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guerrilla warfare counterinsurgency directly apply post-9/11 terrorist problem faced U.S. 2.
Literature on guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgency, as well as the very denotation of the former term, applies to post-9/11 terrorism combated by the United States since it defines the very nature of that struggle. The intensely covert forms of Islamic militant terrorist tactics, such as those carried out by insurgents in Iraq or those attempted by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, include the elements of surprise that have come to typify the war measures of such groups, and which are inherently part of guerrilla warfare strategy.
Several reports in news media have claimed that the presence of the United States in Iraq and the subsequent war efforts of the former nation have actually adversely affected the war on terror, and have allowed for the spread of the Islamic militancy terrorist movement, which in turn has enabled al Qaeda the chance to…
Associate Press. (2009). Iraq War Made Terror Worse. CBS News World. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/09/24/iraq/main2036338.shtml
Metz, S. (2006). Learning from Iraq: Counterinsurgency in American Strategy. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute monograph. Retrieved from http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=752, retrieved June 1, 2007
Megan K. Stack (2001). "Fighters Hunt Former Ally." articles.latimes.com. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/06/news/mn-12224
The rule of thumb is to strike the enemy at places where the enemy feels 'safe' and then never let the enemy relax (Latin pp). Terrorism is an act of violence by groups that are part of guerilla movements, in an effort to create fear and draw support (Ramli pp). Today, suicide terrorism is the most widely used tactic by the insurgents in Iraq, and the present quagmire in Iraq could transform guerilla warfare into revolutionary warfare, whereby the Iraqis could mobilize and seize the state due to their hatred for the occupying power, thus within these constraints revolutionary warfare can take the form of urban guerilla war or rural guerilla war (Ramli pp).
Guerilla. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerilla
Latin America. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/areas/latin.htm
Ramli H. Nik. "ill we see history repeated in Iraq?" New Straits Times.
June 04, 2005. Retrieved August 20,…
Guerilla. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guerilla
Latin America. Retrieved August 20, 2005 at http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/areas/latin.htm
Ramli H. Nik. "Will we see history repeated in Iraq?" New Straits Times.
June 04, 2005. Retrieved August 20, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Guerrilla warfare is a type of warfare where a small band of fighters (whether professional, militia, or civilian) adopt the tactics of stealth soldiers, using sabotage, ambushes, hit-and-run strategies, etc., in order to exploit their most powerful tools -- mobility and the ability to fly under the radar undetected in order to score direct hits against the opposition, undermine the opposition's infrastructure, and bring down the opposition's system of support; in other words, it is irregular warfare conducted by an independent unit (O'Leary, 2014, p. 4). Guerrilla warfare has been conducted in asymmetric warfare for ages, going back to the Civil War days, when guerrilla combatants waged war against opposing forces. In countries where insurrections and revolutions have occurred, such as in South and Central America, guerrilla warfare has been part of the strategy of combatants. It is essentially used by weaker/smaller but less easily identifiable/located forces against…
Cooper, T. L. (2012). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (6th ed.). New York, NY: Jossey-Bass.
O'Leary, R. (2014).The ethics of dissent: Managing guerrilla government (2nd ed.).
Washington, DC: CQ Press.
He also contends that guerilla warfare is not a tactic that is practiced without discipline or structure. The structure and adherence to rules or laws, as Guevara, suggests, are elements that directly contribute to the efficacy of guerilla warfare as used by terrorist organizations and small countries.
It is often said that guerrilla warfare is primitive. This generalization is dangerously misleading…it can be conducted in any terrain, in any climate, in any weather…Its basic element is man, and man is more complex than any of his machines. (U.S. Navy & Marine Corps, 1989, 13)
This quote comes from the headquarters of the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps, two extremely talented branches of the United States military, which is arguably one of the finest militaries in the world. If leaders from these branches of the military have this to say about guerilla warfare as it is used…
Guevara, Ernesto "Che." Guerilla Warfare. 1961.
Irish Republican Army. Green Book, Volumes 1 & 2.
United State Navy, United States Marine Corps. Mao Tse-Tung on Guerilla Warfare. Washington, D.C., 1989.
Unconventional Warfare: The Mujahidin of Afghanistan
esistance is not futile. It was one of the lessons learned from the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan: that any resistance force can counter effectively against a powerful aggressor. esistance - with the proper tools, strategy, and determination - can countermeasure any unwanted entity. The anti-Soviet forces in Afghanistan not only pushed the invaders out of their country, but it helped precipitated the eventual fall of the U.S.S.. As a world power. The question on the table is: what happened in that poor Southwest Asian country? How did the Soviets lose that war, or how did the mujahidin - the soldiers of God - win? First and foremost, the Soviet political and military leaders made strategic and tactical errors. The Afghan rebels employed unconventional warfare in Afghanistan: it was their only possible means in defeating the Soviets. Eventually, though too late, the ussian troops…
Bonosky, Phillip. Washington's Secret war against Afghanistan. New York: International Publishers. 1985.
Isby, David C. War in a Distant Country Afghanistan: Invasion and Resistance. New York: Sterling Publishing Company. 1989.
Kakar, M Hassan. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982. Berkley: University of California Press. 1995.
Kaplan, Robert D. Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Vintage Books. 1990.
Fourth Generation Warfare
Some analysts have argued that "fourth generation warfare" is new. This author will argue that there is nothing new about fourth generation warfare. Modern military analysts have simply been ignoring it because they know how to do second and third generation warfare. Fourth generation warfare is as old as human beings. Although it was only formally defined in the famous Marine Corps Gazette article of 1989, it predates formal warfare precisely because it involves terrorist actors. Since it existed from the beginning, it was just "under the radar screen" of military analysts who were used to modern technology and tactics.
The simplest definition of fourth generation warfare includes any kind of warfare in which one of the participants is not a state but instead a violent terrorist actor. Classical examples include such as the slave rising under Spartacus. Of course, this predates the modern concept of warfare…
Lind, William S, Nightengale, Keith, Schmitt, John F., Sutton, Joseph S., and Lieutenant
Wilson, Gary I. "The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation." Marine
Corps Gazette, October 1989, 22-26.
Murden, Simon. "Staying the Course in 'Fourth-Generation Warfare': Persuasion and Perservance in the Era of the Asymmetric Bargaining War." Contemporary Security Policy 28, no. 1 (April 2007): 197-211.
