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Grief and eligion
The Five Stages of Grief and eligion
In 1969, Elisabeth Kubler-oss, a Swiss researcher, presented a list of five stages that individuals experience when dealing with death; and since then these principles have since been applied to loss and grief in general. The five stages of the Kubler-oss model are Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and finally Acceptance; and it can be asserted that these stages are experienced in one form or another by all humans regardless of cultural background. ("Five Stages of Grief") In other words, the five stages of loss and grief are emotional reactions that are universally experienced by all humans. (Kubler-oss, 2005, p. 199) Different religions have traditionally created their own means of dealing with loss and grief particularly from a death, and while they may approach the subject from different points-of-view, they all must deal with the five stages that people experience when…
"Book of Job." (n.d.). The Holy Bible. Retrieved from http://ebible.org/kjv/Job.htm
http://www.ekrfoundation.org/five-stages-of-grief / of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Scribner. Print.
Metz, Pamela. (2000). The Tao of Loss and Grief. Atlanta, GA: Humanics. Print.
Precautions and Procedures for the Prevention of Suicide and the Treatment of Depression in ecently Diagnosed Schizophrenics
Any major chronic medical diagnosis can have psychological and emotional reverberations for the patient, as chronic conditions can often be perceived as a "life sentence" of sorts. The inescapability of symptoms and the long-term prognosis of many chronic disorders can cause patients to seriously question their future quality of life, the impact that their condition will have on personal relationships and other interactions with the outside world, and the purpose or meaning of continuing a life that they may perceive to consist largely of pain or other problems. In such scenarios, it is not unusual for depression and even suicidal tendencies to be observed, and for patients' problems and quality of life issues to be ultimately compounded and exacerbated as a result of this depression.
It is not only the diagnosis…
Beck, A. & Alford, B. (2009). Depression: Causes and Treatments. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Bhatia, S. & Bhatia, S. (2007). Childhood and adolescent depression. American Family Physician 75(1): 73-80.
Wittman, D. & Keshava, M. (2007). Grief and Mourning in Schizophrenia. Psychiatry 70(2): 154.
Grief and Loss: Adolescents
This work intends to outline the theoretical explanations of grief, in particular Worden's tasks of grief. Further this work intends to explore the role of the nurse in the support and care of an individual who is grieving.
In this instance of study the focus is a 15-year-old girl who will be called Elaine Brown. She has been tired for some time, losing weight and is constantly thirsty. She has just been informed that she has Type 1 diabetes. The nurse is in process of formulating a care plan for this patient in dealing with this news.
Grief is something that is experienced universally with practically everyone experiencing the loss of a loved one at some point in his or her lives. Grief is coped with better by some than by others.
However, those who do not cope as well with grief should not be blamed…
"Care for children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes" [Online] available at: http://www.health.qld.gov.au/publications/best_practice/16853.pdf
Yet, Kubler-Ross is not without critics, as many contend that there exists no real evidence that stages are present in coping with death (Stages pp). According to Robert Kastenbaum, using the term "stages" implies that there is a set order of set conditions, and asserts that there is no evidence that dying people go through the exact Kubler-Ross stages in their proper order (Stages pp). He believes that any patient could experience the stages in a different order, or could experience emotions not even mentioned in the Kubler-Ross stages (Stages pp). He explains that in her research Kubler-Ross showed that various patients exhibited qualities from the five different stages, but no one particular patient demonstrated all five stages in order, thus any emotional experience during the dying process of a person could be considered a stage (Stages pp).
Many feel that Kubler-Ross' research needed to be followed up by another…
Coping with Death, Grief, and Loss. The University of Iowa: University
Counseling Service. Retrieved September 07, 2005 at http://www.uiowa.edu/~ucs/griefloss.html
Fletcher, Sally N. Ellis Cultural implications in the management of grief and loss.
Journal of Cultural Diversity. September 22, 2002. Retrieved September 07, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site
They say, 'The coward dies many times'; so does the beloved. (p.57)
Throughout A Grief Observed, Lewis rehashes the reasons that his wife was taken from him too soon. He cannot understand why he was given the gift of his wife's life, only to have that life taken from him. Like a coward envisions his own death many times before he dies, so the lover of someone who is dead envisions the death of the beloved, and speculates again and again about why it occurred, and what is God's plan in terms of allowing human beings to suffer so much.
Poi si torno all' eterna fontana. (p.76)
At the end of her life, Lewis' wife said she was at peace with God. Lewis makes this phrase her eulogy because it is reminiscent of Dante. Like Dante's great love Beatrice, who died young and accepted her early death in a way…
An organized effort, in this case, means knowing who is responsible for what, when the time comes. This prevents chaos in the event of a disaster. Planning for who is responsible for organizing a public memorial is the best way to quickly get the community back on the road to recovery.
Another aspect of the community plan needs to address special populations that may have difficulty accessing services. At-risk populations need to be identified in the plan and means needs to be addressed for making certain that they do not get left out. Special populations may include various ethnic groups with language difficulties, senior citizens, low socioeconomic status individuals, and others that may have special needs in the community. Perhaps this can be handled by a special task force or by agencies that are already in place to serve these special populations.
Every disaster is unique and every community is…
Frantz, T. (2005). Anger Beginning of Untold Grief by Katrina's Victims. September 6, 2005.
University of Buffalo. News Center. Retrieved July 7, 2009 from http://www.buffalo.edu/news/7483
Gennaro, N. (2006). Free Help for grieving victims of Katrina. January 14, 2006. What Matters.
Retrieved July 7, 2009 from http://www.unitedwaynashville.org/news/details.php?id=113
Grief is an emotion that all human beings are likely to feel at some time in their lives. For many the grief process can be lonely, confusing and prolonged. For this reason, psychologists have long sought ways to ease this process. Early on researchers found that various forms of art proved effective in aiding individuals in the grief process. This realm of treatment became known as "Expressive art therapies" and allows patients to express feelings through various methods related to the arts. These methods include music therapy, art therapy and writing therapy. Expressive therapies have been essential in helping people cope with loss, particularly in the case of an unexpected death.
There has long been a connection between bereavement and the power of art to heal. In most cases people focused on music in particular, the use of music to calm the bereaved is even present in the…
Resources. (2001). Afterimage, 29(3), 3+..
Shapiro, J.P., Welker, C.J., & Jacobson, B.J. (1997). A Naturalistic Study of Psychotherapeutic Methods and Client In-Therapy Functioning in a Child Community Setting. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26(4), 385-396.
Thompson, B. (2003) Expressive Arts and the Experience of lost. The Forum: An International, Interdisciplinary Organization. Volume 29 Issue 2. pg 1
Tubman, J.G., Montgomery, M.J., & Wagner, E.F. (2001). Letter Writing as a Tool to Increase Client Motivation to Change: Application to an Inpatient Crisis Unit. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(4), 295+.
Williams, M.B. & Sommer, J.F. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of Post-Traumatic Therapy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Grief Process for Africans, The Tutsi Tribe
Grief process for Africans, the Tutsis tribe
Death is certain to human existence. Different cultures and communities in the world have different perceptions towards death, believes about life after death and the rituals surrounding death. African communities have many similarities in their view about death. The similarities revolve around the beliefs in life after death and certain rituals that are necessary when a person dies. In order to discuss matters relating to death in an African set up, the paper will consider the Tutsis tribe in central Africa the modern day Burundi. The Tutsi people are the second largest ethnic group in Burundi. The warrior people of Burundi is a nickname mostly used to refer to the Tutsi, and they are a small percentage in other nations such as the democratic epublic of Congo. The names Watutsi, Batusi or Tussi all refer to…
Twagilimana, A. (1998). Hutu and Tutsi. New York: Rosen Pub. Group.
