering," as Camus puts it, is the elimination of the desire for meaning. Camus would note that Buddhism is the religion of the absurd, or a religion that acknowledges the absurd and attempts to ironically pierce through it or overcome it. With a Buddhist outlook, Sisyphus simply rolls the rock up the hill more consciously.
When the meaning of life is…… [Read More]
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]
astelands of Labyrinths, astelands of the Modern Past and Present
The wasteland of myth is a place where people have been mislead, where they dwell in a terrible half-existence, living a lie. Perhaps the most familiar modern expressions of the word 'wasteland' are those of T.S. Eliot's poem about "The asteland" and the idea of a modern, suburban 'teenage wasteland.' hen people speak about a teenage wasteland, they usually are referring to a group of disenchanted youths who have given up on their parent's values but cannot construct their own, new set of values. hen people speak of the "asteland" poem of Eliot, written during the early half of the 20th century, they are referring to Eliot's vision of modern life as a series of broken visions of past phrases, verses, and schemas of believe that no longer have a coherent form or provide moral guidance for people living today.…… [Read More]
It has been stated that there are only seven real story lines, upon which all literature is based. Whether or not this is true, modern literature often echoes myths or legends of long ago. Sometimes, the recycling of a tale is blatant, and other times it is subtle. William Shakespeare regularly made use of Greek myths, and folklore. In the play, "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Shakespeare's premise is that Theseus, the Duke of Athens, and Hippolyta, a warrior he has captured, are to be married. Shakespeare has successfully created a plotline based, if only loosely, on the greek myths of Theseus and Hippolyta, queen of the Amazons.
The myth of Theseus is one of the most popular of the Greek myths. There are many different stories that involve Theseus, but perhaps the most famous is the story of how Theseus killed the Minotaur. The greeks understood the myth in…… [Read More]
Greek legend of Prometheus, the god that defied Zeus and brought fire to humans, is one that figures largely in the imagery of the later Romantic poets. There's Byron's Prometheus, Percy Shelley's Prometheus Unbound, and Mary Shelley's Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. For Percy Shelley and Lord Byron, Prometheus embodied the revolutionary, creative, and daringly original spirit, and a "courage and majesty and firm and patient opposition to omnipotent force" (Prometheus Unbound, Norton Anthology 734). Prometheus was the "champion of humanity" persecuted for his selfless desire to bring good to the world. Considering both men's hate for tyranny and zeal for social justice such a reading is not surprising.
However, Paul Cantor points out in Creature and Creator that, "the Romantics made a hero out of Prometheus by glossing over those aspects of the original legends which cast him in a bad light"(77). Mary Shelley's use of the Promethean legend,…… [Read More]
Greek Myths and Human Nature
Ancient Greek myths represent the view of a previous culture that has influenced current beliefs. Greek culture was one based on the stories and moral lessons told and learned from older generations to more recent generations. The destruction of human kind and the honorable lessons learned from those myths define what human nature is all about; these destruction myths highlighted the positiveness of human nature. Although it may seem counterintuitive and difficult to think of destruction as a positive notion, the idea of cleanliness, rebirth, and immortality allow for this exact interpretation to be made. In Greek destruction myths, it is not about the destroying involved in the myth itself, but it is instead about the aftermath that this destruction may bring to its people, community, and society.
As is well documented in many Greek myths, there is one God that overpowers all others: Zeus.…… [Read More]
Mythological Character in Past and Present
Athena was a virgin Greek goddess of intelligent activity, reason, literature and arts. She was the daughter of Zeus and Metis, and her birth was unique because she did not have a mother. Instead, she sprung from Zeus' forehead fully grown and clad in armor (Stehle, 2013). Athena was brave and fierce in battle, but she only participated in battles that defended the home and state from outside enemies. Her powers were mainly in defense of Athens. Other powers she possessed were wisdom and women's craft. Athena was a virgin warrior goddess she was amongst many throughout the world mythologies. Athena invented the bridle and it was used by men to tame horses. She also invented the flute, the pot, the plow, the rake, the yoke, the chariot, and the ship. Athena was Zeus' favorite child and she was permitted to use his…… [Read More]
it's also important to note that Greeks brought metallurgy innovations to the non-Greek world: iron, which dramatically increased strength of metal tools and weapons and cupro-nickel (used in coining). A number of Asian peoples also adapted Greek alphabet and papyrus.
