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Of course competition at the major university level, and in the Olympic Games, is also important in terms of national pride and individual achievements for elite athletes. But at the community level, gymnastics is also important because it provides a way for young people to learn about -- and pursue -- practices that promote healthy living.
The correlation between components of physical fitness and gymnastics: an article in the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (Donham-Foutch, 2007) asserts that training in gymnastics is "an excellent means of teaching basic motor skills, as well as health-related fitness" (Donham-Foutch). The point of the article, in addition to making clear how components of gymnastics training relates to keeping fit, is that gymnastics programs for children are being developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP). In the first and ninth weeks of continuing-education…
American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. (2008). Gymnastics Injury Prevention. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://orthoinfo.aaos.org .
Ancient Greece. (2007). Olympics. Retrieved November 3, 2009, from http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Olympics/ .
Donham-Foutch, Shae (2007). Teaching skills and health-related fitness through a preservice gymnastics program: preservice students learn by doing, as they teach gymnastics to community children. The Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance. 78(5), 35-40.
Kid Source Online. (2007). Gymnastics Safety. Retrieved November 4, 2009, from http://www.kidsource.com/safety/gym.safety.html.
Larry Nassar and the Risks of US Women’s Gymnastics
American gymnastics, particularly women’s gymnastics, has been one of the most popular summer Olympic sports for many decades. Even during non-Olympic years, it has a large following among young girls and their families. Many young girls dream of being the next Shannon Miller or Mary Lou Retton. Unfortunately, pursuit of these high athletic goals comes at a high price for some children. The high risk of injury, years of formative social and educational interactions, and even eating disorders are well-known as risks of the sport. A risk that was less publicized was the dangers of experiencing sexual abuse at the hands of trusted male members of the American Olympics team.
The recent online #metoo movement has brought to light many sexual crimes perpetuated by men against young girls and women in the entertainment industry. But the #metoo movement has its counterpart…
Bieler, D. (2018). McKayla Maroney says she spoke of Nassar abuse to USA Gymnastics coach in 2011. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/early-lead/wp/2018/04/23/mckayla-maroney-says-she-spoke-of-nassar-abuse-to-usa-gymnastics-coach-in-2011/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.cf6a4111c5e4
Graham, B. (2018). ‘I was molested by Dr. Larry Nassar’: how the gymnastics sexual abuse scandal unfolded. The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/sport/2018/jan/27/larry-nassar-trial-gymnastics-sexual-abuse
Weiss, M. & Mohr, H. (2018). US gymnasts say sport rife with verbal and emotional abuse. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved from: http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/international/ct-us-gymnasts-verbal-emotional-abuse-20180223-story.html
Secondly, the report alluded to by CSC asserts that in "gender symmetric" sports there are "far more scholarships available for women (32,656) than for men (20,206)." The third bullet point in the CSC press release points out that men's volleyball is the "by far the most difficult" scholarship at the Division I level; there are reportedly 489 high school athletes for every full ride NCAA scholarship.
The "underlying" data that CSC used to put together their press release comes from two NCAA reports: "1981-82-2006-07 NCAA Sports Sponsorship and Participation Rate Report" and "2006-07 NCAA Division I Manual." Also factored into the report is data from the national Federation of State High School Associations. And so what is the College Sports Council calling on the federal government -- and the Department of Education (DOE) -- to do? The press release says that "women are accorded far more opportunities to compete and…
American Association of University Women. "Report Card on Gender Equity." Retrieved
June 28, 2009, from http://www.aauw.org . (2004).
Brake, Deborah. "Revisiting Title IX's Feminist Legacy: Moving Beyond the Three-
Part Test." Journal of Gender, Social Policy & The Law, 12(3), 453-473. (2004).
Education then is necessary to help prevent the failures of government - for Socrates, an aristocracy represents a rule by the "best" citizens whose educations have centered upon training the warrior-guardians to be swift, philosophic, spirited and strong.
This education is significant because in order to prevent the corruption that power so often has upon those who wield it - it is the broadly educated, self-aware, and community-driven individual who can truly understand their own place within the machinery of society. The philosopher-king places himself above society leaving the warrior-guardian to protect the lives and livelihoods of not only the individual citizenry, but of the entire community itself.
7-What are Socrates main concerns about education in music? (Remember, music consists of poetry and stories, theater, and music) What are his main points about education in gymnastic and the relation of the body to the mind/soul?
Socrates understands that "Music" (which…
Using the ring of Gyges as his 'proof,' he finds the last reason to be the most persuasive.
What Socrates definition of justice in the state is as found in Book IV? Compare the parts of the just state to the parts of the just soul. Describe the virtues of each.
Socrates defines justice in terms of balance, as every person doing what he is best suited to do -- to rule, fight, or labor. This is why the just state is structured into three classes, the philosopher kings who rule, the military class that defends the state, and the ordinary laborers. The philosopher kings govern by virtue of knowing best, the military class is necessary to defend the state, and the laborers are necessary to do the practical work of the land, so people can eat. All classes are necessary, and correspond to the soul, mind, and body split…
The participants should be able to rate their performance both in the experimental situation involving a small audience and in that involving a large audience.
This is also a measure of their self-efficacy prior to exposure to the audiences. The purpose of this act is to see whether the change in their self-evaluation is due to exposure to the audiences. The self-evaluation is done by using a self-administered questionnaire. The second stage is the exposure to the two types of audience. After performing in front of the two types of audiences, the group of gymnasts is asked to rate themselves using the same self-administered questionnaire. Using the subjects' self-evaluation it is possible to identify the changes. And by taking into consideration the changes it would be possible to decide whether the size of the audience had any impact on the performance. However, in such a study it is possible to…
Presence of others, Retrieved at http://myclassonline.com/pub/content/ad080d01
Lambert, a.J., Payne, B.K., Jacoby, L.L., Shaffer L.M., Chasteen, a. (2003) Stereotypes as Dominant Responses: On the "Social Facilitation" of Prejudice in Anticipated Public Contexts, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 2, 277-295
Social Facilitation, Retrieved at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/social_facilitation.htm
Of course my parents beamed, and my teacher even more so.
The application of the psychosocial theory in my case is the fact that an aspect of myself that I was not aware of was allowed to emerge first by my interaction with my teacher and then by my interaction with the rest of the participants in the extra program. I never knew that I could be good at mathematics until I made the effort required by my teacher. In this way, she had a profound effect on my life as a whole, and not only on my Mathematics grade. Indeed, she made me aware that I am able to do whatever I want to and even those things I believe are beyond my reach. Because of her, I no longer need to doubt my ability to do everything I want to, and to do it well.
Meditation also plays…
Corey, Gerald. I never knew I had a choice. Cengage Learning, 2008.
Millman, Dan. Way of the Peaceful Warrior. HJ Kramer, 2009
And a way to avoid injuries to the elbow, that is fairly obvious, is to use thicker landing mats, and to get expert training in how to fall properly. For males, injuries to the wrist have been identified as being caused by training on the pommel, because "the wrist is exposed to repetitive forces of up to twice body weight during this activity."
Exercises using the plyometric strategy are very useful for gymnasts; plyometric exercises are the "rapid deceleration and acceleration of muscles" that in turn help create a stretch-shortening cycle," according to www.specialolympics.org.These kinds of exercises train the muscles, and train the nervous system to carry out in an effective way the stretch-shortening cycle, which can improve the performance of a gymnast. Drills using plyometrics also help the athlete develop "rhythm, speed, power and even muscular endurance," the Special Olympics site explains. All plyometric exercises must be carried out…
Daly, R.M., & Bass, S.L., & Finch, C.F. (2001). Balancing the risk of injury to gymnasts: how Effective are the counter measures." British Journal of Sports Medicine. Vol. 35, 8-19.
Mayo Clinic. (2006). Core exercises strengthen abs and other core muscles. Retrieved 9 March, 2007 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/core-strength/sm00047 .