The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).
Diplomatic options in…
Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .
Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved
from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm .
Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.
(Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
"Disaggregation" could provide a new strategy for the counterinsurgency model for its war against terrorism. Disaggregation would involve prohibiting links between theaters, preventing global or regional insurgents to associate with or exploit potential local terrorists, disrupting the flow of information, propaganda and materials within and between jihad hotspots, abolishing sanctuary areas, identifying and isolating radical elements from the local populace and interrupting inputs from Islamist sources emanating from the greater Middle East. This new approach must address the problem at three levels -- local, regional and global levels. (Mahnken and Maiolo, 2008, p. 339); (Friedman, 2003); (Military Doctrine, Guerrilla Warfare and Counterinsurgency, 2003)
Lessons Learnt by the U.S. Marines and the U.S. Army
The lessons learnt by the U.S. Army and the Marine Corps in Vietnam were profound but were soon forgotten, but the recent…
Amstutz, Mark R. 2005. International ethics: concepts, theories, and cases in global politics. Rowman & Littlefield.
Boot, Max. 2009. A New Counterinsurgency in Afghanistan. [Online]. Available at:
http://www.commentarymagazine.com/viewarticle.cfm/a-new-counterinsurgency-in-afghanistan-15116 [accessed 28 April 2008]
Cassidy, Robert M. 2006. Counterinsurgency and the global war on terror: military culture and irregular war. Greenwood Publishing Group.
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…
Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html , accessed 11 June 2007.
Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
Tarleton was known for cruelty and slaughter. When his troops took Marion's nephew Gabriel prisoner during an unsuccessful attempt to capture Georgetown, Tarleton followed up by murdering Gabriel in cold blood. But Marion did not engage in any similar brutality or seek revenge by killing British prisoners of war. it's a testament to his moral character and to "a scrupulous piety that was part of his Huguenot background" (Smith, 1976, p. 1437). By his own upright behavior he set a standard for those who served him, and the men under him made it their standard too (American evolution - General Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox web site).
Marion got his nickname "The Swamp Fox" from the enemy. Colonel Banastre ("Bannister") Tarleton called him that because of his elusive tactics (the Swamp Fox web site). Cornwallis was determined to put an end to Marion's daring exploits and had sent Tarleton to…
American revolution web site. Francis Marion, Revolutionary War 'Swamp Fox': Retrieved 17 June 2007 at http://www.americanrevolution.com/FrancisMarion.htm
Commager, H.S. And Morris, R.B. (Eds) (1983). The spirit of seventy-six. New York: Bananza Books.
Leadership qualities web site: Retrieved 19 June 2007 at http://pirate.shu.edu/~gonosann/assignments/leadershipqualities.htm.
Simms, W.G. (1844). The life of Francis Marion. Retrieved 17 June 2007 at http://www.geocities.com/bourbonstreet/1786/1sfox10.txt
Michael Collins- Terrorist or Freedom Fighter?
The name Michael Collins has very different meanings for different groups of people. For millions of people, he is considered not only a terrorist, but one of the first real terrorists. For millions of others, he is considered a great freedom fighter. The author was called upon to choose a position and support an argument about whether Collins was a terrorist or a freedom fighter. However, the reality is that Collins was both a terrorist and a freedom fighter, and the two roles are not mutually exclusive. Many people who support his position as a freedom fighter reject the terrorist label. Therefore, this paper will focus explaining why the author believes that Collins was a terrorist. There are several facts that support Collins being considered a terrorist. First, Collins developed modern guerrilla warfare, one of the preferred tactics of modern-day terrorists. Initially, he targeted…
Boot, M. (2011, May 17). The queen visits Michael Collin's Ireland. Retrieved January 9, 2012
from Commentary website: http://www.commentarymagazine.com/2011/05/17/queen-elizabeth-visit-reaffirms-anglo-irish-friendship/
The Delaware Criminal Justice Council Terrorism Research Page. (2007, March 22). The
history of terrorism: More than 200 years of development. Retrieved January 9, 2012 from The State of Delaware website: http://cjc.delaware.gov/terrorism/history.shtml
In short, the United States became more aggressive in attaining foreign resources and access to trade. This was a result of the expansive nature of empires, and the fact that America, as characterized by Boot, was gradually becoming a "great power."
Largely, the Great Powers of the modern world have come into being as emerging economic and political trends have allowed. The ever shifting tides of the world's social foundations have tended to produce successive powers that rise and fall over the course of history. Generally, what make these powers great are their military capabilities, but of course, these are commanded by the economic base supporting them. A powerful economy can allow for enormous military expenditures, and generate vast influence across the planet.
Naturally, the economic crux of a great power can vary in form. Most obviously, the great power of the ancient world -- Rome -- relied upon the…
Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
War has undoubtedly shaped the course of human history. Conflicts, through sheer human nature often arise through disagreement. Occasionally these conflicts end with war as opposing sides believe so vehemently in their respective reasonings and doctrinal views. Oftentimes, these war's end with one "victor" and on defeated party, however, in war everyone losses.
The Vietnam War in particular is an example of how war is a zero sum game that only results in losses for all those involved. This paper examines how the conflict started, taking particular care to express both points-of-view regarding core issues followed by a discussion concerning Special Forces operations and their overall impact on the outcome of the war. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about Special Forces in Vietnam in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Origins of the Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2002, March). Delta Force: Secret Wielders of Death. VFW Magazine 89(7), p. 16.
Beckwith, Charles (with Donald Knox) (1983). Delta Force. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 9780151246571.
Kelly, Francis J. Green Berets of Vietnam - The U.S. Army Special Forces 61-71 - the. S.l: Archive Media Publishing, 2013.
hich historians Yahia Zoubir and Daniel Volman describe this way:
At the same time, they [the Judges] are in accord in providing indications of a legal tie of allegiance between the Sultan and some, though only some, of the tribes of the territory, and in providing indications of some display of the Sultan's authority or influence with respect to those tribes."
