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Increased greenhouse gases will have a significant effect on the earth in the coming 10-20 years. Greenhouse gases are emitted through a number of activities, including the combustion of fossil fuels and from the flatulence of livestock. The gases rise in the atmosphere and form a layer that traps heat into the lower levels of the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect results in a warming of the surface-level air, which causes an increase in temperature. The greenhouse effect also spurs a feedback loop in which polar ice melts, reducing the ability of the earth to cool itself. Also, when subarctic tundra melts due to the increased temperature, it releases more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, further accelerating the warming.
The melting of the sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic regions is one of the most significant outcomes of increased greenhouse gases. This is already occurring, and the Arctic…… [Read More]
Faults in isolating carbon as the main source of dangerous climate change, such as carbon-based life forms depend on the gas, inform us as to best orient are response to environmental changes.
Other ways to prevent or reverse global warming include geo-engineering -- or terraforming -- the planet. The basis of this idea posits that the Earth's climate can be manipulated by human technological advents. One tactic being considered is the launching of sulfur particles high into the stratosphere in order to lower the temperature of the Earth.
ccording to Jeff Goodell, author of How to Cool the Earth, "the impacts of this [on both the atmosphere and the rctic] are being explored by a number of climate modelers," Goodell says. Still, data and conclusions on this option is scant. Such proceedings also take on a geopolitical nature. Who controls the technology and, by extension, the Earth's temperature? Temperature management…… [Read More]
Greenhouse gases thicken the Earth's atmosphere trapping solar light waves that reach the Earth as a form of radiation. The solar rays are typically good for the planet as it keeps Earth's temperature habitable for life, but the extra levels of heat are warming up the planet. The heighten temperature is causing catastrophes on a global scale. The heat is sucking the moisture out of the land, causing desertification in certain regions, particularly Africa. Other places are experiencing higher levels of moisture and storms; a result of this is Hurricane Katrina.
The Montreal Protocol is treaty that is meant to protect the ozone layer by eliminating chemicals responsible for depleting the ozone layer. It was successful by helping to significantly reduce levels of chlorofluorocarbons and other harmful substances. It is a good example of how the nations of the world can unite for a common goal and institute…… [Read More]
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…… [Read More]
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…… [Read More]
Cap and Trade Policy:
In the past few years, there has been solid scientific evidence that global warming or climate change is taking place. This has contributed to the birth of carbon emissions trading within the European region and the enactment of several mitigation initiatives at the state level. These measures have in turn exerted pressure on the federal government to control the emission of carbon dioxide, which has reached fever pitch. Actually, the Bush Administration declared that America will work with other countries to develop a new model for the emissions of greenhouse gases though focusing on adaptation and energy-efficient technologies. In addition, the U.S. Congress is considering adopting the cap and trade policy within the economy because of the success of sulfur-trading initiatives that were enforced on the power sector. This consideration is fueled by the fact that the Congress has received several recommendations to adopt such systems.…… [Read More]
1. The bookmarks indicated the following six events:
· Formation of the earth and moon 4.6 billion years ago
· Earliest life, 3.9 billion years ago
· Early land plants 420 million years ago
· Largest mass extinction 248 million years ago
· Dinosaur extinction 65 million years ago
· "Lucy", early hominid, 4 million years ago
2. In the Archaean period, there are cyanobacteria and stromatites.
3. The three periods of time that are described as eras are the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic.
4. There are five mass extinction events listed. They are:
End-Orcovician, where many types of ocean life became extinct including trilobites, brachiopods, and graptolites. The Late Devonian, stromatoporoids, brachiopods associated with reefs and more trilobites all became extinct, as coral systems suffered heavy losses. The End-Permian extinction saw some corals, trilobites, and types of brachiopods, orinoids and shelled cephalopods all became extinct at this…… [Read More]
The measures could be introduced through the education of the population and the breaking of these regulations should be severely fined.