Asuquo, O.O. (2011). A Rationalization of an African Concept of Life, Death and the Hereafter.
American journal of social and management sciences, 2(1), 171-175.
Gehman, R.J. (2005). African Traditional Religion in Biblical Perspective. Nairobi: Autolitho
GIEF & THE NUSE'S OLE
Comparative Experiences with Grief & the Nurse's ole
Comparative Experiences with Grief & the Nurse's ole
I have been friends with a certain young woman for most of my life. She was very close to her elderly cousin. With respect to the family tree, the young lady and her elderly male cousin were not close. They were, however, very close in spirit. Her cousin led a very active lifestyle and even had somewhat of a professional career as a musician. Sharing experiences with music made my friend and her cousin quite close. She is an aspiring songwriter with talent, though she has yet to have her "big break." They would discuss the creative process with respect to music. They would share they favorite music with one another. They also just simply enjoyed each other's company. Even in his elder years, the young woman's cousin…
LifeCare, Inc. (2001). Helping Others Cope with Grief. LifeCare, Inc. Print & online.
Matzo, PhD, M.L, Sherman, PhD, D.W., Lo, K., Egan, K.A., Grant, M.G., & Rhome, A. (2003). Strategies for Teaching Loss, Grief, and Bereavement. Nurse Educator, 28(2), 71 -- 76.
Moules, PhD, N.J., Simonson, K., Fleiszer, A.R., Prins, MD, M., Glasgow, Rev. Bob. (2007). The Soul of Sorrow Work -- Grief and Therapeutic Interventions with Families. Journal of Family Nursing, 13(1), 117 -- 141.
Rowling, Dr. L. (2005). Loss & Grief. MindMatters Group: Australia. Print & online.
26). Two other writers note, "Nurses must be aware that there is no one right way for a patient to respond to dying. Nurses must adapt their care based on patients' current responses and needs and not expect them to always progress through defined stages" (Craven & Hirnle, 2009, p. 1327). Thus, nurses need to be attentive to their dying patients and their moods, and need to take the time to get to know these patients so they can help them through their grieving and make the process a little less painful.
The nurse plays a critical role in the grieving process, because she is often the representative between the family and the dying patient, and she should be able to act as a facilitator between the two, especially if the family has been estranged. She can also learn to recognize the symptoms of grief in patients and families, such…
Clements, P.T., Deranieri, J.T., Vigil, G.J., & Benasutti, K.M. (2004). Life after death: Grief therapy after the sudden traumatic death of a family member. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 40(4), 149+.
Craven, R.F. Hirnle, C.J. (2009). Fundamentals of nursing: Human health and function. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health.
Tedeschi, R.G., & Calhoun, L.G. (2004). Helping bereaved parents: A clinician's guide. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Grief and Loss within Native American Culture
Section 1: The Topic and Culture
Dealing with grief and loss is a difficult time for people in any culture. For people within the Native American culture, grief and loss present their own unique issues and challenges as a result of the ethnic experience and historical loss thinking of the Native American people (Tucker, Wingate & O’Keefe, 2016). The history of the Native American people is one of sorrow and turbulence yet also of pride and perseverance, and it is important to remember these two points on the spectrum of experience. While grief and loss are pain points, there is the other side of the spectrum or coin in which perseverance and pride can shine through and be found.
Understanding how to deal with grief and loss among Native Americans is particularly important because as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2014)…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). American Indian and Alaska Native death rates nearly 50 percent greater than those of non-Hispanic whites. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2014/p0422-natamerican-deathrate.html
Garrett, M. T., Williams, C., Curtis, R., Brown, I. T., Portman, T. A. A., & Parrish, M. (2015). NATIVE AMERICAN SPIRITUALITIES AND PASTORAL COUNSELING. Understanding Pastoral Counseling, 303.
Giordano, A., Prosek, E., Stamman, J. et al. (2016). Addressing Trauma in Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Addiction, 60(2), 55-71.
Grande, S. (2015). Red pedagogy: Native American social and political thought. Rowman & Littlefield.
Heart, M. Y. H. B., Chase, J., Elkins, J., Martin, M. J., Nanez, M. J. S., & Mootz, J. J.
(2016). Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities. American Indian and Alaska native mental health research (Online), 23(3), 24.
Hossain, M. A., & Sarker, S. A. N. (2016). Sherman Alexie’s literary works as native American social realistic projections. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 12(11).
Isgandarova, N. (2018). Muraqaba as a Mindfulness-Based Therapy in Islamic
One Flew Over the Cucoo's Nest. (1990). etrieved October 2010, from Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073486/
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. (2010, January). etrieved October 2010, from AMC Greatest Films Filmsite: http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html
Cooper, C. (2001, April). Modern Literature's Depiction of Nervous Ailments. etrieved October 2010, from Literature Study Online: http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/bellow_kesey.html
Kubler-oss, E. (2005). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Madden, F. (1986). Sanity and esponsibility: Big Chief as narrator and Executioner. Modern Fiction Studies, 32(2), 203-17.
Perring, C. (2003, March). eview - One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. etrieved October 2010, from Metapsychology: http://metapsychology.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=book&id=1849
One Flew Over the Cucoo's Nest. (1990). Retrieved October 2010, from Internet Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0073486/
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. (2010, January). Retrieved October 2010, from AMC Greatest Films Filmsite: http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html
Cooper, C. (2001, April). Modern Literature's Depiction of Nervous Ailments. Retrieved October 2010, from Literature Study Online: http://www.literature-study-online.com/essays/bellow_kesey.html
Kubler-Ross, E. (2005). On Grief and Grieving: Finding the meaning of Grief Through the Five Stages of Loss. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Freud's theory of Grief and bereavement
Id, Ego and the Superego or the conscious and the unconscious mind are some of the terms which are well-known by almost every individual. These words not only point out to the field of Psychology but also to the man who coined them and proposed a new realm of theories behind each of it; Sigmund Freud. He is famous for being the father of psychoanalysis and the techniques of hypnosis, dream interpretation and free association which he has used to successfully treat his patients. Psychology is devoid without Freud. This is not only because of the theories which he proposed but also because of his followers and those who extended his basic concept with a new touch. Freud in all his theories talks about the past to be affecting the present. In other words, the unconscious mind which is the hidden…
Butler, J. (1997). The Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Subjection. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Freud, S. (1914). On narcissism: An introduction. Standard Edition. 14:73 -- 102.
Freud, S. (1917). Mourning and melancholia. Standard Edition 14:243 -- 258
Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. Standard Edition 19:12 -- 66.
