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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the total value of goods and services produced in a country over a period of time. Most economists consider it to be the broadest indicator of a country's economic health. In the United States too, the GDP has been adopted as a key measure of economic activity since the early 1990s and the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) regularly releases detailed GDP figures that are keenly tracked by the markets to gauge the current and future state of the economy. This paper discusses Gross Domestic Product with particular reference to the U.S. economy, describes how it serves as an indicator of the country's economic health and explains the components that make up the GDP.
GDP and GNP
Until the early 1990s, the Gross National Product (GNP) rather than the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was used by the U.S. To measure economic activity. The main…
Economic Indicator: Gross Domestic Product" (1997). Brain Bank Website. Cool Fire Technology 1997. Retrieved on May 29, 2003 at http://www.cftech.com/BrainBank/FINANCE/GDP.html
Watts, Michael. (2001) "United States Economy." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
The switch was made by the BEA in December 1991 to make U.S. accounts more consistent with most other countries that use the United Nations System of National Accounts
The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has recently introduced a Human Development Index that takes into account adult literacy, and life expectancy besides GDP to measure standard of living
Gross Domestic Product:
This is a monetary value placed on all the finished goods and services produced within a national boundary. This number is calculated every year and is used to measure the economic health of a country.
The real GDP takes into consideration inflation.
Nominal GDP figures are not adjusted for inflation and are used for comparative purposes.
The unemployment rate examines the rate at which employable people are actively earning money at a job.
The inflation rate is the rate at which money loses its value due to overproduction.
The interest rate is the rate at which money can grow which is paid by borrowers. Time an principle investment are used to contextualize this rate.
The purpose of this essay is to explain how three different activities may affect the economy. This essay will examine: 1. The…
Investopedia. " Gross National Product." Viewed 14 July 2013.
Investopedia. " Real GDP." Viewed 14 July 2013.
Investopedia. " Inflation." Viewed 14 July 2013.
Gross Domestic Product refers to the total worth of final goods and services produced within the nation in a given year. GDP accounts for the income generated as per the location it is earned instead of the owner of the factor of production. (Gross Domestic Product) GDP thus is an aggregate quantification of the total worth of the net output of all the domestic producing units of a nation or territory during particular period. It is pertinent to note that the GDP is associated with the net output not 'gross output'. This cannot be derived by simply adding all the gross output of each of the producing units to attain a meaningful figure on total production of the economy since there would be a plethora of double counting. GDP is determined on the basis of the 'value added' at each stage. (Introduction to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Gross National Product…
"Chapter 7 Measuring Domestic Output, National Income, and the Price Level" Retrieved
from http://www.coursenotes.org/economics/outlines/chapter_7_measuring_domestic_output,_national_income,_and_the_price_level / Accessed on 10 June, 2005
"Fiscal Policy" Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/fiscal-policy Accessed on 10 June, 2005
"Gross Domestic Product" Retrieved from http://encyclopedia.laborlawtalk.com/Measures_of_national_income_and_output Accessed on 10 June, 2005
Policymakers should take careful note of their nation's Gross Domestic Products. As an example, if the nation is doing poorly they can help ensure that policies be put in place that will encourage growth and investment into training talented athletes. Even if the nation is doing well, it would still be a sound idea for policymakers to see that investments are poured into their star athletes to ensure an increase in GDP when their country is represented in the next Olympics. Policymakers would be well advised not to quench their nation's ability to produce better goods and services, including top notch athletes.
The data in the case study in question supports the use of the GDP as a measure of economic wealth. If a nation is already economically rich then finances and resources are available to invest heavily into training gifted athletes for the Olympics, which in turn should result…
Gross Domestic Product." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Standard 2004 CD-ROM 1993-2003 Microsoft Corporation.
Who Wins at the Olympics?" Case Study.
Demand for fuel in the United States does not necessarily create a benefit to the U.S. economy. hat it does is allow Canada to sell more fuel to the United States. Moreover, American firms trade more with Canada as they begin to ramp up their economy. These trends mirror the trends with the Mexican economy as well, that country being another key supplier of both energy and general trade to the U.S.
In 2008, we can see higher fuel costs impact both economies. Canada's GDP increased 8.1% as a result of higher prices paid for its energy. By contrast, higher fuel prices forced U.S. businesses to slow down their pace of growth, and the nation recorded relatively soft GDP growth as a result. The slowing demand in the U.S. reduced Canada's energy output, but the higher prices compensated for that (Scotton, 2008).
Overall, the United States has seen strong…
GDP data from Index Mundi. Retrieved February 20, 2009 at http://www.indexmundi.com/g/g.aspx?v=65&c=us&l=en
Website: CIA World Factbook. Retrieved February 20, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/us.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
GDP or the Gross Domestic Product of a country is one of the basic tools used to measure how well an economy is performing. It is the measure of the value or worth of the goods and services that have been produced in an economy over a set time period. It may also be classified as the size of any country's economy and can provide as a helpful tool when measuring or conducting a comparative analysis about whether the country's economy has done better or worse than the previous years. Usually the GDP is calculated on an annual basis and then cross compared with the previous years to assess how well the year has been and whether the economy has grown in any way. There are two basic methods that economists use to determine the GDP, which are the income method which is determined by summing…
Baranzini, M. (1996). Inflation and Unemployment: Contributions to a New Macroeconomic Approach. Routledge Publishers.
The major revenue sources for government income are: the profits tax, the salaries tax and the property tax, which correspond to the three major classifications of taxes. The major expenditure sources are: transfer payments to persons, defense consumption and social security (BLS, 2007). For state governments, the revenue is generated by land and municipal taxes and the expenditure is generated by retirement and disability, other direct payments and grants. The 2 major tax philosophies are: the single and the progressive one. Sales taxes are designed to be proportional, but in fact they are also called regressive because people with low income usually spend a higher % of their income on taxable sales, than people with higher incomes.
If the government doubled or tripled the taxes, the first impact would be to slow down the economic expansion, because companies would have less money to invest and investment is important to grow.…
Barro, R.J. 1991. Government Spending in a Simple Model of Endogenous Growth. NBER Working Paper No. W2588.
Buchanan, J. & Wagner, R. 1977. Democracy in Deficit: The Political Legacy of Lord Keynes. New York: Academic Press.
Bureau of Labor Statistics - BLS. 2007.
GDP and Economic Indicators
"Gross Domestic Product and other economic indicators"
GDP and other economic indicators
Gross Domestic product:
Gross domestic product is the value of all the good and services of a particular country which is produced over a year's time. For the value to be accurate it is made sure that all the goods and services included are the ones produced inside the boundaries of the country. The goods and services may be produced by the nationals of that country and by the foreigners in that country, but the production has to be inside the boundaries of the country. The formula to calculate GDP includes five components which are the consumption by households (denoted by C), the government spending done (denoted by G), the investment done in the country (denoted by I), the imports that were done in that year (denoted by M) and the exports…
Feldmann, H. (2009). Government size and unemployment: evidence from developing countries. Journal of developing areas. Vol. 43, No. 1. pp. 315-330.
Ferrara, P. (2012). Obamanomics: the finest nail in the discredited Keynesian coffin. Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterferrara/2012/07/12/obamanomics-the-final-nail-in-the-discredited-keynesian-coffin/3/
he Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the economic activity in an economy. It is usually used to measure activity in a country, but may also be used for larger or smaller regions. In basic terms the GDP is the market value of all the goods and services that produced with the country or area where the measure is being applied. here are three different ways that GDP may be calculated, theoretically, each approach should give the same result. he three ways of calculating GDP are the product or output method, the income method or the expenditure method.
he product or output method is the most common method, may also be referred to as the value added method. GDP is calculated as the total market value of all of the products and services that are created with in the economy. he calculation is undertaken by estimating…
The calculation will result in the figure, which is a nominal GDP. That means that each year the figure will be given for the value that year. However, the value of money changes over the years, usually with inflation eroding the value of money. Therefore, it is possible there may be an apparent increase in GDP, which is the result of inflation rather than grow. Therefore, as well as calculating the nominal GDP, the real GDP may also be calculated. This is a calculation where an adjustment is made to account for inflation. Usually the adjustment is given in a currency chain to a particular year, to allow for easy comparison. Alternatively, the growth rate of the real GDP may be quoted.