2. A better recycling process - This would be supported by the selective garbage collection and would be compulsory to all organizations. Breaking the regulations would be severely fined
3. Stopping deforestation - This must be done across the entire globe and national authorities must be the only ones to grant tree cutting rights and only after intense analyses. Also, new trees must be planted. Illegal deforestation should be punished with imprisonment
4. Modernizing the technologies used by the most polluting industries - these programs should be supported with government subsidies and the states refusing should be internationally trialed
5. educing the usage of resources - this could be achieved by better control and pollution systems and would also reduce the general levels of consumerism, also in the best…… [Read More]
A petroleum geologist against drilling in the area writes, "For all practical purposes, the refuge is utterly pristine. It also encompasses an area 26 times larger than Yosemite National Park, almost nine times the size of Yellowstone" (Herndon). While few visitors seek out the Refuge, there are several small native villages in and around the area, and these Native Americans rely on the bounty of the Refuge for their continued survival. These Gwich'in people oppose drilling in the ANWR for a number of important reasons. They feel it will permanently damage the tender tundra, which is easily damaged and non-renewable once it has been damaged, and it could affect the Porcupine Elk herd, which migrates through the area, as well. Drilling could disrupt their traditional birthing and nursery grounds, which could cause them to migrate along a different route. Since the Gwich'in people rely on the caribou for sustenance, this…… [Read More]
However, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions will demand some procedural decisions to be made that will surely entice unpredictable results.
From the viewpoint of an outside management consultant who has been called in to advise top management on what to do, the first task will be the thorough investigation of the international framework seeking to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gasses. Moreover, all steps to be taken in an effort to mitigate the impact of anthropogenic climate change solely on the basis of multilateral arrangements without infringing upon the rights of the self-governed must be itemized and better distinguished. This will lead us to a resolution on ways to diminish, lessen, and ultimately relieve the production of greenhouse gasses emitted by human activity.
I would like to suggest that this is not possible without significant buy-in at the local levels; that citizens of developed countries must recognize the effort as non-zero-sum…… [Read More]
Global Warming: Why it is not the greatest fear of the industrializing world, why it is such a great fear for the industrialized world
There is a threat that currently looms upon the horizon, in danger of choking the fragile health of the developing economies of the so-called Third World. This threat is not the so-called global warming phenomena. The long ranging environmental results of the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere still remains unknown, and the data is far from conclusive. What is known by international economists is that the threat of global warming, as deployed as a kind of buzz word and media scare tactic of the environmentalist movement could impede the growth of industrialized nations and reduce the chance of Third World countries improving their living standards.
Despite the words 'Trade not Aid,' as bandied about by corporations such as the Body Shop, there is…… [Read More]
wrong with this picture?
The viewpoint being espoused expresses some wonderful ideas but fails to take into consideration the basic selfishness of man. Expecting the kind of cooperation and dedication that would be necessary to accomplish what is being suggested in this scenario is highly idealistic. It would require the putting aside of both national interests and personal interests on a scale much larger than that necessary for the United Nations to operate. Suggesting that this might be possible is unrealistic. ather, the more reasoned approach is to allow the natural markets to develop.
In the short-term, the world's energy supply system will remain essentially as it is for the next several decades except that the demand in growth will continue due to sustained modernization in China, India and elsewhere. This means that new sources of oil and other energy sources need to be developed alongside strides in energy efficiency.…… [Read More]
The Green Hotel Association (GHA) suggests using "printed towel rack hangers and sheet changing cards" in the bathroom of hotel rooms. The sign on the hanger mentions that guests do not have to have their linens changed (sheets, pillow cases) if they prefer not to; they can help the hotel save water -- in fact the GHA notifies the hotel guest that "millions of gallons of water are used to wash bed sheets" every day. So when the "sheet-changing card is left on the pillow, the room attendants" know to just make the bed but don't wash the sheets (Fostering Sustainable Behavior).