There are certainly different approaches to the theory of anticipatory mourning. Clearly, one of the major issues within the literature surrounds the communication between the dying person and the caregiver, and both caregiver and patient and those who will be most affected or will mourn their loss. Conventional theory finds that preparing for loss involves experiencing most of the features of grief prior to the demise of the patient; numbness, anger or blame, fear, desperation, and even despair. However, an important difference is that the period of mourning begins before death occurs, and while contact and communication with the dying person is still a viable option. Because of this, there are additional emotions involved; hope, nostalgia, kindness, tenderness, and opportunity for closure (Fulton, 2003). It is this sense of hope, this feeling that there may still be something that can be done for the patient that is the focus of…
Caregiving Statistics. (2010, February). Retrieved from National Family Caregivers Association: http://www.thefamilycaregiver.org/who_are_family_caregivers/care_giving_statstics.cfm
Aliiance, F.C. (2010, September). Selected Caregiver Statistics. Retrieved from:Circlecenterads.info: http://www.circlecenterads.info/documents/FCAPrint_SelectedCaregiv...pdf
Boerner, Schulz and Horowitz. (2004). Positive Aspects of Caregiving and Adaptation to Bereavement. Psychology and Aging, 19(4), 668-75.
Davidson, F. (2002). The Caregiver's Sourcebook. New York: McGraw Hill.
Art therapy is particularly useful with younger children. With children under the age of eight it can be difficult for them to grasp the concept of death, it can be equally as difficult for them to express the things they are feeling about the loss of a loved one (Shaw, 2000). Through the medium of drawing or painting a counselor may gain a better understanding of their patient's subjective experience of the loss as well as any unresolved emotions or unanswered questions remaining after the fact. Art therapy is also an effective means of determining the relative normality of a child's cognitive function following a traumatic event (Shaw, 2000).
Older children respond more effectively to client centered interviews (Shaw, 2000). A client centered interview is a psychoanalytic approach which encourages the patient to talk extensively guided minimally by questions or suggestions from the therapist. This approach might allow through the…
1. Tomita, T., & Kitamura, T. (2002). Clinical and research measures of grief: A reconstruction. Comprehensive psychiatry, 43, 95- 102.
2. Larson, D., & Hoyt, W. (2007). What has become of grief counseling? An evaluation of the empirical foundations of the new pessimism. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 38, 347- 355.
3. Currier, J., Holland, J., & Neimeyer, R. (2007). The effectiveness of bereavement interventions with children: A meta- analytic review of controlled outcome research. Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology, 36, 253- 259.
4. Forte, a., Hill, M., Pazder, R., & Feudtner, C. (2004). Bereavement care interventions: A systematic review. BMC Palliative Care, 1-14.
Greiving Case Study
Grief is a powerful, and somewhat self-regulating condition which we face having experiences a traumatic event. The wonders of our human ody respond with pre-programmed efficiency in order to help us adjust to the reality of the new situation. In the face of a traumatic occurrence, when our emotional or mental reaction may e to shut down, or run and hide, the grieving response gives a person the needed oundaries in which they can continue to function. However, some time after the events have past into the distance, the need exists for the person to process through the grief. Only y processing the grief can the person reenter a healthy relationship with the daily responsiilities of life, and healthy relationships with others in their life.
Charley's current situation in life is a function of poor decisions in his adult life. However, these decisions are also a response…
Lindemann, Erich. (1994) "Symptomatology and Management of Acute Grief." In Essential Papers on Object Loss. New York: New York UP, 1994.
Major Depressive Episode. (2004) Bravenet clinical Capsule. Accessed 18 Feb 2004. Available from: http://www.behavenet.com/capsules/disorders/mjrdepep.htm
Alcorn Jr., M. (2001, Spet. 22) Ideological Death and Grief in the Classroom: Mourning as a Prerequisite to Learning. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society/
Manveet, K. (2002, June 4) Children and grief New Straits Times;
Secondly, the kid should be assisted in augmenting their reasoning and by making them know deaths with realistic information. Thirdly, the kid should attain consent to allow him/her do away with old lifestyle and come up with new lifestyle. An example of a long-term effect includes troubles with the internalization of conscience.
Loss at Teenage Years
At this age, for the teenager to finish the duties of psychological loss the adolescent requires to resist parent figures that nevertheless are constantly available. Parent loss will interrupt these duties. Secondly, control matters will continually affect the teenager's behaviors, more so if he/she feels a great part of the resolutions about his life are out of his/her control.
In order to reduce the short-term effects, teenagers are required to feel that they do have rising control over their very own lives. Also, adults should offer them many chances as much as possible in…
1. Bonanno G., Neria Y., Mancini a., Coifman K., Litz B. & Insel B (2007)Is there more to complicated grief than depression and posttraumatic stress disorder? A test of incremental validity. Psychological Medical Journal.116, pp. 342 -- 351
2. Brent, D., Melhem N., Donohoe MB & Walker M. (2009). The Incidence and Cause of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months after the loss of a Parent to Suicide,
Accident, or Sudden Natural Death, Psychological Medical Journal.166, pp.786 -- 794.
3. Hensley P., Slonimski C., Uhlenhuth E. & Clayton P. (2009)Escitalopram: an open-label
Loss of loved ones is always traumatic and always requires sort-term and long-term emotional recovery. In situations where the family has the opportunity to hold a funeral ritual and also to include the remains in whatever particular way their culture prescribes, the funeral ritual provides an opportunity to fully (and publicly) express grief in the manner that (at least) eliminates the unconscious (or repressed) grief of loss that can otherwise re-emerge long after the typical grieving process. Families who have certainty about the loss of their loved one also have the opportunity afforded by psychological closure to begin the long-term process of emotional recovery to the normalcy of life without acute emotional sorrow or worry.
By contrast, in situations where their surviving family members lack certainty about the loss and have no opportunity to hold a funeral ritual, surviving family members may not have an opportunity to fully (or publicly)…
Levine, Carol. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque
Iowa: McGraw Hill. 2008.
Sagan, Carl. Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House. 1997.
Lewis writes a Grief Observed
Lewis: A Grief Observed
In C.S. Lewis' A Grief Observed, Lewis talks of the process of grief. Specifically, he discusses this process through a long and painful and journey which deals with the death of his wife. While he is not interested in going back he does talk about his love for his wife Joy and how this particular experience of grief meshes with ideas that he has expressed in some of the earlier things that he's written. Even though he spends much time revisiting the memories of the past he says that he finds that he is terrified by the idea of going back and being happy begin in that same way (Lewis, 70). He goes through various stages of grief and his faith undergoes much analysis and reflection. Sometimes he remembers some of the things about Joy that affect him very strongly.