Micheli, Lyle J. (1996). Types of Sports Injuries and How They Can Be Prevented. Retrieved March 2007 from Conference Notes / Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Family and Community Health, Division of Prevention, Injury Prevention and Control
The age range will be between 25 and 64, and there are a lot of doctors and other professionals such as professors and lawyers in my area making this a good choice. Approximately, then between 3% and 5% of these individuals will take their dog to daycare if it is available. By adding boarding and grooming services, I can increase the number of clients available to me by 300%-600% as well as increasing my income by 200%-#400%.
There are no other dog day-care centres in the vicinity or even within neighboring localities to compete with the business
There seems to be a potential supply of clients
Training dogs: Dogyoga (innovation); cutting-hair facilities; gymnastics
Alternate products: day-care and nourishment.
Value-added products: Vet. pecial trainer. pecialist with dogs.
#40 per hour (simple day-care)
#100 per lesson -- dogyoga
#100 per lesson -- etiquette training
#100 per lesson --…
American Veterinary Medical Association, viewed January 22, 2011,
Dog.com. Viewed January 22, 2011,
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
HTC and violation of Internal evenue Service (IS) standards. If not addressed, these issues could have serious legal ramifications on HTC, not to mention the potential loss of public confidence.
Whether in for-profit or non-profit organizations, ethical challenges exist in virtually all types of organizations (hode & Packel, 2009). For non-profit organizations, expectations of ethical conduct are particularly higher as the organizations are generally involved in charitable causes. Nonetheless, achieving absolute ethical behavior remains a daunting challenge for most non-profit organizations. On its part, HTC engages in "ethical' behavior solely for the purpose of gaining profits for the goodwill in generates. In other words, the organization is involved in a charitable cause not for the purpose of enhancing community welfare, but as a means toward a self-serving end (profits and the accumulation of wealth). Taking advantage of non-profit status to make profit and accumulate wealth amounts to unlawful and unethical…
Internal Revenue Service (IRS). (2017). Exemption requirements -- 501(c)(3) organizations. Retrieved from https://www.irs.gov/charities-non-profits/charitable- organizations/exemption-requirements-section-501-c-3-organizations
Rhode, D., & Packel, A. (2009). Ethics and non-profits. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 29-35.
Richard Male and Associates (RMA). (2012). Ethical conduct in the nonprofit sector. Retrieved from http://richardmale.com/ethical-conduct-in-the-nonprofit-sector/
U.S. Tax Court. (2013). Capital Gymnastics Booster Club, Inc., Petitioner v. Commission of Internal Revenue, Respondent. Retrieved from http://www.ustaxcourt.gov/InOpHistoric/CapGymMemo.Gustafson.TCM.WPD.pdf
In many cases, the sports that are largely ignored in the U.S. are equally deserving of national exposure and coverage, because they demand the same level of natural talent, skill, and expertise as those high-profile sports that enjoy extensive national coverage.
Especially in the wake of recent revelations and scandals arising in the major American sports involving use of steroids, violent assaults on women, driving under the influence of alcohol, and federal convictions for those types of crimes as well as for cruelty to animals have undermined the traditional reputation of professional athletes as role models in modern American society. To date, no such controversies have plagued any of the lesser-appreciated sports in the U.S. In that regard, surfing in particular is associated with health, vitality, and natural physical fitness that is not at all likely to fall prey to illegal or performance-enhancing drug use in the sport. Furthermore, unlike…
It is noted that students be chosen at an early age and that only those students with a true love of learning and never ending quest for knowledge will become true philosophers.
The student of philosophy must possess the virtues of courage, magnificence, apprehension and memory as his natural gifts and that without proper education, these very qualities may result in men who are regarded as utterly useless or depraved.
The educators' responsibilities increase with the most gifted minds as when they are ill-educated, they have greatest capacity for the greatest crimes and true evil. Conversely, Socrates and his cronies appear to believe that only a very few individuals are capable of understanding philosophy and that lesser minds have no need to learn philosophy as they are not as capable of accomplishment of good or evil.
In my opinion, the statement which has withstood the test of time appears in…
Plato. (360 BCE). The Republic. Jowett, B. (Trans.) Retrieved February 11, 2009 from Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Web site: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.1.introduction.html
Additionally, Aristotle furthered the field of educational philosophy by creating subjects and a logical inquiry process, insisting that education be moral or ethical, and defining it as intertwined with politics to such a great extent that the best and most necessary education is a state-sponsored education (Chambliss 2008).
Influence Toward My Educational Philosophy:
Practically, Aristotle's creation of subjects and his primitive research, which set the foundation for further research, influenced my educational philosophy by insisting the importance of a pragmatic education and establishing the tools for that education -- research. Aristotle's contribution, therefore, shaped my understanding of the purpose of education -- a means toward intellectual inquiry. Furthermore, Aristotle's combination of ethics with morality and politics has shaped the teacher's oath stating that he or she should do no harm, in addition to contributing to what I understand as the goal of education -- to further the goodwill of human…
Chambilss, J.J. (2008). Aristotle: Education for a Common End. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from State University.com's Education Encyclopedia
Web Site: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1763/Aristotle-384-322-B-C-E.html
Dillon, Ariel. (2004). Education in Plato's Republic. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from Santa Clara University
Web Site: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/dillon/education_plato_republic.html
Paul is a student in a New-York-based school that is located in the Bronx area of New York. It is a Jewish school whose administration, and therefore, structure, is fervently Jewish, and it is a comparatively new school, dealing with a majority of Russian immigrants. Paul is one of the few American-born students and, therefore, conspicuous in his self-contained co-ed. class of 5 other individuals 3 of whom are Russuan born, and one other Ethiopian.
Paul is out of place in another way too. Aside from being the oldest in his class -- he is 8 years-old, the class is 2nd grade -- Paul's conduct is conspicuous and, with a record of teachers being unable to control him, Paul has spent his time being shuttled between teacher and principal.
The problem with Paul, according to his teacher's diagnosis, is that he has ADHD. ADHD stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder…
A History of iving and a escription of iving Techniques
iving is one of the most exciting and complex sports known today. Some call it an art, but the truth is that diving goes back through history as one of the most fantastic gymnastic movements. Its origin is found in 17th century Germany and Sweden, when gymnasts moved equipment to beaches in the summer for the sole purpose of practicing this sport.[footnoteRef:1] According to history, diving, then, is more related to gymnastics than to swimming, but since both diving and swimming involve water, they have become naturally and inextricably linked. [1: O'Brien, R. (2011). History of iving. USA iving. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from . ]
Platform diving, which the official U.S. diving website qualifies at 33 feet high, according to the website, achieved notice at the 1904 Olympic Games in St. Louis, "when it was included as an…
Due to their history in this sport, Germany and Sweden dominated the competition from the start; however, in the 1920's the United States, according to the U.S.A. Diving website, "reached worldwide prominence in diving by winning three of the gold medals in the Olympics (men's and women's springboard and men's platform events). From that time through 1992, the United States has been the world leader in diving. The total count is 46 of 75 Olympic gold medals for the United States."[footnoteRef:3] [3: O'Brien, R. (2011). History of Diving. USA Diving. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from . ]
Another important issue to discuss with regards to this sport is the technique. There are many websites that explain these, and they include anything from a springboard dive, to a shallow dive. A springboard or platform dive, for example, is, as mentioned above a high or fancy dive.[footnoteRef:4] A shallow dive, on the other hand, is just that: diving into shallow water. The record for this, for example, is held by Darren Taylor, who jumped from 36.2 feet into a child's wading pool.[footnoteRef:5] [4: Springboard Dive. (2011). USAdiver. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from ] [5: Francis, E. (2011). Shallow Diver Breaks World Record. ABC News. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from < http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/shallow-diver-breaks-world-record/story?id=13160247 >.]
Perhaps the most important thing to learn, however, is how to dive correctly, no matter what kind of dive one makes. For this, children are encouraged to learn about diving from an early age. There are many websites that can teach what to do to begin a course, and even how to prep for diving.[footnoteRef:6] Thus, this tradition will go on for many centuries to come. [6: Franklin, W. (2011). Springboard Dive Lessons. About.com. Retrieved October 10, 2011, from < http://diving.about.com/od/forbeginners/a/getStarted.htm >. ]
Conceptualization and operationalization of variables
Poor communication between young athletes and coaches leads to longer recovery times and increased levels of frustration amongst athletes regarding their prognosis.
