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Handel and Bach
The first half of the 18th century was a time of tumultuous change in the musical arts. In the five or so decades that spanned that period, almost everything associated with music changed dramatically. At the start of the 18th century, music was restricted by what was known as "counterpoint," and the laws of counterpoint kept music constricted and tight. But by the second half of the 18th century, music had been liberated by an emphasis on what is known as "harmony." The transition from counterpoint to harmony in the first half of the 18th century was dominated by two strikingly different composers: Fredrik Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach. While each contributed to the overall transition in music, each did so in unique and somewhat different ways. Handel was a traditionalist, and looked to the past for his inspiration, while Bach continually tried to break…
Fuller-Maitland, John Alexander. The Age of Bach and Handel. Oxford: Clarendon Press,
Geck, Martin. Johann Sebastian Bach: Life and Work. New York: Harcourt. 2006.
Hogwood, Christopher. Handel. Bath: Pittman Press. 1984.
On the other extreme, some held up Handel's music, especially his religious English oratorios, as the absolute embodiment of English musical style. As a result, English music and Handel in particular gained a false reputation on the European continent as being overly moral and religious.
This has been a difficult reputation for Handel to shake, even in the 20th and 21st centuries. Because his most significant contribution to the development of Baroque music and Western culture in general was the English oratorio, and because his most famous and crowd-pleasing oratorio by far has always been and remains today the Messiah, Handel is inextricably tied in the modern mind to one musical form and one piece of music in particular. Because of this, he enjoys neither the public acknowledgement that the breadth of his compositional achievement deserves, nor the scholarly interest that has been given more "dynamic" composers like Mozart and…
Bray, Anna Eliza. Handel: His Life, Personal and Professional. London: Ward & Co., 1857.
Buelow, George J. A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, in: Indiana University Press, 2004.
Dean, Winton, and Anthony Hicks. The New Grove Handel. New York: W.W. Norton, 1983.
Hoffman, Miles. The NPR Classical Music Companion. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2005.
" (Hogwood 7) if there is one term that can describe my work it must be "secular," religion was not the source of my art.
Bach: Well, religion is a major theme in my work. It could be because I did not travel as extensively as Mr. Handel and was not exposed to the different types of music, or it could be because I was a truly religious person at heart, but I used my art to celebrate my Christianity. Some say that I anchored my themes in the past, while Handel focused on the future. And while Handel composed for the public, theaters and operas, I composed my work primarily for the Church as a manifestation of spirituality and my devotion to God.
Question 3: What do you think you should be remembered for?
Handel: It would not be correct to say that religion had absolutely no influence on…
Geck, Martin. Johann Sebastian Bach: Life and Work. New York: Harcourt, 2006. Print.
Hogwood, Christopher. Handel. Bath: Pittman Press, 1984. Print.
Nichols, Jeremy. The Great Composers. London: Quercus, 2008. Print.
Handel's Messiah: Hallelujah Chorus
Handel's Messiah was composed in 1741 and was first performed in 1742. Handel's Messiah was composed in the Baroque period.
An oratorio is a religious work that follows a similar structure to that of an opera but was not considered an opera. Whereas operas were written for the common performance, they were not permitted to be performed during the period of Lent. During this time, the church permitted oratorios instead, works that did not use any characters and that focused upon Biblical themes. In this instance, the entire oratorio focuses on Jesus Christ as Messiah.
An aria or da capo aria is a solo portion of an opera intended to show off the virtuoso abilities of the singer. Arias typically follow a specific form. In the Baroque period arias followed an AB or later an ABA structure. Most arias were performed by a solo voice…
English language" by music historian Stanley Sadie, Handel's Messiah continues to receive lavish and popular praise (Barber, 1994, p. 2). The English oratorio remains one of the most recognizable works of music, and earned its composer considerable fame and fortune during his lifetime. Born on the 23rd of February of 1685, Georg Friederich Handel was the son of German barber-doctor Georg, and his second wife, Dorothea. The Handel family resided in Halle, a small Saxony town on a tributary of the Elbe River. However, his musical prowess and sense of purpose drove the composer to travel: in addition to many parts of Germany, Handel also lived in Italy, Ireland, and England. All the places in which he lived offered the composer inspiration for his music. Starting with a humble career as a church organist, Handel eventually tackled the awesome tasks of writing operas, anthems, psalms, arias, cantatas, and his signature…
Barber, D. (1994). Getting a Handel on Messiah. Toronto: Sound and Vision.