Lament for a Son, Wolterstorff talks about how a Christian worldview can help coping with grief and loss. Wolterstorff's perspective corresponds with Kubler-oss's five stages of grief, even though the narrative is not formally about those stages. The stages of grief provides a model for the ways human beings process death and loss, not to show that there is a "right" or "good" way of experiencing grief but simply to illuminate the reality of suffering and help people to come to terms with death. As Axelrod (n.d.) points out, the stages of grief do not necessarily unfold in chronological order, either. They are not stages of growth, necessarily, although the final stage of acceptance is a desirable outcome. Each person experiences grief and loss differently, and some people may linger longer in some stages and others may not experience that stage at all ("Understanding Grief and Loss: An Overview," n.d.).…
Axelrod, J. (n.d.). The five stages of loss and grief. PsychCentral. Retrieved online: http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-5-stages-of-loss-and-grief/
"Understanding Grief and Loss: An Overview," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://healgrief.org/understanding-grief/
Wolterstorff, N. (1987). Lament for a Son. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Lament for a Son: Christian Grief
There are few human experiences as all-encompassing in their horror as the loss of a child. It feels unnatural for a child to die before a parent. The "natural" order of things is that the parents raise the children, se them on their way, and die, making way for the new generation to make its own mark on the world. When a child dies, especially at an age as young as 25, the entire world is ripped from the remaining parents, who must suddenly live not only with the greatest loss a person could experience, but also with the unexpected nature of that loss. This is the case with Dr. Nicholas Wolterstorff, author of Lament for a Son, a book written in dedication to his son who died at the age of 25 after a mountain climbing accident. What makes Dr. Wolterstorff's book unusual…
Feldmeyer, M. (2012, Aug. 12). "Lament for a Son." Sermon at Duke University Chapel. Retrieved from: https://chapel.duke.edu/sites/default/files/LamentForASon -- 08-12-12_0.pdf
Schroden, J. (2007, May 19). "Lament for a Son." Retrieved from: http://justinschroden.efoliomn.com/
Timms, D. (2009). "Lament for a Son." In Hope. Retrieved from: http://www.hiu.edu/inhope/issue9_28.html
Utay and Miller (2006) described a study in which researchers observed over 100 individuals with unresolved grief reactions. There were three phases of treatment employed with these individuals. The first stage of treatment involved cognitive structuring for the decision to grieve again and for procedure clarification. The second stage involved guided imagery for reliving, revising, and revisiting the scenes at which the loss occurred. The third and final stage involved future-oriented identity reconstruction. The researchers reported that the reliving of the event through guided imagery effectively changed the client's view of reality, and furthermore helped along their grief resolution (Melges & DeMaso (1980), as cited by Utay & Miller, 2006). Moreover, Guided imagery has been established as a versatile and effective intervention.
The importance in assisting the children's mother with the grief process lies in the fact that bereavement is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality, and it…
Elliott, K. (2000). Long QT syndrome. Alberta RN, January/February.
Firth, Hurst (2005). Clinical Genetics, New York: Oxford University Press, 378-9.
Gravitz, MA. (2001). Perceptual reconstruction in the treatment of inordinate grief. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 44(1), 51-5.
Joffrion, L.P., Douglas, D. (1994). Grief resolution: faciliatating self-transcendence in the bereaved. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 32(3), 13-9.
Losing a son or daughter challenges personal faith in God and can bring a person to the brink of despair. In Lament for a Son, Nicholas Wolterstorff accomplishes the difficult goal of communicating his grief over the loss of his son. The author achieves his goal by grounding his sorrow in Biblical truth and also by allowing himself to proceed between the various stages of death within the Kubler-oss model. The stages of grief include the initial phase of denial and self-isolation, even shame. Anger is a pervasive problem in the face of grief, and Wolterstorff admits his confrontation with anger at God and the seeming unfairness over the death of his son. Accompanying anger is often the stage of bargaining, in which the individual speaks to God without a full acceptance or understanding of His ways. Wolterstorff's challenge, which he seeks to communicate with his readers, is…
Axelrod, J. (2006). The 5 Stages of Loss and Grief. Psych Central. Retrieved on March 6, 2015, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-5-stages-of-loss-and-grief/ 000617
Wolterstorff, N. (1987). Lament for a Son. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
Worden, J.W. (2008). Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy. 4th edition. Springer.
Grieving in Literary Works
Wolterstorff is able to find joy after his loss in more than one way. Specifically, the author was actually able to transition through the various stages of grieving as outlined by Elisabeth Kubler-oss. Those stages include denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and understanding (Ferrini and Ferrini, 2008). Towards the end of the book, for instance, it is clear that he is able to arrive at an understanding of the entire significance of the death of his son and in that understanding he is able to once more experience joy. That understanding, of course, has a lot to do with his faith as a Christian as much as his ability to transition through the aforementioned five stages. It is pivotal to understand that the evolution of an individual through each of these five stages is not linear, and Wolterstorff's experience certainly details this fact. Still, he is able…
Ferrini, R.L., Ferrini, A.F. (2008). Health in the Later Years. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Kubler-Ross, E. (1997). On Death and Dying. New York: Scribner. Print.
Matthew. (n.d.) The book of Matthew. www.biblegateway.com / Retrieved from https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Matthew+12%3A36&version=KJV
In showing the strength of his Christian faith and the rhetoric behind his revelations, Lewis uses the theme of his wife's death as a rhetorical devise. Lewis provides a rationale for the death of his wife in the context of grief. He argues, "[T]here's no denying that in some sense I 'feel better,' and with that comes at once a sort of shame, and a feeling that one is under a sort of obligation to cherish and foment and prolong one's unhappiness." Lewis within this passage concludes that prolonged grief after the death of his wife is a selfish act, because it is a pretense of "heroic love and tragedy." In putting forth this claim, Lewis carefully begins both his recovery and the explanation of his reaffirmation in Christianity. He cloaks this revelation in pessimism, "Praise in due order; of Him as the giver, of her as the gift. I…
Postmodern Bereavement Theory
Bereavement is a universal observable fact as every human being experiences the loss of a loved one at some point in his/her life. However, every individual experiences it in a unique way. It is, without a doubt, an undeniable truth that to be human is to grieve. The passing away of a loved one can be difficult, irresistible and dreadful for any normal individual. When people are faced with such overwhelming situations, a majority of them especially the older adults get into the habit of enduring their loss with time. On the other hand, to forget and live without a loved one is not as easy for some individuals. It becomes difficult for these people to cope up with the grief-stricken situations as they experience a grief of greater concentration or time (Hansson & Stroebe, 2007). There are a number of theorists who have put forwarded their…
Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L.M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test o f a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244. Retrieved from http://www.sfu.ca/psyc/faculty/bartholomew/attachmentpub_files/bh1991.pdf
Bonanno, G.A., Keltner, D., Holen, A., & Horowitz, M.J. (1995). When avoiding unpleasant emotions might not be such a bad thing: Verbal-autonomic response dissociation and midlife conjugal bereavement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Dent, A. (2005). Supporting the Bereaved: Theory and Practice. Counselling at Work, 22-23. Retrieved May 28, 2012 from http://www.bacpworkplace.org.uk/journal_pdf/acw_autumn05_ann.pdf
The first on the recommended list is that the physician must acknowledge the grief that the person is feeling, and also acknowledge the fact that he, himself, may not know what the bereaved person is going through at that particular moment. He can directly express sympathy for the bereaved family, and he can talk freely about the deceased, and mention his name too, when talking about him. He can elicit questions about the exact circumstances in which the death had occurred, and he can ask direct questions about how the bereaved feels, and what he thinks about the death and how it has affected him. The don'ts to be followed by the physician or clinician are that the clinician must never adopt a casual or passive attitude, like for example, saying, 'call me if you want to talk'. He must also learn never to make statements that what happened was…
Ambrose, Jeannette. "Traumatic Grief, what we need to know as Trauma Responders" Retrieved from http://www.ctsn-rcst.ca/Traumaticgrief.html. Accessed 15 July, 2006
Christie, Grace. (2000) "Healing Children's Grief, surviving a parent's death from cancer"
Crisis Intervention" Retrieved at http://www.minddisorders.com/Br-Del/Crisis-intervention.html. Accessed 14 July, 2006
Davidson, Joyce D. (1999) "Living with Grief, at work, at school, at worship"
Heward reference is a book review of Nancy Close's book Listening to Children: Talking With Children About Difficult Issues -- It is improper to reference a book review-unless of course you are also reviewing the book. I have included the proper reference
Perhaps the one of the worst fears of new parents is that their child may develop a serious disability such as mental retardation or other developmental disability. Arguably the most important influences on the development of any young child would be the child's parents and the sociocultural environment in which the child grows up (Skinner & Weisner, 2007). This socio-cultural environment includes the family environment, community environment, and geographic locale including all shared beliefs and assumptions about child development and about disabilities. However, one can argue that the most important aspect of the sociocultural environment that a child with a disability grows up in is the influence of…
Barnett, D., Clements, M., Kaplan-Estrin, M., & Fialka, J. (2003). Building new dreams:
Supporting parents' adaptation to their child with special needs. Infants & Young Children, 16(3), 184-200.