The GDP is one of several measures to assess the economy, other measures which may be used the unemployment rate, the inflation rate and interest rate. The unemployment rate is usually perceived as being the number of people, of working age, who are not working. However, the measure is slightly more complex than this, as not everyone who is out of work wants to look for work. Therefore, unemployment may be seen as a number of people, of working age, who are out of work, but looking for work (Bertola and Garibaldi, 2003). The figures used to calculate unemployment may reflect different types of unemployment. There are four main types of unemployment, frictional unemployment, structural unemployment, cyclical unemployment and seasonal unemployment. Frictional unemployment is made up of individuals temporarily unemployed such as those between jobs, and is required in any economy. Structural unemployment is the unemployment figures it is usually quoted by governments and other agencies, as this reflects longer term unemployment, where structural unemployment is high there may even be a shortage of jobs, or a mismatch between the skills of the jobseekers and the jobs which are available (Pissarides, 2000). Cyclical unemployment is also significant; it is the type of unemployment which occurred as a result of
GDP does not measure growth sustainability. My country may be achieving high GDP temporarily in a sense that there is misallocation of investments or over exploitation of natural resources. However, considering that it is a basis of standard of living, market prices of commodities as well as other leisurely items may get up high but in reality it should not be the case. I may be forced to buy cheaper commodity with low quality.
Another discouraging factor of using GDP as measurement is that it counts work that produces no net change or results from repairing damage or harm. In situations like natural disaster such as flood, hurricane or earthquake resulting to damaging effects in building constructions, roads and bridges, and even scarcity of resources such as shelter, clothing and food, may produce considerable amount of economic activity and contributes in the increase of GDP but it would have been…
Ethics, Gross National Products
Gross National Product
Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…
Stimpert, J.L., & Duhaime, I.M. (1997). SEEING THE BIG PICTURE: THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY, DIVERSIFICATION, AND Business STRATEGY ON PERFORMANCE. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 560-583.
Taylor, A., Chaloupka, F.J., Guindon, E., & Corbett, M. (2000). The impact of trade liberalization on tobacco consumption. Tobacco control in developing countries, 343-64.
Yue, C., Beghin, J., & Jensen, H.H. (2006). Tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade with imperfect substitution and trade costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(4), 947-960.
S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.
Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers
Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…
Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.
Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:
Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-
Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:
experienced a significant increase in the cost of health care. In 2004, 16% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was spent on health care. In 2010, President Obama signed the "Affordable Health Care for America Act (HR 3962)" that has been a topic of heated debate since discussions began decades ago. Health care funding and design has been a major issue for U..
Provide a discussion that demonstrates you have an understanding of the impact the cost of health care has on the economy. Be sure to discuss the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).
According to Forbes (2012), America does not have a debt problem; it has a healthcare one. The price of health care is eating up the economy.
Health care spending is growing to almost 1.5 times the rate of growth of its gross domestic product (i.e. The market value of all its goods and services within a certain…
Forbes. (2012)The U.S. Does Not Have A Debt Problem ... It Has A Health Care Cost Problem http://www.forbes.com/sites/toddhixon/2012/02/09/the-u-s-does-not-have-a-debt-problem-it-has-a-health-care-cost-problem/
Focus on Health Reform
Joan & Bartlett, (2012) A Distinctive System of Health Care Delivery www.jblearning.com/samples/076374512X/Shi4e_CH01.pdf
Abbott Labs and Macroeconomics
It is a fact that the recent economic downturn affected every individual and company in some way, but companies that had solid business plans prior to the start of the crisis were better able to weather the financial storm. For example, a company that had a diverse range of business that included both products that depended the level of a consumer's disposable income and another group of products that are indispensable would probably be able to meet its financial goals despite global economic issues. Such a company is Abbott Laboratories. Because the primary business of Abbott is producing medical devices, pharmaceuticals and tests that are widely considered standards in the medical community (Abbott Laboratories, 2012), the company has been able to maintain its profitability throughout the economic crisis. However, macroeconomic indicators do have an effect on the continued economic viability of the company and they…
Abbott Laboratories. (2012). 2011 annual report. Retrieved from http://www.abbott.com/static/content/microsite/annual_report/2011/yearinreview . php
Angell, M. (2012). Excess in the pharmaceutical industry. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171(12).
Barnes, R. (2012). Economic indicators: Overview. Retrieved from http://www.investopedia.com /university/releases/#axzz23ADx6TVd' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The National Housing Act indirectly promoted the idea of lenders offering much longer-term mortgages with the currently accepted concept of monthly payments with the dual interest and principal payment scale. Amortized real estate mortgages opened the door for an average person to purchase and own a single family home.
As a result of the National Housing Act, the United States government inadvertently committed itself along with private lenders to insure long-term mortgages that could be held for as long as twenty or more years at an interest rate that was affordable. Although the process at first was bogged down by paperwork and bureaucracy it eventually caught on.
Part of the reason the process took hold was because in addition to guaranteeing the loans, the National Housing Act through the formation of the Federal Housing Administration also investigated properties and neighborhoods which added an extra measure of security and guaranteed real-estate…
Works Cited continued
Housing: The Key to Economic Recovery. Ed. NAHB. Natioanal Association of Home Builders. 5 Nov. 2004 http://www.nahb.org/fileUpload_details.aspx?contentTypeID=7&contentID=46 .
Longman, Phillip. "The Mortgaged Generation: Why the Young Can't Afford a House." Washington Monthly, Vol. 18 April 1986.
Meyerson, Martin, Barbara Terrett, and William L.C. Wheaton. Housing, People and Cities. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1962.
Peterson, James R. "Housing Plays Politics to Keep Growth Strong." ABA Banking Journal Vol. 92 (2000).
all Street Journal Online was selected due to its discussion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) regarding the United States and globally. Facebook, Inc. and Alphabet, Inc., the parent company of Google, have very high market valuation, in large part due to their dominance of the mobile advertising market. However, the author believes their very high combined valuation may be unduly optimistic, based on the current percentages of U.S. GDP and global GDP spent on mobile advertising and projected percentages of GDP spent on mobile advertising by 2025. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is an important facet of Macroeconomics because it is a basic tool for determining a nation's and the world's productivity, income and expenditure. In this article, GDP is discussed, expenditures in particular are discussed and the dramatic effect of adjusting expenditures is shown when examining Facebook's and Alphabet's glowing combined market valuation.
"Facebook and Google: The $230 Billion…
Gottfried, Miriam. "Facebook and Google: The $230 Billion Question; Mobile-Advertising Growth Has Driven a Stunning Rise in the Two Companies' Market Values, but Investors May Be Taking a Glass-Overflowing View." 12 April 2016. www.wsj.com. Web. 18 April 2016.
Vice versa, a relaxation of credit operations through a reduction of the interest rates generates an increased purchasing power and an increased ability for the manufacturer to contract loans and further invest in his business.
2.6 Producer price index
The Producer Price Index, or the PPI, stands for "family of indexes that measures the average change in selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services over time. PPIs measure price change from the perspective of the seller" (Investopedia, 2009). The evolution of the PPI has also been a fluctuating one, with a major ascendant trend:
Source: United States Department of Labor, 2009
Despite the past increase in producer price index, the future seems to hold decreases in its value:
The downward trend forecasted for the following 18 months means that the automobile producers in the United States receive less money for the sale of their products. Increases in…
Ford Motor Company, Hoovers, 2009, http://hoovers.com/ford-motor/--ID__10597,FRIC__ -- /free-co-competition.xhtml last accessed on May 8, 2009
Gross Domestic Product, U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, 2009, http://www.bea.gov/briefrm/gdp.htm last accessed on May 8, 2009
Interest Rate Trends, Mortgage-X, 2009, http://mortgage-x.com/trends.htm last accessed on May 8, 2009
Producer Price Indexes, United States Department of Labor, http://data.bls.gov/PDQ/servlet/SurveyOutputServlet-request_action=wh&graph_name=WP_ppibrief last accessed on May 8, 2009
China's Economy During and After the Economic Crisis
All of these factors created major growth for China for the three decades following the beginnings of its economic reforms, and then the financial crisis hit. China began the twenty-first century with a growth rate of 8.4% in 2000, peaking in 2007 with a 13% growth rate (IMF 2010). In 2008, this rate fell to 9.6% -- a significant drop, but still a significant growth rate as well (IMF 2010). The estimated growth rate in 2009 showed a slower drop to 8.7%, and forecasted growth in 2010 showed the rate climbing back up to 10%, with an average rate for the decade still at 9.9% despite the hiccup caused by the global downturn (IMF 2010).