Burrows, D. (1997). The Cambridge Companion to Handel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jacobi, P. (1982). The Messiah Book: The Life and Times of G.F. Handel's Greatest Hit. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Keates, J. (1985). Handel: The Man and His Music. London: Victor Gollancz.
Biblical Text In Handel's Messiah
Pastoal Theology (The Bible in the Life of the Chuch)
The context of the wok
On Apil 13th, 1742, Dublin's music hall esounded to an enthusiastic audience's applause. Fo the vey fist time eve, Messiah -- the famous musical oatoio -- had been staged with its compose, Geoge Fideic Handel acting as conducto. Eve since, the musical wok has been pefomed woldwide fom time to time, and has captivated thousands of individuals by its moving solos and majestic chouses. Its music is absolutely thilling, and ises to the pinnacles of pathos and dama, stiing the vey souls of listenes (Mansfield, 2014).
Based on the way one counts and the edition, Geoge Fideic Handel's oatoio is made up of 53 to 56 texts. Twenty-two of these epesent choal aangements. Handel himself states that Chales Jennens ceated the oatoio's text, although one cannot discount the modifications made…
Block, D., 2001. Handel's Messiah: Biblical and Theological Perspectives. Didaskalia Spring. [Online]. [Accessed April 11, 2016]. Available from: http://d3pi8hptl0qhh4.cloudfront.net/documents/icw/messiah.pdf
Davies, A., 2007. Oratorio as Exegesis: The Use of the Book of Isaiah in Handel's Messiah. Biblical Interpretation, 15(4), pp.464-484.
Mansfield H., P., 2014. An Appreciation and Explanation of Handel's Oratorio "Messiah" [Online]. [Accessed April 11, 2016]. Available from: http://www.antipas.org/handel/messiahex.html
Marissen, M., 2007. Rejoicing against Judaism in Handel's Messiah. The Journal of Musicology, 24(2), pp.167-194.
Handel's Messiah was composed in 1741. The musical period is baroque.
An oratorio is a large musical work that includes an orchestra, choir, soloists, and staging. Operas are musical theater and oratorios are exclusively concert or musical only pieces.
An aria is a melody or musical piece that is made exclusively for one voice and there is orchestral accompaniment. Arias are most commonly found in operas.
There is a kind of call and response between the lyrics and the music in Ev'ry Valley. The singer guides the music and the instruments complement and mimic what the singer does with his voice. Handel was probably considering rhythm, structure, and movement when considering the lyrics.
The texture of the refrain of the Hallelujah chorus is strong. The texture is rich and vibrant. The syllables hang in the air, especially the "ha," yet there is a definite swiftness and movement to…
No listed author. (2013). Ludwig van Beethoven. Web, Available from: http://www.lvbeethoven.com/Bio/BiographyLudwig.html . 2013 March 17.
Vickers, D. (2012). George Frideric Handel. Web, Available from: http://gfhandel.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Many renowned military analysts argue that concentration or mass is the most important principle of war. This is primarily because the combat tactic involves the concentration of an extremely huge quantity of military manpower and material as well as the development of military power with complete superiority over the enemy in relation to quantity. This principle of war is regarded as superior to other tactical approaches in battle such as combination of inferior mass with tactical opportunities for victory. Generally, the concentration of soldiers entails the decisive, harmonized use of superior fighting power for victory over an enemy. Given the significance of this principle in war, there are arguments that the U.S. committed a strategic mistake through breaching this principle of war through dividing its forces between Southwest Pacific and Central Pacific battles against Japan between 1943 and 1944. An analysis of the approaches employed by the U.S. Army…
Handel, M.I. (2001). Masters of war: classical strategic thought. London: Cass.
Marston, D. (2005). The pacific war companion. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing.
Millett, A.R. (1996). Assault from the Sea: The Development of Amphibious Warfare between the Wars: The American, British, and Japanese Experiences. In Williamson Murray and Allan R. Millett, eds. Military innovation in the interwar period. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rosen, S.P. (1991). Winning the next war: innovation and the modern military (pp. 130-147).
Suddenly Western Music no longer needed to follow all the old rules. Just as the abstract painters dispensed with the traditional canon of art at just the same time, so also men like Bartok and Stravinsky take a fresh look at what constituted good music.