For the court to have found in the favor of Morocco based on "historic" claims, would have opened the door of a Pandora's box, and there was simply no way to legally deal with that situation. A finding in Morocco's favor would undo the modern world. Then, strangely enough, and because if he wanted to remain in the dynamics of the argument and struggle for control over estern Sahara, Morocco's King Hussan III interpreted the court's findings in favor of Morocco, and in accordance with Moroccan law. If the…
Borowiec, Andrew. 2003. Taming the Sahara: Tunisia Shows a Way While Others Falter. Westport, CT: Praeger. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107024757.Internet . Accessed 14 August 2008. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002077928
Dela Rosa, Darrell. 2003. The UN Role in Western Sahara. UN Chronicle, September-November, 22+. Database online. Available from Questia,
Almost every major counterinsurgency in the 20th century failed, according to van Creveld, a historian at Hebrew University, due not to ethnocentrism to unfamiliarity with guerrilla warfare. Ethnocentrism and belief in the nation's superiority over the other might have been present, but it may have been evinced only later due to frustration, or was a secondary factor (Pilkins, 2005). American failure in the Iraqi conflict is complex. Arrogance certainly present, unfamiliarity with guerrilla warfare may also play a significant part leading to American frustration and exacerbating their condescension and superciliousness.
Using two examples -- that of one of America's first battles at the start of its history and the ongoing Iraqi conflict, this essay demonstrates how U.S. military failure can be reduced to two possibly related factors: political corruption that creeps into the army and interferes with positions and posts, consequently destructing the moral and functioning of the…
Ambrose, S. (1964). Upton and the Army, Baton Rouge: Louisiana
State University Press, 24 -- 38; 54 -- 70.
Pilkins, D. (Oct 23, 2005). The fall of the Warrior King, New York Times Magazine, ProQuest National Newspapers Premier
Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation
Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)
The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"
Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…
Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Counterterrorism Training Program
Terrorism is a fact of modern life. On one level, it cannot be understood; it is difficult to empathize with those who have no empathy of their own and cause enormous suffering in the name of their own beliefs. On another level, however, there are components of terrorism that can be understood -- their tactics and methods, their choice of targets and more. Because terrorism is aimed at entire societies, and is carried out in a guerrilla fashion, it is necessary to develop tactics for deterring terrorism that address terrorism's wide and deep sources, tactics and effects.
Terrorism has been a fact of life for 200 years, since the French evolution. At that time, Cottam et al. (2004) suggest that the rise of the nation-state made it more possible than ever before for individuals to want to maintain identities that were very like those of their community;…
Alibek, K., and S. Handelman. (1999). Biohazard. New York: Random House.
Almog, D. (2004) Cumulative Deterrence and the War on Terrorism. Parameters, 34(4), p. 4+.
Block, S.M. (2001, January) The Growing Threat of Biological Weapons. American Scientist, 889(1), p. 28.
Bush, G.W. (2003, February) National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (Washington: The White House, February 2003), p. 15,
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…
Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.
Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.
Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
1). While modern observers may relate the role played in the history of the United States only on his presidency of the Confederate states, in reality, a more balanced view of the man would also include the fact that Davis had a significant role in the development of the early nation and his contributions were responsible for increasing both the size and the character of the country. In this regard, Cooper emphasizes that, "Davis's notability does not come solely from his crucial role in the Civil War. Born on the Kentucky frontier in the first decade of the 19th century, he witnessed and participated in epochal transformation of the United States from a fledgling country to a strong nation spanning the continent" (2003, p. 1).
As noted above, as a graduate of West Point, Davis served as a junior officer in the U.S. Army in the southwestern United States and…
Brick-Turin, a.S. (2004). Jefferson Davis, Confederate president. The Historian, 66(3), 585-
Cooper, W.J. (2003). Jefferson Davis: The essential writings. New York: The Modern Library.
Davis, J. (1881, 1971 reprint). The rise and fall of the Confederate government. New York: Da
" ("Ernesto, 'Che' Guevara, Books and riters, 2003) Guevara gave up a potentially successful life and career as a doctor in his native land to set the poor free. He joined Fidel Castro to overthrow the right-wing Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1957. The revolution proved successful. But even more successful proved Guevara's charisma and his voicing of the ways ordinary people could wage revolution: "Guerrilla warfare is used by the side which is supported by a majority but which possesses a much smaller number of arms for use in defense against oppression." (Cited by "Ernesto 'Che' Guevara," Books and riters. 2003, from Guevara's Guerrilla arfare, 1960)
Guevara earned his nickname 'Che,' because of his habit of saluting his fellow revolutionaries as 'friend.' However, after the conquest of power in January 1959 when Guevara gained fame as the leading figure in Castro's government, Che began to lose some of his…
Dorfman, Ariel. "Che Guevara." Time Magazine: 100 heroes special edition. Pp.1-3. [13 Jun 2006]
Ernesto 'Che' Guevara." Books and Writers. 2003. [13 Jun 2006] http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/guevar.htm
The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."
The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.
Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."
Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…
Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.
Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Malayan Emergency in the context of the post-WWII major power experience. What was different in the ways that the major powers chose to employ force and how was this different from the high-intensity conflict of WWII?
During World War II, Malaysia was occupied by the Japanese forces but the resumption of control by the ritish of the area was far from triumphant.[footnoteRef:1] The disruption of the tin and rubber industries had left the Malaysian economy in a state of ruin, and the ritish were determined to reestablish their colonial authority because of the extent to which their economy depended upon a steady supply of these resources. However, the native population resisted the resumption of ritish control and a prolonged state of guerrilla warfare was touched off by the murder of three ritish plantation owners. The primary opponents of the ritish were the Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) and the Malayan…
Carver, Michael. War Since 1945. Dublin: The Ashfield Press, 1990.
Moyar, Mark. A Question of Command: Counterinsurgency from the Civil War to Iraq.
New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2009.
illiam allace's Insurgency
Factors Driving illiam allace's Insurgency
illiam allace was born somewhere around 1272-1276. His childhood years were peacefully spent, without a doubt, in a large house rather than a tiny crofter's shack. illiam was exceptionally large and boisterous -- traits that didn't go well with the future his family had planned for him. Being the younger son, and without any lands of his own, illiam was bound to end up as a priest. However, the death of his father, Sir Malcolm allace, and his eldest brother, in a clash with the English at Irvine, marked a permanent change in his life and the beginning of his personal bitterness towards the English -- a feeling that subsequently intensified to extreme hatred (Reese).