Independent Variable: Effective and ineffective communication between coaches and young athletes.
Conceptualization: Sports injuries are a serious concern. There has been a rise in the rate of youth sports injuries in recent decades, an increase partially attributed to a corresponding rise in youth specialization at an early age and year 'round participation in the same type of competitive sports activity, versus varying sports (Merkel & Molony 2013). In some sports, there are also grave concerns about the risk of permanent injury on every level of competition, as manifested in concerns about head trauma amongst football players, making it all the more critical to reduce the likelihood of such injuries occurring when young (Lopate 2013). Overuse injuries are common many popular youth sports: "Preteens…
Apache, R.R. (2006). The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports:
Validity and reliability. Physical Educator, 63(3), 126-133.
Borggrefe, C., & Cachay, K. (2013). Communicative challenges of coaches in an elite-level sports system: Theoretical reflections on successful coaching strategies. EJSS: European Journal for Sport and Society, 10(1), 7-29.
Caine, D. (et al. 2006). Physical injuries in children's and youth sports:
Plato's The Republic
Throughout the book, the ideas of Plato and his peers center on the social conditions of an ideal republic, which lead each person to the perfect possible life. Socrates, who was Plato's mentor, acts as a moderator during Plato's discussions, presenting a series of questions and topics that contribute to Plato's ideas of a perfect society. At the beginning of The Republic, Plato asks the fundamental question of what is justice? This becomes one of the key issues of the book, along with Plato's ideas about forms.
Socrates had just attended a festival and was returning to Athens when he met Polemarchos on the road. Polemarchos insisted that Socrates join him at his home to meet his family and friends. The group began a conversation about justice. Polemarchos said that justice was giving back what is owed. Socrates argued that if he returned a weapon to a…
Socrates and Zen
Socrates View of Life to Zenism
The objective of this work, Socrates View of Life to Zenism, will be to see if the sage Socrates agrees or disagrees with the way of the Zen masters. I noticed upon completion of the book, Dan Millman's semi-auto biographical tale, 'Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book That Changes Lives,' that I was reminded of something I saw on TV in the cable system's reruns. Although simple, I was reminded of this -- When the student is ready the teacher will come.
That mantra came from a television series about a 'half American' and 'half Chinese' Shoaling monk. The Television series was Kung Fu and although the story was a little out of date, even for a western, the star of the show, Kwi Chang Cain, whenever in trouble or in a situation needing reflection, had an ancient memory jarred…
Dharmaya, Namo. (n.d.). The Four Noble Truths. Retrieved December 2, 2003, at http://www.omplace.com/omsites/Buddhism/4nobletruths.html#3
Millman, Dan (2000). Way of the Peaceful Warrior: A Book that Changes Lives (20th Anv. ed.). Novato H.J. Krammer.
Millman, Dan. (n.d.). Dan Millman. Retrieved December 2, 2003, at http://www.danmillman.com/
Sengtsan, Chien Chih. (n.d.). Hsin Ming (Verses on the Faith Mind). Retrieved December 1, 2003, at http://www.texaschapbookpress.com/magellanslog5/Saltlick/hsinhsinming.htm
The sports center at the newly opened high school has to employ at least the following:
Two coaches, preferably one male and one female, each to manage the same gender teams. This measure is to be implemented in order to reduce the chances of immoral conduct on school premises, but no discriminations would be committed during the selection and hiring processes.
One medic is required to be easily reachable and assist sports injuries or otherwise medical necessities. Hiring a new medical professional would be redundant and meaningless, coming as such to a conclusion that the already hired school medic would also assist the medical needs of the sports center.
One counselor. Similar to the school medic, it could initially be stated that the role of sports counselor would be played by the already hired school counselor. However, such a solution is not the most viable one in the…
Conrad, M., 2006, the business of sports: a primer for journalists, Routledge
Delaney, T., Madigan, T., 2009, the sociology of sports: an introduction, McFarland
Mac, B., 2010, Code of ethics and conduct for sports coaches, BrainMac, http://www.brianmac.co.uk/ethics.htm last accessed on July 6, 2010
2010, Sports and exercise safety, Kids Health, http://kidshealth.org/teen/safety/safebasics/sport_safety.html# last accessed on July 6, 2010
esearchers believe that incorporating evidence-based prevention methods can decrease the incidence of ACL ruptures, but an understanding of the etiology and mechanisms of sports injury are a necessary to do this (Posthumus, 2009).
The highest prevalence of extrinsic ACL injuries tends to occur in organized sports especially adolescents participating in pivoting type sports such as football, basketball, and team handball (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In addition to any intrinsic factors and adolescent may have, or predisposing factors, environmental factors surrounding organized sports can also play a role in injury. For example, weather conditions (slippery surface), type of surface sport is played on (grass vs. pavement), proper footwear, and protective bracing (Posthumus, 2009).
A growing concern regarding these injuries and the populations that incur them is that these injuries increase the risk of osteoarthritis (Bahr & Krosshaug, 2005). In fact, after ten years, around half of all people that have suffered…
Ageberg, E., Thombe, R., Neeter, C., Gravare Silbernagel, K., Roos, EM. Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Treated With Training and Surgical Reconstruction or Training Only: A Two to Five-Year Followup. Arthritis Care & Research. 2008; 59(12):1773-79.
Bahr, R., Krosshaug, T. Understanding injury mechanisms: a key component of preventing injuries in sport. Br J. Sports Med. 2005; 39:324 -- 329.
Grindstaff, TL., Hammill, RR., Tuzson, AE., Hertel, J. Neuromuscular Control Training Programs and Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates in Female Athletes: A Numbers-Needed-to-Treat Analysis. Journal of Athletic Training. 2006; 41(4):450 -- 456.
Health Information Publications (2011). What is the anterior cruciate ligament? eHealthMD retrieved from http://ehealthmd.com
"I cry at nothing, and cry most of the time… I lie here on this great immovable bed -- it is nailed down, I believe -- and follow that pattern about by the hour. It is as good as gymnastics, I assure you. I start, we'll say, at the bottom, down in the corner over there where it has not been touched, and I determine for the thousandth time that I will follow that pointless pattern to some sort of a conclusion." She does not think of her child, and only occasionally of her husband. The wallpaper and the imaginary woman command her focus. Forced into a pointless existence, and denied the mobility and the intellectual excitement that make life meaningful, the woman's mind turns to other intellectual and imaginary pursuits, Gilman suggests.
Eventually, rather than describing herself as looking at the pattern of the wallpaper, Gilman's heroine disassociates and…
Bak, John S. "Escaping the jaundiced eye: Foucauldian Panopticism in Charlotte Perkins
Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper.'" Studies in Short Fiction. Winter 1994.
Accessed from Find Articles October 6, 2010 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2455/is_n1_v31/ai_15356232/?tag=content;col1
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper." Full e-text available from the University
That would be nice, like the old times.' But eventually, they did find a parking space in an alley behind a Dunkin' Donuts and the girls piled out.
Alison had never seen a place move and shake quite like the frat house: the building was dilapidated and strobe lights from within poured out of the windows. At first, the brothers at the door weren't going to let them in, but then Jackie's brother appeared, the girls had stamps on their hand, and they were wandering through the beer-stained rooms.
At first, all of the girls were uncertain about what to do. Then, Bethany and Jackie had an inspiration. "Dance and pretend like you're having fun," whispered Bethany to Alison, and shoved her onto the makeshift dance floor on the first-floor common room.
"I don't know anyone."
"Look like you're having fun and you will," said Jackie.
Alison eventually wandered away…
In rare cases, mothers taught their daughters reading and writing. At 15, girls were expected to marry men their fathers chose for them. Interestingly, this was only the fate of wealthier girls. Peasant girls chose their own husbands when working in the fields (Fisher and Harlan).