Bostrom, P.K., Broberg, M., & Hwang, P. (2010). Parents' descriptions and experiences of young children recently diagnosed with intellectual disability. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(1), 93-100.
Bruce, E.J. (2000). Grief, trauma and parenting children with disability: cycles of disenfranchisement. Grief Matters: The Australian Journal of Grief and Bereavement, 13(2), 27-31.
In the case of the former of these groups, there is a demand for proper training and experience in helping family members face the practical realities imposed by the death of a loved one. Further, research demonstrates that many acute care settings are lacking in the capacity to manage these particular issues, failing particularly to make some of the most basic steps needs to help the bereaved face this difficult period. According to Murphy et al. (1997), a survey of area hospice facilities revealed that such settings were problematically deficient in the areas of preparation for bereavement. Accordingly, Murphy et al. report that "the facilities completed surveys about on-site services routinely offered by licensed hospice agencies. 55% of the homes sent sympathy cards after the patients death. 99% of the facilities did not provide materials to the family or primary caregiver on the grieving process or bereavement after the death.…
Benoliel, J.Q. (1999). Loss and Bereavement Perspectives, Theories, Challenges. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 30(4), 263-272.
Birtwistle, J.; Payne, S.; Smith, P. & Kendrick, T. (2002). The role of the district nurse in bereavement support. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 38(5), 467-478.
Bunting-Perry, L.K. (2006). Palliative Care in Parkinson's Disease: Neuroscience Nursing Implications: Bereavement Care. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 38(2), 106-113.
Hanson, L.C.; Danis, M. & Garrett, J. (1997). What is wrong with end-of-life care? Opinions of bereaved family members. Journal of American Geriatric Society, 45(11), 1339-1344.
Categories and Phases of Loss and Grief for Nancy
Diagnostic Statement for Nancy
Nancy is obese and reports feeling anxious and depressed. Nancy has gained 15 pounds does not sleep well, has low concentration ability and is forgetful. Nancy has a social phobia and exhibits some signs of paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, Nancy has a back injury, which contributes, to her general feeling of ill health and results in not getting the exercise she needs. Nancy is a chain smoker. Nancy feels that she has lost control of her life. Nancy's son Michael has asthma. It appears that Nancy's husband suffers from some type of behavior disorder and is likely somewhat mentally retarded.
DSM-IV-T (2000) Diagnosis
The multiaxial assessment includes analysis on the following five stated Axis:
(1) Axis 1: clinical disorders, pervasive developmental disorders, learning, motor skills and communication disorder
296.xx Major Depressive Disorder
301.0 Paranoid Personality Disorder
Antonovsky, A. And Sourani, T. (1998) Family Sense of Coherence and Family Adaptation. Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 50. No. 1 Feb 1998. National Council on Family Relations. Retrieved from: http://psych.wfu.edu/furr/362/Family%20Sense%20of%20Coherence%20Scale.pdf
Connell, Cindi (2010) Multicultural Perspectives and Considerations Within Structural Family Therapy: The Premises of Structure, Subsystems and Boundaries. Rivier Academic Journal. Vol. 6. No. 2 Fall, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.rivier.edu/journal/ROAJ-Fall-2010/J461-Connelle-Multicultural-Perspectives.pdf
Fischer, J. And Cocoran, K. (1994) Measures of Clinical Practice. Social Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=y2C9YvSU53sC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Ruiz, MA (nd) Transgenerational and Structural Family Therapy, An Analysis of Both Schools. Retrieved from: http://miguelangelruiz.webs.com/Transgenerational%20and%20Structural%20Family%20Therapy.pdf
The author of this report is asked to analyze and assess the work Lament For a Son as authored by Wolterstorff. Indeed, the author of that treatise exemplifies and shows the five stages of grief as defined and described by Elisabeth Kubler-oss. The author of this report will briefly cover the Kubler-oss framework and how it manifests in the Wolterstorff offering. Further, the author of this report will describe the manner in which Wolterstorff found joy after his loss. Also, there will be a description and a depiction of what death means when it comes to the common Christian narrative. Finally, the author will cover how the hope of a resurrection plays a role in the comforting of Wolterstorff. While the death of his son is shown to have hit Wolterstoff very hard as he offers his thoughts, it is clear that he eventually finds at least some solace…
Aitken, R. (1968). The Holy Bible. New York: Arno Press.
Grief.com. (2015). Five Stages of Grief by Elisabeth Kubler Ross & David Kessler. Grief.com - Because LOVE Never Dies. Retrieved 17 July 2015, from http://grief.com/the-five-stages-of-grief/
Wolterstorff, N. (1987). Lament for a son. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Eerdmans.
This particular notion of reconnection with lost loved ones helps many people recover from the loss of loved ones. On the other hand, those who do not believe in religion or in any gods might argue that such beliefs are delusional and actually interfere with a more realistic acceptance of death for what it actually is. Nevertheless, it is difficult to argue that religion provides a valuable coping mechanism for many people in connection with death, irrespective of whether or not it is actually an accurate representation of reality.
The ole of Grief Counseling
Sometimes, people have a particularly hard time coping with the loss of loved ones, especially in circumstances where that loss is unexpected (such as the loss of a child), where it occurs much earlier than is ordinarily the case, or where the survivors actually witnessed the traumatic death of a loved one. Understandably, all of these…
Deits, Bob. Life after Loss: A Practical Guide to Renewing Your Life after Experiencing
Major Loss. New York: Bantam. 2004.
Henslin, James M. Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn
and Bacon. 2006.
"Accurate descriptions of sex chromosome differences are critical, the decisions potentially regrettable, and the long-term outcomes devastating if a termination is based on the misinformation," that the patient later discovers to be misinformation for instance, "that any of these conditions is comparable to Down's Syndrome" (Biesecker r 2001:2) Conversely, it is also important not to minimize the odds of a potentially fatal genetic condition like Tay Sachs disease.
Providers are obliged to obtain useful up-to-date information and to ensure parents have adequate opportunity to consider their decision with the help of an experienced healthcare provider, preferably in medical genetics, and if necessary, a counselor who is attuned to the cultural assumptions and needs of the couple's population group, and religious beliefs. Certain populations might have a different view and understanding of the real difficulty of raising a child suffering from a heritable disorder, or even the concept of heritability of…
Baker, Schuette & Uhlmann. (Eds.) (1998). A guide to genetic counseling.