The historic 1296 Ragman Roll, through which the English King Edward I aimed to make the whole of Scotland bow down to him, set off the events…
Barrow, G. W. S. The Kingdom of the Scots: Government, Church and Society from the eleventh to the fourteenth century (2nd ed.), Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2003
Brown, Chris. William Wallace. The True Story of Brave heart, Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd., 2005.
Fisher, Andrew, William Wallace (2nd ed.), Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002
Morton, Graeme. William Wallace. London: Sutton, 2004.
They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.
The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…
Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Science-and-Technology-World-war-ii-and-the-early-cold-war.html
Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/nhl/themes/HomefrontStudy.pdf
Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-52-no-4/nisei-linguists.html
9-11 and Mass Commumications
Three years after the tragedy of 9-11, the city of new York has cleared the rubbish our of the footprint of the two towers, but they are still a long way from clearing the wreckage out of their collective, and individual hearts. Never before has the nation been struck in an act of war as was seen on national television on 9-11-2001. Even when the Japanese planes swarmed into Pearl Harbor, American's saw only the pictures which were released in print, and the events of the day had time to settle before the images of war were digested. ut even the attack on Pearl Harbor was fundamentally different than what occurred in New York. Military forces struck a military target. This does not reduce the shock of the event, but it was easier to digest as the nation ramped up for war in the European theater…
Aron, Raymond. The Imperial Republic. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1974
Baktiari, B, and Al-Sayyid, M.Kk. The impact of 9/11 on the Middle East. Middle East Policy. 12/1/2002
Cohen, David. Out of a clear blue sky; 9.11 Where were you? The Evening Standard (London, England); 9/11/2002.
Herert, Chantal. How 9/11 affected our parties The Toronto Star; 9/12/2003.
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Principal-Agent Model in Economics and Political Science
The international political perspectives of free trade
A Global Analysis
International Trade Impact on Tunisia
The Export of agricultural products
International trade and development of Tunisia
Balance in the Trade egime
Imports and exports of Tunisia
Coping With External and Internal Pressures
The Common External Tariff (CET)
Anti-Dumping Duties (ADDs) and Countervailing Duties (CVDs)
ules of origin
The New Commercial Policy Instrument
Sector Based Aspects
GATT/WTO's Main Principles
Multilateral negotiation and free trade
The Trading Policies of European Union
Critical Political Economy
The Gross Domestic Product of Tunisia
The eal Data Analysis of Import Export Companies in Tunisia
The Smith Co Company
The Softkim and Lovers Limited
The Impact of Free Trade on Tunisia Trading 43
Africa, the Caribbean, and the Pacific
Alternative Mediterranean Conference
Bhagwati, J. (2002). Free Trade Today. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99509776
Bhote, K.R. (2002). The Ultimate Six Sigma: Beyond Quality Excellence to Total Business Excellence. New York: AMACOM. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111931454
Campbell, B. (1993). 3 A Canadian Labor Perspective on a North American Free Trade Agreement. In The North American Free Trade Agreement Labor, Industry, and Government Perspectives, Bognanno, M.F. & Ready, K.J. (Eds.) (pp. 61-68). Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24509387
Conti, D.B. (1998). Reconciling Free Trade, Fair Trade, and Interdependence: The Rhetoric of Presidential Economic Leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=15432294
Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Debate over the Tonkin Gulf Crisis
The Tonkin Gulf Crisis 1964 ranks with the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the assassination of President John F. Kennedy as events that David Kaiser of the U.S. Naval War College refers to as "controversies in American political history that dwarf all others (Ford, 1997)."
There is evidence that President Lyndon Johnson deliberately lied about the incidents leading to the Vietnam War to ensure that plans for war were supported. However, many opponents of this claim say that this is not so. According to Sedgwick Tourison in the book Secret Army, Secret War and Dr. Edwin Moise's Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War, evidence that Johnson's administration was deceitful is becoming clearer than it was (Ford, 1997).
Today, Tonkin Gulf researchers are still examining the evidence to determine whether or not Johnson's administration intentionally instigated the…
Austin, Anthony. (1971). The President's War. Lippincott.
Cohen, Jeff. Solomon, Norman. (July 27, 1994). 30-Year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War. Media Beat. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.fair.org/media-beat/940727.html .
Department of State Bulletin. (August 24, 1964) The Tonkin Gulf Incident: President Johnson's Message to Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/tonkin.htm.
Ford, Ronnie. (August, 1997). New Light On Gulf Of Tonkin. Vietnam Magazine, pp. 165-172.
French and the ritish were both experienced colonial masters. Why do you believe the French essentially failed to maintain order and control whereas the ritish maintained control? What were the differences in their adversaries? What were the most and least effective components of the French response?
In contrast to the ritish experience in its colony of Malay, the French faced a relatively organized and unified force in French Indo-China. The French attempts to install a 'puppet' leader were a miserable failure and he had little popular support. Thus "France was less successful in Indochina…unlike the ritish in Malay…the French faced an opponent that had a secure neighboring base."[footnoteRef:1] The French, also unlike the ritish, were spread over a wide territorial area in Indochina. The French leadership was vulnerable to attack, particularly upon their communications systems, and while the French had advanced weaponry like napalm, the road system was poor, making…
Black, Jeremy. War Since 1945. London: Reaktion Books, 2005.
Carver, Michael. War Since 1945. Dublin: The Ashfield Press, 1990.
Q8. Talk briefly about the nature of the war, types of weapons used, and is terrorism a weapon in this conflict?
Terrorism is a weapon in this conflict, as is guerrilla warfare; the U.S. has attempted to train the Afghani forces to take over the nation's defense but has had difficulty training the native population in the strategies of modern warfare.
Q9. How many people have been injured or killed?
2,443 U.S. fatalities and 10468 wounded (iCasualties, 2011, OEF)
Q10. Should the U.S.A. play a role with respect to global peacekeeping and has the U.S.A. had a negative or positive effect?
In the world as a whole, there is little question that the U.S. had a positive effect, particularly when acting as a part of joint coalitions, such as with the UN and NATO. In the past, there was strident criticism that the U.S. did not intervene soon enough in…
Afghanistan-profile. (2010, August 16). Geneva Academy of International Law and Human
Rights. ADH-Geneva. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
Mulrine, Anna. (2011, April 29). Pentagon's rosy report of Afghanistan war raises questions.