The obvious positive aspect of this is not just water savings but the electricity that it takes to heat the water and run the huge industrial clothes washing machines represents even more savings. There is no negative aspect to asking the room attendants to leave the same sheets…… [Read More]
In this author's opinion, a greater than ninety percent probability that humans are involved in global climate change, with the additional concern that irreversible detrimental consequences may result, is sufficient to warrant immediate action in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. ithin the scientific field an absolute certainty that humans have fueled global warming will never be obtained, no matter how much time is provided for study. It is paramount that action, such as the Cap and Trade Policy, is taken immediately to mitigate the production of greenhouse gases and slow global warming. Failure to take these steps will only exacerbate the deleterious effects of global warming as time progresses.
Many opponents to implementation of emissions restrictions, such as that of the Cap and Trade Policy, have also suggested that alternative energy sources are not sufficiently advanced or effective to meet the energy demands currently provided by fossil fuels. Presently, alternative energies…… [Read More]
y using the last two centuries as an excuse to motivate the motive for which their countries are unwilling to make any compromise, the Chinese representative practically expresses his point-of-view regarding the situation. It is difficult to determine whether or not he is right, as one might come across an ethical dilemma in trying to do so. The Chinese and other developing nations are uncertain whether it is more important for them to experience economic progress or whether it is more important for the international public to perform great efforts with the purpose of saving the environment. It all comes down to personal gain in the end, as the Chinese appear to be unsupportive regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
China, India, razil and South Africa are more concerned about their own well-being than they are in the well-being of the international public as a whole. Goldstein (p. 340)…… [Read More]
A version of this is already in existence in the 17-nation Major Economies Forum. This has been a model of decorum and progress compared with what the world saw unfold at the climate talks (Sarwar and Chesterman, 2009).
One country in particular that did not come away from Copenhagen 15 with any warm and fuzzy feelings was that of Canada. Canada's once good reputation as an international leader has been seriously damaged because of its repeated failure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). While many of the COP 15 countries have successfully managed to reduce emissions since 1990, Canada's GHG emissions have increased 26.2% over the same period (Elston, 2009). Canada has never before seen its international reputation sink so low, with environmental groups and officials from many countries accusing Canada of obstructing an urgently needed world treaty on climate change (Lalonde, 2009).
Most feel that Copenhagen 15 was a…… [Read More]
Wabash Watershed and Global Warming
Global warming is the gradual increase in the average temperatures of Earth caused by an increase in Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Earth's atmosphere. An unprecedented increase in GHG has induced the warming up of Earth. Since global warming impacts entire biosphere and ecosystems, watersheds are also distorted through warming of climate. The paper defines watersheds, their role in ecosystem, and explanation of changes that have taken place in Wabash watershed. Wabash watershed is composed of smaller watersheds such as Upper Wabash Watershed, Lower Wabash, Little Wabash Watershed, Middle Wabash-Busseron, and Middle Wabash-Little Vermilion Watershed. Human agency has caused the global warming to increase over a period of last two decades, though its signs are obvious much before that. Increases in average lower temperatures, precipitation, and stream runoff are some evident outcomes of global warming. Wildlife, water resources, agriculture, and human health will have an adverse…… [Read More]
These tiny particles are poison and damage the green effect. For the reason that they reflect solar energy back into space they have a preservation result on the world.
Ocean current is a problem because it has an effect on the greenhouse. Also, ocean currents are something that has been able to move vast amounts of all heat all over the planet. Also, winds are what push horizontally towards the sea surface and then also drive the ocean current patterns. There are as well interactions among the ocean and atmosphere can likewise create phenomena for instance El Nino which happens every 2 to 6 years.
Graph 4 a low greenhouse gas emissions in the UK
Earth orbital changes have an effect on the greenhouse management. The organization has been able to find out that earth makes one full orbit around the sun every year. The earth is tilted at an…… [Read More]
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…… [Read More]
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…… [Read More]
(1) Discuss which of the interrelationships between the environmental spheres, in your experience, has had the biggest effect on human society, or vice versa. Give some examples.
The work of Manahan (2005) explains that there are four traditional environmental spheres including the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere and the biosphere. It is related however, that a fifth sphere should be included and that is the anthrosphere, which consists of "the things humans make and do." (Manahan, 2005) The atmosphere is reported as a very thin layer compared to the size of Earth, with most atmospheric gases lying within a few kilometers of sea level. The atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly energetic ultraviolet radiation from the sun that would kill living organisms exposed to it.