According to Tomoko Shimoda, the traditional Japanese family is regarded as very important, also with specific roles for women, men and children. Although Western influence has standardized education and emancipated women, they are still generally regarded as mostly active and highly important in the household. Women maintain the family finances and care for the children, while the role of men is to be engaged in work, which mostly constituted the family business. Both girls and boys are educated, although boys are steered towards taking over the family business while girls are taught housekeeping and accounting skills. In the past, marriages were generally arranged,…
Crystal, Ellie. Ancient Greek Education. http://www.crystalinks.com/greekeducation.html
Fisher, Grant and Harlan, Cheri Beth. The Roles of Men, Women and Children in Ancient Greece. http://chalk.richmond.edu/education/projects/webunits/greecerome/Greeceroles1.html
Shimoda, Tomoko. Representations of Parenting and Gender Roles in the Shoshika Era: Comparisons of Japanese and English-Language Parenting Magazines. Electronic Journal of Contemporary Japanese Studies. 14 Jan 2008. http://www.japanesestudies.org.uk/articles/2008/Shimoda.html
"I believe myself able to speak about Homer better than any man; and that neither Metrodorus of Lampsacus, nor Stesimbrotus of Thasos, nor Glaucon, nor any one else who ever was, had as good ideas about Homer as I have, or as many."
Plato's main purpose in Ion is to differentiate between gift of true knowledge and gift of shallow speech.
True knowledge is not limited to one artist but must expand beyond mere information about one person's work to an entire brand of study. For example someone who truly appreciate the written word will notice every new book that comes out, will analyze works of many writers and studies literature in depth. This happens because he is naturally attracted to the power of the written word and hence his soul awakens every time someone mentions something exceptional they have read or heard. But the same was not true for…
This is really the extent of Gorgias attempting to remove himself from Socrates' argument, but instead, pulls him deeper into the intellectual trap, for Gorgias has only one misgiving about the entire situation . . . he fears that the crowd of onlookers might be disinterested in two men trying to outdo each other in being wrong (458b-c). Thus, Gorgias proves two things: he cannot intellectually handle a multi-layered discussion and he needs an audience in order to perform -- the basics of dialog and intellectual discourse are lost upon him. If then, Gorgias needs an audience, Socrates must be correct in that rhetoric is a craft -- designed not for serious intellectual combat, but for pure entertainment value.
2.Explain and critically evaluate Socrates reasoning for the apparently preposterous claim that tyrants like orators have no great power (Gorgias 466a-468e). You should make sure that you take into account Socrates…
Plato. Translated and revised by E.R. Dodds. (2003). Gorgias. Oxford University Press.
Plato's work is idealistic and, as such, some of the rationale behind many of the conclusions he draws on do not necessarily have a logical or practical motivation. Nevertheless, they are logically tied to most of the assumptions he makes in his work, which is why his conclusions could, ideally, be transposed into the society he had projected. The most important conclusion of his work may be that each part of society is closely related and coordinated with all the others. This is why issues such as education and general knowledge will need to be customized so as to best fit the needs of society and to support the governing infrastructure.
1. Danzig, Gabriel, "Rhetoric and the Ring: Herodotus and Plato on the Story of Gyges as a Politically Expedient Tale," Greece & Rome journal, Volume 55, Issue 02, October 2008, Cambridge University Press, 18 August 2008, pp.169-192
1. Danzig, Gabriel, "Rhetoric and the Ring: Herodotus and Plato on the Story of Gyges as a Politically Expedient Tale," Greece & Rome journal, Volume 55, Issue 02, October 2008, Cambridge University Press, 18 August 2008, pp.169-192
2. Dillon, Ariel. 2004. Education in Plato's Republic. Presented at the Santa Clara University Student Ethics Research Conference May 26, 2004. On the Internet at http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/submitted/dillon/education_plato_republic.html . Last retrieved on August 24, 2009
3. Popper, Karl. 2002. The Poverty of Historicism. Routledge, 2nd edition.
4. Claeys, Gregory; Sargent, Lyman Tower. 1999. Utopian Reader. New York University Press.
Similar sport-specific performance improvement was found in the earlier study conducted by Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007).
Smith, Wright, Allsopp, and Westhead (2007) compared the effects of PETTLEP-based imagery against the improvements found with the use of traditional imagery, in hockey players and gymnasts. In the first study, 48 varsity hockey players were divided into four groups. These groups included: 'sport-specific' imagery, 'clothing' imagery, 'traditional' imagery, and a control group. Following a six-week period, the sport-specific group saw the most improvement in penalty flicks. Other than the control group, the traditional imagery group experienced the least amount of improvement. The author's second study featured 40 junior gymnasts. These participants were divided into four groups that included: PETTLEP, stimulus only imagery, physical practice, and a control group. As was found in both Wright and Smith's (2009) and Smith, Wright, and Cantwell's (2008) research, there was significant improvement in both the…
Holmes, P. & Collins, D. (Mar 2001). The PETTLEP approach to motor imagery. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13(1). pp. 60-83.
Smith, D., Wright, C., Allsopp, A., & Westhead, H. (Jan 2007). It's all in the mind: PETTLEP-based imagery and sports performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psycholgoy, 19(1). pp. 80-92.
Smith, D., Wright, C., & Cantwell, C. (Sep 2008). Beating the bunker: The effect of PETTLEP imagery on golf bunker shot performance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79(3). Retrieved June 5, 2009, from ProQuest.
Wright, C. & Smith, D. (Mar 2009). The effect of PETTLEP imagery on strength performance. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psycholgoy, 7(1). Retrieved June 5, 2009, from General OneFile.
The condition called Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction (PTTD) denotes a flaw in the tendon functions directly supporting the foot, leading to the compensatory collapse of the arches. The condition is clinically explained as "an inflammation and/or overstretching of the posterior tibial tendon in the foot. An important function of the posterior tibial tendon is to help support the arch. But in PTTD, the tendon's ability to perform that job is impaired, often resulting in a flattening of the foot." (FP, 1)
Other implications to the condition will relate directly to the likelihood of pain and discomfort in the foot itself.
The improper distribution of weight and pressure in one's step can be the close for undue and excessive ground contact with load-bearing parts of the foot. The heel is especially vulnerable to inflammation and pain, contributing to the close connection between the presence of flat feet and the intrusion of…
IntelliHealth Inc. (2007). Fallen Arch. Aetna Intellihealth. Online at http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WS/9339/25652.html
James, E. (2006). Knee Pain.
Comfort Shoes. Online at http://www.comfortshoe.com/knee_pain.html
Jones, B.H.' Thacker, S.B.; Gilchrist, J.; Kimsey, C.D. & Sosin, D.M. (2002). Prevention of Lower Extremity Stress Fracturesin Athletes and Soldiers. Epidemiological Reviews, 24, 228-247.
While this is not yet true for the United tates, might the country be dangerously close? If one could return to the events on 9/11, is it not possible that the diminished freedoms brought about by legislation such as the Patriot Act and its successor almost smack of tyranny? These are important questions to consider if the much-mentioned American "way of life" is to be preserved. Tyranny is far from desirable, and governments would do well to consider its dangers as these might relate to democracy.