A large reason hat China was so insulated form the economic shock that was so devastating in other parts of the world was because of the swift…
CIA. (2010). "China." World Factbook. Accessed 3 November 2010. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/ch.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Economic Events: 1980-1989
the decade of greed. The era of onald eagan when the rich got richer and the poor got poorer. Despite this common wisdom, 1980 started off auspiciously. On May 8, 1980 the World Health Organization hailed "one of the century's greatest medical accomplishments," the final and total eradication of smallpox (Dickson 247). But how quickly times change - barely a quarter century has passed and this same disease is making headlines once again.
Attitudes change also. While many in this day and age would still agree that the 1980's was a selfish period in American history, a sea-change has occurred in the rhetoric issuing forth from Washington D.C. In a very fundamental way, party politics has been thrust aside as concerns for homeland security take precedence over petty partisanship. Michael Barone notes this in his analysis of a speech made by Democrat ichard Gephardt in the Summer…
Barone, Michael. "The loyal opposition." U.S. News and World Report. 13 June 2003. 14
March 2003 http://www.usnews.com/usnews/opinion/baroneweb/mb_020613.htm.
Case, Karl E., and Ray C. Fair. "Principles of Economics." Prentice Hall, Inc. Englewood
Cliffs, NJ 1992.
Source: The Financial Forecast Center, 2009
Increases in unemployment rate mean that the gambling industry will be faced with fewer customers. This in turn will materialize in reduced sales and profits. If the situation continues to aggravate in the years to come, several players in the gambling industry might have to close their casinos. One must also notice the exceptional situations in which out of job individuals will gamble in the hope of winning some money. However, these instances are reduced and not able to modify the indirect relationship between the evolution of unemployment rate and demand for gambling services. Vice versa, when the unemployment rate decreases and the population enjoys more sources of revenues, the demand for the services of casino clubs increases.
2.3 Inflation rate (consumer price index)
The inflation rate represents the "percentage increase in the price of goods and services, usually annually" (Investor Words, 2009). Within…
Ameristar Casinos Inc., Hoovers, 2009, http://hoovers.com/ameristar-casinos/--ID__16260,FRIC__ -- /free-co-competition.xhtml last accessed on May 8, 2009
Personal Income and Savings, iCharts, 2009, http://www.icharts.net/portal/app?service=external&sp=Y37ayiM=&page=Chartdetail last accessed on May 8, 2009
Investor Words, 2009, http://investorwords.com last accessed on May 8, 2009
The Financial Forecast Center, 2009, http://forecasts.org last accessed on May 8, 2009
S. It too had run into a deep recession and too sought ways out of it by considering tax options. In a similar way, both candidates running for the South Korean presidency in the 2012 presidential elections vowed to "to prioritise "national reconciliation," better "economic democracy" and social welfare" (BBC News (17 December 2012) South Korea's presidential candidates) and to do this via easing South Korea's income gap between rich and poor by adjusting tax burden appropriately. No wonder, that U.S. President Barack Obama congratulated her and stated that he "is looking forward to working closely with her administration on issues of mutual concern" (ibid). The two nations currently have a lot in common and Ms. Park seems to be treading the path that Obama has in mind.
Our recent recession goes by various names. It is called, in turn, the Great ecession, the Lesser Depression, the Long ecession,…
Condon, S. (December 19, 2012) the middle-class tax hikes in Obama's "fiscal cliff" plan. CBS News.
Grosz, D. (Dec 19, 2012) Rich Make Out Like Bandits in Fiscal-Cliff Negotiations. The Daily Beast
Another concern is represented by the fact that the massive imports from China materialize in cheaper consumer products, which render the domestically produced items less competitive. Other issues include currency fluctuations which impact the fiscal stability of the countries, as well as security concerns, as the Chinese gain more access to American resources (Singh, 2012).
The economy of the United States is shaped by a wide array of elements, such as political measures, the economic recession, the access to credits, the socio-demographic changes and so on. One important piece in the economic puzzle is represented by the state of international trade operations completed by the country. In this sense, the current project has assessed the issues of international trade as they relate to the impacts on employment, unemployment, incomes and equality, as well as the national concerns regarding the country's trade partners (Japan, Mexico and China).
Aradhyula, a., Rahman, T., Seenivasan, K., (2007). Impact of international trade on income and income inequality. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/9999/1/sp07ar03.pdf accessed on January 17, 2013
Feenstra, R.C. (2000). The impact of international trade on wages. University of Chicago Press.
Mcteer, B. (2008). The impact of foreign trade on the economy. http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/12/10/the-impact-of-foreign-trade-on-the-economy / accessed on January 17, 2013
Singh, P.P. (2012). U.S.-China relations: trade flashpoints. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20177210 accessed on January 18, 2013
increase production of capital goods and reduce consumption.
increase production of capital goods and increase consumption.
decrease current consumption and reduce production of capital goods.
If an economy is producing inefficiently, it is
possible to increase production of all goods simultaneously.
possible to increase production of one good at the expense of another.
not possible to increase production of any good.
not possible to increase economic growth.
If oranges and grapefruit are close substitutes, an increase in the price of oranges will shift the demand curve of a.
both products to the right.
both products to the left.
grapefruit to the right.
oranges to the left.
An important assumption that is made when constructing a supply schedule is
only price and quantity matter in determining supply.
firms always want to sell a…
Growth The retailer sector was lately affected by the back-to-school shopping season, which did not start so well, as midprice department stores, discounters and specialty-apparel retailers announced disappointing sales results during August, which reinforced the already much debated concerns that consumers are not comfortable with the current state of the economy and are reluctant to consume, considering the shaky and uneven economic recovery.
However, luxury department-store chains managed to post significant earnings, as they benefited from the help of an important number of upscale shoppers. Still, the effects of higher gas prices and the rising value of grocery bills, combined with lackluster job growth were severely felt by moderate- and lower-income shoppers.
Michael Niemira, chief economist and director of research at the International Council of Shopping Centers feels that "There's weaker-than-expected performance," due to the fact that "there was a slowdown in spending, but some results are exaggerated by…
1. Higher energy prices depress overall economy. Charles Stein.
Knight Ridder Tribune Business News. Washington:
Aug 6, 2004. On the Internet at http://gateway.proquest.com.libproxy.unm.edu/openurl-url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:pqd&rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal&genre=article&rft_dat=xri:pqd:did=000000674708321&svc_dat=xri:pqil:fmt=text&req_dat=xri:pqil:pq_clntid=2877
2. Retailers' Sales Come In Weaker Than Expected; Soft Results Reinforce Fears About Consumer Confidence; Discounters Saw Biggest Hit. Kortney Stringer.
Latin America is as such seeking to decrease its interregional dependence and develop more relationships with the better developed economies of the globe. It nevertheless remains sensitive to the international economic crisis and the debt crisis in the Euro-zone (Inter-American Development Bank, 2011).
