The word Hamas is derived from an Arabic phrase, which means Islamic esistance Movement. Hamas is the largest Palestinian political party that rules over the Gaza and is launched by the Palestinian Sunni Islamists. Presently, Khaled Mashaal is the chief head and Ismail Haniyah is the prime minister of Hamas. The headquarters are found at Gaza and in Palestinian territories (Matthew Levitt, 2006). The story begins with the killing of several Palestinians in a traffic accident done by an Israeli driver and stimulated Sheikh Ahmed Yassin (who was also the head of Muslim Brotherhood) and some others to start a "Muslim brotherhood movement" that made its way towards the creation of Hamas in 1987 (Matthew Levitt, 2006). The party attacked firstly on two Israeli and killed them on the spot in 1989. Because of this act, Yassin was arrested immediately and sentenced life imprisonment while several other Hamas activists…… [Read More]
Hamas Middle East
The group labeled as HAMAS is spread mostly throughout the Middle East and the North African region with its highest concentrations within Gaza Strip & est Bank. Additional countries where HAMAS has known concentrations include Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Sudan, Libya, and most other Arabic and some Asian countries. The concentration within these countries remains unclear according to intelligence reports from the CIA. However, other sources indicate that there are HAMAS terror cells in clandestine areas in these aforementioned countries.
The HAMAS organization is divided and assembled into strategic cells that are designated to perform surreptitious activity including the providing security, task-force operations and logistics, arsenal development, and planning and recruitment of new members. The clandestine nature of their operations renders an approximation to their numbers to be of a large variance. Additionally, the replacement factor of a new member into the role of a deceased member…… [Read More]
Often when people think of the word "Hamas," it becomes intrinsically linked with Islamic and Muslim peoples. This is highly unfair. Hamas is actually a very limited population of Palestinian and Islamic extremists. In the book Hamas: a History from ithin, author Azzam Tamimi (2007) brings the reader into the world of the Hamas and explains to the rest of the world how things really were. One of the focuses of the text is the ways in which the nation state of Israel has erred in its dealings with the Hamas. Had the Israelis made better decisions, he seems to argue, a lot of the animosity between the Israeli government and the rest of the Middle East would not be present. This takes the stance that Israel is the real perpetrator of wrongdoing, but that does not seem to be the truth.
The security fence erected by the Israeli…… [Read More]
S. In the Middle East. The links between Hamas and Iran and Hezbollah are very concerning for U.S. Also, U.S. is historically close to Israel and therefore supports the cause of this state. The demand of U.S. And Israel is that Hamas renounces using terrorist attacks and recognizes the state of Israel and the agreements made between Palestine and Israel. If Hamas continues its terrorist practices, U.S. And Israel threatened to cut off any humanitarian aid given to the Palestinians. This decision could be problematic because it will then make Hamas turn to Iran and other countries which are declared as anti-American.
One characteristic of terrorist groups is that they use suicide attacks as weapons in their war. Hamas also relies heavily in making its voice heard on violent suicide attacks, which are seen as its asymmetric warfare against Israel. Hamas used suicide attacks in order to bomb civilian facilities…… [Read More]
Shortly before the bombing, the bomber records a video testament and then repeatedly watches it and other videos made by his predecessors. Hamas assures the bombers their deaths will be painless and that dozens of virgins await them in paradise. The average bombing costs about $150 (Hamas, 2009).
Hamas enjoys strong financial backing from Iran an estimated $20 - $30 million along with private benefactors and Muslim charities in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states. Its budget has been estimated at $70 million and 85% of it reportedly comes from abroad. The remaining 15% is raised among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. A number of Americans and U.S.-based charities have been accused of funneling money to Hamas. It is estimated that Saudi Arabia continues to channel $12 - $14 million to Hamas every year (Hamas Fact Sheet, 2006).
Hamas is believed to have killed more than five hundred…… [Read More]
They are determined to remove Jews from the area, and how they do it does not matter.
Hamas has used suicide bombings as a weapon and attack since 1993 (Editors, 2007). They use suicide bombers in a majority of cases, but have also claimed to use "mortars, short-range rockets, and small arms fire" (Editors, 2007). Their criminal activity includes these attacks, but most of their funding comes from legitimate sources, including private donors and Iran. There are also some Muslim charities in the west who fund the social aspects and work of Hamas, and now that Hamas has won elections, it will have public funds at its disposal, as well (Editors, 2007).