CS Monitor. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…
The RIRA on occasion attacks a British army base, or bombs a civilian site just to show it is still out there while FARC is a powerful force that the government has no choice but to negotiate with. Also, the RIRA does not recruit young children for its violent terrorist activities, while FARC recruits and kidnaps thousands of young boys and trains them in guerrilla warfare. The RIRA does not have thousands of acres of poppies (to make into cocaine) that it can within its territory -- the RIRA has no established territory -- that it can exploit (tax) in order to raise money. That said, the RIRA does do some drug smuggling, according to credible sources.
There is an interesting connection between FARC and the RIRA: Evidence shows that the RIRA has been training FARC in "new technology" (bombs/mortars) (www.bbc.co.uk).
Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed…
Center for Defense Information. (2007). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).
Retrieved Feb. 6, 2009, from http://www.cdi.org/terrorism/terrorist-groups.cfm .
Global Security. (2008). Real Irish Republican Army. Retrieved Feb. 5, 2009, from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/nira.htm .
Global Security. (2009). Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia -- FARC. Retrieved Feb.
However, these poor, landless and mercenary men, despite the fact they worked for hire still frequently exhibited selfless behavior for their fellow soldiers in the face of adversity, such as at Valley Forge.
One of the most unique aspects of this book is its methodology. It attempts to integrate evidence about battles, armaments, military technology and the history of the early army into the greater social and political history of the revolution. However, it is not merely an analysis of battles and tactics. It is a truly integrative approach of social and military history. The dual backgrounds of Martin in history and Lender in military strategy enable them to merge what often are competing disciplines, namely the political struggles of why and how a nation goes to war, and the day-to-day struggles in fighting that war. Martin and Lender are also willing to highlight unflattering aspects of the early American…
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
However, the fact that the North Vietnamese fought with such commitment and that they were willing to sacrifice themselves in such great numbers also inspired some empathy on my part for them as well. They obviously endured tremendous hardships living for months on end in deep underground tunnels and being targeted by the most advanced and devastating weapon systems in the world by the most powerful superpower in the world. Naturally, I was horrified to see the effects of napalm on U.S. soldiers after Moore had no choice but to call in an air strike on his own position as a last-ditch effort to avoid being completely overrun by the enemy. However, at the same time, that scene also made me realize that this was only one air strike. Meanwhile, the Vietnamese forces were subjected to napalm air strikes continually for years throughout the U.S. involvement in the war (Goldfield,…
Goldfield, D., Abbot, C., Argersinger, J., and Argersinger, P. (2005). Twentieth-Century
America: A Social and Political History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-
Zinn, H. (2003). Voices from a People's History of the United States. New York:
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya (Sixth ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson
Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press.
Summary of the Punic Wars
The Punic Wars refer to the collective names of a series of three separate wars between Carthage and ome, which took place from 264 to 146 BC. The wars were fought between the two strongest contenders for control over the central Mediterranean Sea of the time. These wars ended with the destruction of Carthage, thus ending the city's period as an independent power and an important trade center. The city would later become an important trading center inside the oman Empire.
Bagnall, N. 2002. The Punic Wars: 264-146 BC. Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Cottrell, L. 1992. Hannibal: Enemy of ome. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
Goldsworthy, a. 2002. The Punic Wars. London: Cassell Publications.
Goldsworthy, a. 2004. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265-146 BC. London: Cassell Publications.
Huby, P. 2003. Carthage. Stockport, England: Dewi Lewis Publishing.
Lazenby, J.F. 1998. Hannibal's War. Norman,…
Bagnall, N. 2002. The Punic Wars: 264-146 BC. Botley, Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
Cottrell, L. 1992. Hannibal: Enemy of Rome. Philadelphia, PA: Da Capo Press.
Goldsworthy, a. 2002. The Punic Wars. London: Cassell Publications.
Goldsworthy, a. 2004. The Fall of Carthage: The Punic Wars 265-146 BC. London: Cassell Publications.
Public administrators now play an increasingly prominent role in policy decision-making. This is to the point where their names and likenesses become inadvertently attached by the media to a policy and its implications. A current case in point would be Defense Secretary Donald umsfeld and the role he plays in shaping America's policy towards Iraq. Due to the media's focus on his opinions regarding that policy, the general public has come to identify him as one of the individuals most responsible for developing and supporting it.
The war in Iraq had always been a contentious issue for both the U.S. And the world since before its inception. Now the situation in postwar Iraq has become the latest hot topic for debate. It continues to cause political battles to be fought along party lines between American policymakers in the Bush administration and those in Congress. The main issue now is in…
Sammon, B. (2004, Dec. 4). Rumsfeld agrees to stay on as defense chief. The Washinton Times. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the Washington Times Website.
Bush comments on Thompson terror worries.( 2004, Dec. 4). The New York Times.
Retrieved Dec. 4, 2004 from the New York Times Website. .
The author lays more stress on depicting the emotional journey of Farquhar, which results in a subjective treatment of time. From here on there is a slow down of time and the narration at times begins to be fictitious. As Stuart C. Woodruff a literary analyst puts it, " somehow the reader is made to participate in the split between imagination and reason, to feel that the escape is real while he knows it is not" [Peter Stoicheff] It is to be noted that ierce also gives the readers a subtle hint or two about the inconsistence of the account. For example his deliberately introduction of 'distortion of time' and narrational contradiction is obvious when Farquhar looks below and notices the "stream racing madly beneath his feet," while at the same time he seems to observe a slow drifting piece of wood and says 'What a sluggish stream'. For inventing…
1) Peter Stoicheff, "Something Uncanny; The Dream Structure in Ambrose Bierce's 'An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge', Studies in Short Fiction, Vol 30 No 3, Summer 1993, pg 349-58.
2) George Cheatham & Judy Cheatham, " Bierce's 'An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge'" Explicator, Vol 33, No 1, Fall 1984, pg 45-7
3) Project ELLSA, "An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge; Symbolism,"
Accessed on December 14th 2004,
Mao Tse-tung became both the political and spiritual leader of China, and the Cult of Mao developed as he led the Chinese people first in the Chinese Revolution and then in building a new and different China after 1949. The Chinese have a history of mythologizing their heroes and of making them into near-gods, and Mao benefited from this tendency and used of it to solidify his position and to develop his power.