The answer to this question is therefore dangerously close to yes, if certain paradigms are not curbed and warnings not heeded. While I do not fully agree with Aristotle's placement of democracy in the sequence so far away from the ideal tate, it is nonetheless important to consider specific governmental paradigms. Citizens should take great care when choosing their rulers. Many believe that the…
Plato. (2000). The Republic: Book VIII. Retrieved from the Internet Classics Archive: http://classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.9.viii.html
The Fun Principle stated that as "we take the fun out of physical activities, we take the kids out of them" (Martens, 1996, p. 306). Martens said that learning should be enjoyable and that when winning is pursued in the extreme, it produces behaviors that destroy children's self-worth and rob them of fun. However, adults frequently violate this principle by over organizing, constantly instructing and evaluating, over drilling and routinizing the learning of skills, replacing unstructured play with calisthenics, and using physical activity as a form of punishment. Martens noted that the irony in youth sports is that "we turn young people off of the very thing we want to turn them on to" (p. 309). If lifelong participation in physical activity is the goal, then the emphasis should shift from the outcome to the quality of experiences, according to Martens. (Brady, 2004, p. 48)
Differences in Youth Who Withdraw…
Apache, R.R.. "The behavioral assessment of parents and coaches at youth sports: validity and reliability." Physical Educator, September 22, 2006. Retrieved October 18, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-154459895.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178
Barber, H., Sukhi, H., & White, S.A. (1999). The Influence of Parent-Coaches on Participant Motivation and Competitive Anxiety in Youth Sport Participants. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22(2), 162. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002319178 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649
Brady, F. (2004). Children's Organized Sports a Developmental Perspective; despite Their Place as a Childhood Rite, Youth Sports Have a High Dropout Rate. Why? And What Can We Do about it?. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 75(2), 35+. Retrieved October 18, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002582649
Brenner, Joel S. And the Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness. "Overuse Injuries, Overtraining, and Burnout in Child and Adolescent Athletes." Pediatrics, Jun 2007; 119: 1242-1245. Retrieved October 15, 2008, at http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/search?andorexactfulltext=and&resourcetype=&disp_type=&sortspec=relevance&fulltext=%22Overuse+is+one+of+the+most+%22&ubmit.x=12&submit.y=14 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002469629
First of all, the marketing plan identifies the need for opening a rugby training school in the Denver Metro Area, given in this case by the fact that, however there exist several rugby clubs, they generally do not offer training services. Then, a second objective of the marketing plan is to identify the customers which would purchase the new product or services. In this case, it would be represented by all those who wish to practice rugby but have no place to learn it.
Another objective of the marketing plan is to help the management of the organization decide on numerous product related issues, such as the launching of the product or service, its placement onto the market, decisions related to the price of the service or the promotion strategies used to familiarize the customers with the new service. All these represent decisions which must be made prior to the…
Denver City Search, Sport Clubs and Gyms, 2008, http://denver.citysearch.com/yellowpages/results/Denver_CO/page15.html?gcats=200&cats=374,last accessed on February 15, 2008
Black Ice Women's Rugby, 2008, http://www.blackicerugby.com/intro.html, last accessed on February 15, 2008
Denver Barbarians RFC, 2008, http://www.denverbarbarians.comlast accessed on February 15, 2008
Denver Highlanders Rugby Football Club, 2008, http://www.denverhighlanders.org, last accessed on February 15, 2008
Titian's painting, in fact, seems to be a stop-cadre and the audience can expect that once the play button is pressed again, the characters will resume their natural movement and activities.
In Matisse's painting, the characters are also extremely dynamic, caught in activities ranging from dancing to movement and from gymnastics to playing instruments. In the background, we can see one of the dancing group that has appeared in other of Matisse's paintings, notably in the Dance. Again, the same impression of dynamism as in Titian's work is present.
However, the important distance in time between the two paintings shows in the way the characters are created, the colors used and the perception of nature in general. First of all, in Matisse's painting, the characters in the painting are barely crayoned, while Titian uses a great deal of time to paint underlying features of his characters, including their clothes, their…
Even the much despised soccer is popular amongst American youths. Yet Americans cheer on their favorite individual stars in all of these sports, especially if the starts engage in charity efforts to justify their bloated salaries. The tension remains about what good sports do for both the individual or society, and Americans today are clearly using sports as a means of practical self-improvement like the Greeks as well as a means of collective identification like the English: "in the 1950's or 1960's, few people exercised; baseline fitness-consciousness was just above zero. Today, 20% of the U.S. population works out on a regular basis, while an additional 60%+ can be classified as...'Consciousness III' -- those persuaded of physical fitness, but who by their own admission, don't get enough exercise. As behavior lags enlightened attitudes, 4 out of 5 adult Americans are true believers in exercise and fitness." But the protests remain…
Ancient Olympic Events," Peruses Digital Library Project, Edited by Gregory R.
Crane, 2007, Tufts University, 29 May 2007, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu .
Dillon, Sam. "Schools Cut Back Subjects to Push Reading and Math." The New York
Times. 25 Mar 2006. 29 May 2007. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/03/26/education/26child.html?ex=1301029200en=0c91b5bd32dabe2aei=5088partner=rssnytemc=rss
In terms of grading, students will not be evaluated on their ability to score goals, but how hard they try and their attendance. Student fitness levels will be assessed at the end of every semester. This assessment will involve a short run, sit-ups, push ups, a long jump, and chin ups. The results will not be to penalize the students, but to highlight what athletic skills the children need to work on in the future.
Some parents have expressed concern that children do not have enough time in the day to learn, let alone to run and play. It is our school's philosophy that a run or a rousing game of basketball helps children think better, once the children return to the classroom. Other parents have expressed concern about their children's weight, but it is not the school's place to specifically prescribe a weight-loss program for a young child, rather…
Pangrazi, Robert. (2005). Dynamic Physical Education for Elementary School Students.
14th Ed. New York: Pearson.
Now, teachers are complaining that they feel abused and harassed with the young students.
The students tend to become abusive. They do not respect the teachers. They swear and shout at the teachers. They throw things at the teachers and in some instances, the students physically assault the teachers.
This is the reason why most teachers feel threatened and would want to resign from their works.
Thus, without the corporal punishment, the students do not learn the real value of discipline and they do not maintain proper conduct. The students who did not receive any corporal punishment when they were still on their younger years tend to have deviant behaviors as they grow older.
Meanwhile, there are also studies which have proven that corporal punishment offers nothing but negative effects to both the psychological and emotional aspects of a child. Some of the proven negative impacts of corporal punishment are:…
Curry, Lisa M. Effective Teaching through High Expectation and Class Management. 2000. USA Gymnastics. http://www.usa-dymnastics.org/publications/technique/2000/4/effective-teaching.html
Effective Instructional Strategies. http://www.flstw.fsu.edu/integrate/efins.html
Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew. 2004. "The effect of corporal punishment on antisocial behavior in children." Social Work Research
Lombardo, Lucien X. And Polonko, Karen A. 2000. "Comparative Analysis of the Corporal Punishment of Children: An Exploration of Human Rights and U.S. Law," International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice. Vol. 29, No.2, Fall 2005 pp. 173
They ae thee to play and not to show off thei bodies.
Female athletes with lage body size will find discomfots in the tightly fitted unifoms. This then pesents poblem to safety. The female athletes who will not be at ease to the equied unifom could not focus on the game she is playing. She will, fom time to time, ty to eaange, pull o push some pats o the gament whee she thinks she needs to be coveed. With such attention that will be given to the gament, how can it be assued that the athlete will be safe in pefoming on he spoting event?
Lastly, female athletes who have lage body size will not be motivated to join any spoting activities anymoe because of the fea fo negative judgments fom the cowd and the media. The spots aena is becoming moe of an aea fo the body image…
references of college women basketball players. Master's Thesis
Ford, S., & Feather, B. (May, 1993). Women's basketball uniform analysis. Final report presented to Russell Athletic Corporation.
Gitlin Cara. (November 2000). "Male gawkers have all the fun." The John Hopkins News Letter.
Girls Skip Meals to be like Skinny Models." news.bbc.co.uk. 04 Feb. 2003. BBC Newsround. 8 Aug. 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/cbbcnews/hi/uk/newsid_2726000/2726279.stm
Hellmich, Nanci..usatoday.com. "Do thin models warp girls' body image?" 26 September 2006. USA Today. 30 Nov. 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2006-09-25-thin-models_x.htm
Then, light exercise, preferably cross-training if the athlete is dealing with overuse issues, may be undertaken. During the initial phase, aerobic exercise should be confined to "heart rates of 120-140 beats per minute ...this can be slowly built up over the period of 6-12 weeks. The emphasis is increasing volume rather than intensity, and volume should be increased gradually up to one hour per day. Once this is volume is reached, intensity can be gradually increased above the lactate threshold" (Peterson 2011).