Hamas has wide community and regional support by Palestinians and others who support the creation of a Palestinian state and the destruction of Israel. However, support for the group dropped after the recent attacks by Israel in retaliation…… [Read More]
The Al-Aqsa Intifadah (which began, I believe, in about 2000 when the Camp David talks were then stalling) was begun by PLO and still exists today (much less actively than from about 2000 to about 2004, roughly) under the PLO umbrella.
3) Democratic nations including Great Britain and the United States have long called for democratic elections in Palestine. Now that Hamas was the unexpected winner of the first elections, should it be recognized by the United States?
No; at least not officially, since Hamas has been from its 1987 outset, and clearly is today, an overtly, aggressively and ruthlessly terrorist organization recognized internationally as such. Still, Hamas should definitely be talked to by the United States, as horrendous a prospect as that might well seem (and is). And unfortunately, it has become almost risible in today's world that Great Britain or the United States could still even semi-seriously think…… [Read More]
Putin reiterated that ussia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and urged the global community to work with a Hamas-led Palestinian government.
"Hamas has arrived at the doors of power through legitimate elections," Putin said. "We must respect the Palestinian people and we have to look for solutions for the Palestinian people, for the international community, and also for Israel. Contacts with Hamas must continue," he added. (Hamas not a terror organization)
The leaders of Hamas have some chance to make an alliance with Israeli leaders that would allow them to gain an unencumbered claim to some territory and gain some support from Western leaders. There has been some attempt to do this. In 2008, former President Jimmy Carter worked with Hamas leader Khaled Meshal to reach an agreement that Hamas would agree to a truce with Israel if and when the Palestinian people agreed to a Palestinian…… [Read More]
The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism
The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…… [Read More]
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…… [Read More]
In the event the intelligence detailed by the Israeli administration proves to be accurate with respect to nuclear weapons development, this office is reminded of the words of the late President John, F. Kennedy, spoken almost exactly 45 years ago to the day, on October 22, 1962, addressing the Soviet threat in Cuba:
We no longer live in a world where only the actual firing of weapons represents a sufficient challenge to a nation's security to constitute maximum peril. Nuclear weapons are so destructive and ballistic missiles are so swift that any substantially increased possibility of their use or any sudden change in their deployment may well be regarded as a definite threat to peace." (Sorensen, 1965)
Extraordinary risks to national security demand (and justify) extraordinary actions to prevent them from materializing. A military response will be required to participate with Israel in destroying Iranian nuclear facilities either in possession…… [Read More]
Media Control in Egypt
The media in Egypt is much more controlled than in many other countries, including the United States. That control began with President Gamal Abdel Nasser, moved through Anwar Sadat, and then on to Hosni Mubarak. During that time, the television and newspapers were strictly controlled, and only what the president wanted people to see was placed in them. There is significant evidence that the control of the media in Egypt was done largely to oppress the people, and to make sure they were only hearing and seeing what the government wanted them to hear and see. Social, political, and economic factors are all significant in the control of the Egyptian media, which many believe should be uncontrolled and independent. That would allow it to provide actual, factual information, instead of only what the government agreed that the people were allowed to know.
The Egyptian media…… [Read More]
Terrorism Linked to Religion These Days?
Although terrorism has been present ever since the beginning of recorded history, defining it may prove to be slightly controversial task. There is no universally shared definition as it's a highly subjective term that depends upon the point-of-view of the observer. However, there are three perspectives from which terrorism can be looked at and then defined. These perspectives include the terrorist's, the victim's and the general publics.
The phrase "one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter" is one that even terrorists may re-affirm, thus asserting the controversial nature of the term itself. The following definition released by the United States FBI, can be used to describe the nature of modern day terrorism:
"The unlawful use of force or persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives" (U.S. Department…… [Read More]
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…… [Read More]
Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.
Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…… [Read More]
The geographic distinctions are important, as the Palestinians are divided geographically, with the Gaza Strip separated from the West ank by the country of Israel, with more Palestinians living within Israel.
The Fatah faction of the PLO emerged as the one group with sustainable political power, lead by Yasir Arafat. However, marked Islamic fundamentalism, as exemplified by Hamas was an important influence. Various groups had developed in Gaza and in the West bank, and even within the relatively effective Fatah, infighting between those who did not want to compromise with Israel in any way and those who believed gains could be made through compromise was quite marked (Emerson, 1997).