As it has been previously mentioned, the Latin American countries are characterized by specific traits, which make it difficult to conduct integrated analyses. The same can be said about Mexico, where different traits are also observed. Based on these traits, Tecnologico de Menterrey has developed four specific models for regional development. The models, created based on strong theoretical background and adapted to the Mexican realities, refer to the following:
Model 1: Technology Parks for the high value employment to employ high numbers of non-research and non-scientific staffs, but specialized staffs for high-value activities
Model 2: Technology Parks for the attraction and development of business. These entities will…
(2011). Latin American registers strong export growth in 2011. Inter-American Development Bank. http://www.iadb.org/en/news/news-releases/2011-12-19/latin-american-export-growth-reaches-26-in-2011,9787.html accessed on October 1, 2012
(2011). Models of technology parks. Tecnologico de Monterrey. http://www.itesm.edu/wps/wcm/connect/ITESM/Tecnologico+de+Monterrey/English/Entrepreneurship/Technology+Parks+Network/Models+of+Technology+Parks / accessed on October 1, 2012
(2012). The world factbook -- Mexico. Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/mx.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Stock Valuation Questions
The market price for a stock or a bond may be influenced by both positive and negative risks. Using the example of Apple it is possible to consider two potential risks.
Apple Inc. is well-known for its aggressive defense of its patents; the best known cases are between Apple and Samsung with cases in more than 50 cases across multiple countries at one point in 2012 (Mueller, 2012). Apple and Samsung both had victories and defeats which were aggressively fought. These battles show how important development and ownership of a patient can be, with firms seeking to protect their intellectual property. A potential threat may emerge if Apple faced a claim of credible claim of patent breach from another major supplier for a core product, where stockholders may fear that the firm may be liable for a potentially large settle and/or withdraw the offending products…
Carter, M, (2014, Feb 22), Why Whole Foods Market May Have a Big Problem, Motley Fool, accessed 22nd Feb at http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/02/22/why-whole-foods-market-may-have-a-big-problem.aspx
Lambert, T, A, (2008), Four Lessons from the Whole Foods Case, CATO Institute, accessed 22nd Feb at http://object.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/regulation/2008/2/v31n1-4.pdf
MacKey, J; Robb, W, (2013). Letter to Stakeholders, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://www.wholefoodsmarket.com/sites/default/files/media/Global/Company%20Info/PDFs/WFM-2013-Letter-to-Stakeholders.pdf
Meador, Don; Britton, Mike; Phillips, Paige; Howery, Andrew, (2007), Case Analysis -- Whole Foods Market, accessed 22nd Feb 2014 at http://pnphillip.asp.radford.edu/whole%20Foods%20Case.pdf
With the Fed shifting from quantitative easing (QE) to quantitative tightening (QT) in recent years, and the end of unconventional monetary policy, interest rates are set to continue to rise as the central bank reduces its balance sheet. With bond yields already going up and volatility at all-time lows, questions remain about how the market will react to this normalization process. One thing is for certain, however: the recent rise of prices across several asset classes has coincided with the years of QE beginning in 2008. Home prices have soared, bond prices have soared, equity prices have soared, college tuition has soared, and even precious metals have soared (along with cryptocurrencies in recent months). While some commentators are alleging that we are now in the “everything bubble,” the reality is that what is being seen is really nothing more than inflation in the works. The trillions of dollars of liquidity…
Exports are also down significantly, yet despite these changes, the Chinese economy appears to be "independent and strong enough to not only cope with the global economic crisis but also to establish itself" as a major world economic powerhouse ("China Economy," 2009, Internet).
One of China's greatest economic strengths is based on foreign direct investment, for the World Bank estimates that around $80 billion U.S. dollars are invested in China on a yearly basis. However, one of its most important weaknesses is the existence of corruption at the local level, a situation which the Chinese government has attempted to eliminate through a slow and long-drawn out process. Nonetheless, economists predict that China, "via a sustained rate of growth will enable it to surpass the U.S." To become the world's largest and most powerful economy sometime in the early years of the 21st century ("China Economy," 2009, Internet).
As to unemployment…
"China Economy." (2009). EconomyWatch. Internet. Accessed June 23, 2009 from http://www.economywatch.com/world_economy/china .
Huntington, Samuel P. (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World
Order. New York: Touchstone Books (Simon & Schuster).
U.S. Macro economy
economy which was considered to be the world's largest has still not been able to recover completely from the financial crisis and resulting recession that hit in 2008. At the national level, spending increase to more than 25% of GDP in 2010, later in 2011 gross public debt exceeded 100% of GDP. The process of recovery for U.S. economy in the first quarter turned out to be weaker than expected. From January through March, the gross domestic product (GDP) of the nation grew at a 1.8% annual rate. The economy of U.S. has grown for 15 consecutive quarters; however the pace of those gains was about 2% which was actually in the weakest recoveries since World War II. U.S. economy is being held back by its tightening fiscal policy. In this year, the spending cuts are estimated to be $85 billion and expected to grow to $109…
Danielson, A. (1994). The economic surplus. Westport, Conn.: Praeger.
McCarty, Nolan, Keith T. Poole, and Howard Rosenthal (2006). Polarized America: The Dance of Ideology and Unequal Riches. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
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Ormerod, Paul. (2010). The Current Crisis and the Culpability of Macroeconomic Theory. Twenty-First Century Society.
Capital Budget Processes and Techniques
People often ask what happens when there is a surplus of imports brought into the U.S. Many think that we just have more of what we brought in to be able to hang on to and sell at a later date but that is not the case. When there is a surplus of the products that have been brought in then the price of what the surplus is will drop. Unlike when there just isn't enough for the demand for the product then the price will raise. The reason that the price will drop is due to the products already have been paid for and now they are storing the products which cost money.
When the price is dropped then this allows for the product to be moved quickly and make room for more product and different kind of product. By doing this the price…
2 Marketing Communication Objectives
• Promotional Objectives: Initiate grass root, interactive, and experiential campaigns, over a six-month period, throughout the United States, to increase brand awareness, trial consumption, and long-term end-users. Target the college and college-aged segment, and college beach territories. Track consumer activity through specialized giveaways and promotions one to 1.5 years to determine the number of resulting repeat, long-term users. Aside from branding results, promotional efforts, with a budget capacity of $300,000, aim to secure at least 20,000 new long-term users or $250,000 in traceable sales, within one to 1.5 years.
• randing Objectives: Maintain and augment a fun, celebratory brand image for Wispa bars. Contract brand ambassadors to foster brand awareness among 250 U.S. colleges, and reach 250,000 U.S. college-aged students with gratuitous Wispa bar samples, over a six-month period.
• Sales and usiness Development Objectives: Establish relationships with five new major retail distributors in the United…
Cadbury. (2012). Cadbury Products. Available:
http://www.cadbury.co.uk/ourproducts/Pages/OurProducts.aspx . Last accessed 7th April 2012.
GlobalData. (2010). Cadbury plc (CBRY) - financial and strategic analysis review. Available:
http://www.just-food.com/market-research/cadbury-plc-cbry-financial-and-strategic-analysis-review_id97007.aspx . Last accessed 6th April 2012.
eanie-the Flavor Company-was born in the homely garage of Mark Porteus in February 2009. It was the brainchild of Chris Tarling and Mark Porteus, former employees of oater's Coffee. As more investors joined the company, the eanies brand was officially launched and registered. As operations began to expand out of the scope of Mark's garage, a 1000 square foot space was rented as an economical alternative in May 2009. Four varieties of flavored instant coffee were introduced in the same month. eanies truly became an "international" brand when it commenced exporting its product for the coffee lovers in Poland. With business growing further, the firm moved to a 2000 square foot space at the end of the winter in 2010. Growth in the digital realm is of prior importance to eanies and it launched its user friendly, fully integrated e commerce website that allows users to create a profile…
Beanies. (2012). Retrieved April 28, 2012, from Beanies Coffee: http://www.beaniescoffee.co.uk/
Coffee in Germany. CBI Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Netherlands.
(2010). Exporter Guide Germany Country Brief December 2010. New Zealand Trade & Enterprise.
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(2012). Hot Drinks in Germany February 2012. Marketline Industry Profile.
The U.S. economy is currently downshifting. eal GDP appears to be growing nearly 2% annualized -- at most -- in the current quarter. This rate is down from 3% during the first half of 2010 (before impending downward revisions), and 4% during the second half of 2009. Weakening support from the monetary and fiscal stimulus, the fading inventory rotation in manufacturing, and the consequences from Europe's debt crisis are an important aspect of the recovery (Zandi 2010).