According to Bartok, the aesthetic success of this new homophonic-polyphonic music would depend upon the "harmonic entity" that results from the rise and fall of the "horizontal line" formed by the many discrete tone patches.... "an architectonic or similar scheme is not absolutely necessary; the construction of the line born out of the different degrees of intensity that are inherent in the tonal succession would be completely satisfactory," and by his likening of such constructions to works written in prose rather than verse (Gillies, 2000, p. 55)
Stravinsky too made his own way in the musical world. Working alongside Diaghilev and his Ballet usses he…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=78927455' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The transportation began as the first notes were played, and throughout the piece the crowd remained entirely enraptured -- and rightfully so. It is by no means an accident that this piece is as respected or as cherished as it is, and the fact that Handel's work had been re-arranged from the original to include a full modern orchestra did not detract from or degrade the original beauty or clarity of the piece in the slightest. Though it would be impossible to compare the original arrangement of the Messiah to the one played in concert that night without hearing them both in the same hall, and with the same basic surrounding of such a rapt and appreciative audience, one might even go so far as to say that the piece is dramatically improved by the larger and fuller sound that the orchestra provides.
The singing was also quite powerful and…
Burrows, D. (1991). Handel, Messiah. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lang, P. (1996). George Frideric Handel. Mineola, NY: Dover.
Luckett, R. (1995). Handel's Messiah: A Celebration. San Diego, CA: Harcourt.
Stapert, C. (2010). Handel's Messiah: Comfort for God's People. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm.
HorribleScreech, this week's hottest band on the planet, recently came to its senses and hired me as its new attorney. The first task after cashing a retainer check for mucho dinero is to free the band from an oppressive "new kid" recording contract between HorribleScreech and Bloodsucker Enterprises. There is nothing on the face of the contract that would free HorribleScreech. At this point, all other legal/business options can be considered.
The contract and all the circumstances around it should be considered first. For example, even though the contract is oppressive and even though some lawsuits take years, there might be some factor that would allow the band out of the contract more easily and quickly. Contract laws differ from state-to-state, so let us assume for this paper that the contract was signed in Los Angeles, California. In California, a contract can be unenforceable or can be rescinded…
Dirks, Tim. AMC: Film History Milestones - 1943. 2011. Web. 2011 30 November.
Edgar, Alexander L. "The Law of Reopening: Revisited." 2011. Justice.gov. Web. 30 November 2011.
Handel On the Law. "Bankruptcy." 2011. Handelonthelaw.com. Web. 30 November 2011.
Legalinfo.cal.gov. "California Codes: Civil Code: Section 1746(a)." 2011. Legalinfo. Web. 30 November 2011.
The question remains as to which rendition is more accurate. Although Bidini's performance of the piece is more melodic and expressive, it is difficult to forget that you are listening to a modern concert grand. Cziffra's performance performed the continuous unifying rhythm that was a signature of Scarlatti's work. Cziffra's attach and approach to stops was much more reminiscent of a harpsichord of one of the early pianos that were available to Scarlatti. It would appear that Cziffra's performance is much more accurate from a historical standpoint, although it may not be as pleasing to the modern ear.
Cziffra's conservative approach to interpretation provides a timeless walk into history. hereas Bidini's approach may be more appealing to the modern ear, it lacks the timelessness of Cziffra's rendition. hen one considers the importance of Scarlatti's work as a defining force of baroque music, it is important to preserve the historical context…
Kennedy, M. And Courne, J. Domenica Scarlatti. Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music, 4th Edition, Oxford University Press. 1996. http://www.classicalarchives.com/bios/codm/scarlatti.html . Accessed May 18, 2008.
Koster, J. Towards an optimal instrument: Domenico Scarlatti and the new wave of Iberian harpsichord making. Early Music. Vol. 35, Num. 4, November 2007, pp. 575-603.
Wolfe, W. A Masterclass with John Williams at the University of Arizona. October 30, 2002. http://www.guitarramagazine.com/WilliamsMasterClass Accessed May 18, 2008.
The geniuses strained the boundaries of the characteristic styles more evidently and more quickly than those of their contemporaries to bring about such seismic changes.