AFTER THE INTIFADA
Unfortunately the disagreements between the various factions among the Palestinians has led to serious violence. In 1997 "death squads" went through neighborhoods executing those they felt were aiding the Israelis in some way. Some of these executions were…… [Read More]
The cause of Palestinian violence against Israel is the illegal occupation by that nation of Palestinian territory, leaving Palestinians with no choice but to defend themselves against their hostile occupiers. During World War II, the Allies praised the efforts of the European partisans and the armed resistance against the Nazis, but today, the world condemns the same efforts of Palestinian civilians fighting against their illegal occupiers and oppressors.
The Palestinian people deserve their rightful territories and violence against Israel will continue until Israel returns all the land taken from Arab countries since 1967 and also allows all Palestinian refugees the right of return to Israel. Just like the Nazis,
Israel conducts military operations against their neighbors and does so without any regard for civilian casualties" (Evans, 2008).
Subject #1 is an American-born Jew whose parents survived the Nazi Holocaust during World War II. Her parents took her to Israel…… [Read More]
He had an engineering degree from the university of Swansea in ritain. He too participated in the afghan war and was a friend of in laden since the late eighties. He was the emissary of bin laden in Philippines and trained the Muslim fundamentalists there. He made his way into the U.S. without a visa and continued his stay there by seeking political asylum. He was a skilled expert in making chemical bombs. In 1995, Yousef was arrested by Pakistani authorities and in the next year he was sentenced to 240 years of imprisonment in the U.S. For his role in the WTO bombing.
Rex a. Hudson]
Terrorism has expanded into every nook and corner of the world today. A terrorist today, does not appear with a distinctive personality but rather blends with the society leaving security experts with little clue. While organized crimes are mostly economically motivated, terrorism…… [Read More]
Chapter 10 of Jonathan . White's Terrorism and Homeland Security focuses exclusively on terrorism in Israel and Palestine. However, the author begins the chapter with the Six Day War to immediately discuss the rise of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). Factionalism in Palestinian terrorism, the rise and function of Hezbollah and Hamas, Jewish fundamentalism, and the controversial counterterrorism policies in Israeli domestic and foreign policy comprise the bulk of this chapter. Especially given the paucity of space dedicated to this complex topic, White does a good job addressing both sides of the conflict and does so fairly, accurately, and with a minimum of bias.
One of the only faults with Chapter 10 is that the author does not have enough space with which to properly engage the reader in the multilayered complexity of the issue. The chapter begins as if in media res, with the 1967 war as…… [Read More]
Armed Conflicts & Environmental Politics
Davenport, Coral, and Parker, Asley. "Environment Is Grabbing Big Role in Ads for Campaigns." Te New York Times. Te New York Times 21 October 2014. Web. 9 November 2014.
Political advertising focused on climate cange, energy, and environmental issues overwelmed te pre-midterm election campaigns. Surging past a record level of 125,000 ad spots on te Senate side in October 2014, tese campaigns reflect te interests and priorities of wealty donors for bot parties. Indeed, te environment and energy ranked as te tird most popular topic mentioned in political ads, wit ealtcare and jobs running first and second. Wealty donors sowing teir partisan ands include Tomas F. Steyer, te liberal California environmental activist billionaire, and Carles G. Koc and David H. Koc, billionaire conservative rigt-wingers.
Political pundits see te popularity of environmental issues as a arbinger of te 2016 presidential race. Te ad campaigns demonstrate…… [Read More]
nomadic tribes wreaking havoc on each other to Zealots of Judea and the original Assassins, terrorism has been a part of human political strategy since the origin of the species. Whether it reflects the innate bellicosity of human beings or simply reveals the effects of class or religious conflict, terrorism is an unfortunate part of life -- even daily life for some people. Advanced weaponry and communications technology has made terrorism more widespread, more sinister, and far deadlier than ever before but terrorism is nothing new. The first recorded use of the word "terrorism" occurred during the French evolution and its eign of Terror ("Early History of Terrorism," n.d.). Yet terrorism precedes the eign of Terror by millennia. Many terrorist groups like the Zealots and the Assassins of the past or Al Qaeda and ISIL of today have some kind of religious ideology wrapped up in their politics, but religion…… [Read More]
The quantitative approach, meanwhile, will make use of the survey method, focusing on three (3) segments each for males and females (criteria mentioned earlier in the preceding section).
The diary method is recommended because this will generate information that is insightful and in-depth, as it provides participants with an opportunity to express their thoughts and feelings without being conscious of the people who might be interviewing them or be with them, as what happens during an FGD.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
The FGDs will provide breadth of information about perceived pain. There will be twelve (12) mini-groups per segment, broken down into the following discussant types:
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
Youth/Young Adult (13-25 years old)
Adults (26-55 years old)
The survey method will make use of the multi-stage sampling, using once again the respondent criteria enumerated…… [Read More]
The nationalism furthered by Hamas is a direct salvo against oppression and occupation. Its foundation is premised on blame and hatred of the "other." Again, instability leads the uncertain from away from foreign and in the direction of the known, this being especially powerful, when meshed with the concrete assuagements of religion.