Today, the job market is where we see the recovery's weakness. Conceptualizing from the temporary ups and downs of hiring associated to the U.S. census every ten years, job growth slowed down significantly from the spring.
One of the factors related to the slowing is layoffs by state and local governments lacking sufficient resources. There is also a reluctance from private companies to hire. Even though hiring has stabilized somewhat since the recession,…
Action Forex. (2010). U.S. trade deficit soared in June. Action Forex. Retrieved on August 29, 2010, from the Website: http://www.actionforex.com/analysis/daily-forex-fundamentals/u.s.-trade-deficit-soared-in-june-20100811119863/
Adelmann, Bob. (2010). Fiscal challenges: A way out. The Constitutionalist Today.
Retrieved on August 29, 2010, from the Website:
Since 1970, the economic growth in U.S. had increased in real terms at a rate of 3.16% per annum, up to 2001, when the American economy registered a slow down period and the economic growth amounted 1.7%. Since 2003, the growth rate averaged 4.62% per annum. Currently, the economic growth is heavily influenced by fiscal relaxation policy that led to increased investments and economic growth level. The average return rate on investment was of 14.6%, especially in the computer software and telecommunication sector.
The U.S. Labour Statistics office gives the data on the employment situation of the American society. This is important due to the fact that a high level of unemployment depicts the situation of a possible recession, while a low level of unemployment indicates that a certain nation cannot provide staff for the interested companies, and the labour force is insufficient for the demand on the market.…
1) Official Federal Reserve's website: http://www.federalreserve.gov/,Retrieved date: 10th of October
2) the Bureau of Economic Analysis website:
www.bea.gov, retrieved on 9th of October
3) National Bureau of Economic Research Website: http://www.nber.org/,retrieved on 10th of October
These types of trips accounted for 33% in 2004, a major increase since 2002, when they only accounted for 17% in all international trips. Finally, the third most common stimulus for trips abroad was that of visiting family and friends. In 2002, the rate of these trips was of 28%, but by 2004 it had declined to 22%.
Another trend obvious in the past recent years is that of Polish tourists visiting destinations considered untraditional so far. This is generally the result of intensified marketing efforts and the most relevant example in this sense is the still growing number of Polish individuals traveling to the African countries, namely Kenya. Also, the results are due to a long historical relationship between Poland and Kenya, basically the fact that Poland has offered scholarships to the Kenyan students and that they have also helped defend the British territories in Kenya against Germany, during…
Ebrill, L.P., 1994, Poland: The Path to a Market Economy, International Monetary Fund
Smith, M.K., Robinson, M., 2006, Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (Re)presentation, Cahnnel View Publications
Thomas, R., Augustyn, M., 2006, Tourism in the New Europe: Perspectives on Some Policies and Practices, Elsevier
2002, Number of Polish Tourists Up, Polonia Global Fund, http://pgf.cc/2002/06/15/number-of-polish-tourists-up/last accessed on January 13, 2009
oyal Dutch Shell PLC
A Brief ecent History of oyal Dutch Shell PLC
eason Behind Choosing
Information Gathering and Accounting Business techniques
esult, Analysis, Conclusion & ecommendations
SWOT Analysis of DSP
Porter's Five Forces Analysis of the Chosen Company
Financial Analysis of DSP
Finance is the name of allocating the funds at a place from where the likelihood of receiving a good return is bright (Bragg, S2006). Organization is basically referred to a place wherein hundreds of people work together just to achieve a specific goal (Cinnamon, & Larsen, B.2006). The goal may be of two fold, like the goal can be economical or can be non-economical. According to the organizational officials and analysts, investment decisions are always tough to take as far as an organization is concerned (Cinnamon, & Larsen, B.2006). The economic decisions include ad hoc research, analysis and lots of study as well. The essence of risk…
Bragg, S (2006), Financial Analysis: A Control Guide, New York McGraw Hill Publications
Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2006), How to understand Business Finance, New York McGraw Hill Publications
Christian, G (2007), Econometrics & Financial Analysis, California John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
Danial, L (2009), Financial & Business Analysis Techniques, New York McGraw Hill Publications
Business income refers to any income usually realized for the execution or transaction of business activity. This indicates that business income is the aspect of earned income from the perspective of business transaction or activity. In order for the business income to apply to the aspect of the taxation system, it is essential to classify business income as ordinary income. Business income consists of business expenses, business losses, and business profits. It is the difference between revenues and expenses of the process of business transactions. This indicates that business income can be positive or negative within the financial year depending on the size of the expenses and revenues. Business income is received from the transactions or sales of products or services within the defined market.
OECD model treaty defines a clear perspective in relation to the handling of the business income. This is through indicating that the income…
Ault, H.J., & Arnold, B.J. (2010). Comparative income taxation: A structural analysis. S.l:
Kluwer Law International.
Gustafson, C.H., & Pugh, R.C. (1993). International income taxation: Code & regulations, selected sections. Chicago, Ill: Commerce Clearing House.
Scha-fer, A. (2006). International company taxation in the era of information and communication technologies: Issues and options for reform. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universita-ts-Verlag.
The Industry Dominant Economic Features
Market Size and Rivals:
Pace of Process and Product Technology Change
Economies of Scale in Purchasing
PORTER'S FIVE FORCES
Threat of New Entrants
THE DRIVERS OF CHANGE IN THE INDUSTRY AND THEIR IMPACT
The Economy and Interest Rates
KEY SUCCESS FACTORS FOR COMPETITIVE SUCCESS
Understanding the Markets
Understanding Local Regulations
INDUSTRY'S ATTRACTIVENESS, LONG-TERM PROFITABILITY AND CONCLUSION
The homebuilding industry plays a major role in the United States economy, as a significant employer and cash generator. Each year the industry hires more than 3.5 million workers and the housing investment and consumption accounts for one-fifth of the United States' gross domestic product (GDP). Recent figures support the role of homebuilders as vital to the American way of life (AzPath). In 2001, the homebuilders were responsible for building 1,602,700…
AzPATH Research Series Report No. 03. Del E. Webb School of Construction. "Supply Chains in Residential Construction." 2.2. "Integrating the Supply Chain." December 2001. Retrieved June 5, 2003 at http://construction.asu.edu/azpath/Documents/Reports/Report03.pdf .
Grey, Joseph. "Construction and Building Materials." Hoover's Online. 2001. Retrieved June 5, 2003 at http://www.hoovers.com/industry/snapshot/profile/0,3519,14,00.html.
Handley, John. "Boomers Shun 'R' Word" May 18, 2003. Baltimore Sun www.sunspot.net.Retrieved June 5, 2003 at http://www.nbnnews.com/NBN/issues/2003-05-26/bnc2c.html#5.
Hoover's Online. "Centex Corporation." 2003. Retrieved June 6, 2003 at http://www.hoovers.com/co/capsule/8/0,2163,10308,00.html.
Government Intervention in the Steel Industry
The Bush administration announced the imposition of sweeping tariffs of up to 30% on steel imports to the United States for a period of 3 years in March 2002 purportedly to save the ailing steel industry from collapsing. Predictably, the action has invited particularly harsh criticism from the U.S. trade partners that have been directly affected by the tax, i.e., the European Union, Japan, and China. Domestically too, the proponents of a free market economy have been no less critical of the measure, although the U.S. steel industry, in general, has welcomed the move.
This research report will focus on various aspects of the U.S. government's imposition of steel tariffs. It will discuss the benefits and costs of tariffs in general, and include a history of government's support of the U.S. steel industry, details of the steel tariff 2002, why it was imposed, and…
Anderson, William L. "A History of Privileges." (January, 1999). The Free Market. Retrieved on July 8, 2002 at http://www.mises.org/freemarket_detail.asp?control=43&sortorder=articledate
Anger over steel." (March 6, 2002). From Economist.com Global Agenda. Retrieved on July 9, 2002 at http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=1022220
Arnold, James. (March 6, 2002). "Steel Sector Stares into Abyss." BBC News Online Business Report. Retrieved on July 8, 2002 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/business/newsid_1857000/1857914.stm
Bartlett, Bruce. "Suffering Steel Tariff Side Effects." (April 22, 2002). The Washington Times. Retrieved on July 9, 2002 at http://www.washtimes.com/commentary/20.htm
The company conducts research and development on several programs such as on-site warfare testing, and laboratory research for the next generation aircrafts. The company also conducts &D on the application of new technologies to build aircraft and submarines as well as implementing effective &D on mechanical and electrical system for the new equipment.