Mao's thought developed during the early years of the decade prior to 1920, a period of great turmoil, with growing conflict between traditional Chinese thought and new ideas from the est. Mao became an active local leader in the May Fourth Movement of 1919, and he retained his revolutionary fervor. However, he also became convinced that what was needed was more than mass enthusiasm, that what was also required was an organization of dedicated revolutionaries. The Russian…
Bianco, Lucien. Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1971.
William Lindesay, Marching with Mao. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1993.
Meisner, Maurice. Mao's China. New York: The Free Press, 1977.
Townsend, James R. And Brantly Womack. Politics in China. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1986.
African and Native Americans
When discussing the experience of minorities in early America, it is tempting to fall into one of two extremes, either by imagining that the treatment of minorities by European colonizers was equal across the board, or else was so different that one cannot find congruities between experiences. Like most things in history, however, the truth is far more complex, because although the same religious, political, and economic ideologies motivated Europeans' treatment of Native Americans and Africans, the effects were mixed. In some instances Native Americans were treated to the same kind of brutality and disregard as those Africans caught up in the trans-Atlantic slave trade, but more frequently, European colonizers attempted to treat Native Americans as something closer to equals in an attempt to manipulate them into favorable actions, such trade alliances or military support. Furthermore, the experiences of Native Americans and Africans in America prior…
Clark, Andrew F. "The Atlantic Slave Trade Revisited." Journal of Third World Studies 22
Maass, John R. "The Frontier War for American Independence/The French and Indian War."
The Journal of Military History 69 (2005): 228-230.
Treason, Terrorism and Wartime Crimes
Treason is the term legally used to describe different acts of unfaithfulness, treachery and betrayal. The English law was the first to make a distinction between high treason and petit (petty) treason in the Statute of Treasons (1350). It described petit treason as an act in which one's lawful superior is murdered by him/her. For instance, if an apprentice murdered his/her master, it was stated as a petit treason. On the other hand, high treason was defined by the English law as any grave threat to the permanence or stability of the state. High treason consisted of "attempts to kill the king, the queen, or the heir apparent or to restrain their liberty; to counterfeit coinage or the royal seal; and to wage war against the kingdom" ("treason," 2012).
Treason is regarded as both a prehistoric misdemeanor and an acknowledged epithet (Eichensehr, 2009). The…
Eichensehr, K.E. (2009). Treason in the Age of Terrorism: An Explanation and Evaluation of Treason's Return in Democratic States. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 42 (5), 1443+. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-215409561/treason-in-the-age-of-terrorism-an-explanation-and
Lawless, M. (2007). Terrorism: An International Crime. International Journal, 63(1), 139+. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1P3-1525193241/terrorism-an-international-crime
McGlynn, S. (2011). War Crimes. In The Encyclopedia of War. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow678/pdf terrorism from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 21, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-terroris/terrorism treason from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2012). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-treason/treason
War Crimes. (2012). In BBC. Retrieved September 24, 2012, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/ethics/war/overview/crimes_1.shtml
attle of Cowpens
The ritish Are Not Coming: How the Read Coats Lost the attle of Cowpens
The attle of Cowpens is considered by many historians to be a critical battle, which to a large extent shaped the outcome of the American Revolutionary War or War of Independence. This is due to the fact that it was seen as a "…decisive first step by American forces in reclaiming South Carolina from the ritish and ultimately turning the tide of the Revolutionary War." [footnoteRef:1] The following discussion will provide a brief overview of the battle and attempt to provide an answer to the question, "how did the ritish lose the attle of Cowpens?" [1: "attle of Cowpens," accessed February 19. 2012, http://battleofcowpens.com/.]
Although, there were other factors involved, the defeat of the ritish at the attle of Cowpens was attributed to the superior strategy on the part of General…
Johnson, Correspondence, Sketches of the Life and Correspondence of Nathanael Greene. (Charleston, SC A.E. Miller, 1822), 370-371.
Skelton, Lynda Worley, ed.General Andrew Pickens: An Autobiography. (Clemson, SC: Pendleton District Historical and Recreational Commission, 1976.)
war is often a result of conflict that arises out of major disagreement. This agreement can vary dramatically, but war does not. It results it massive casualties, deaths, ill will, and economic harm. Those who "win" a war often suffer many of the same consequences as the "loser." War, and in particular, minor battles, are largely influenced by strategy. Strategy and tactics, or lack thereof, can be the difference between victory and defeat. More importantly, proper strategy can help avoid costly bloodshed and casualties. The battle of Wanat is a perfect example of war, and how tactics can determine the outcome. Although one side had superior capabilities, it was the strategy that ultimately prevailed. This document begins with a brief summary and description of the Battle of Wanat. This section is then followed by a detailed analysis of the battle. The document concludes with 4 key lessons that were learned…
1. Jaffe, G., "The Battle of Wanat: Inside the Wire," Washington Post, October 4, 2009.
2. Jalali, A., and L. Grau, "Afghan Guerrilla Warfare: In the Words of Mujahideen Fighters," Foreign Military Studies Office, Ft. Leavenworth, Kan., 2001.
3. Junger, S., "War," New York: Twelve, 2010.
4. Natonski, R.F., "Executive Summary of Re-Investigation into the Combat Action at Wanat Village, Wygal District, Nuristan Province, Afghanistan," January 12, 2010.
Malcolm Gladwell’s David and Goliath:
Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants
At the beginning of Malcolm Gladwell’s book David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the Art of Battling Giants, Gladwell details how a simple and unprepossessing young man used ingenuity to overcome a powerful and much larger opponent. It was not simply that David’s victory that was improbable that made him great. Rather, he capitalized upon his strengths and turned them into advantages. The fact that David was physically smaller than Goliath encouraged him to use his cleverness and guile, assets which Goliath never expected. Rather Goliath was preparing to meet “a warrior like himself to come forward in hand-to-hand combat” (Gladwell 7). David’s technique is not unlike that of small armies which have vanquished larger ones through surprise, guerrilla warfare.
But Gladwell’s principles are not only applicable to war. They can also be applied to ordinary civilian…
And modern warfare, although it is less overt, is never-ending and demands constant intelligence-gathering. This kind of flexibility that challenges nations which would often prefer to be fighting 'the last war' they fought, rather than the current one.