The efficacy of religion as an instrument of nationalist ideology can also be seen in the Islamist movement. hile lacking a state, there is still clearly an Arab nation which coheres to a distaste of foreign influence. The Al-Qaeda organization seems to be premised on exactly this, with Osama Bin Laden's impetus being derived from a scorn of estern presence in Saudi Arabia, and moreover, the Muslim world. Religion, here, is used to offer succor. It is analogous to the comfort provided in pre-ar Germany of through the idea of a superior kultur.
Muslim communities scattered about the…… [Read More]
The est may even become addicted to you and your PLO (Pacepa 1987, 25)
The above conversation occurred in the early Carter administration, although the Romanian dictator first began advising and consorting with Arafat in 1972 (ibid, 37). Ceau-escu was not a prophet. Rather, he was just a shrewd dictatorial leader who knew how to use image, propaganda and the repetition of the same information over and over again until his viewpoint became the accepted one.
In Pacepa's narrative, Ceau-escu and Arafat were very close. Arafat saw Ceau-escu as a model and this model set the tone for the next more than two decades of Arafat's leadership of the PLO after their secret March, 1978 meeting in Bucharest. This meeting is so very important to understanding the development and history of the PLO and the Palestinian Authority from Oslo to the leader's death in 2004.
hile agreeing with Ceau-escu on…… [Read More]
The Israel government was not able to find the perpetrators, and the PIJ profited greatly from the event. On the Friday following the killing, "…hundreds of worshippers at Jerusalem's al-Aqsa mosque demonstrated their support for Islamic Jihad" for killing an innocent Israeli (Milton-Edwards, p. 140). The demonstrators (who were worshipping prior to being engaged in support for a cold-blooded killing) were chanting, "Allahu Akbar" -- and according to a local newspaper police in Jerusalem said the "tone of the demonstrators was more religious than political" (Milton-Edwards, p. 140).
Given that vocal support by citizens, and its more visible presence in Palestine, the Islamic Jihad carried out a far more bold and brazen attack, mentioned earlier in this paper, tossing live hand grenades into a military ceremony at Jerusalem's estern all. "Activists were willing to take significant risks," Milton-Edwards wrote (p. 140). Moreover, by killing the father of one recruit and…… [Read More]
A month later, the U.S. used a drone missile to kill top one of the top al Qaeda operatives in Pakistan, Ilyas Kashmiri, on June 3 (CNN, 2011). Kashmiri was considered the possible replacement for bin Laden, and is also believed to be the brains behind the bloody attacks in Mumbai, India, in 2008.
The Response by Israel
One of Israel's security problems is the fact that they share a border with a known terrorist organization, Hamas, a group that has launched rockets into Israel and has sent suicide bombers into Israel to viciously kill innocent civilians. Israel's response to the terror launched against it in March, 2002, is worth noting. It was a violent month as eleven times during March, 2002, suicide bombers worked their evil, killing 81 Israelis and injuring 579 (Perliger, 2009). But when a Hamas operative Abd al-Basset Muhammad Odeh walked into the Park Hotel ballroom…… [Read More]
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…… [Read More]
nuclear deal with Iran. A tentative agreement has recently been signed, and the final details need to be worked out by the end of June. The parties at the negotiating table have an interest in a negotiated agreement, even if some other stakeholders do not. Given that, while there still risks that the deal may be scuttled or delayed, in all likelihood the deal will pass. The trade-off for the U.S. will be that it gets some certainty with respect to the Iranian nuclear program in exchange for allowing Iran to have a civilian nuclear program for power generation, subject to strict controls. The paper analyzes the other options on the table and explains why a negotiated agreement with Iran is superior to the other potential alternatives that are available.
At the time of writing, Iran is engaged in talks with the United States and several other stakeholder nations…… [Read More]
Terrorism Be Justified
Is terrorism justified?