Despite the competitive strategic advantages that the company is enjoying, there are external environment affecting the business operations of Huntington Ingalls.
External Environment affecting the Operations of Huntington Ingalls
This section uses STEEPL model to analyze the external environments that the company is operating. STEEPL abbreviation refers to Socio-cultural, Technological, Environmental Factors, Economical, Political and Legal. Major operation of Huntington Ingalls is conducted in the United States and the Economical, Political and Legal and the Socio-cultural aspects of the country affect the operation of the company.
Socio-cultural of the United States is one of external factors…
AMSEC, (2012). About Us. AMSEC is a subsidiary of Huntington Ingalls Industries.
Datamonitor (2011). United States: Country Analysis Report -- in-depth PESTLE Insights. Datamonitor Plc.
Huntington Ingalls Annual Report (2011). 2011 Annual Report. Huntington Ingalls Industries Inc. United States.
Hynson, G. (2011). Huntington Ingalls Industries (NASDAQ: HII) Memo. University of Virginia. College of Arts and Sciences/PreComm.
United States' current international position writing a speech 750 words amateur reporters simple terms concepts. This assignment student evaluate effects surplus imports effects GDP, domestic international markets, students.
United States' current international position
When conducting international trade, the scope of any country is that of maximizing its revenues through exports; nevertheless, in an increasingly open global market place, countries must also open their own boundaries to imports from other regions. The balance between the exports and the imports reveals the country's trade; if the exports exceed the imports, then the country has a trade surplus; if, on the other hand, the country imports more than it exports, then there is a trade deficit.
In a context of a surplus of imports, namely a trade deficit, the country faces several issues. For once, it becomes less able to generate revenues from its own exports and it spends more on paying for…
Scott, R.E., Wething, H. (2012). Jobs in the U.S. auto parts industry are at risk due to subsidized and unfairly traded Chinese auto parts. Economic Policy Institute. http://www.epi.org/publication/bp336-us-china-auto-parts-industry / accessed on October 5, 2012
Wang, P. (2009). The economics of foreign exchange and global finance. Springer
We have decided to take this option for several reasons. Firstly, the size of our restaurant will be able to entertain almost 500 people and with such a large space we need a huge market to fill it up. Secondly, Americans of all age-groups dine-out regularly (almost 4 times every week, according to last year's statistics.) thirdly and lastly, this figure is only going to increase with time.
Contending against both "informal-dining-steakhouses" and "family-steak-restaurants," we will be offering these benefits: (1) Low pricing for complete buffets, (2) customers will not be giving tips since the restaurant will be self-service, (3) giving speedy service to all customers at all times, (4) offering variety in meals all the way through the week and (5) diners can watch their favorite sports during their meals.
The sales annual projections for the next 3 years are summed up below in table 3 below.…
Hensley, S. And Donohue, M. (2009). Restaurant Industry Expected to Post Modest Sales Growth in 2009 as it copes with the Weakest Economy in Decades. National Restaurant Association. Accessed from: http://www.restaurant.org/pressroom/print/index.cfm?ID=1725
Bryson, J. (1995). Strategic Planning for Public and Non-Profit Organizations; Jossey-Bass: San Francisco,; 137.
Daniels, J. And Radebaugh, L. (1998) International Business: Environments and Operations, 8th edn. Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA.
Davis, S. (1984). Managing Corporate Culture. Cambridge MA: Ballinger.
They will do this by implementing a strong advertising and promotional campaign, based on the benefits of American soybeans. The campaign will be simultaneously aired on several media channels and will address the identified target market.
The United States of America and China have long been trade partners. In regard to soybeans, the U.S. is world's largest producer, but its position is threatened by Brazil and Argentina. China is the world's largest soybeans consumer, and as their internal capabilities fail to satisfy the demand, they are also the globe's largest importer. A decision to export soybeans to China could result in beneficial outcomes, but only if the market characteristics are entirely respected.
Provance, P., March 2003, Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, http://184.108.40.206/pecad2/highlights/2003/04/chexp/index.html. Ast accessed on June 4, 2008
Song, B., Marchant, M.A., Reed, M.R., Xu, S., 2007, Market Power and Competitive Analysis…
Provance, P., March 2003, Production Estimates and Crop Assessment Division, Foreign Agricultural Service, http://220.127.116.11/pecad2/highlights/2003/04/chexp/index.html. Ast accessed on June 4, 2008
Song, B., Marchant, M.A., Reed, M.R., Xu, S., 2007, Market Power and Competitive Analysis of China's Soybean Import Market, Contributed Paper Presentation for the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC) July 8-9th, 2007, Beijing, China, Retrieved at http://aede.osu.edu/programs/Anderson/trade/51Song.pdfon June 4, 2008
Targowski, a., Korth, C., China or NAFTA: The World's Largest Market in the 21st Century? January 1, 2003, Advances in Competitiveness Research
1998, China, Island, http://islands.unep.ch/CEZ.html. Ast accessed on June 4, 2008
These other barriers are of various natures and can include social and cultural barriers or difficulties related to an unsatisfactory communications system or transportation network.
From a cultural perspective, the Indian population is highly different from the American one. The people are more conservative and might find it difficult to accept foreigners. However, since the Exceed Corporation is focused on offering their consultancy services to state institutions or the Indian government, they would have little to do with the general population. And also, the Indian citizens are more and more oriented towards the liberalization of their economy. The language barrier would be barely existent since the large majority of the Indians speak English. "English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication" (Central Intelligence Agency, 2008).
However still underdeveloped, at least in comparison to the United States, the communication systems and transportation networks…
Gupta, R.K., 1997, Briefing Paper: Non-Tariff Barriers or Disguised Protectionism, Consumer Unity and Trust Society International, Number 2
Mehta, R., 2006, Non-Tariff Barriers Affecting India's Exports, Asian Development Bank, India Resident Mission, INRM Policy Brief No. 10
Office of the United States Trade Representative, Foreign Trade Barriers, Retrieved at http://www.ustr.gov/assets/Document_Library/Reports_Publications/2004/2004_National_Trade_Estimate/2004_NTE_Report/asset_upload_file973_4773.pdfon February 12, 2008
World Trade Organization, 2007, India - Trade Policies by Sector, Retrieved at http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp283_e.htm . On February 12, 2008
As a consequence, Turkey is uniquely positioned to sell to all of these different customers, as its position on the map indicates.
The market research process can be different in the international context. The first issue is that the purpose of the market entry has to be defined. Once this has been established -- suppose the objective is to set up textile manufacturing in Turkey -- then the research can focus on how. There are significant differences that might arise with respect to the access to information in foreign markets, however. hile Turkey is relatively transparent, some other markets are not. Turkish firms are exporting to Iraq, for example, but there are no real market statistics for that market. Such firms may be run by Kurds and trading mainly with Iraqi Kurdistan, for example, using connections to bridge the knowledge gap. In addition, where at home one can…
Osakwe, E. (2009). Cotton fact sheet, Turkey. International Cotton Advisory Committee. Retrieved April 27, 2013 from http://www.icac.org/econ_stats/country_facts/e_turkey.pdf
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Turkey. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 19, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/tu.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Inevitably, the level of economic development has a direct contact with the marketing strategy of a company. Basically a company's marketing strategy is a mixture of three things which are distribution, promotion and pricing.