Preventing overtraining requires moderating the intensity and the duration of work days, and building in one 'cross-training' or rest day into the training schedule. The mental component of overtraining should not be ignored. Not all athletes who train hard experience the syndrome and one reason some athletes are thought to be more vulnerable to overtraining than others is because of personal stresses that can enact an additional toll…
Meehan, Heidi. (2011). Overtraining syndrome. Sports Injury Bulletin.
Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://www.sportsinjurybulletin.com/archive/overtraining-causes.html
Peterson, Andrea. (2011). Overtraining. Curtin University. Retrieved November 17, 2011 at http://physiotherapy.curtin.edu.au/resources/educational-resources/exphys/00/overtraining.cfm
Rick Fisher has never had it easy. Confined to a wheelchair, he is often overlooked for jobs, has trouble finding a girlfriend, and there are days when performing the simplest tasks takes twice as long as it used to.
"He was an athletic kid. He played third base in the spring and wide receiver in the fall. I don't think he ever thought he would face the kind of challenges that he has today," said Fisher's father, Jerry.
When he graduated high school, Fisher worked all summer to save money for a motorcycle. Three days after buying the bike, he had trouble handling a curve in strong winds, and lost control of his motorcycle. "I saw a truck coming and I panicked. I overcorrected and the next thing I knew I was in a hospital bed." Rick had avoided the truck, but went off the road and hit a culvert.…
eligious Group's Statement
William James' passage at the top of Gordon D. Kaufman's essay, "eligious Diversity and eligious Truth"
is both profound and poignant (187). Kaufman quotes James as saying "... The whole notion of the truth is an abstraction from the fact of truths in the plural ... " James also writes that "Truth grafts itself on previous truth, modifying it in the process
In the case of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (LDS), also known as the Mormon Church, their "truth" has most certainly been "grafted" on previous truth, and the various "truths" that they build their religion upon -- plus, the "new truths" they seek to promote all over the globe -- make an interesting study for purposes of this paper.
The thesis of the paper is as follows: the doctrines, beliefs, basis of origin / foundation -- and the social strategies of…
Kaufman, Gordon D. Religious Diversity and Religious Truth. In God-Mystery-
Diversity, 172-206. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.
Schleiermacher, Friedrich. 1969. Romanticism. In Attitudes Toward Other Religions:
Some Christian Interpretations, ed. Owen C. Thomas, 49-69. Notre Dame:
" (Bawer, 2005) Thus, culture and a higher cost of going out both come into play. Europeans have more health care and social services than Americans, but they still also pay more in taxes. True, they have better public transportation as well -- but gasoline (in this oil-exporting nation) costs more than $6 a gallon.
Bawer's greatest complaint was his lack of ability to have an exciting nightlife at a decent cost, something he said that was easier in supposedly poorer Spain. But this highlights how European nations still differ in terms of what they value, either wine with friends, or a more frugal and 'saving' standard of living. However, Bawer was correct in the sense that culture and cost may fuse, when comparing Europe as a whole to other nations, as while the private-consumption figure for the United States was $32,900 per person, the countries of estern Europe (again…
Bawer, Bruce. (17 Apr 2005) "We're Rich -- you're not, end of story." The New York Times. Sunday Week in Review. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/04/17/weekinreview/17bawer.html ?
Economist. (9 Jan 2004) "Plenty of crying over spilt milk." Economist Global Agenda. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2327955
Laroche, Lionel (2004) "The Cultural Differences between the European Union and North America and their Impact on Transatlantic Business." ITAP International. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.itapintl.com/culturaldifferenceseuna.htm
Well, I kind of introduced that into Lindy Hopping. And we call it an air step because that's the way that we envisioned it -- as a step. We said, This has to be done in time with the music. it's not a lift -- it's a step -- so you gotta do it as a step (Editors).
Many people would add innovations and other moves to the basic Lindy, and it would spread out to create an entire form of swing dancing that included air-steps, synchronized dancing, and jitterbugging, all popular forms of swing dance. However, Manning was a true innovator in swing dance, and has been honored with several documentaries. He also was interviewed for the Ken Burns documentary "Jazz," and HBO plans to make a full-length feature film about his remarkable life.
In conclusion, Frankie Manning is the true father of the Lindy Hop, and with his…
Author not Available. "Happy Feet." Personal Web Page. 2004. 29 April 2005. http://www.gotthatswing.com.au/happy.html
Crease, Robert P. "Divine Frivolity: Hollywood Representations of the Lindy Hop, 1937-1942." Representing Jazz. Ed. Gabbard, Krin. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1995. 207-228.
Editors of WNET. "Frankie Manning." Thirteen.org. 1998. 29 April 2005. http://www.thirteen.org/cityarts4/week11/my_html/uncut-week11.html
O'Meally, Robert G., ed. The Jazz Cadence of American Culture. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.
Social Change Through omen's Sports
Promoting Social Change Through omen's Sports Leadership
The problems that cry out for social change solutions
No one who is intelligent, literate, and who is paying attention could avoid the fact that much of the world today is in need of fresh and creative ways to resolve cultural and social conflicts and to build better communities where families feel safe and futures seem secure. ar, bloodshed, racial rage, and mindless military carnage -- in addition to the disturbing, ongoing violence against women -- make up too much of the front pages of daily newspapers. Dramatic social changes are desperately needed, and the plans for those changes have yet to be drawn up by present political leadership in the United States and elsewhere.
Over the first week in October, for example: suicide bombers killed 19 innocent tourists in Bali; car bomb blasts killed numerous citizens and…
American Association of University Women. (2004). Report Card on Gender Equity. Retrieved October 5, 2005, from http://www.aauw.org .
Christofides, Nicola J.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Webster, Naomi; Penn-Kekana, Loveday; Abrahams,
Naeema & Martin, Lorna J. (2005). "Other patients are really in need of medical attention" the quality of health care services for rape survivors in South Africa. Bulletin of the World
Health Organization, 83(7), 495-502.
Integrating Children with Autism into a Physical Activity and ecreation Setting
The purpose of this study was to examine the patterns of behavior of children who were severely handicapped and autistic as they were integrated into a physical education and exercise program (Schleien, et al., 1987). The desire was to determine whether the social and behavioral skills of these children were improved after they had been exposed to an exercise and physical education program, or whether there was no difference seen. The way that the handicapped children were treated by the other children in the program - who were not handicapped - was also examined, in an effort to draw conclusions about how individuals treat those who are different and whether those differences cause children to shun others or accept them. Only two handicapped children were used for the study, and they were eight and eleven years old (Schleien, et…
Schleien, S., Krotee, M., Mustonen, T., Kelterborn, B., & Schermer, A. (1987). The effect of integrating children with autism into a physical activity and recreation setting. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 21(4): 52-62.
Athens and Sparta -- as ar Inevitable?
Between 500 and 350 BC the area now known as Greece was but a collection of separate and unallied city-states. Today, we often view cultures and political conflict in terms of nations, and take the view that since city-states were geographically close, culture was the same. This, however, was untrue, particularly in the case of the two most powerful and well-known city states of Athens and Sparta.
That is not to say that these two entities were completely divergent. Both had some cultural similarities in context with their history, and they cooperated -- if distantly, in the years leading up to the Battle of Thermopylae and subsequent defeat of the Persian invaders at Salamis and Plataea, ending Persian aggression for a time.
However, understanding Ancient Cultures is often difficult. e have limited resources from which to build a portrait of the culture, and…
Cartledge, P. Sparta and Lakonia: A Regional History. New York: Oxford/Routledge, 2002. Print.
Hall, J. Hellenicity: Betweeh Ethnicity and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Kagan, D. The Peloponnesian War. New York: Penguin, 2000. Print.
Kovacs, C. Ancient Greece. Edinburgh, Scottland: Floris Books, 2004. Print.