During the Cold War, both adversaries 'played by the same rules.' The Soviet Union was even more of a perfect model of an industrialized war society, in which all resources were focused upon defeating its main adversary at the expense of economically providing for its people. But after the dissolution of the bipolar balance of power, non-state actors could openly claim the loyalty of small bands of nationals and co-religionists within the fragmented new world order. Industrialized warfare came into being with the modern nation-state, with its capability of mobilizing large numbers of relatively expendable soldiers. These individuals were organized by a larger, centralized intelligence. Today, given that various non-state cells may…
Smith, Rupert. The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Vintage
Massacre at El Mozote
This report is a critical book review of Mark Danner's excellent 1994 book called "The Massacre at El Mozote: A Parable of the Cold ar" published by Vintage Books, a division of Random House. The book comes highly acclaimed from sources such as the ashington Post and New York Times. "Once in a rare while a writer re-examines a debated episode of recent history with such thoroughness and integrity that the truth can no longer be in doubt. Mark Danner did just that in a long article that took up most of last week's issue of The New Yorker. Mr. Danner's subject was the massacre in December 1981 in the Salvadoran village of El Mozote." (Lewis) The review is basically a reaction paper where I point our some of the book's strengths and weaknesses as well as describe to content of the book and my understanding…
Danner, Mark D. The Massacre at El Mozote: A Parable of the Cold War. 1st ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1994.
Lewis, Anthony. "Abroad at Home; The Whole Truth." New York Times [New York] December 6, 1993. 5 Dec. 2004 .
evidence back thoughts. OPTION #1:Discuss advantages
Great Britain and the fledgling United States each held distinct advantages and disadvantages at the start of the Revolutionary War. Britain, for its part, was advantaged by the fact that it had a plethora of soldiers with extensive experience in warfare. It also had a population of approximately 11 million from which it could use to support its martial effort. Additionally, Britain was aided by the fact that it had roughly 500,00 soldiers already stationed in the colony prior to the war's start. Britain would also go on to add about 30,000 German soldiers to its ranks.
America's advantages were not as formidable as those of Britain when the war initiated. It did have good leadership with generals such as George Washington. Moreover, it was indubitably aided by the fact that it best understood the purpose of the war and it had more to…
However, over the years, history book publishers have not followed suit and described the soladeras in a positive way. For instance, one of Casaola's most well-known photos is of a harried soldadera in a train station. The photograph's saturated colors make the scene deeply emotional and compelling, with a feeling of urgency and dynamic motion. The spontaneity of the picture and transparency of reality provide an historical accuracy and high degree of precision. Yet, the caption of one history book, for example, relates how many of the soldaderas were forced to ride on the rooftops of the trains, instead of inside the wagons. Many of the women died early deaths when the train sped through dangerous ravines and cliffs. This was anything but a supportive interpretation of the photograph and not why Casola took the photographs.
On the other hand, Casola's photographs, especially this one in the train station, did…
Coerver, Don M.. Suzanne B. Pasztor and Robert Buffington. Mexico: an encyclopedia of contemporary culture and history Santa Barber, CA: ABC-Clio.
Fuentes, Andres. "Battleground Women: Soldaderas and Female Soldiers in the Mexican Revolution." The Americas 51 no. 4 (1995): 525-553.
King, Benjamin. "Iconography and Stereotype: Visual Memory of the Soldaderas" http://www.umich.edu/~historyj/pages_folder/articles/Iconography_and_Stereotype.pdf (Accessed May 3, 2010)
Macias, Anna. Against All Odds: The Feminist Movement in Mexico to 1940 Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1982
The Army's Special Forces, referred to as the legendary Green Berets, consist of a unique, unconventional combat arms organization, that are considered the most versatile Special Operations soldiers in the world. Their lineage dates back more than two hundred years of unconventional warfare, including predecessors such as Francis Marion of the Revolutionary ar, the orld ar II OSS Jedbourg Teams and Detachment 101 in Burma, and the Alamo Scouts.
According to Robert Andrews, principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict, it takes two years to train some of the enlisted personnel, and longer for officers. In fact, Special Forces units "continually train to conduct unconventional warfare in any of its forms - guerrilla tactics, evasion and escape subversion." In order to learn to fight in cold weather and mountainous environments, special operators attend a two-week course at the Army's Mountain arfare School in Jericho,…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2004 February 01). 'Black ops' shine in Iraq War: the scope of U.S. special operations in the Iraq War was the largest in American military history. VFW Magazine. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kennedy, Harold. (2002 February 01). Special ops equipment: Newest -- and Oldest.
National Defense. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Special Forces: History. Special Operations Recruiting Battalion. Retrieved July 02, 2006 at http://www.bragg.army.mil/specialforces/History.htm
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…
Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.
Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.
Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.
In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…
Chouvy, Pierre-arnaud. "Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan." Terrorism Monitor, Volume 2, Issue 6 (March 25, 2004). Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=23648 .
Hutchinson, Asa. Narco-Terror: The International Connection Between Drugs and Terror= (Speech). Institute for International Studies. Washington, DC., April 2, 2002. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/speeches/s040202.html .
Manwaring, M.G. (2005). Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
Ernesto Che Guevara
Che went to Sierra Maestra, whose people were considered to be amongst the poorest of Cuba's poor. These poor peasants living in Sierra Maestra didn't have the opportunity of visiting doctors and getting treated. Thus, Che made all the efforts he could to help these people live a better life. When Che came here he was simultaneously playing two roles; one of a fighter and the other of a doctor. Initially, Che had been the medical leader and then became the leader of a small band. In spring of 1957, Che was deemed as the most trusted man of the leader (Castan-eda, 1997).
In 1958, when Batista sent a well- trained army of 10,000 to trap the revolutionaries in their mountain stronghold, Fidel and Che's army along with help of local people was able to defeat Batista's men. Che always had the support of people around him.…
Castan-eda, Jorge G. And Marina Castan-eda.Compan-ero. New York, N.Y: Alfred A. Knopf, 1997. Print.
Coltman, Leycester and Julia Sweig.The real Fidel Castro. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003. Print.
Crompton, Samuel. Che Guevara. Pleasantville, NY: Gareth Stevens Pub., 2009. Print.