A specifically important aspect of the atmosphere is that the atmosphere serves a vital protective function in that it absorbs highly…… [Read More]
Climate Change -- Cause and Mitigation
There are several ways to look at climate change because there are natural causes and there are also human-influenced causes for the global climate to change. This paper defines anthropogenic climate change and it defines natural climate change and the historic record of the earth's changing climate over the millennia. This paper also provides strategies for mitigating global climate change and speculates as to the possible stabilization of climate change vis-a-vis the business and economic fields.
hat is Anthropogenic Climate Change?
The Merriam-ebster Dictionary defines anthropogenic as "…relating to, or resulting from, the influence of human beings on nature"; the first use of this team was in 1923.
Meanwhile, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research lists three ways in which the evidence points toward humans having influence over the rising temperatures on earth. The "…concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is rising," which is…… [Read More]
Global Warming and Its Effects
For many years, people have been talking about how the weather has changed over the past ten years. In fact, you may have witnessed these changes first hand. The earth's climate has been continuously changing for millions of years. Currently, studies indicate that the Earth is undergoing global warming. The first time I ever heard about global warming was a television commercial. I remember that the commercial featured two children and an adult. In the commercial, the adult started to explain global warming, however his explanation was beyond the scope of the children's understanding. The little girl in the commercial was too confused by the explanation that then prompted the adult to flash-forward into the future to show the children the effects of the climatological concept he was talking about. While the trio are seen in a luscious park at the beginning of the commercial,…… [Read More]
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…… [Read More]
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…… [Read More]
" (Impacts of sea level rise) In these areas, such as India and Indonesia, even a small increase in sea level could result in forced migration with resultant economic hardship. The point should also be reiterated that in our interconnected world, the economic and social problems of one area or region have an impact on other countries. This is also related to the fact that many of the suugested means of dealing with global warming would contradict and even negate economic policies that many industrialized nations already have in place. This aspect will be expanded on in the following sections.
The response from governments to the problem and reality of global warming has not always been positive or enthusiastic. The Reagan administration and the First Bush Administration in the United States tended to be politically optimistic about the global environment. Governments in developed countries have in general…… [Read More]
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…… [Read More]
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…… [Read More]
Qantas Carbon Footprint
Qantas corporate governance statement mentions that Qantas has an appropriate corporate governance structure to ensure the creation, protection, and enhancement of shareholder value (Qantas, 2012). Based on this statement alone it seems as if Qantas does not promote a triple bottom line or any other measure of sustainability in the summary of their corporate governance strategy. Other firms in the airline industry make a stronger dedication to social and environmental issues in their corporate governance. Continental for example has significantly more mentions of such causes as well as a plethora of various projects to address these causes (Continental Airlines, 2012). Although Qantas does address such business functions later in their document, their corporate governance strategy seems to be more focused on shareholder value than a more balanced scorecard.
In response to pressures to mounting pressures to address ecological concerns about issues…… [Read More]
Rules to Live by -- a Biostatement
Yes, the human race is quite "species-centric," and we are already paying for it. Our planet has changed greatly over the billions of years it has existed, but it has changed far more rapidly since humans entered the picture, and it has changed even more rapidly since humans have developed increasing technology. We are an advanced race, but we are advancing at the expense of the planet we call home. It is clear the Earth cannot last forever, and if humans keep using up the resources the planet has to offer, then eventually, the entire planet will look like Easter Island -- barren, rocky, and uninhabitable.
While the idea of environmental resistance is indeed applicable to many of the ecosystems on Earth, humankind has overcome much of the natural environmental resistance with technology and sheer might, and so, that is no longer a…… [Read More]
Corporate Social Responsibility
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has recently reached an unprecedented level of salience with the emergence of global protests that seem to be driven in a large part by concerns over social issues such as equality as wells as environmental issues such as the regulation of greenhouse gas emissions. Although the protestors are occupying various parts of the world for a plethora of mixed motivations, it is reasonable to speculate that much of these individual motivations are embodied in the concept of CSR. The concept of CSR covers a lot of ground but there are two core principles that account for most of the commentary.