A definition of terrorism is hard to put forth, mainly because it depends on which side the definition comes from. However, the UN definition could be successfully used. As such, terrorist acts are "criminal acts, including against civilians, committed with the intent to cause death or serious bodily injury, or taking of hostages, with the purpose to provoke a state of terror in the general public or in a group of persons or particular persons, intimidate a population or compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act" (UN Security Council Resolution 1566)
Arguments pro-terrorism lack Rhetorical Power because they involve the violence and death of innocent people. These people cannot be collectively guilty because (1) they are not making the contested decisions and (2) the scope of terrorism is usually to intimidate and not to target…… [Read More]
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…… [Read More]
S. has to be active in supporting the International Law. He argues that our effort should not be to defeat a set of criminals, Osama in Laden, his Al-Qaeda network and a few like-minded groups, but we have to undermine the notion that any action is acceptable for a cause and slaughter of civilian is an acceptable political act.
The fight against terrorism has to be based not on destroying a certain group of terrorists but as a campaign of human rights. Geneva Conventions and international human rights law specifically establish that terrorism is not a legitimate act of war or politics. These rules specify that civilians should never be deliberately killed or abused, regardless of the cause. Mr. ush's refusal to condemn Israel's bombing of civilian targets in an impotent Lebanon may be politically expedient but it says that United States considers it all right to deliberately bomb civilian…… [Read More]
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
1.2…… [Read More]
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East
The land where Israel is currently established has been characterized by fierce fighting and change in control over this region for centuries. These battles have been in existence since the period before World War II as Palestinians and Israelis continue to fight for control of this region. The historical war between Israel and Palestine and the situation in the Middle East has escalated to become a major security issue across international borders, particularly to the United States. Actually, Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Middle East have relatively been regarded as the source of terrorism in the United States and other parts of the world. This implies that the most significant source of terrorism facing the United States is the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. This conflict has been characterized by fights between Israel and Palestine in attempts to gain control over this region. Therefore,…… [Read More]
Proportionality in War
The principle of proportionality in war is something that is hotly contested and debated. How the principle could and should apply in terms of response to military action or aggression, the incidence or possibility of civilian casualties and other things are all considerations when it comes to proportionality in war. In general terms, the argument to be made is that there should be consistence between a strike and a counterstrike. Obviously, the idea is to win whatever conflict is at hand. However, there are limits to this approach. For example, responding to a cruise missile strike with a nuclear strike is obviously not going to fly. However, there are some times where proportionality is clouded and made difficult to figure out. At the very least, it can be controversial. The dual nuclear strike on Japan during World War II is one example. The manner in which the…… [Read More]
The attack which claimed Tsar's life was by a member of Narodnaya Volya, ignacy Hryniewiecki, who died while consciously exploding the bomb during the attack. udolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff projected to assassinate Adolf Hitler by suicide bomb in 1943, but was unable to complete the attack (oger Moorhouse 2006).
Once we start discussing suicide bombers, there emerge some religious units that are never far behind. esearchers have proposed several theories to elaborate on why others would give their lives to take those of others. A study by Ginges brings about a variety of religious people from different religion back grounds and it has come out that across the board, people's deportment on martyrdom had absolutely nothing or if there is very minimal to do with their religious attachment or a specific religious group.
Bloom, Mia. Dying to Kill. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005
Beevor, Antony. Berlin:…… [Read More]
Many times Israel's leader has agreed to specific peace negotiations with the United States and with Palestine, only to turn right around and do the exact opposite of what he said he would do. There has been no peace made, because Israel will not compromise. It will not back down to any degree and let Palestine have anything, and it intends to make the country into a wasteland if it does not submit. The numbers that it provides regarding killing and such are also not found to be accurate.