But in many cases influence of Greeks was considerably obvious only in Asian kingdoms, as most of Mediterranean non-Greek cultures stood on the same level of development as Greeks. For such peoples as Jews and Assyrians Greek colonization mainly meant the threat of assimilation and loss of identity. Assyrians and Jews who in their majority were monotheists could not adopt Greek religion of polytheist as it was against their religious traditions. All the attempts of Greeks to convert Jews to polytheism failed. For example the attempt to convert Jewish Temple to Temple of Greek god Zeus under Antiochus IV Epiphanes only led tot he revolt of Jews led by Maccabees,…… [Read More]
As great as it is to have one thing that everyone shares, it's even better to have more than one to relate to. I think that makes people take their faith even more seriously.
I absolutely believe that misconceptions about people's beliefs are common. Protestants believe Catholics worship idols; Christians believe pagans worship demons and dance naked in the woods; believers think atheists are horrible, immoral people. From what I remember in history, part of the reason the Catholic Church was able to pull off the Crusades was by painting the non-Christians as evildoers who ate babies. hy does it happen? Because as human beings, we want to believe that we have a good deal on the afterlife. And I also think people often just want to think of themselves as "better" than others.
To fix this, I think people should be more willing to discuss their faith with others.…… [Read More]
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…… [Read More]
Discussing myth can help bring these things to light.
Myth can also broaden our view from introspection to an examination of the workings of our society and culture. As already mentioned, our civilization can be seen as a continuum from the Ancient Greeks to the modern day. This is one way in which myth can help o explain our world -- understanding the Greeks from whom many of our ideas and myths came provides an understanding of ourselves (Powell, Chapter 2). According to Campbell, myth can even explain things that occurred before the Greeks, such as the nearly worldwide system of patriarchy that seems to have replaced a matriarchy in the pre-historic period (Campbell, 125-6). Many myths contain heroic and dominant ma figures, but they also contain hints of the concept of the Earth Goddess or powerful feminine force of reception and creation rather than simple submission.
Far from just…… [Read More]
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…… [Read More]
Except for Miletus, which was sacked as an initiator of the revolt, the other cities were treated rather reasonably, going as far as recommendations for the settled Persians to respect local religious traditions (Herodotus VI 42-45).
This does not necessarily need to be seen only as a reasonable conquering policy, but also as a diplomatic and political approach: once Darius asked for the submissions of mainland Greek cities, many of them accepted, based on the previous behavior of the conquerors in Ionic cities. Athens and Sparta obviously remained aside, but this was also because they were also assuming a regional power status and would not find it calculable to surrender without a fight.
Reasonably enough, though, the Persian invasion could also be seen as a direct consequence in the involvement of the Athenians in the revolt of the Ionic cities and in their attempt to preserve a democracy here and…… [Read More]
For example, founding cities on royal possessions gave less profits, as direct and indirect taxation of cities appeared in many cases less profitable than taxation of royal landowners. From the other side, urbanization also led to the weakening centralization.
But in a general scope one the hand with military and economical advantages urbanization also led to cultural Hellenization, which is considered to be its main political achievement. it's important to note that a number of kingdoms in Asia Minor and Middle East adopted Greek law and Greek civil norms. Such changes had a very progressive effect on social life, as it led to the reduction of slavery and guaranteed protection of property rights to citizens in former despotic societies.
Cultural interaction of Greek polises with natives led to the penetration of local customs and cultural traits to the life of Greeks. Greek culture of polises experienced deep interaction with Persian…… [Read More]
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…… [Read More]
Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)
Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. ith the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way…… [Read More]
mythology is important for both individualistic and collective reasons. On an individual level, mythology could teach moral or human truths, whereas on a collective level mythology could be used to keep people in touch with their origins. Mythological stories could then be used to teach children values such as hard work, diligence and obedience. Role models are created through mythological figures. Also, the mythology of different cultures can serve to teach the student about the values of that culture. This is particularly important in the world today, since advancing technology and phenomena such as globalization has brought foreign cultures much more frequently in touch with each other than was previously the case. It is therefore important to study mythology for the values that it can teach both children and adults, and also for understanding the heritage inherent in these stories.
Mythology derives from the complexity of the human…… [Read More]
Written in the 8th century BC, Hesiod's Theogony provides a detailed and authoritative account of the Greek creation myth and, as such, is regarded as a significant primary source of Greek mythology. Although the style and structure of Theogony poses several problems to a modern readership, the manner in which the poem organizes and records the origins and chronology of Greek myth - and displays connections with the myths of other cultures - ensures that it remains a work of vital importance to the study of Greek mythology.