The first concept embodied within the notion of CSR is in respect to the manner that people are treated. Under classical models this would only include investors, customers, and internal employees. However the CSR approach includes all stakeholders locally, regionally, or even…… [Read More]
Prisoner's Dilemma situations are more common than some might actually think they are, as most people often come across them in their daily lives. Given the fact that Axelrod has a background in political science, he observed that PD is frequently encountered in the U.S. Senate. Senators are accustomed to helping out their colleagues, as they are perfectly aware that their assistance will materialize in their colleagues repaying them. The help that U.S. senators provide to their colleagues ranges from trading votes to attracting voters for them. One can actually claim that reciprocity is one of the most important factors in the U.S. Senate (Axelrod, p. 5).
However, it appears that matters in the senate were not always like this, and, that just a few decades ago senators seemed more willing to support concepts like deceitfulness and falseness instead of assisting each-other. Surprisingly, people in the U.S. Senate have become…… [Read More]
Global warming is the trend with which temperatures across the globe are increasing beyond the range of normal fluctuations. The effects of global climate change are real and will result in serious consequences for the generations to come if nothing is done to solve this problem. The problem of global warming has mainly been caused by the emission of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere. These greenhouse gases that are being emitted into the Earth's atmosphere and result in global warming include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Some of the serious effects of the global warming problem include hotter and dry summers, increased flooding as well as lessened snowfall and soil moisture. This problem also results in serious consequences on the agricultural and tourism industries of many countries across the globe. Therefore, there is a need for rapid changes and actions that will help in the reduction of greenhouse…… [Read More]
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…… [Read More]
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.
Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…… [Read More]
Since its first mention at the UN General Assembly, global warming has come to be regarded the greatest human development challenge for the 21st century (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). This has prompted multiple studies, conventions and policy development meetings aimed at arresting the situation. One such study was the Fourth Assessment eport of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Findings released in 2007 showed that global temperatures were unequivocal and accelerating. The magnitude - an average increment of 0.74 degrees centigrade in the past century, was notably the highest warming trend in recent times. The worrying aspect is that the warming trend is bound to continue with a predicted increment of about 1.8-6.4 degrees centigrade in the coming years (McInerney-Lankford, Darrow, ajamani and Banque, 2011). The increasing temperatures will have profound effects on life on earth as it is expected that the warming will disrupt…… [Read More]
How global warming induced natural resource shortages will cause violent conflict in the Middle East
Background on Climate Change
Implications for the Middle East
Global warming, or climate change, is no longer begging the question of when the effects of this phenomenon will begin to unfold; rather the changes in the climate are already being witnessed. There are many at risk populations all over the world. Many of these populations already are dealing with food and/or water shortages which will only become more problematic in the near future. Once resources become scarcer and exceed the carrying capacity of the local or regional population then this will introduce a new level of conflict that has the potential to easily become violent. There are few mitigation strategies that can help this point. Migration is always an option, but regional areas will be affected in similar ways. This analysis…… [Read More]
Increased agriculture, deforestation, landfills, industrial production, and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions. In 1997, the United States emitted about one-fifth of total global greenhouse gases.
Global average surface temperatures have increased 0.5-1.0°F since the late 19th century. The 20th century's 10 warmest years all occurred in the last 15 years of the century. Of these, 1998 was the warmest year on record. Snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased. Globally, sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century. Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent. The frequency of extreme rainfall events has increased throughout much of the United States. Scientists expect that the average global surface temperature could rise 1-4.5°F (0.6-2.5°C) in the next fifty years, and 2.2-10°F (1.4-5.8°C) in the next century. Evaporation will increase as the climate warms, which will…… [Read More]
Global Warming: Fact ather Than Fiction
The focus of this paper is on global warming and its causes. In the introduction phase, we have given a brief overview of the problem alongside a brief look at the details of the problem itself. It is mentioned here that how much change has actually recorded in the previous decades and what the future might hold on for the planet if the trend keeps on going as it is right now. It has also mentioned the consequences of rise in temperatures which can result in many different scenarios.