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Ludwig van Beethoven." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 2007. 23 Apr 2008. http://plus.aol.com/aol/reference/Beethove/Ludwig_van_Beethoven?flv=1&ncid=fLHHQXUNeT0000000474&icid=rbox_ref_center.M
Posner, Howard. "hat is basso continuo?" Early Music FAQ. 1994. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/continuo.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Baroque." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt Boynick. 1 Feb 1996. Revised 10 Oct 2000. 23 Apr 2008. http://w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de/cmp/g_epoch_baroque.html
Sadie, Stanley. "Classical." The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music. New York: .. Norton, 1994. Excerpted at Classical Music Pages Homepage. Created by Matt…
Baroque: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Style." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Baroque: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Classical: Musical Context." The Essentials of Music. 23 Apr 2008. http://www.essentialsofmusic.com/
Le Grand Hautbois
During the reign of Louis XIII and especially Louis XIV, the courts were alive with new Baroque music and instruments. Many new wind instruments were being created with a variety of innovations and some other instruments were being newly invented. It was a time of experimentation, as these just introduced instruments had to be tried out for their range, sound and quality. Louis XIV from his childhood on throughout his life was always surrounded by music. He and musicians such as Lully would create ballets and compositions (Palisca 1968). During this time, King Louis XIV also revived and updated Le Grand Hautbois with the new instruments. Although little is written about Le Grand Hautbois, with Whitwell the compiler of the information that is available from writers during that period, this does not negate the importance of this twelve-player band to the French royal court and other European…
Anthony, James. French Baroque Music. New York: W.W. Norton, 1974
Bernard, Leon. The Emerging City: Paris in the Age of Louis XIV. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1970
Blunt, Anthony Art and Architecture in France 1500 to 1700. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980
Buelow, George. History of baroque music. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2004
Nursing Proposal -- Evidence-Based
The utilization of call lights particularly in hospital settings has recently been put under study as a function of various aspects of nursing including shortages, rounds and analyses of patient outcomes. The proper scheduling of nursing rounds may be essential to enhance the capability of nurses to tackle common or ordinary patient issues relative to more dire needs that have to be regarded as the primary/main target for the use of call lights by patients. Besides patients' general well-being and safety while hospitalized, nursing employees are also concerned with how satisfied the patients are. On a rather fundamental level, hospital settings that enable patients to experience peace of mind allow them to heal quicker than those that do not; these patients are highly likely to relay less stressful communications to those around them, and have a higher possibility of clearer perspectives that allow them to distinguish…
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2006). Assuring patient safety: The employer's role in promoting healthy nursing work hours for registered nurses in all roles and settings. Retrieved from http://nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ThePracticeofNursing/workplaceNurse
(AACN). The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (2001, March 3). Mandatory Overtime. Retrieved from http://www.aacn.org/WD/Practice/Content/PublicPolicy/mandatoryovertime.pcms?menu=Practie
Bae, S. (2010).Mandatory overtime regulations and nurse overtime. Policy, Politics, & Nursing Practice, 11(2), 99-107.
Bae, S-H. (2013). Presence of nurse mandatory overtime regulations and nurse and patient outcomes. Nursing Economics, 31(2), 59-68. Retrieved from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806796
It can be described as the use of wireless devices and the term we know as "black box" to transmit data to any organization. There are several uses of this technology: organizations can learn all the information about automobiles, their vehicle use, maintenance requirements or servicing. With the help of GPS technology installed in the black box of these automobiles, telematics can be used to obtain information regarding air bag deployment, accidents and vehicle theft and thus, vehicles can be located. This technology can also serve as the platform for all sorts of insurance for all sorts of modes of transport (fleet, company cars etc.) (Handel et al., 2014; Gartner, n.d.)
How it Works
It is, in short, a way of obtaining almost all functional information a certain vehicle. With the help of the black box, which is barely the size of a smartphone, and the GPS technology…
Gartner, (n, d). IT Glossary: Telematics. Retrieved from http://www.gartner.com/it-glossary/telematics / on 13 May 2016
Griffith, D. (2016). Benefits of Telematics to Law Enforcement. Government Fleet -- WebXclusive. Retrieved from http://www.government-fleet.com/article/story/2016/03/the-benefits-of-telematics.aspx on 13 May 2016
Handel, P., Skog, I., Wahlstrom, J., Bonawiede, F., Welch, R., Ohlsson, J. & Ohlsson, M. (2014). Insurance Telematics: Opportunities and Challenges with the Smartphone Solution, Intelligent Transportation Systems Magazine, IEEE, vol.6, no.4
Echo finally died of old age, and the raw emotion from the park rangers and zoologists just brought tears. Similarly, he thinks that now that he is older he can sift through the "B.S. In advertising and media hype," and enjoys such cynical, but rather realistic, portrays of modern society in Mad Men, Weeds, and Breaking Bad.