Greek myths, as with the traditional tales of most cultures, were initially passed orally from generation to generation resulting in a great deal of variation, from place to place and from time to time. Hesiod's Theogony is one of the earliest known attempts to chronicle a culture's myths in the permanent and stable form of a written work, and…… [Read More]
Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology
Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…… [Read More]
Heracles -- Mythological Hero
Heracles Mythological Hero
About a Mythological Hero
Heracles, also known as Hercules, was a great mythological hero, who was considered as the son of God. His strength, valor, courage and supernatural characteristic were seen from his very childhood. The biggest turn in his life occurred when he murdered his wife and children, and was thus compelled to fulfill twelve challenging labors in order to purify himself. This article presents one of his twelve labors, which involved slaying away the Stymphalian birds. Several art works including pottery paintings and canvas art work, depict several instants linked with the heroic acts of Heracles.
Character Analysis of Heracles
Heracles or Hercules was a strong mythological hero who was considered as a man possessing supernatural power and was thus called half-god, a son of Zeus. The supreme confidence of Heracles was depicted from the early days of his…… [Read More]
Mythology - Adaptations
When watching the Coen Brothers' film Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?, it becomes immediately apparent that the film is meant to be a creative adaptation of The Odyssey by Homer. Rather than a straightforward mimicking of The Odyssey, however, the film makes use of Homer's plot to tell a very different story about escaped convicts in the southern United States in the late 1930s.
The most obvious parallel between the original and the Coen brothers' adaptation is the main character, played by George Clooney. While he is called by his middle name, Everett, throughout most of the film, the full name of Clooney's character is Ulysses Everett McGill. "Ulysses" is, of course, the Latin translation of the name "Odysseus." By giving him an Irish last name, it could even be suggested that the Coen brothers are also making reference to another famous adaptation of The Odyssey,…… [Read More]
Zeus himself, though now king of the gods, is the child of other gods who are themselves children of still greater gods -- Gaia or Mother Earth among them. Most significant for our purposes here is the fact that Zeus created four other races of man before he got to ours, meaning that again man (especially in his current form) was the last in a long line o creative outbursts. Certain other portions of the Greek creation myth necessitate the creation of animals prior to the creation of the current race of man for procreative purposes, meaning that modern man was most certainly the last species to be created according to this myth. What this says about Man's relation the animals is somewhat more obscure.
Similarities in Man's Position
Both the Greek and the Biblical creation myths leave a certain ambiguity concerning Man's relation to the animals. In the Biblical…… [Read More]
Myth in a Work of Art
Albert Camus was born on the 7th of November 1913 in Algeria from a French father and a Spanish mother. His father died in the First World War (seriously wounded in the battle of the Marne, he died a month later), so that Camus was raised by his mother and never knew his father. Camus spent his childhood in Alger, in his grandmother's house, where he received his first education. Later on, he passed onto to primary school under the tutorship of Louis German, to whom Camus will bear a strong gratitude his whole life and whom he mentioned in his acceptance speech upon winning the Nobel price in 1957. It was German that first encouraged Albert Camus in his studies and who convinced him to pursue a higher education within the Algiers University. During his time at the university, he founded the Theatre…… [Read More]
Myth, Literature, and the African World
The book Myth, Literature, and the African World, was published in 1976, twenty years before the author, Wole Soyinka, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature.
In his Preface, he clearly wants to convey that African academia has created a kind of "intellectual bondage and self-betrayal" by not facing up to truths about the fact that African literature must not be merely "an appendage of English literature." This was written twenty-eight years ago, of course, and because the instructions ask that "only this reference" be used, one cannot know if indeed African universities now have a section for "Comparative Literature" -- which would presumably allow for the inclusion of literature about Africa, by Africans. And that literature would, hopefully, be reflective of what African cultures were like during the continent was dominated by European colonial powers -- something that Soyinka clearly would like…… [Read More]
Will the Real Greek Homer Please Stand Up?
Homer is the name by which the legendary Greek poet of great fame is known. He is credited with the Greek epics The Iliad and They Odyssey, as well as with the authorship of the mini-epic Batrachomyomachia, the corpus of the Homeric Hymns, and also the Margites. (Docu) Nothing about Homer's actual biographical information is known, (though he is commonly assumed to have been blind) and there are many theories that speculate Homer himself may have been completely mythological, or that he may have been more than one person. It is assumed, however, that Homer's works originated from the Greek settlements on the west coast of Asia Minor in the 9th century BC (Helenism), and several Ionian cities claim to be the birthplace of Homer. (Docu) Although Homer's works great works The Iliad and The Odyssey have shaped a great deal…… [Read More]
Odyssey: Daily Life for Women
When it comes to the Greeks, Homer's Odyssey is recognized as a piece of literature that was not just about gods, men, and creatures, this historical read served as a cultural example about the women and their place in society. This book, provides a wide-ranging view of the Achean's peacetime people. Throughout Odyssey, a person is able to pick up some understanding of what is appropriate or inappropriate in relationships among servant and master, father and son, guest and host, god and mortal, and--notably -- woman and ma. It is clear that the women are the ones that perform an important role in Odyssey. With that said, this essay will explore the daily life of women from the literature Odyssey.