We then focused on the causes of the problem and again had a brief overview of it, the causes were divided into two main sections and proper emphasis was given on one of it in order to give the root cause of the phenomena. The discussion phase have a more in-depth look at the causes…… [Read More]
Americans will face important decisions as consumers, voters, and global citizens.
We need to understand that global warming has to be treated as a problem for all in order to properly solve it. If we continue to see it as a political issue as we sometimes do, it will never be fully resolved. Earth has to be made livable for everyone. It is not a place for first world or third world countries. It is a place for every human being and all life present here. Thus the issue must be seen clearly and humanitarianly instead of turning into another senseless political debate.
K. Taylor, "apid Climate Change," American Scientist 87 (1999): 320-327.
Scientists' Statement on Global Climatic Disruption, 1997" (Washington, DC: Ozone Action, 1997). Online at www.ozone.org/stateii.html.
K. McDonald, "Debate Over How to Gauge Global Warming Heats up Meeting of Climatologists," the Chronicle of Higher Education (February 5, 1999);…… [Read More]
This shows that media outlets have an extremely strong influence on individuals in their belief of global warming. The lack of knowledge in the real application of global warming is startling considering the real earnestness in which each of these individuals expressed their beliefs on global warming.
For the second group of individuals who do not believe in global warming, the results are just as mixed as previously. Although they all seem to very intelligent individuals, none of the three could provide a definition of exactly what global warming was. Although two of them pointed out that greenhouse gases plays a factor. They explained that their understanding or knowledge of global warming has come from multiple sources, and all professed a strong distrust of traditional media outlets as viable and truthful information. One of them interestingly cited the novel "State of Fear" as a strong impetus for why he does…… [Read More]
The government should create more incentives to use energy efficient alternatives, and they should be developed so that more people can afford them and use them.
Another solution, although extremely unpopular, it to tax carbon emissions. Some experts propose a worldwide tax of $50 per ton, which would tax industries that create greenhouse gases (Johansen 256). While this would not instantly solve the problem, it would encourage industries to develop alternatives to fossil fuels, and this could help reduce emissions while setting aside some of the tax funds to help combat global warming in other ways. Of course, industries reliant on fossil fuels are extremely opposed to the idea, and the tax would add costs to everyday items such as gasoline, oil, and coal.
The science and history of global warming defend this solution. Global warming has increased more in the last 100 years than it has at any time…… [Read More]
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…… [Read More]
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…… [Read More]
These effects would be unfairly harsh on developing nations, who had little to do with creating the problem; this is one of the reasons that recent international talks in Copenhagen have stalled (WGW 2009). Not only would these countries not be able to develop as quickly and have healthier populations and more stable governments, but industrialized nations would also see negative economic impacts, making many wary of making any major transitions without a more certain analysis of the problem of global warming, and of a human cause behind it.
The Effects of Global Warming
Even if global warming isn't real, or if human emissions aren't behind it, the possible consequences and tangential downsides to the continued release of carbon dioxide and an increase in global warming warrant taking steps to find cleaner fuels and sources of energy. Warmer temperatures would lead directly to more frequent and more violent storms and…… [Read More]
The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. ut not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal,…… [Read More]
These are valid scientific measurements, which prove that atmospheric CO2 equilibrium has been drastically disturbed by human activities. [Ross Glebspan]
At this rate of increase, the atmospheric CO2 concentrations are projected to increase the average global temperature by around 3 to 7 degrees F. y the end of this century. This increase over a hundred-year period represents a huge shift compared against the entire time scale of the planet. Those who argue that global warming is a natural happening have to explain why nature would shift gears all of a sudden? Also, how could increased CO2 levels also be part of the claimed natural process?. These questions and the true facts make it unambiguous that global warming is definitely a man-induced phenomenon. These arguments can be buttressed with the recently documented drastic climatic shifts.