As far as personality development, Tom believes that children get a pretty good grounding from their parents and early school experiences. Concepts like empathy, morality, situational ethics, and reliability are built when one is young. However, that being said, Tom does not see himself as a rule follower like his parents. Both believed that if something said x in the rules, then x it was. They both also believed that a person should get a job and stay with that job until retirement. Tom has already had two careers, and estimates he will…
"41 Questions -- 1 Personality." (2010). 41q.com Cited in:
Capraro, RAM 2002, 'Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator Score Reliability', Educational
And Pyschological Measurement, vol 62, no. 3, pp. 560-302.
Dvorak occasionally said he simply wished to convey the elemental feelings ordinary people for their native art and resented his musical project being used to serve politics: "But what have we two to do with politics? Let us be glad that we are privileged to serve our beautiful art alone" (Hollander 317).
Dvorak vacillated between the importance of politics in the context of art. At the time of the composition of Symphony No.5 in F Major, Op.76. "the composer was faced at that time with the tempting prospect of writing German operas for Dresden and Vienna -- offers that caused him serious misgivings, because if he responded he feared he would be betraying the Czech national cause" (Clapham 1961, p.105). But eventually he returned to the nationalist source of his original inspiration: "The main theme of the symphony was inspired by witnessing the arrival in Prague of an express train…
Clapham, John. "Dvorak and the American Indian." The Musical Times, 107. 1484 (Oct., 1966),
863-867. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/953317 Accessed: November 28, 2009
Clapham, John. "Dvorak's Symphony: The Creative Process." Music & Letters, 42. 2
(Apr., 1961), 103-116. Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/731518
A certain feeling toward propriety and morality is stamped upon our sex, which does not allow us to appear alone in public, nor without an escort. Thus how can I present my musical work, to the public with anything other than timidity. The work of any lady…can indeed arouse a degree of pity in the eyes of some experts." (owers and Tick, 1987)
owers and Tick state that many composers of this time "Reichardt, Hensel, and Schumann -- published lieder under male authorship. A few of Reichardt's early songs were included in a collection of her father's lieder, 'Duetsche Lieder' and three of Hensel's early songs "appear in each of Felix's Opus 8 and Opus 9; the 'Allegemeine musikalische Zeitung' claimed that 'An des lust'gen runnenes Rand' a duet composed by Fanny, is the best song in the collection" of Opus 8. Additionally three of Schumann's lieder were "included in…
Backer, Eric and Kranenburg, Peter van (2004) on Musical Stylometry- a Pattern Recognition Approach. Science Direct 2004 Elsevier.
Bowers, Jane M. And Tick, Judith (1987) Women Making Music: The Western Art Tradition, 1150-1059. University of Illinois Press, 1987.
Haynes, Bruce (2007) the End of Early Music. Oxford University Press. U.S., 2007.
Kranenburg, Peter van (2006) Composer Attribution by Quantifying Compositional Strategies. University of Victoria 2006.
Perhaps they're put off by the cracked floor tiles or the cobwebs on the headless, foam-rubber mannequins. Whatever the reason, the store's rock-bottom prices and helpful service clearly aren't pulling in many shoppers" (Fairlamb and Cohn, 2003).
After nearly a decade of trying to penetrate the German market, Wal-Mart counted its losses and exited Germany. A Wal-Mart spokesman argued that, despite the million dollar losses, the experience was a positive one as it represented a turning point and a lesson for the future. The lesson was that in spite of its national success, Wal-Mart is vulnerable in the international context (Lander and Barbaro, 2006). Similar situations are also encountered in Asia, and the question that is being posed here refers to the future strategies Wal-Mart could implement in order to reduce its vulnerability and increase its position in the global context.