Beery, Theresa a & Kerry a. Schooner. (Nov 2004). "Family History: The First Genetic
Screen." Nurse Practioner. Retrieved 23 Jun 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3958/is_200411/ai_n9469874/pg_5
Biesecker, Barbara. (24 Feb 2001). "Prenatal diagnoses of sex chromosome conditions:
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
Where Will Counseling Take Place?
oundaries for Safety and Security
God's Riches at Christ's Expense
A Practical Pastoral Counseling Model
This is an overview of the counseling position that I will take when working with clients/parishioners. I realize that this cannot encompass every eventuality that may occur during a counseling session, but it should be comprehensive enough to account for most of the possibilities that present themselves. I acknowledge that this is also the treatise of someone who is going to be practicing as a pastor first and a counselor second, therefore the relationship of a shepherd to his assigned sheep is the most important consideration in all of this. Also, the counseling relationship that a pastor enjoys with a parishioner is not as extensive as that between a patient…
Carlson, Dwight L. 2000. Overcoming hurts and anger. Eugene: Harvest House. ISBN: 0736901965
This book is a real help when dealing with anger. The author gives you steps on how to prevent your anger and deal with past anger in a Christian manner. He gives examples of mishandled anger, biblical principles about anger, and how to handle anger in a Christ-like way.
LaHaye, Tim and Bob Phillips. 2002. Anger is a choice. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. ISBN: 0310242835
The bereavement groups are social gatherings that most people need and belong to since there is no way to tell when bereavement may come by. However, these groups come in handy when such unforeseen sad situations come by and the affected individuals need support emotionally to go through the sad times. In as much as it is a voluntary group, in most parts people find that it is of great help to be engaged in one of these groups always.
While designing a bereavement-counselling group, there are several ways that can be used to market or publicize it. The first would be to have a brochure that the potential members are served with within the community that will be targeted. This brochure is a sure way of having the individuals who received it have a point of reference as frequently as possible incase they need details…
American Cancer Society, (2014). Coping with Loss of a Loved One. Retrieved September 21, 2014 from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/emotionalsideeffects/griefandloss/coping-with-the-loss-of-a-loved-one-intro-to-grief-mourning-bereavement
Carneley B.K., et.al., (2006). The Time Course of Grief Reactions to Spousal Loss: Evidence From a National Probability Sample. Retrieved September 21, 2014 from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/cwortman-/papers/Carnelle_Wortman_Bolger_Burke_2006_article.pdf
Johnson J., (2010). Honoring the Memory of a Deceased Loved One. Retrieved September 21, 2014 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/judith-johnson/the-power-of-bearing-witn_1_b_736710.html
Peck and Stephanics, (1987). Learning to say Goodbye: Dealing with Death and Dying. Library of Congress. Retrieved September 21, 2014 from http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=EjtY2WtamJcC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=outcomes+for+Learning+how+to+say+goodbye&source=bl&ots=LeIlhpSwap&sig=9bG0SBXyVPoewYTUAhpyE_rwwms&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZJwgVPrCG4HnygOE84HYAg&ved=0CGoQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=outcomes%20for%20Learning%20how%20to%20say%20goodbye&f=false
"You can use it if you want to," he said. The horror of Dunne's death is that it fixes the deceased in time. Frustrated and full of self-reproach, Didion is left to look and keep on looking for fresh possibilities in the past: missed clues, wrong turns, alternate endings, places to correct the record, to, as she says, "get it right."
Finally, she realizes that it is okay if she does not "get it right." It is okay to be wrong. It is okay not to be her infallible self. "Life changes fast. Life changes in an instant. You sit down to dinner and life as you know it ends." This is where the studies of Erikson and Gould come into play. Didion is not alone. More than likely, most of the people who read her book will be in the same situation with someone close person at one time…
Didion, J. 2005. Year of Magical Thinking. New York: Alfred Knopf.
Erickson, E., and Erickson, J. (1998) the life cycle completed. New York: Norton.
Gould, R.L. 1972. The phases of adult life: a study in the development psychology.
Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 129., no. 5.
As rewarding as that experience was, not all of my work at the adoption agency was as satisfying. Most people understand that any adoption process -- especially when it occurs internationally -- is a long and complicated process that must deal with significant layers of bureaucracy. Success is, unfortunately, not necessarily guaranteed. But when adopting families are only a few weeks away from receiving their new children, we all begin to assume that adoptions will go through and we will have helped create many new families. Thus, it was especially devastating for all of us at the agency, not to mention the families involved, when two weeks before a new batch of Chinese children was meant to arrive, the Chinese government decided against letting the children leave the country. In hindsight, the reasons are unimportant; no rational explanation could have assuaged the grief of the families who had expectantly and…
They become part of our personality and the way in which interact with others and feel about ourselves. When one of these connections is lost by means of death, it is painful, because the connections are important to us. Like the connections we form in life, the loss of these connections also shape us in an important way. The way and the time of death, as well as the specific person who dies, becomes as much part of us and our personality as the living connections we make. This means that we never really "let go." Instead, we integrate what the death means to us as part of the events in life that shape our personality. It is therefore important to hold on, in a sense, to what the person meant to us, and how the death affected us. This is an improtant part of life; being aware of how…
Proust and Narrativity
We read Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time - that greatest work of his the title of which is more commonly translated as Remembrance of Things Past both because of the simple beauty of his language and because of the power that he has to find our own lost pieces of time. For while he makes us interested in his past because of his marvelous descriptions of his own childhood and we become entranced by his memories because of the elegant and lush way that he conveys them to us, we also read the book because it seems to offer to us a type of magic, seems to serve as a talisman to all pasts, not just his alone. This paper examines the narrative structure of In Search of Lost Time and the ways in which that structure, joined to Proust's language and symbolism, can help…
Losing a loved one is a major event that every individual experiences because death is a normal part of life. The process through which an individual approaches death or grieves after losing a loved one is usually affected by his/her social environment. The social environment affects this process through familial, societal, and cultural factors. One of the most common issues in today's social work practice helping clients deal with the loss of a loved one. Consequently, understanding the grieving process and models is an important competency for social workers because of the likelihood of handling clients who need to learn and know how to grieve with the loss of a loved one. An understanding of the grieving process helps the social worker to understand how to address the needs of a grieving individual and his/her family. However, social workers need to develop self-care strategies since handling such individuals can…
One is virtually provided with the chance to become 'friends' with the narrators as the respective individual realizes that he or she is being told personal things and that it appears that the story-tellers actually go as far as to consider that they are telling their stories to someone that they have a special relationship with.
Amy Tan is putting across averly's personal feelings to readers as she expresses her understanding of her mother's thinking. "My mother believed you could be anything you wanted to be in America. You could open a restaurant. You could work for the government and get good retirement. You could buy a house with almost no money" (Tan 132). hen looking at things from the narrator's perspective, it almost feels impossible not to sympathize with averly and not to consider that it would be essential for you, as a reader, to support her by using…
Baldwin, James, "Sonny's Blues," (Klett International, 31.01.2000 )
Bierce, Ambrose, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge," (Forgotten Books, 1948)
Selvadurai, Shyam, "Story-Wallah: Short Fiction from South Asian Writers," (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 07.04.2005 )
Tan, Amy, "The Joy Luck Club," (Penguin 2006)
1989-1990 antidepressant medications were not approved for use on nine and ten-year-olds and this poor kid is put on antidepressants immediately after his father dies. Then of course the kid experiences mood swings which get worse and he is eventually diagnosed with bipolar disorder (of course no one considers that a fairly common side effect of antidepressant medications is mania). Secondly, we have a troubled young man that comes from an unstable home who is immediately tossed into grief therapy right after the death of his father. I cannot think of a more obvious way to tell a nine-year-old he is sick- that there is something wrong with the way he feels. So I guess no nine-year-old ever went through such an incident without professional help-I mean what did kids who experience tragedies do before we had professional counselors? I guess they all went crazy and then grew up as…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Golden, L.B. (2002). Case studies in child and adolescent counseling. Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
Sadock, B.J. & Sadock, V.A., (2007). Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry:
Behavioral sciences/clinical Psychiatry (10th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
For example, one of the interesting points that grabbed my attention was Dill's discussion of gender relations among African slaves. Slave men and women had a more egalitarian relationship than free white men and women. That is because slave men did not possess the power and authority of free men. So, power is inherently corrupting? At least, this is what Dill's description of gender relations in antebellum America suggest.