The article addressed here looked at the numbers, and there have been many, many more Palestinians killed by Israelis than the other way around. The bombings and the rocket attacks have not ceased. Israel insists that it is doing this because of Palestinian rocket attacks, but none of these started at all until Israel started bombings and border closings and other…… [Read More]
In Chapter 8, Friedman shows how the lives of 241 U.S. Marines were sacrificed needlessly in Lebanon in 1983. Because the U.S. policy makers and military tacticians had no real understanding of the environment of the Middle East as a whole and in particular did not have a deeper understanding on the political scene of Lebanon, they over-estimated the force and persuasive power of American diplomacy capabilities, and underestimated the heated tensions between the different peoples of the region. The United States, for all of its alleged proficiency in language education, did not really speak the language of the Middle East; of 'my enemy's enemy' is my friend, a land where winks speak volumes. "The Lebanese, like all Middle Easterners, are a people with a vivid imagination," remarked Fouad Ajami, a friend of the author. "That is why a great power should never wink at anyone in the Middle East.…… [Read More]
Terrorism has a long and violent history and incidents of terrorism have been recorded from at least 2,000 years ago. Acts of terrorism have included political assassinations, violent political revolutions, hijackings, skyjackings, and bombings intended to attract attention, shock, intimidate and instill fear. Before the 911 terror attacks the threat of terrorism, though always a potential danger, was of an episodic nature, and seemed to be under control. The devastating attacks on the orld Trade Center and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001, however, have brought terrorism to the center stage of world politics and exposed the vulnerability of soft civilian targets to a small but determined group of terrorists. The issue of terrorism and home security now dominates the foreign policy of most countries including the United States. The focus on terrorism has also forced people to think deeply about its root causes, which may have historical, cultural, political,…… [Read More]
The ole of eligion in the Middle East Conflict
The Middle East is the cradle of the main religions of the world (Molloy, 1942). Despite this fact, the region has experience hatred and violence for many years. The two main religions involved in the conflict are Jewish and Islam. Many Arab nations portray the ongoing conflict between them and Israel as a war against their religion. In this regard, they wage war as a basis of incitement of other Arab and non-Arab nations against Israel. According to Hama (1994), the endless conflict between Arabs and Israel may not be exactly a land issue or a war between nations but a mindless pursuit to defend Arab nationalism from the israeli threat. The founder of Islam, Mohhamad cultivated the idea of jihad as a way of influencing the spread of Islam by using forceful strategies. Arab Muslim countries have perfected this…… [Read More]
Community outreach and counterterrorism with efforts towards exploitable weaknesses.
Community Outreach and Terrorism
International and domestic terrorism have reached levels previously believed to be impossible. hether fueled by profits they get from trafficking drugs or whether they are fueled by religious ideologies, a series of communities express particular interest in wanting to get actively involved in performing activities characteristic to terrorist organizations. Many governments have the tendency to focus on fighting them directly and fail to understand the significance of addressing factors that influence these people to take up arms against the system. Focusing on underlying concepts encouraging individuals to become terrorists is likely to destabilize terrorist institutions and to make it increasingly difficult for them to recruit people.
The intelligence community in the contemporary society plays an important role in detecting terrorist threats and in making it less likely for individuals to engage in terrorist acts. Even with…… [Read More]
Mexico faces an array of drug-related problems ranging from production and transshipment of illicit drugs to corruption, violence, and increased internal drug abuse. Powerful and well-organized Mexican organizations control drug production and trafficking in and through Mexico, as well as the laundering of drug proceeds. These organizations also have made a concerted effort to corrupt and intimidate Mexican law enforcement and public officials. In addition, the geographic proximity of Mexico to the United States and the voluminous cross-border traffic between the countries provide ample opportunities for drug smugglers to deliver their illicit products to U.S. markets. The purpose of this study was to develop informed and timely answers to the following research questions: (a) How serious is the trade in illicit drugs between Mexico and the United States today and what have been recent trends? (b) How does drug trafficking fund terrorist organizations in general and trade between Mexico and…… [Read More]
Sanctions in the OPEC World
What sorts of sanctions and punishments should an OPEC nation -- whose petroleum production bring riches almost beyond imagination, and hence is a player on the world's economic battleground -- receive if it launches programs aimed at acquiring nuclear weapons? That is the central question for this paper to review and critique. The best example for what would happen to an OPEC nation that works towards building a nuclear weapon can be viewed by examining what has happened to Iran and its fledgling nuclear program. This paper delves into the sanctions against Iran, and reports the political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal consequences of the sanctions that are now being rescinded. This paper also projects what those painful economic and social / political realities would impose on other oil-producing nations planning a nuclear program. This narrative leads to a clear understanding of the question…… [Read More]
United States in the United Nations
hen the United Nations was first formed, it was done with noble ideas and motives. Indeed, many of the actions and deeds executed or supported by the United Nations over the years have mostly been positive and productive. However, there has been a consistent and startling degradation. It has gotten to the point where the United Nations and its member states aside from the United States have gotten into the game of talking down to the United States for something of things it has done with the United Nations itself is implicitly or explicitly condoning some depraved actions and/or there are member states that are engaging in some questionable if not unconscionable behavior. hile the United Nations has and still serves a good purpose, there are some patterns and behaviors going on from the body itself and/or its member states that need to change…… [Read More]
The F-16s can be used if bigger warheads are necessary. The F-16s can carry bunker buster missiles, which can penetrate anything that might be protecting the nuclear sites. A-10s are fighter planes that are used against tanks and in close combat support.