Social customs, marriage, rights and freedoms
While Odysseus is looked at as being an interesting figure, the women persons in the Odyssey are just as…… [Read More]
Thucydides Peloponnesian War
The Peloponnesian War history is based on the historical account of Peloponnesian War between 431 and 404 C. The war was led by Athens (the Delian League), and the other led by Sparta within the Peloponnesian League. Thucydides (an Athenian historian) serving as a general in the war developed the focus of the battle.
Together with a lack of trust in Thucydides' information, the narration is not a firsthand experience as Homer's did. However, he uses poet's epics in inferring facts about Trojan War. For example, while Thucydides valued the amount of Greek ships to be over 1,000 towards Troy as poetic exaggeration, he engages Homer's ships catalog when approximating the presence of Greek soldiers. In addition, Thucydides claims that Homer refuses reference for United Greek states for pre-Hellenic nations through disjointed while organizing the launch of effective campaigns. Thucydides adds that Troy was to be conquered…… [Read More]
Like imhotep and Asclepius, though to a lesser degree, Hippocrates' life is so shrouded in myth that it is difficult to state many facts about the man. He certainly existed, hwoever, and was one of the first to apply true rules of logic and science to the practice of medicine. This was possible largely because of the changes made in philosophy both by the pre-Socratics, who determined that the gods were not responsible for the laws of nature, and the major Athenian philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, who developed a system of rigorous logic that was attached to investigations of truth. Hippocrates focused on keeping the body healthy through preventative medicine, and that the body would often return to its natural state unaided -- thus the injunction to "do no harm."
Galen, a Greek physician arriving on the scene centuries later, learned all he could about the internal…… [Read More]
Constructed Myths and Man's Purpose
Since Nietzsche declared that God was dead, science and mankind have begun a twofold search. Nietzsche's declaration asserted that the need for God in the society's constructed identity no longer existed. The understanding of the times was that the scientific method could break down any problem into is components, and uncover both the purpose and the source of all of mankind's desires, tangible and intangible alike. The accompanying hopes for a utopian society would also be ushered in by modern thought. Modern, logical and rational thought would be able to replace oppressive superstition, religious, and myth of ignorant and uneducated people who used religious beliefs to explain those elements of life which previously could not be understood. Since the publishing of his work, along with Jung, Kant and a myriad of others, the social sciences have searched to identify the purpose of religious life within…… [Read More]
film, Mr. Diegues's intention is to correct the misrepresentation by Cumus of the African Brazilian culture in the favela. Mostly what Diegues has done is to unite the story line of the Camus's film with the complicated realities of contemporary Brazil.This movie touches into details the reality of life in the Favela, it is intended to undo the superficiality of Camus film.By doing this, Diegues has added characters such as Lucinho, a drug trafficker and gang leader. In this film, Dieguise, struggles to restore the tone and focus of Camus version. By doing this, he places a lot of emphasis on the relationship between Orpheus's and his parents as well as his relationship with the community. According to Stam and Spence's perspective (Lecture V), the Western perspective in film has not only misrepresented people from the third world countries, but also their environment. Diegues in this film has shown mostly…… [Read More]
They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…… [Read More]
functions of myth, as defined by Joseph Campbell. Specifically, it will explain Campbell's four functions of myth, and show how they are demonstrated in Native American Hopi culture. The Hopis of Northern Arizona epitomize the four functions of myth in their culture and society. Their society is based on myth, religion, and spiritual celebration, and they have held on to these myths when many other tribes have turned away from their spiritual and mythical past. The Hopis myths relate to the earth, the natural world surrounding them, and their dependence on this natural world for their survival. They understand the importance of myth in a healthy society, and because of this, they have one of the longest-lived Native societies in the desert Southwest.