Two recommendations are of vital importance when…
Fairlamb, D., Cohn, L., October 6, 2003, a Bumpy Ride in Europe, Business Week
Featherstone, L., December 16, 2002, Wal-Mart Values: Selling Women Short, the Nation, Vol. 275
Featherstone, L., June 28, 2004, Rollback Wages! Will Labor Take the Wal-Mart Challenge? The Nation, Vol. 278
Greenwald, R., (Director), 2005, Wal-Mart: The High Cost of Low Price
He is faster in every movement than any other of the above mentioned conductors and yet he scarcely sounds rushed" (Laurson 2008).
Even without an extensive knowledge of the history of Brahms symphonic compositions, the modern, 21th century nature of the Janowski approach becomes clear when comparing it to an older recording, that of Leonard Bernstein's. Bernstein's is slower, more ponderous, especially at the beginning, although it should be noted that the Bernstein sounds less like a Beethoven work than the Janowski. It sounds more like a unique, albeit slower-paced composer, more distinctly like Brahms although for some that might not be a 'good thing.' Difficult to love, personally and musically, the fact that Brahms can be an 'acquired taste' and his acceptance may vary with conductor's intentions does not reduce his important contributions in musical variation and creating a fusion between the Classical and Romantic genres of music.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphony No.1" Pittsburgh Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Marek
Janowski. Pentatone 2007.
Brahms, Johannes. "Symphonies." Conducted by Leonard Bernstein. Vienna Philharmonic.
Deutsche Gramophone. 2007.
This style is best represented by composer Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525 to 1594) and was written primarily for a cappella choirs without instrumentation and was always sung in Latin, the official language of the Roman Catholic Church (Robertson, "Music Through the Centuries," Internet).
During the Reformation, sacred music became very closely linked to the congregational singing of psalms and hymns in Calvinist and Lutheran churches as a way of "collectively affirming church doctrine and experience which was later adopted by Roman Catholicism" and then in the successive Evangelical revivals, such as with Methodism and Wesleyanism (Predmore, 267). At the same time, traditional polyphonic settings and themes related to the Mass and other liturgical texts was greatly extended and developed and reached its conclusion during the aroque Period with the great Passions, motets and cantatas of Johann Sebastian ach (1685 to 1750). With the refinement of the church pipe organ…
Blackwell, Albert L. The Sacred in Music. UK: Westminster John Knox Press, 2000.
Gregorian Sacred and Ritual Music." 1998. Internet. Retrieved May 21, 2008 at http://www.angelfire.com/ga/Georgian/music2.html .
Predmore, George V. Sacred Music in the Catholic Church. New York: Kessinger Publishing Company, 2003.
Robertson, Donald. "Music Through the Centuries: Part 2 -- the Sixteenth Century." The Text Library. 2005. Internet. Retrieved May 21, 2008 at http://www.dovesong.com / positive_music/archives/renaissance/about_renaissance.asp.
Although Carey's journal reportedly ends prematurely, he continued to write letters for the next thirty years.
Carey understood the value in/of education, medicine, and other works. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches."
For his mission to succeed, hile it simultaneously retained its core, Carey purported, it had to not only fill the eternal needs of people missionaries shared the gospel with, but also their day-to-day needs.
During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages.
Dorothy Plackett Carey (1755?-1807): Married illiam Carey in 1781. She was 25 and he was 19. Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests. She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104231781
Balmer, Randall. Encyclopedia of Evangelicalism. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2004. Book online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=104231922.Internet' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
It is interesting thus that many of the symbols that usually have a positive meaning in the literary tradition, such as the starts which are shining brightly in the sky or Margaret's golden hair which makes her resemble an angelic figure, have negative connotations in the poem through the reversals that Celan proposes. Also, the blue eyes of the German master and the fact that he writes love letters to Germany might beguile the reader for a moment and make him or her believe that these are the symbols of purity and innocence in the text. Both the commander and Margaret symbolize the Arian race which was considered by Hitler as absolutely faultless. The fact that Margaret is corrupted and destroyed by evil in Faust is a hint at the way in which the Nazi regime turned the qualities of the Arian race into an instrument of evil. Sulamith, by…
Celan, Paul. Todesfuge. http://www.celan-projekt.de/
Goethe, Wolfgang. Faust. Ditzingen: Reclam, 2001
Heine, Heinrich. Das Skalvenschiff. http://www.martinschlu.de/literatur/gedichte/heinesklavenschiff.htm
Die Luther Bibel.
This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.
Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.