4. Have the political options run out?
As it relates to the issue of Iran obtaining nuclear weapons, the political options have not run out. This statement is made despite the fact that any hope for a peaceful resolution to this problem seems unlikely. The Iranian President, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, has made a number of negative statements against the United States and Israel in the last five years. His statements reveal a clear, deep hatred against these so-called "Zionist" countries. He has even gone so far as to vow that a new Middle East will arise, one without the presence of Israel. However, his comments seem to be based…… [Read More]
This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)
When you put these different elements together, this…… [Read More]
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]
Apparently, Islamic terrorists are the media marketing executives.
Once more, the tendency is to project American viewpoints and values on to supposed Islamist enemies. The same individuals and groups that are utterly alien to America's most cherished beliefs are also masters of manipulating Americans' views of themselves and of using the media to their own advantage. The idea that Islamist groups might possess some sort of legitimate grievance, or might be railing against actual conditions is dismissed in favor of complex marketing ploys. Terrorism is a product, just like everything else that is promoted on American television and in American newspapers and magazines. The only difference is that the Islamist product is a bad product. Other estern media too have taken up the general theme of Islamic terrorism as but the ultimate expression of Islamic failure to grasp the potentialities of the modern world. As presented in the French Canadian…… [Read More]
In addition, the article suggests that that Barack Obama may be able to step into the role of negotiator, serving as a mediator between the hostile nations.
UL: "Will the elationship Change? Yes it Can" (2009, February 12). etrieved February 12, 2009, from the Economist. Web Site: http://www.economist.com/world/unitedstates/displaystory.cfm?story_id=13110485&CFID=42596228&CFTOKEN=89937080
Summary: This article primarily has to do with the topic of privatization. It deals with an attempt made by a private investment group, Marfin, to purchase the Greek government-owned airline of Olympic. The group wants to invest at least 200 million Euros into the airline, and wants to buy the flying operations, ground handling, and technical base parts of the airline. The airline went up for sale after the government decided to call for private investors.
Definition: In this article, the term negotiation is used as a means by which two parties come to an agreement on the sale of an item,…… [Read More]
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…… [Read More]
Yet it is somewhat biased, due to the author being a strict fundamentalist.
Said, Edward. "The Clash of Definitions." Emran Qureshi & Michael a. Sells, eds. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003, 70-80.
This essay presents a very divergent viewpoint as compared to that of political theorist and practitioner Samuel P. Huntington whose views on the "Clash of Civilizations" is now being questioned and examined with much scrutiny. Along with the other essays, this book provides a wide range of viewpoints from all sectors of sociology, history and the humanities.
Spencer, Robert. Religion of Peace? Why Christianity Is and Islam Isn't. New York: Regnery Publishing, 2007
The main question posed in this book is which is the real "religion of peace," Christianity or Islam. However, after reading this work, it is clear that Spencer is biased toward Christianity, due in part to his…… [Read More]
Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.
he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…… [Read More]
and, outlandish as it may seem to most Americans today, it is possible that... Chomsky's interpretation will be the standard among historians a hundred years from now. (November 20, 2001)
Since the time of its initial, mainly negative reviews, Noam Chomsky's sharply critical appraisal of America's hegemonic military endeavors, in the form of what Chomsky calls terrorism, as much so as similar aggressive acts anywhere else, by anyone else, may have (as a result of the now-protracted Iraq War and its lack of any resolution yet in sight, perhaps come into its own. For example, with no weapons of mass destruction (America's supposed reason for invading Iraq) found in Iraq; combined with the fact of the now hugely unpopular George W. Bush Presidency, based on the war's length and failure; and Bush's stubbornness about withdrawing American troops, Chomsky's major point within 911, that American military might and bullying of others…… [Read More]
In addition, he said there could be protocolsfor intrusive monitoring" (Isaacson 2007).