Art movement DADA
The phenomenon Dada is notoriously difficult to describe; some critics hesitate even to use the term "movement." Focusing on Dadaists' reflections about the phenomenon itself, we will try to delineate a general image of the Dada in the context of the European avant-gardes of the 20-th century. e will also try to analyze the historical and political context inside which the dada phenomenon occurred. Our main focus will be on two main tenets of Dadaism: the "self-critical" feature of Dada's self-image as it emerges during the main phases of its history, especially during its early phase, and the political commitment of Dada during its last phases of development.
Dada "artworks" were usually conceived as all-in-one theatrical performances, art happenings, counting music, dance, poems, theory, costumes, as well as paintings. Jangling keys, gymnastic exercises called noir cacadou, and screaming presentations of sound poetry or other texts accompanied these…
Benjamin, Walter. The Work of Art in the Age of Its Technological Reproductibility and Other Writings on Media. Eds. M. Jennings, B. Doherty, T.Y. Levin. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008: pp.34-45
Caws, Mary Ann. The Poetry of Dada and Surrealism: Aragon, Breton, Tzara, Eluard and Desnos. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000: pp.12-34.
Dachy, Marc. The Dada Movement, 1915 -- 1923. New York: Rizzoli, 1990: pp.56-78
Hugnet, Georges. Dada. In: The Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art. vol. 4, no. 2/3, 2006: pp. 3-18.
Miseducation of Children
In Miseducation David Elkind (1987) warns that educational programs intended for school age children are being misappropriated for infants and young children causing irreparable damage. This phenomenon is a manifestation of the belief that only a "super kid" can grow up to compete successfully in the modern world. According to Elkind there is considerable evidence that early instruction in academic and athletic skills can do lasting harm that young children subjected to this kind of pressure are at psychological and physical risk. "When we instruct children in academic subjects, or in swimming, gymnastics, or ballet, at too early an age, we mis-educate them; we put them at risk for short-term stress and long-term personality damage for no useful purpose (Elkind, 1987).
The stages of human development concerns the different periods of life that an individual experiences. Psychologist Erik Erikson developed the theory of human development and identified…
Dunn, L. & Kontos, S. (1997, October). Devlopmentally appropriate practice: What does the research tell us? Clearinghouse on early education and parenting. University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved August 12, 2012, from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/eecearchive/digests/1997/dunn97.html
Elkind, D. (1987). Miseducation. Retrieved August 12, 2012, from http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgupta/miseducation.pdf
Harder, A.F. (2009). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.com. Retrieved August 12, 2012, from http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm
Origin of HIV
The mystery of HIV and its origins is one that cannot be easily solved. In the thirty-odd years which have passed since the official recognition of AIDS by the CDC and the subsequent search for its cause, various theories have been floated regarding its nature, its development, its ability to adapt, our ability to combat it, and -- most importantly for some -- its origin. How did the virus come into being? Viruses are known for altering over time and according to circumstances. They have a way of "bending" in order to make due -- of manipulating themselves in such a way so as to survive. This is no less true for HIV than for influenza. Just as variants of influenza appear each year to wreak havoc on the human population, variant-strains of HIV continue to be discovered, suggesting that the virus is still developing, still finding…
Apetrei, C., et al. (2005) 'Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus
SIVsm in U.S. primate centers unravels the origin of SIVmac and SIVstm', J Virol, 79(14):8991-9005.
Clavel, F., et al. (1986) 'Isolation of a new human retrovirus from West African patients
with AIDS', Science, 233(4761):343-346.
This aspect is greatly leveraged upon by Sport2Sport as different target populations share their experiences on company's Facebook page. There is also an aspect of quick customer response having the potential of going viral over the internet. This makes companies such as Sport2Sport to focus on customer satisfaction and prompt response. Although it may seem untraditional not to focus on traditional advertising and marketing mediums, the paradigm shift in approach to marketing and advertisement has led this agency to effectively spend their marketing budget on online campaigns and maintenance of web-presence.
IV- Organizational structure
Better Business Bureau (BBB) has reported that Sport2Sport is a limited liability company (LLC) with its current rating at A-. The highest possible rating that an agency can get with BBB is A+ (BBB Business eview, 2013). The length of time that the firm is in business is the only potentially negative factor reported by the…
Annual Report. (2013). Sport2Sport Limited Liability Company Annual Report. DEPARTMNET of the SECRETARY of STATE, North Carolina NC. Retrieved from: [ http://www.secretary.state.nc.us/soskb.web.mvc/search/Filings/9433134 ]
BBB Business Review. (2013). Better Business Bureau: Business Review Sport2Sport LLC. Retrieved from: [ http://www.bbb.org/raleigh-durham/business-reviews/sports-and-recreation/sport2sport-in-cary-nc-90205195 ]
CNN Money. (2012). Best Places to Live. Retrieved from: http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/best-places/2012/snapshots/PL3710740.html
Facebook.com/CarySport2Sport. ( n.d). Sport2Sport. Retrieved from: [ https://www.facebook.com/CarySport2Sport ]
Leadership - Gates of Fire by Steven Pressfield
Gates of Fire written by Steven Pressfield is a famous historical novel published in 1998. It tells the story of 480 B.C when Persian King decided to attack Greece. Persia was the biggest power of the world in those times and it used all its supremacy to focus on this singe goal.
Persian King brought with him a huge army of around two million soldiers with a simple message of "surrender or death" for the Greeks. On the other side, Greece put forward their 300 finest Spartan warriors under the commandment of King Leonydas and ordered them to take immediate action.
Spartans knew very well that they will be killed in this battle with Persian invaders but they did not quit and moved forward towards their mission. They bravely resisted against the Persian forces for six days and created an unbalanced fight…
Bass, B and Riggio, R. (2008). Transformational Leadership. Second edition. Lawrence Erlbaum
Cohen, W. (2010). Heroic Leadership. Leading with Integrity and Honor. Chapter 7: Put Duty Before
Self. Published by Jossey Bass.
Eating Disorders and Gender
There are medical conditions which more commonly occur in one gender over another. These conditions can be either mental or physical. Very often, they are both mental and physical conditions. Certain medical situations are extremely severe and can potentially result in serious harm to the body or perhaps even death. There are certain conditions which being with a mental impression, a false belief that has been ingrained within the mind which then manifests itself in the body of the individual. One of the most common and most disturbing types of condition is known as an eating disorder. By this term, it is meant that the patient suffers a mental conditioning which makes them either unwilling or unable to eat in a healthy manner resulting in either over or under eating and malnutrition. Eating disorders such as bulimia and anorexia are the result of psychological issues on…
Bates, Daniel. "Globalization of Fat Stigma: Western Ideas of Beauty and Body Size Catching
on in Developing Nations." Daily Mail. 2011. Print.
Battiste, Nikki & Lauren Effron."EDNOS: Deadliest Eating Disorder Is Quietly the Most
Common." ABC News. ABC News Network, 14 Nov. 2012. Web. 19 Nov. 2012. .
Dietary Supplement for Athletes or Bodybuilding
Creatine is a dietary supplement that has been popular for more than thirty years amongst athletes and bodybuilders (Feldman 1999: 45). Its alleged benefits include enhancing muscle-building and recovery. The use of dietary supplements, particularly amongst adolescents and young adult athletes has increased in popularity and may even be endorsed by coaches and parents. Creatine is not recommended for young athletes because of questions about the long-term safety of its use, but pressures to 'be the best' have increased as the margin between first-class and second-class athletes grows ever more razor-thin (Dunn et al. 2001).One study found that "62% of adolescent athletes believed supplements improve performance, with 50% consuming dietary supplements" (Dunn et al. 2001). In another study of attitudes of young athletes Dunn (et al. 2001) found widespread acceptance of the use of creatine and belief in its benefits, even amongst athletes who…
Beck TW, Housh TJ, Johnson GO, Coburn DW, Malek MH, Cramer JT. (2007). Effects of a drink containing creatine, amino acids, and protein, combined with ten weeks of resistance training on body composition, strength, and anaerobic performance.
J Strength Cond Res, 21:100-104.