D., a senior child-protection specialist with the Christian Children's Fund. "You don't falter. You don't disobey. Any show of weakness and you're killed" (Amber, 2004).
Hamer (2010) writes "Child soldiers were portrayed as having no connections in society, without skills, incompetent and prone to violence, and it was strongly implied that they were trapped in a vicious circle and that they would always experience difficulties in returning to a non-violent routine because they had been actors and witnesses of too many atrocities during the war (p. 54).
Post Traumatic Stress
It is possible to identify with captors by other means as well. Due to their age and size children are basically powerless in the world. By identifying with their tormentors it is possible for children to gain a strong sense of power, denied to them by other means. By following orders they may come to believe they will receive additional…
Amber, J. (2004). Abduction of Innocents. Essence (Time Inc.), 35(8), 172-218. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Convention on Rights of the Child. (n.d.). United Nations Office of the High Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 6, 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf
Denov, M. & MacLure, R. (2006). Engaging the Voices of Girls in the Aftermath of Sierra Leone's Conflict: Experiences and Perspectives in a Culture of Violence. Anthropologica. Vol. 48, No. 1, War and Peace / La guerre et la paix (2006), pp. 73-85. Published by: Canadian Anthropology Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25605298
Dickson-Gomez, J. (2002, Dec.). Growing up in Guerrilla Camps: The Long-Term Impact of Being a Child Soldier in El Salvador's Civil War. Ethos. Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 327-356 .
shifting seas of global social consciousness and worldwide political hierarchy have only recently brought the word 'terrorism' to the quotidian mind of Americans, it has long enjoyed a cemented place in the construct of civilization. Daily associations between the word terrorism and the frightening images of gore and destruction rampant on the 24-hour news networks affirm the complicated understanding of terrorism in the modern world; bombings on an Israeli bus, explosions outside a Pakistani supermarket, and subway atrocities mingle with recent memories of the World Trade center and recollections of the bloody IRA, Black Liberation Army, and Basque independence movements. Personal reaction and affiliation to the events, movement, and goals of each group's paradigm resonates inside a loose definition of political violence, while governmental response is chiseled, monochromatic, and decisive. While the motives and end-results always differ, the path to terrorism is marked by similar goal posts. These similarities and…
O'Brien, Sean P. "Foreign Policy Crisis and the Resort to Terrorism: A Time-Series Analysis of Conflict Linkages." The Journal of Conflict Resolution. Vol. 40, No. 2. (Jun., 1996.) p. 329.
Ibid, p. 330.
The research, methods will seek to establish a common basement of the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process. Equitable regard will be accorded to the state of affairs that exist between the U.S.A. And Iran
Questionnaires are samples of structured questions that will seek directive responses from the respondents in the field of study. In order to arrive at making decisions, there are several considerations that the president of the U.S.A. needs to know from the public and the secretary of state. Such questions will be included in the questionnaires. The questionnaires will be supplied to various respondents. These respondents are thought to have consistent information as regards the U.S. President Foreign Policy Decision Making Process matters in the world. Questionnaires are relevant when it comes to exhausting on the exiting trends of management in the country.
Interviews refer to face-to-face approaches of seeking to elicit information…
Alterman, Eric. 1998. Who speaks for America?: why democracy matters in foreign policy.
Ithaca [u.a.]: Cornell Univ. Press.
Beisner, Robert L. 2003. American foreign relations since 1600 a guide to the literature.
Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO. http://ebooks.abc-clio.com/?isbn=9781576075302 .
military strategies employed by Alexander the Great and how he was able to skillfully use his political and military skills in conquering most of Europe and Asia in his time.
Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon reigned as the king of Macedonia from 356-323 B.C. He was born to King Philip and his third wife, Olympias in July 356 BC in Pella, Macedonia. He is remembered as one of the greatest military genius in history. During his lifetime, he conquered much of world, since his main ambition was to conquer the world and create world monarchy.
Alexander, was the strong, handsome commander leading his army using the best military strategies of his time. His army was armed with sarisses, the fearful five and half meter long spears. He was the first great conqueror to invade Greece, Egypt, and India. He was popular for creating ethnic syncretism between the Macedonians and the conquered…
Arrian. Campaigns of Alexander, The (~90-172 A.D.)
J.F.C. Fuller. Generalship of Alexander the Great (1958)
J. Keegan. Mask of Command, The (1987)
Lisa Jardine, Worldly Gods: A New History of the Renaissance (London: Macmillan, 1996) pp. 67-68
George ashington: The First American Hero
Today, George ashington is an American icon, a symbol of patriotism, strength, and humility. His honesty has become the source of legend, to the point that it is easy to forget that he was a real human being with significant political and military accomplishments. Perhaps what is equally surprising about ashington as the durability of his image is the fact that he was just as beloved in his own era. Death sometimes erases some of the more unflattering aspects of a historical figure's legacy from the collective memory but ashington was always revered, even in life. In fact, many of his contemporaries wished to make him a king after he helped secure American independence, an honor which he refused. Instead, he went on to become the nation's first Chief Executive.
George ashington first came to political prominence in colonial America due to his military…
Kladky, William P. "Continental Army." Mount Vernon. Web. 24 Feb 2017.
Knott, Stephen. "George Washington: Life Before the Presidency." Miller Center of Public
Affairs, University of Virginia. Web. 24 Feb 2017.
Remini, Robert. A Short History of the United States. HarperCollins, 2009.
S. would exhibit in this regard. hen it came to capturing "knowledgeable experts and technologically useful materials" that would be useful in rocket technology, the MI6 professionals were "either too gentlemanly or else totally undisciplined" (Dorril 137). And indeed, Britain came in "second" to the U.S. In securing rocket technology, and moreover, "British rocket experts simply handed over to U.S. intelligence officers nearly 90% of their target intelligence and received little in return" (Dorril 137). This was a failure of enormous import.
On page 139, Dorril goes on to discuss the MI6 mission to gather German nuclear intelligence and in April 1945, the British - this time not allowing the Americans to step in ahead of them - smartly brought ten captured German nuclear scientists back to England and placed them in a country house near Cambridge. The house was wired and so all the conversations between the "Uranium Club"…
Dorril, Stephen. MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service.
London: The Free Press, 2000.
Stephen Dorril, MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (London: The Free Press, 2000), 10.