In the scenario of international pressure coupled with domestic forces that do not favor UN sanctions and economic hardships, some believe that Iran would agree to a plicy that only supports uranium enrichment for civilian energy production. The trouble on the other hand is U.S. stance that doubts that Iran would stick to a civilan program and would not use it for its weapons program. The Iran's stance from its weapons program to civilan prgram could be considered a compromise but how far is U.S. willing to go to accept Iran's situation remains to be seen. U.S. is already entagled in Iraq and pursuing a war in Iran does not seem to be a viable option. Mid term results in U.S. have also caused a blow in the Bush administration's position. The threats of sanctions and diplomatic…… [Read More]
This alliance brought an end to the illusion that the war in the Gulf was for humanitarian purposes and the restoration of democracy, since Assad, who killed 20,000 of his own citizens to quell an uprising in Hama, Syria, was comparatively more dictatorial than Saddam himself."(Fingrut, 1993)
In close connection with the geopolitical positioning of the kingdom of Kuwait and the regional alliances lay Western interests for oil. Head and Tilford noted in this sense that "the United States also feared a reduction in the flow of oil from Kuwait, especially for its Allies in Europe." (Head and Tilford 17) Indeed, it had become common knowledge that the Iraqi leadership had established the new foreign policy guidelines in terms of acquiring and controlling Kuwait's oil reserves. This attitude was determined by the acute economic crisis Saddam had led his country into, after the eight-year war with Iran. Therefore, his extensive…… [Read More]
In this manner, it makes network management and filtering a lot easier. Even though SPF can protect the network infrastructure against certain attacks that are known to exploit the weaknesses that are inherent in the various network level protocols, it can never provide protection at application level. The application defense needs more awareness of the content of the payload.
Circuit Proxy Firewall (CPF)
This type of firewall operates by relying as an relaying agent that exists between the external and internal hosts (Stephen, 2004). The whole idea is to protect the network's internal hosts from direct exposure to the outside environments.
The CPF firewall operates by accepting various requests from the internal hosts for the sake of establishing the connection to the external world. It then destroys the device's initial IP address as well as the header of the network layer.
Disadvantages of CPF
The payload is then encapsulated in…… [Read More]
Osama announced that they have gathered based on the will of God Almighty. Nothing that the countries like America does can stop them from what Al-Qaeda does under the will of Allah (Gunaratna 2003). The countries can do nothing to be safe from the fury of the Muslims. Osama has added that the war was begun by America and now the consequences will be faced by America by losing the war with the permission of Allah. Implementation of divine will seems to be the main rationale of Al-Qaeda. Clearing the west of anti-Islamic ideologies is the main rationale of Jeemah Islamiyah based on which they believe in use of all kinds of terrorist activities to 'correct' the nations.
The recruitment policies of the group are based on the social, cultural and historical context of the new 'terrorist'. A young man who abandons his home has to be recruited…… [Read More]
Peace Possible in the Modern World?
Is peace possible in the world as we know it today? One side of the human brain, if idealistic, might reply: "Certainly peace is possible, even perpetual peace, but it is possible only if visionary, bold and intelligent leadership emerges in key international places." The other side of the brain could well answer like this: "Are you kidding? There are too many terrorists, and too many greedy, power-crazed nationalist leaders pushing and shoving and developing weapons to ever expect a peaceful world." And meanwhile, what did some of the great thinkers and philosophers have to say about the prospects of peace?
THUCYDIDES: Thucydides, in writing about the Peloponnesian War, makes it clear that human nature tends to dictate how history plays itself out, and he does not blame the Gods or other forces for this war. Thucydides, who is a young man, and an…… [Read More]
Neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has a profound appeal only for such displaced Muslim ethnic groups, as is also evidenced in Palestinian radical mobilization in such groups as Hamas.
But for Algerian Muslims living happily in Algiers, in comparison, this is not often the case. In fact, the author points to the behavior of the Algerians during their last election, noting that many nationals were openly calling for greater democratization in the street. They did not see this as incompatible with an Islamic state, necessarily, because they were more secure in their fused national and Islamic identity, and did not need neo-fundamentalist Islam to be the main source of their status and identity. The more secure, nationalistic, and unified the Islamic populace, the less appeal neo-fundamentalism's pan-Islamic ideology has, while "deterritorialism" has produced the transformation of Islamic conservatism into terrorist, radical Islam united across borders, as migrant and alienated Islamic ethnicities strive…… [Read More]
The U.S. role in the current Lebanese crisis is beset with blatant double standards. For example, the Bush administration has accused Syria of being in violation of the UN Resolutions and, therefore, liable for international sanctions, while completely ignoring Israel's disregard of several UN resolutions that called for its withdrawal from Gaza and the est Bank. (Zunes) hile calling for immediate withdrawal of occupation forces from Lebanon, it conveniently forgets the fact that Syria has only 14,000 troops in Lebanon while the U.S. has a 150,000 strong occupation force in Iraq. Israel's invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and its occupation of Southern Lebanon until 2000 with U.S.'s tacit approval are not even mentioned in passing. Moreover, the U.S. democratization rhetoric vis a vis its policy in Lebanon and Syria does not carry much credibility as a number of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East continue to be supported…… [Read More]
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…… [Read More]