The eleven hottest years of the previous century occurred between 1983 and 2000 while 1991-95 happens…… [Read More]
"Over the past century, human activities have released large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. The majority of greenhouse gases come from burning fossil fuels to produce energy, although deforestation, industrial processes, and some agricultural practices also emit gases into the atmosphere" (EPA). These greenhouse gases play a critical role in global warming; they trap energy in the atmosphere, acting like a blanket around the Earth. From what is known about Earth's atmosphere at prior points in history, when these greenhouse gases were more abundant in the atmosphere from natural sources, there is no real argument that greenhouse gases do not trap heat. Moreover, science can prove that human activities produce those same greenhouse gases. However, the argument that climate change deniers make is that human activities are contributing only a nominal amount of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere, and, therefore, that human activity cannot…… [Read More]
finance and financial entrepreneurship. The basis of the article is on a discussion that was held on this subject among four leading lights of financial entrepreneurship in the United States - Michael Milken, Lewis Ranieri, Richard Sandor and Myron Scholes. These people are famous in their own right and have had a sizeable role in financial entrepreneurship in the U.S. over the last 20 years. We have first discussed their achievements to get a clear idea about their personal achievements. This would certainly give a clear idea of what is possible in the U.S. today. They are of course interesting characters and one has to remember that the ideal entrepreneur of the 21st century cannot be thought of as an updated version of Henry Ford. After the discussion of the people, the meeting and the discussions held there are summarized. ased on the total information collected, we have come to…… [Read More]
He describes how wild grains and animals were domesticated, as well as the new technologies that made farming possible (sickles, baskets, pestles, gourds, irrigation, the wheel, the plow). He uses a chart to plot these movements. His evidence is mainly archeological, historical, and botanical with heavy doses of appeal to imaginary scenarios. Its power to convince is narrational. His ultimate point in cataloguing this change is to assert how, for first time in history, humans become a prime factor in altering earth's natural landscapes. Land was now exploited and degraded through deforestation for crops and soil erosion.
Summary: Ruddiman summarizes the history of how humans began to shape the earth through technology and landscape transformation. He relies on the credibility of his narrative.
Ch. 8, pp. 76-83: His main claim is that humans rather than nature have created a rise in atmospheric methane. He presents several lines of argument, beginning…… [Read More]
Global warming has become an issue of major global concern. This research explores the complexities of the issues surrounding global warming and the development of models to help curb the human contributions to its continuation. This research focuses on the UAE and its initiatives to develop sustainable cities in the future.
Evolution of Cities
environmental change and Global warming
Field Work and Case Studies
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) covers an area of approximately 777 sq. km and has a population of over 5 1/2 million residents according to 2009 statistics (Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division. 2009). The country has the six largest oil reserves in the world and is one of the most developed economies in the Middle East. It has one of the most developed infrastructures in the Middle East as well. Global warming has become a key issue in developed nations that…… [Read More]
The urban village is being constructed on brownfield land that was formerly being used by an oil refinery that was called the Llandarcy Oil efinery that was owned by BP. This oil refinery was constructed between the years 1918 and 1922 and it has been labeled as the first crude oil refinery in the country. Since there were some economic changes, the site was closed in the year 1997 (Brownfield renewal in Wales and South West egion, 2007).
Planned Outputs of the Urban Village
According to the plan that has been prepared for Coed Darcy, the community will comprise of 4,000 homes along with employment space, community facilities as well as open space that covered an area of 1,300 acres. The estimate of the development of this community is about 1.2 billion pounds. Moreover, four new schools have also been planned for this community. These schools include 2…… [Read More]
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…… [Read More]
Race and Ethnic Relations:
Giddens suggests that the central problem in this piece is climate change that is brought by the emission of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. One of the major factors that have contributed to the problem is that the three dominant energy sources across the globe i.e. gas, oil, and coal produce huge amounts of greenhouse gases. The pollution of the atmosphere through industrialization processes, which are major characteristics of today's society, has also contributed to the problem of climate change. Industrial revolution was primarily fueled by the scientific and technological advances that turned coal into a vibrant source of energy. These advancements resulted in the change from burning wood as a basic source of fuel to increased dependence on coal. The change into use of coal as a major energy source resulted in an entirely new way of life that is based on machine production.…… [Read More]
The Arctic is affected by global warming before the rest of the world because of the presence of ice and snow, and the Arctic will intensify the human consequences of global warming because of the ways ice and snow are integral to regulating Earth's surface and atmospheric temperatures.