I wish, as a professor of sociology, Dill could have made more direct relations with the present (describing history just for the sake of history is the job of historians). I also wish, she could have allotted as much space to the story of Chinese-Americans that she does to White, African-American, and Chicano families. But I still admired this essay because it powerfully tells how society often subjects women to double or triple burdens. In colonial and antebellum America, the society…
Andersen, M.L, & Collins, P.H. (2010) Race, Class & Gender: An Anthology, 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing.
He questions whether he should try to clear the court of corruption or just give up and end his life now. It is this emotional doubt that drives Hamlet to act deranged at times, but he overcomes it, and almost manages to answer the difficult questions posed in his life. In Act V, when calm returns, Hamlet repents his behavior (V, ii, 75-78) (Lidz, 164).
In Lidz's book Freud is quoted as saying "that if anyone holds and expresses to others an opinion of himself such as this [Hamlet's "Use every man after his desert, and who shall escape whipping?"], he is ill, whether he is speaking the truth whether he is being more or less unfair to himself." Though Hamlet has proved his intellectual stability, he is quite obviously emotionally "ill."
This emotional illness and uncertainty is why Hamlet procrastinates in the killing of Claudius. On his way to…
Babcock, Weston. A Tragedy of Errors. Purdue Research Foundation 1961.
Charlton, Lewis. The Genesis of Hamlet. Kenniket Press, Port Washington, NY 1907.
Elliot, T.S. "Hamlet and His Problems." Sacred Woods. 1920.
Leavenworth, Russel E. Interpreting Hamlet: Materials for analysis Chandler Publishing CO, San Francisco 1960.
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…
Setting the stage for the group
Psychological intervention might be most efficient when females start modification by leaving the abuser and get in a shelter. Shelters are an essential resource for victims because they offer females and kids security and link them with social, legal, and financial resources (Dutton, 1992). Furthermore, battered females in shelters have a greater threat for PTSD than those who do not look for shelter (Jones et al., 2001). Provided the problems connected with PTSD, these signs might disrupt victims' capability to successfully utilize resources made to enhance their security once they leave the shelter (Foa, Cascardi, Zollner, & Feeny, 2000).
Unlike various other PTSD victims, damaged ladies in shelters deal with continuous security issues. Numerous of their viewed dangers are genuine (Foa et al., 2000). For that reason, conventional PTSD therapies that include exposure are contraindicated, as habituation to feared stimulations might enhance their danger…
Baer, R.A. (Ed.). (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician's guide to evidence base and applications. New York: Academic Press.
Bagshaw, D., Chung, D., Couch, M., Lilburn, S. And Wadham, B. (2000), Reshaping Responses to Domestic Violence: Final Report, University of South Australia.
Beauchamp, T.L., & Childress, J.F. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics (5th ed.). New York: Oxford.
Betan, E.J., & Stanton, A.L. (1999). Fostering ethical willingness: Integrating emotional and contextual awareness with rational analysis. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 295-301.
" As the reader soon discovers, this heart trouble wasn't physical; rather, her trouble was related to personal unhappiness in her marriage. The heart disease as not being a physical condition is once again reinforced at the very end of the story when the author writes, "When the doctors came they said she had died of heart disease -- of joy that kills." However, the reader is well aware by this time that she is experiencing despair knowing that her husband is still alive rather than joy upon his return to her life.
Likewise, "The Storm" involves a character vs. society conflict. This time the conflict deals with the loss of passion in marriage and is perhaps indicative of Chopin's own extramarital affair. For the reminder of a lost passion, Calixta is visited by an old lover while her lover is away as illustrated by the lines, "The contact of…
Kate Chopin. "Story of an Hour."
Kate Chopin. "The Storm."
"Kate Chopin." Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kate_Chopin
Analysis of passage from The Ballad of the Sad Cafe and Other Stories by Carson McCullers (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1951; rpt. 1971), pp.3-5
Carson McCullers' short story "The Ballad of the Sad Cafe" is set in a town that is immediately established as remote, rural, and Southern: it is located near a cotton mill, there are peach trees all over the area, and there is only a single church. Even the buses are three miles away, which suggest the stranded and isolated nature of the residents. The main street is only two miles long, and there is "nothing whatsoever to do" during the long, hot summers. Even the nearest train stop (the significantly named 'Society' City) is far away. The largest building looks lonely and is boarded up completely. This large building, half-painted and left unfinished becomes a kind of metaphor for the town, as well as the woman…
One study published in the American Psychiatric Association found that "PTSD has been shown to predict poor health not only in veterans of the 1991 Gulf ar but also in veterans of orld ar II and the Korean ar. Our study extends these findings in a group of active duty soldiers returning from recent combat deployment to Iraq, confirming the strong association between PTSD and the indicators of physical health independent of physical injury" (Hoge, Terhakopian, Castro, Messer & Engel, 2007). From this study one can certainly glean that PTSD has a somatic component to it, or at least there is a prevalence in which persons afflicted with PTSD also suffer from physical health problems. One can also assume that the somatic component was downplayed or overlooked in prior studies, as most treatments for PTSD do not seem to address the physical aspect of the disorder.
To elaborate on this…
Cooper, M. (2008). The Facts are Friendly. Therapy Today.net. Retrieved from http://www.therapytoday.net/article/15/8/categories/
Frost, R. (1923). Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening. New Hampshire. Retrieved from http://www.ketzle.com/frost/snowyeve.htm .
Gelso, C., Fretz, B. (2001). Counseling Psychology Second Edition. Orlando, FL:
loss are common concepts in poetry that have been explored by men and women alike, across time and across cultural boundaries. Two such poets are Louise Labe, a French, Renaissance poet and Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, a New Spanish nun and Baroque poet. In Sonnet 23 by Labe and Sonnet 165 by Cruz, issues of love, loss, and impermanence are explored through imagery and tone.
In Sonnet 23, Labe attempts to understand why her lover no longer finds her attractive or no longer wants to have a relationship with her. Labe asks, "What good is it to me if long ago you/eloquently praised my golden hair, compared to my eyes and beauty to the flare/of two suns where, you say, love bent the bow, sending the darts that needled you with grief?" In the sonnet, the narrator claims that she was once compared to the sun, which is…
Alcohol vs. coffee: Literary reaction
"The sweet Poison of the Treacherous Grape/....Drowning our very Reason and our Souls." The 18th century marked the beginning of what would come to be known as the neoclassical era of art and literature. It was the era of satire, marked by a belief in reason over emotion, an age which prized what was artificial, man-made and constructed over what was natural and instinctive. It was also the era of coffee and the coffee house. In this poem, coffee is celebrated as a beverage that sharpens the intellect, rather than dulls it like alcohol, the 'poison' that drowns reason. Throughout the poem, a dichotomy of coffee vs. alcohol is created. The values of the Age of Enlightenment are exemplified in this contrast, as well as many of the literary features of the era, including rhyming couplets, metrical verse, and poems that 'say' what they mean…
Antwone Fisher Story
Antwone Fisher was a young black man with a disruptive family history. His emotional development was severely affected as he matured, which created situations and difficult choices for the first 25 years of his life. The middle child in a family of foster children, Antwone never knew his father, and was abandoned by his mother into the foster care system at the age of two. At the time he was given to the 'system' his mother was a prostitute, or at least a bar made who rarely stayed in an employed status for a long period of time. It could be assumed that she never returned for her first born son, to retrieve him from the foster care system because of her own unstable living conditions. As a result, Antwone became part of a religious, but abusive foster family where he endured the degradation of beatings, threats,…
" In the process, one learns to see oneself as strong and resilient, courageous, and empowered. Whether the individual can get up and go on and have a happy life after the loss depends on how the person views self
Is he or she a victim or a survivor? A strong person making spiritual progress or weak and debilitated? Whiting & Bradley (2007) argue that there must be an outcome for every loss. Whether the outcome is "reconciliation" or "vulnerability" or "victimization" depends on successful and positive identity reconstruction.