Companies usually make its marketing strategies according to the level of economic development in both the multinational and global context. For a developed country, the organizations have an idea that promotion and pricing strategies will be crucial for them merely to accelerate the level of their earnings. There can be a marginal difference between the standardized form of marketing and local method of marketing. Standardized form of marketing compel the organizations to facilitate the consumers in the same way as they wanted while the domestic marketing makes their own rules of entertaining the consumers, this is the main thing why the standardized form is more productive than the domestic form. Standardized form of marketing includes tailoring…
Economic Development, retrieved from < http://www.edrgroup.com/library/economic-development / >, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
John, E (1999), Economic Development, John Wiley & Sons Professional Publications
Michael, P & Stephen, S (2009), Economic Development, McGraw Hill Publications
What is Economic Development, retrieved from http://www.valleycountyeconomicdevelopment.com/pages/what_is_econ.htm, Accessed on [7th April, 2011]
Resulting from the devaluation of China's currency was an exacerbation of problems throughout Asia.
VII. 1995-96 -MINI-RECESSION, DET PROLEM, ACCUMULATION
In the summer of 1995, the reversal of the chronic weakness of the dollar resulted in the depreciation of the Japanese yen, which had been approaching an acute deflationary crisis with a steep fall in the stock market. (Makin, 2000; paraphrased)
VIII. 1996-97 - DET / FOREIGN EXCHANGE, RESERVE RATIONS DETERIORATE
The work of Williamson (1999) entitled: "Implications of the East Asian Crisis for Debt Management" relate that a countries debt can be viewed from four different external perspectives in terms of debt composition which include: (1) FDI; (2) Portfolio Equity; (3) Long-term loans; and (4) short-term loans. This is the ideal composition of a countries debts however the debt profile of countries in East Asia are known to profoundly differ from the foregoing profile in that they had too…
Banking System Developments in the Four Asian Tigers (1997) Economic Research and Data. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. 8 Aug 1997. Online FRBSF Economic Letter. Available at http://www.frbsf.org/econrsrch/wklyltr/el97-22.html
Barro, Robert J. (1998) the East Asian Tigers Have Plenty to Roar About. Economic Viewpoint Business Week 27 Apr 1998. Online available at http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/barro/files/bw98_04_27.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. 1999 February Online available at http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/csgr/research/workingpapers/1999/wp2499.pdf
Hughes, Christopher W. (1999) Japanese Policy and the East Asian Currency Crisis: Abject Defeat or Quiet Victory. CSGR Working Paper No. 24/99. February 1999. Online available at
The new rebuilt and equipped factories were net superior to those of America or other victorious states.
Demographic factor more recent internal factor that tends to influence Japan's economy is of demographic nature. However still increasing, the population of Japan is increasing at a lower rate than that of a decade ago. Not only the reduced birth rate contributes to the demographic decrease, but also the more and more obvious market liberalization and individuals' migration towards better paid jobs in other countries.
This means that the country is left with less young workers and more retired people with no other income that their pension. In the times to come, the larger number of pensioners than that of the working population will turn out to be a bourdon upon the shoulders of Japan.
Also, another demographic factor of great importance is the recent migration from the country side to the city.…
Wikipedia, The Free Online Encyclopedia, November 9, 2006, Economic History of Japan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economic_history_of_Japan,last accessed on November 26,
Valignano, Alessandro, 1584, Historia del Principo y Progresso de la Compania de Jesus en las Indias Orientales
Answers.com, Economic History of Japan, Answers Corporation, 2006, http://www.answers.com/topic/economic-history-of-japan , last accessed on November 26, 2006
Wikipedia, The Free Online Encyclopedia, November 21, 2006, Economy of Japan, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_japan,last accessed on November 26, 2006
Eurozone Maastricht Treaty
Euro zone Treaty
The European Community established the convergence criteria. These criteria was established in order to allow its EU Member states to take part in the Euro Zone, and using the Euro, as an official currency. The members of the European Union formed the Maastricht Treaty in 1992. The principle goals of the treaty were to establish an economic and monetary union, strengthen the democratic legitimacy of its institutions, better the effectiveness of its institutions, come up with the community social dimension, and also establish a unified foreign and security policy (Charles 1998).
The criteria contain several principles governing inflation rates, government finance, exchange rate, and long-term interest rates. The percentage points for inflation rates should not be 1.5 higher than the average the top three members states in performance of the EU. Government finance covers both the annual government deficit and the government debt. Under…
Charles K. (1998). Interest Rates: A Decision-Making Approach. New York, NY: Dryden
David, J.H. (1999). "Advertising's Overdue Revolution" Speech delivered at the week
New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons
Secondly, development programs may prove enticing enough to potential employees. Therefore, the company can use them in order to attract the desired staff capable of inducing the organization's growth.
Thirdly, if existing employees are trained for different or more complex tasks, these may become eligible for vacant positions or may handle a wider range of activities. In this context, the company saves money by reducing its need to hire.
Another benefit of development consists of rewarding loyal employees who after learning new skills are promoted to higher positions. This also accounts for a company's performance.
Last, but not least, development strategies allow employees to be more independent or, in other words, they give them wings to fly. This autonomy cuts off the supervision costs, thus increasing the company's efficiency, and inherently, performance (http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/careers-job-training/1151-1.html).
Employee training also plays a major part in maintaining a work/life balance. This is essential for the…
1. Goldstein, S., 2003. Employee Development: An examination of service strategy in a high-contact service environment, [Online], Available:
2007, January 30].
2. Gross, B., 2000. Effective Training Programs for Managers, [Online], Available:
An interesting trend has been registered in the service industry, especially in the field of tourism. One of the main engines of Spanish economy in the past, now tourism in this country faces fierce competition from Eastern Europe countries. The beautiful resorts in Palma del Majorca and Costa rava must compete with low cost sea side resort, which offer similar services at incredibly low prices. Another field which needs reforms and reformulation policy is the agricultural and fishery one, which accounts only 4.1% out of GDP, although the important political forces attached to this sensible sector.
In order to be able to face the challenges and the opportunities on the regional and global market, Spain needs reforms in most fields of activity. Unemployment level is one of the highest in EU 9.2% at the end of 2005, while the rate of inflation was around 3.4 per cent in 2005, which…
1) Carol Matlack and Joan Tarzian - 'Spain: Immigrants Welcome', Business Week, May 21, 2007
2) 'Plain sailing no longer', the Economist print edition, 3rd of March 2007.
3) 'Spanish property - the pain in Spain', 26th of April 2007.
4) Human Development Index report, for the year 2006
Traditional manufacturing industries are at a loss due to the trade deficit and many setbacks the whole nation has faced. Consumers are very dependent on debt due to re-mortgaging the properties to attain higher loans. Due to the sub-prime market fall, the services sector is likely to suffer a lot. A significant amount of people are without pensions or health insurance. The housing and mortgage markets are still in crisis. Consumers are paying more for the basic necessities such as food, fuel, medical care, college tuition etc. (Hunkar, D. 2009).
To recap, the number one market for Shin Shii tea outside Taiwan would be the United States. Certainly, it can be argued that possibility is there. This would be the best indication that the company should definitely choose a global approach to marketing, rather than localization. The U.S. is also the safest market to start. In addition, due to globalization,…
Chandon, P. & Wansink, B. (2002). When are stockpiled products consumed faster? a
convenience-salience framework of postpurchase consumption incidence and quantity. Journal of Marketing Research. 39 (1), 321-335.
CIA. (2010). CIA World Factbook: United States. Available:
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/us.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Yet another argument in favour of the expansion towards Luxembourg is the fact that the country is most specialized on producing high quality white wines. This means that Vinos Andinos has an increased chance of selling their red and rose wines to a population that might desire a change from Luxemburg's white wines.
Switzerland (fifth by GDP and sixth by wine consumption) produces low amounts of wine internally, but has an increased consumption and demand as well as high salaries that allow consumers to afford the prices of the Chilean wines. Therefore, the Western Europe country should be one of the three destinations towards which Vinos Andinos ought to focus their attention.
The entrance onto the Swiss wine market might however pose some difficulties. Even though statistics do not mention Switzerland as a major wine producer, this is not entirely true. The inconsistency is due to the fact that…
Davis, P., 1983, Alcohol Problems and Alcohol Control in Europe, Gardener Pr.