Buford, Thomas W. (et al. 2007). International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand:
creatine supplementation and exercise. Retrieved:
philosopher Rene Descartes can be regarded as the supreme rationalist. Descartes believed that only through our rational minds could we fully know God and find evidence of God. Empirical knowledge was not sufficient justification to prove the existence of God because our senses could delude us or be faulty (such as through madness or blindness). In contrast, through rational inquiry we could first demonstrate our own existence on a mental plane: even if all is a delusion regarding the body there must be some 'mind' doing the thinking, rationalized Descartes. And, as the human mind can conceive of a greater intelligence known as God, a level of perfection human beings cannot approach, then within the very structure of our mind lies the evidence of God.
David Hume's Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, however, takes the opposite, empiricist point-of-view. In the dialogue, three figures known as Demea, Cleanthes, and Philo engage in…
Trinidad's Pacific Storm: Dispatches on Pacquiao of the Philippines begins with an epigraph from Ernest Hemingway, stating that "courage above all is the first quality of a warrior" (p. 1). But in my own engagement with both Filipino boxing -- and with the amazing life story of Manny Pacquiao, currently deemed to be (pound for pound) the greatest boxer in the world -- I think I would have to disagree. I do believe that boxing requires courage -- this seems obvious. But from what I have learned in my own short study of these subjects, I would argue that if Pacquiao or any boxer is truly a warrior, then the "first quality" that distinguishes the greatness of Pacquiao is not so much courage as endurance. It is easy to understand why a commentator on boxing would emphasize Pacquaio's courage: when one is raised in American culture where the…
A large range of the academic literature centering on the sociological as well as the cultural and linguistic properties of nicknaming can be found. This literature mostly focuses on only sociological and/or cultural properties and/or the linguistic properties but mostly with varying working definitions of the term nickname. For example, some researchers (e.g., Slater and Feinman 1985) notice the structural and sociological commonalities among both the formal and the nicknames whereas, according to some (e.g., Alford 1988) only the descriptive forms are the nicknames. The definition of the term nickname used in this paper may overlap with some of the categories however; there should be no surprise at the commonalities found between the informal and the formal names. As Pulgram (1954, 11-14) has said; the nicknames are the antecedents of many formal names.
Social meaning of nicknaming
The social meaning and function a nickname basically depends on the society…
Aceto, M. 2002. Ethnic Personal Names and Multiple Identities in Anglo phone Caribbean Speech Communities in Latin America. Language in Society 31: 577 -- 608.
Alford, R.D. 1988. Naming and Identity: A Cross-cultural Study of Personal Naming Practices. New Haven, Conn.: HRAF Press.
Aronoff, M. And Fudeman, K. 2010. What is Morphology (Fundamentals of Linguistics). Wiley-Blackwell
Benua, L. 1995. Identity Effects in Morphological Truncation. In Papers in Opti mality Theor y, ed. Jill N. Beckman, Laura Walsh Dickey, and Suzanne Urbanczyk, 77 -- 136. Amherst: Graduate Student Linguistic Assoc., Univ. Of Massachusetts.
Legal Aspects and Considerations
"Coaches should pursue opportunities for professional development to keep abreast of best practices, safety, and legal issues within their chosen sport(s)" (Schaefer, 2008, isk Management Tips Section, ¶ 5).
Challenges for Coaches
During 2006, Bill Baker, a Sahuarita High School football coach in Chandler, Arizona resigned from his coaching position following a 2005 post-game incident which involved him and a player the previous fall. In the newspaper account, "Coach quits over legal dispute: Sahuarita's Baker facing charges involving player," Pedersen (2006) reports that Baker, 53, who cited a lack of support from the Sahuarita Unified School District, also resigned his position as golf coach; however, continued teaching character-education class at the school. The school's district reported that because its liability insurance applied only to civil claims, it could not legally represent employees in criminal cases. Baker denied charges against him that he threw punches at a…
Engelhorn, R. (2011). Legal and Ethical Responsibilities of a Coach Iowa State University. Retrieved March 24, 2011 from http://www.iahsaa.org/RichEngelhorn.html
Fitzgerald, T.B. (2005). The "inherent Risk" Doctrine, Amateur Coaching Negligence and the Goal of Loss Avoidance. Northwestern University Law Review, 99(2), 889+. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036474220
Football Coaches Push N.J. School Prayer Case at U.S. Supreme Court. (2008, December). Church & State, 61, 16+. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5036476157
Pedersen, B.J. (2006). Coach quits over legal dispute: Sahuarita's Baker facing charges involving player. AZ Daily Star. Landmark Media Enterprises, LLC. Retrieved March 23, 2011 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-149015601.html
An acquaintance of mine, a business man, entrepreneur and social leader explained to me one time about the many mistakes he has made throughout his business career. At one point on his career path he managed to purchase a small gymnastics and soccer club that seemed to be a thriving entity, only to discover that the projected revenues were going to be much less than originally planned for. As a recent article espoused "organizations adjust to new business condition and economic realities" (Kristick, 2009, p. 48) and that was exactly what my acquaintance was facing. He could not afford to keep nearly half of the staff, coaches would have to be fired, and some of the instructors would have to be realigned. As Kristick wrote, companies are being forced to cut costs across the board, which often means cutting critical positions, programs and staff (p. 49).
Kristick, J. (2009) Filling the leadership pipeline, T & D, Vol. 63, Issue 6, pp. 48-52
Lord Byron's poem, "The Vision of Judgment," Satan ascends from hell to prosecute the newly deceased George III and claim George's soul. After a farce of a trial, George slips into heaven where he spends eternity practicing his psalms.
Of course, one could argue that Satan loses George's soul not because of his failings as a prosecutor but because the celestial court becomes so involved in resolving the superfluous matter of Mr. Southey that it loses track of George entirely. That charitable interpretation, however, would be giving this particular Devil far more than his due.
While clearly a glib and confident speaker who is not lacking in his ability to play to his audience, Satan loses custody of George's soul because he makes a series of blunders so basic that most first year law students would be humiliated to admit to making them. Satan lacks enthusiasm for his own case.…
Venus illiams on omen and Sports
Venus illiams made an incredible impact on the tennis world at a very young age. She arose from modest beginnings in California to become one of the queens of tennis along with her younger sister, Serena. Venus, at twenty-two years of age, has provided the sports world with many exciting moments in a relatively short period of time. Her amazing athletic ability and muscular physique are recognized and admired all over the world. Venus has rejuvenated the tennis world with her talent, determination, and conviction, all of which may be attributed to a strong work ethic and the tenacity of her father, Richard illiams. The following discussion will provide an introduction into her childhood years, her rise as a world tennis champion, and her positive influence on women all over the world.
History and Background
Venus was born on June 17, 1980 in Lynwood,…
Fillon, Mike. Young Superstars of Tennis: The Venus and Serena Williams Story. Greensboro:
Avisson Press, 1999.
Morgan, Terri. Venus and Serena Williams: Grand Slam Sisters. Minneapolis: Lerner
Publishing Group, 2001.
Com industry crash after the boom
This is a paper examining some of the factors that caused the dot-com crash
Many believe the root cause of the dot-com crash was over valuation of stock prices relative to the actual underlying value of the companies themselves. Stocks of Internet companies traded at Price-Earning ratios of higher then 30, buoyed by a speculative bubble. When reality set in for investors many realized that the companies that they were so heavily invested in were little more then money sucking black holes with no upside potential in the near or long-term future. This triggered mass self-offs of not only Internet related stocks but soon impacted the market value of many companies associated with computer, network or telecommunications industries.
This paper will show in fact that over valuation was more a symptom of the speculative boom and was only one of the multifaceted factors that…
Baldwin Carliss Y. Clark Kim B. "Modularity After the Crash" working paper Managing the Modular Age: Architectures, Networks And Organizations,
Brick Michael, "Pets.com Closing Up Shop" TheStreet.com/NYTimes.com November 11, 2000 (www.nytimes.com) March 27, 2003
Buckman Rebecca, "Who Caused the Dot-Com Crash?" The Wall Street Journal, Monday, March 5, 2000 p. 42
Cassidy John Dot.con: "The Greatest Story Ever Sold" 2002 HarperCollins