It used to be believed that the grieving individual had to achieve detachment from the person who had died. This was Freud's theory, that "grieving people need to break free from the deceased, let go of the past and reassert their individualism by charting a new course for life.
A healthy grief experience, according to Freud [was] one in which the…
Anderson, R.A. (2006). Immunity and grief. Townsend Letter: The Examiner of Alternative Medicine, 276, 128.
Briggs, C.A. And Pehrsson, D. (2008). Use of bibliotherapy in the treatment of grief and loss: A guide to current counseling practices. Adultspan Journal, 7 (1), 32-43.
Bush, H.K. (2007). Grief work: After a child dies. The Christian Century, 124 (25), 36-40.
Care of the elderly - bereavement: An essential guide (2006). The Practitioner (June 29), 22-29.
therapy is usually applied in cases such as the one exhibited by Kong, following the loss of a loved one. The procedure is outlined below:
The Semi-Structured Clinical Interview
The informal assessment of individuals faced with the effects of the loss of a loved one such as Kong's case is the semi structured interview. This approach allows the therapist to classify victims according to the symptoms that they exhibit. The approach allows for the recording of changes in profile symptoms demonstrated over time. The information below should be collected from a client.
The mental illness history of the family
Ones medical history
Any past visits or interactions with a psychiatrist
One's social history
Varying aspects of one's specific information should be collected regarding the loss of a loved one
There is need to focus the interview details on the secondary and primary…
They have grandparents who visit them during the holidays. However, for the most part family members deal with their problems as individuals, not as a family unit.
Information provided by the family is an important source of information about the family. However, one cannot ignore outside sources of information as well. For instance, the worker may contact the school, neighbors, or others who are involved with the family to examine factors that may influence the current situation. The assessment plan will involve contacting the school to find out about Conrad's performance in terms of grades, attendance and overall performance.
The case of the Jarretts is complex, with many individual goals that must be completed on the way to resolution of the systemic problems. In this case, the identified patient is Conrad, as he was the one who tried to commit suicide. The goal of family therapy is the…
Bowen Center for the Study of the Family. (2010). Bowen Theory. Retrieved April 13, 2010
Missouri Department of Social Services. (2007). Child Welfare Manual. Retrieved April 13,
2010 from http://www.dss.mo.gov/cd/info/cwmanual/section7/ch1_33/sec7ch25.htm
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories)
Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to expound and/or test it, as Ainsworth did when Bowlby was still in the process of strengthening his attachment theory.
One such study was conducted by Schore and Schore (2008), which explored the emotion regulation aspect of the theory. In their study, the authors realized the potential of attachment theory in developing a "therapeutic intervention" from which coping on the loss of the attachment figure would be a healthier process for the individual. The authors shifted from the issue of…
Ainsworth, M. (1984). "Attachment across the life span." Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine.
Ainsworth, M. And J. Bowlby. (1991). "An ethological approach to personality development." American Psychologist, Vol. 46, No. 4.
Bartholomew, K. And L. Horowitz. (1991). "Attachment styles among young adults: a test of a four-category model." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 61, No. 2.
Bartholomew, K. And P. Shaver. (1998). In Attachment theory and close relationships. J. Simpson and W. Rholes (Eds.). NY: Guilford Press.
An eligible employee shall be entitled to a total of seven days of leave because of the death of a parent, spouse, son, daughter, or person for whom the employee serves as designated representative... If the deceased died in the line of duty as a member of the uniformed services. Such leave is intended to permit the employee to prepare for or attend the burial ceremony of the deceased member of the uniformed services and may be paid or unpaid leave.
Conversely, however, the United States Federal government presently has no laws in place to similarly (or otherwise, in comparable and appropriate ways) formally acknowledge and honor the passing of federal government personnel other than military personnel.
According to U.S. Code Title 5, Part III; Subpart E; Chapter 63; Subchapter II (2005), the federal government does in fact authorize, according to three separate sections of Title 5: (1)…
Acuff, J. (c2004). The relationship edge in business: Connecting with customers and colleagues when it counts. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Andrus, P. (2005). Grief in the workplace. Martin & Castille. Retrieved February 3, 2005 at http://www.mourning.com/your_grief_workplace.html .
Banusiewics, J.D. (2004). Customs of military funerals reflect history, tradition.
United States Department of Defense. Retrieved January 31, 2005, at http://www.defenselink.mil/news/Jun2004/n06102004_200406106.html .
hile sadness and grief are possibly the most commonly accepted and expected emotions, normal responses to bereavement can be varied, thus individual differences in response can make a diagnosis of pathological response to bereavement difficult (Pachana pp).
Cearlock, Dianne M.; Laude-Flaws, Maribeth. (1997 October). Stress, immune function, and the older adult - Successful Aging in America, Part 7
Medical Laboratory Observer. Retrieved July 22, 2005 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n10_v29/ai_20076531
Gray, Francine du Plessix. (2000, June 22). The ork of Mourning.
American Scholar. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb sit.
Gupta, Rashimi. (2002, June 22). Chinese cultural dimensions of death, dying, and bereavement:
focus group findings. Journal of Cultural Diversity. Retrieved July 22, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Khin, Ni A.; Sunderland, Trey III. (2000 January). Bereavement in Older Adults:
Biological, Functional and Psychological Consequences
Psychiatric Times. Retrieved July 22, 2005 at http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/p000147.html
Older Adults and…
Cearlock, Dianne M.; Laude-Flaws, Maribeth. (1997 October). Stress, immune function, and the older adult - Successful Aging in America, Part 7
Medical Laboratory Observer. Retrieved July 22, 2005 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3230/is_n10_v29/ai_20076531
Gray, Francine du Plessix. (2000, June 22). The Work of Mourning.
American Scholar. Retrieved July 23, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web sit.
He wants to honor his dead wife, so he takes the dog along with him just as she did. This is perhaps the only gesture the father makes toward the dog. Throughout the poem, it appears as if the father is indifferent to the dog, if anything at all.
The paradox we encounter in the poem is if a dog can actually suffer from grief with the ultimate question resting on the notion of animals missing human beings. The most ironic aspect of this poem is how the dog appears to be suffering more than the father is. The poet does not go into the father's suffering at all, except to say that he refuses counseling. The meaning and primary idea behind the poem is that all creatures suffer loss whether or not they can express it in ways that humans might be able to understand. It took death for…
Rucker, C. "Mixed Company"
children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?
The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.
Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…
Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005