Fielden, C., 2003, the Wines of Argentina, Chile and Latin America, New Edition, Mitchell Beazley
Lapsley, J., Moulton, K., 2001, Successful Wine Marketing, First Edition, Springer
Culture is no small force; it shapes individuals and impacts tremendously on politics (McCartney, 2004). Nations are made up of people, who, from the moment of their birth, are deeply and profoundly shaped by the cultures and customs from whence they came (McCartney, 2004). Because history and culture are two such inseparable animals, it's worthwhile to take a brief look at the history of the Bahamas.
Many history scholars believe that the first inhabitants of the Bahamas were Aborigines of Mongol ancestry who migrated there 100,000 years ago via a bridge which connected Alaska and Siberia. However, others attribute original dwellers of the Bahamas to have come from Haiti (McCartney, 2004). And yet still other scholars believe that the original inhabitants of the Bahamas were the Lucayan Indians (Arawaks) that Columbus met when he arrived there in 1492 (McCartney, 2004).Despite Columbus's "discovery" of this land and these people…
Bahamasislandinfo.com. (2012, August 8). Grand Bahama's economic landscape showing improvement. Retrieved from Bahamasislandinfo.com: http://www.bahamaislandsinfo.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=12316:grand-bahamas-economic-landscape-showing-improvement&catid=33:News%20&%20Info%20about%20Grand%20Bahama&Itemid=146
Baker, C. (2001). Bahamas, Turks and Caicos.: Includes Hundreds of Dive and Snorkel Sites. Oakland: Lonely Planet.
Barlas, R. (2006). Bahamas. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendesh Benchmark.
Bethel, N. (2007, May 24). On Why Race Matters. Retrieved from Bahama Pundit: http://www.bahamapundit.com/2007/05/on_why_race_mat.html
Thailand, like many third world countries, is interested in identifying the mechanisms by which economic growth may be achieved. Economic growth and more specifically 'rapid economic growth falls within the province of the mid-term and long-term macroeconomic policies (Dervis and Petri 1987, p. 211). Dervis and Petri, survey 20 'middle income' countries, in an attempt to identify the factors which contribute to successful development-which they identify as moderately rapid economic growth as measured by changes in the GDP ((Dervis and Petri 1987, p. 213-214). The work Dervis and Petri is over 20 years old; it is useful only to set a baseline for the macroeconomic challenges faced by developing countries, in comparison to the macroeconomic challenges faced by Thailand in 2011 and beyond.
Primary indicators of success in included among others, three factors. First, political stability- the authors note that often many developing countries experience a period of rapid…
Bhanupong, N 2010, "Effectiveness of Thailand's macroeconomic policy response to the global financial crisis," ASEAN Economic Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 121-135, viewed 12 Dec 2011, Http://www.Ebsceohost.com
Brawley, M & Baerg, N. 2007, "Structural adjustment, development, and democracy," International Studies Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 601-615, viewed 13 Dec 2011, Http://www.ebsceohost.com /
Chaikledkaew, U Lertpitakpong, C. Teerawattananon, Y. Thavorncharoensap, M. & Tangcharoensathien, V. 2009, "The current capacity and future development of economic evaluation for policy decision-making: A survey among researchers and decision makers in Thailand," Value in Health, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. S31-S35, viewed 12 Dec 2011, Http://www.jstor.org/
Chipman, J 1949 "The generalized bi-system multiplier," The Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 176-189, viewed 12 Dec 2011,
Maison LANVIN 2016 Company Analysis
Lanvin is A French multinational company specializing in high fashion. Established in 1889, the company is presently more than 125 years old. At present, Lanvin is a reference to French fashion, Luxury, accessories and perfumes. Since its establishment, the company registered office remains the same at Faubourg in Paris. Jeanne Lanvin is renowned for her talents, and through her innovative talents, the company has become known for refinement, elegance and luxury globally. Start as a milliner, and later sell to Paris's upper class, the company has built its name as a top company that designs ultra-feminine clothing marked with elaborate trimming that includes beading, embroidery, beading, and fragrances. Despite the success of Lanvin House, the company experienced a decline in sales towards the end of 20th century.
In 2001, Lanvin found a critical and financial success with the help of designer Alber Elbaz…
Aside these impacts however, more salient effects are observable, such as a necessity to change internal practices of business. A relevant example in this sense is given by Wal-Mart, in its quality of America's largest retailer, which decided, unlike within the U.S., to allow Chinese employees to unionize (Dessler, 2006). The official approach of the Chinese leaders was that of implementing reforms which further capitalize on the low cost labor force advantage in order to continually attract investors.
5. The Market of Exchange ates
The final step of this analysis is constituted by the look at China's currency policies, in an attempt to reveal if the policies implemented have played any part in the country's competitiveness within the global market. China's currency, the yuan, was pegged to the United States Dollar in 1997, but the link only lasted until 2005. Since then, the mechanism of resetting the value of the…
Brasher, K., 2005, China's Opaque Currency Policy, the New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/22/business/worldbusiness/22assess.html last accessed on October 21, 2009
Bruton, G.D., Ahlstrom, D., Chan, E.S., 2000, Foreign Firms in China: Facing Human Resources Challenges in a Transnational Economy, SAM Advanced Management Journal, Vol. 65
Buckley, P.J., Clegg, J., Wang, C., 2002, the Impact of Inward FDI on the Performance of Chinese Manufacturing Firms, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 33
Cavanaugh, J., Mander, J., 2004, Alternatives to Economic Globalization: A Better World Is Possible, 2nd Edition, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, ISBN 1576753034
The Dilemma of a Ethical Practices and Profitability of Trading with China
China continues to have one of the world's strongest and most resilient economies, achieving a 10.3% Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate in 2010 compared to the world average of 4.2% and the United States' 2.9%. U.S. Lawmakers continue to question the $4M in foreign aid that Congressional budgets are requesting for one of the fastest growing economies globally today (Pennington, 2011). Despite the rationalization that this significant amount of investment is necessary for clean energy primary research, the rationalization is weak when compared to the many economic challenges and hardships the U.S. continues to face (Pennington, 2011). As of October, 2011 the cumulative 2011 trade deficit with China is today at $217B, down from a high of $270B earlier in the year. Arguably China could more afford to provide foreign aid to the U.S., not vice…
Ho, C., & Redfern, K.. (2010). Consideration of the Role of Guanxi in the Ethical Judgments of Chinese Managers. Journal of Business Ethics, 96(2), 207-221.
M Islam, & M. Gowing. (2003). Some empirical evidence of Chinese accounting system and business management practices from an ethical perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(4), 353-378.
Lawrence, W., & Sun, W.. (2010). A Cluster Approach towards Enhancing Chinese- American Trade Opportunities. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(2), 44-51.
Pennington, M. (2011, November 15). Lawmakers scrutinize u.s. foreign aid to china. Washington Times. Retrieved from http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/nov/15/lawmakers-scrutinize-us-foreign-aid-china/
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
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Women are just as capable (and more capable in some areas) as men are, and they should be treated equally in the workplace. In addition, men should take on some of the household duties, and women should have more than simply part-time opportunities open to them. The Canadian economy is facing many threats from overseas, and to devalue women and the contribution they could make is shortchanging Canadian women, and keeping the Canadian economy in a 20th century mentality when it needs to move along, modernize, and look toward the future. Childcare must move into the 21st century, as well, and there should be enough childcare for all the families who need it, at a low cost, so women can truly afford to work outside the home.
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and…
Caplin, E. (2003, January/February). Canadian rights for women worldwide. Canadian Speeches, 16, 60+.
Dhruvarajan, V. And Vickers, J. (2002). Gender, race, and nation: A global perspective.
Fenwick, T. (2004). 8 Gender and the new economy- Enterprise discourses in Canada: implications for workplace learning and education. In Globalizing Education for Work: Comparative Perspectives on Gender and the New Economy, Lakes, R.D. & Carter, P.A. (Eds.) (pp. 131-152). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Kainer, J. (2003). Valuation, resistance and women's work: A review essay. Journal of Canadian Studies. 1-9.