FOUR FUNCTIONS OF MYTH
Joseph Campbell wrote heavily about myth, reality, and how important myth is in our culture and society. Myths and stories have long been…… [Read More]
The myth of Perseus and his beheading of Medusa tells an adventurous tale that presents many meanings and interpretations. One interpretation deals with the hero Perseus conquering his inner female psyche on his way to understanding the ways of wisdom as represented by Athena. The purpose of this essay is to examine Perseus' quest in these terms of a rite of passage through the feminine mindset. This essay will describe his relationship with his mother, Athena, the Gray Sisters and finally Medusa as he Perseus finally realizes his lesson.
The story of Perseus must be understood in terms of the feminine mind. Athena, the goddess of war and wisdom, provides the hero with ample challenges to meet her standards. The Greeks understood their myths to help them live and learn important lessons during their journey. Perseus' story has great practical value because it identifies the unique circumstances that the…… [Read More]
HUM/105 -- orld Mythology Foundations Mythology Short Answers rite responses: How word myth popularly? For, statement, "It's a myth" ? In contrast, word myth academic context? After definition textbooks materials, write a definition words.
Most people think of the word myth as being meant to relate to an idea that is generally accepted but is not supported by solid evidence. The contemporary society also relates to tales of gods or ancient heroes that once had a religious basis as being myth. Many cultures have gathered numerous stories involving myths and they can be related to as being mythologies. It is only safe to relate to myths as being an abstract reality, relatively similar to religion (taking into account that even with the fact that many individuals are actively involved in promoting religious ideas there is no solid proof to back these ideas).
The estern community typically thought about myths as…… [Read More]
An even older mythological source for the reverence of compassionate maternal figures, however, comes out of the culture in which Mother Theresa practiced, rather than from the Christian tradition she lived by. This is the figure of Durga, one of the many incarnations of Kali, the Mother Goddess of the Hindu religion.
Alternatively, Kali and the many other forms of the goddess are seen as emanating from Durga (Rajhans, par. 3). According to this view, Durga is supreme power of the Supreme Being, the force of all creation, preservation, and destruction of the world (Rajhans, par. 1). This latter element does not fit with Mother Theresa, but the first two are essential qualities that she possessed and portrayed, and which were the primary foundations of her mythological status. This also illustrates the complexity of Hindu mythological and religious figures; at times, the separate functions of the Mother Goddess are seen…… [Read More]
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…… [Read More]
Myth of Marriage and Children
Joseph Campbell's The Power of Myth is a book that can potentially transform the reader's consciousness. Beyond being informative, Campbell's analysis of cultural myths is profound; it provokes genuine introspection. The author refers to the spiritual in whatever he speaks about, and yet he never lapses into religious diatribe or dogma. Subjects like marriage are elevated beyond the social to the psycho-spiritual. For example, he calls marriage "primarily a spiritual exercise, and the society is supposed to help us have the realization. Man should not be in service to society, society should be in the service of man," (8).
In light of modern society, Campbell's words hold new meaning. In America, we have few true rituals because we have turned our attention outward instead of inward. The wisdom of life is being denigrated through a preoccupation with technology and material goods. There is little…… [Read More]
Gospels Greek text a basis. The Bible on Luke Chapter 7: 1-10 Sample Essay Outline ( a guideline, adjust argument) ! short introduction (end statement thesis [, a summary interpretation passage]) ! body (argument support thesis) " summary passage " observations contents passage " observations literary, thematic, historical contexts " summary message original audience " explanation application context ! short conclusion (begin -stating thesis).
Jesus' healing of the Centurion's servant
The biblical text of Jesus healing a Centurion's servant is recognized for the numerous ways in which it can be interpreted and for being a significant pillar of faith in the Christian world. The story is particularly intriguing because it involves a Centurion turning to Jesus in order to get help and because it is one of the only two biblical accounts involving Christ performing a miracle meant to help Gentiles and in the presence of these people. This text…… [Read More]
History As Myth
This-based Myth Atreus Thyestes In paper I conversational I supposed a myth teacher a continuing education program geared library patrons aged 50+, a conversation actual essay. Below directions assignment: Briefly describe a historical event, a controversy, a world event, a current event, a military group action, a political event group, a religious group action, a similar phenomenon.
Thyestes and Atreus: The great Civil War of Mycenae
Once upon a time, long, long ago there lived two brothers named Thyestes and Atreus. These two brothers were extremely power hungry and even their own father King Pelops was forced to exile them when they killed their half-brother to better their chances to ascend to the throne. Undeterred, the two brothers found another kingdom to dominate, the land of Mycenae. Proving there is no honor amongst thieves; Atreus was determined to be the sole ruler of this new kingdom. One…… [Read More]