The second step in the process of global warming in the Arctic is therefore the melting of ice and snow. Due to the increase in anthropogenic chemical emissions, the greenhouse effect is exacerbated. The exacerbation of the greenhouse effect then causes a rise in surface and atmospheric temperatures. Due to the rising atmospheric and surface temperatures, snow and ice in the Arctic begin to melt. The melting of snow and ice in the Arctic leads to several unfortunate consequences. First, sea levels begin to rise as the ice melts. Rising sea levels can cause major upheavals in climate: not only can flooding…… [Read More]
The human causes of global warming are less certain than the eventual depletion of fossil fuels, but the damages predicted to result from uncontrolled warming brought on by fossil fuels are so great that the gamble becomes too great. Only the same intentions as listed above would take this risk with future generations.
The Need for Action
The ethical and social issues at work in the use of fossil fuels and the global warming phenomenon create a clear need for effective action to be taken, and soon. Many scientists believe that it may already be too late to halt the warming trend, let alone reverse it -- the build up of greenhouse gases like methane and carbon dioxide in our atmosphere has created a situation that is already self-perpetuating, meaning that the warmer temperatures observed over the past century will continue to rise even if all use of fossil fuels…… [Read More]
Fuel (Coal)/Uranium Needed (tons)
Sulfur Dioxide and Other Emissions (tons)
adioactivity mSv (millisievert)
Solid Waste (tons)
Increased global warming and health effects.
Coal power plants and nuclear power plants are currently the two basic sources of electricity generation across the globe. The purpose of this lab animation and report is to evaluate which of these sources of energy is better for human sustainability. The determination of the more efficient of these two energy sources is based on the data provided above and further research.
The generation of electricity is the leading industrial activity that produces air and gases emissions across the globe. This process is usually carried in several power plants that use different sources of energy. Generally, a huge percentage of the world's electrical power is produced through the use of non-renewable energy sources like coal and uranium (Matthews,…… [Read More]
Climate change is also described as global warming, the unnatural or manmade cause of the planet’s increase in temperature. Climate change is physically caused by the release of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere, in turn trapping heat from the sun on the planet (Meyer & Roser, 2006). Other pollutants can cause problems for the environment as well, such as toxins released into the water from chemical plants, or nuclear meltdowns that result in oceans being poisoned. These are also lumped in with climate change, since they also alter the environment. One of the biggest producers This paper will describe how climate change is occurring, how corporations are involved, and what some companies are doing to address it.
A Poore, Williams and Tracey (2000) note, sea levels are rising as a result of climate change. This occurs because the heat trapped on the planet by greenhouse gases leads…… [Read More]
Figure 3. Central England Temperature
Note: Blue bars indicates changes in CET annual values during the period 1877 to 2006 relative to the average over the 1961-90 baseline period (about 9.5 "C). Error bars enclose the 95% confidence range and the red line highlights decadal variations.
Source: UK Climate Projections 2011 at http://ukclimateprojections.defra.gov.uk / content/view/751/500/
As shown in Figure 3 above, the Central England temperature (CET) has increased by approximately one degree Celsius since 1980; in fact, the year 2006 was the warmest on record (Central England temperature 2010). Some salient trends represented by these historic weather patterns include:
1. Following a period of relative long-term stability for most of the 20th century, CET has increased by about a degree Celsius since the 1980s. This is a more rapid rise than that of the global average land-surface temperature over the same period, and considerably faster than that of the global…… [Read More]