The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…
Banner, David. "The History of Boston, Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.searchboston.com/history.html
Boston: History." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-History.html
Massachusetts Tourist Information. "Boston Area Information." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.masstourist.com/boston.htm
Wikipedia, "Boston Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston,_Massachusetts
Beethoven uses choral voices in his 9th Symphony to produce a sound that no man-made instrument could produce. Beethoven is attempting to achieve the highest and most joyful sound in the final movement of the symphony and so therefore uses human voices to compel the listener to the rapturous heights that he wants them to witness.
or what might look at the importance of tone and key. n the 20th century, composers like Schoenberg wrote atonal music that made music sound fractured and splintered and, in a word, off. This effect allowed Schoenberg to artistically represent a world around him that seemed to be going off its head -- with war, loss of conviction, and devaluation. There seemed to be no real key to happiness, and so the earlier keys that were used by Bach are rejected here by Schoenberg.
6) Using the illustrations found throughout chapter five, name the…
It is likely that the people of Japan continue to perform and listen to their own folk tunes even today because their culture is more tied to their past than ours. America's history is relatively brief, and its inhabitants come from all over the world. America has been likened to a melting pot of cultures; therefore it is not surprising to find that it has no real connection to a folk music tradition.
Japan on the other hand has existed for many centuries and its people are rooted in their heritage. Their culture is part of their lives and defines who they are and how they live: their folk music is an expression of their past, which they continually look back upon and reflect upon. They have also been more isolated from the West: it is only relatively recently that Japanese society has begun to reflect the social conditions of the Western world. It has made the attempt to become industrialized and be a viable element in the world's economy. It manufactures a great deal of the West's goods. But still it knows its heritage, and Japanese people know that while they seemingly work for the West, they are not of the West. Their folk music tells them this.
American culture tends to look only toward the future: it rotates its Top 40 continuously and calls music "classic" that came out thirty years ago. It does not know its ancestry and were it told to it, it would likely balk at the revelation. Americans do not like to consider the culture from which they came: they are not supposed to think of culture. They are like the people in Orwell's 1984 -- controlled, manipulated, and coddled. History is re-written by those in power, and those in power do not want the citizens thinking for themselves. To do so might cause dissonance.
Mozart v. Schubert
Two of the best-known composers of all time, olfgang Amadeus Mozart and Franz Peter Schubert, shared much in common in terms of their upbringing. Both from present-day Austria, Mozart and Schubert grew up in musical families, with fathers that fostered their innate talents. Although Mozart is more famous for his being a child prodigy, Schubert also showed an early predilection for musical genius even if he wasn't writing symphonies by the time he was five years old as Mozart did. Mozart did have more access to quality schooling and training throughout his formative years than Schubert did, although the latter eventually gained entry into the Convict, one of the most notable music academies at the time. At the Convict, Schubert studied under Mozart's supposed nemesis, Antonio Salieri. However, Schubert was born six years after Mozart died, and also looked up to his predecessor as much as he…
'Franz Schubert." Wikipedia. Online at .
"Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart." Wikipedia. Online at .
renaissance -- Baroque Music
RENAISSANCE & BAROQUE MUSIC:
The music associated with the Renaissance Period, beginning circa 1450 and ending about 1600, brought about a number of significant changes as compared to its predecessor, being the Medieval Period. Musically, the Renaissance Period introduced the use of polyphony and saw the rise of the cantus firmus mass as Europe's first major musical form; in addition, there was an emergence of national schools of composition, a birth of new secular forms, the beginning of truly instrumental music and a series of inter-related developments, such as the use of monody and the bass continuo.
With polyphony, all of the musical parts are considered to be of equal importance and when combined produce not only an independent horizontal movement but also a vertical, being a combination of chords. The composers of the "ars nova," such as Guillaume de Machaut, created music of…
Jung and auditory hallucinations
Meyer (2003), in a discussion of Jungian symbolism in the movie, Spider-Man, notes that both masks and voices are essential to the movement of heroic characters through the plotline. Meyer is not, however, a psychologist, nor even an anthropologist; rather, she is a write about communications. Still, her work on Spider-Man tied several of the movie's themes to Jungian thought.
Halifax's work goes farther in bringing Jungian thought into the mainstream of psychological study. His work with shamans and shamanic ritual, important subjects to Jungians, posited aspects of schizophrenia in the initiatory journey of the shaman. Halifax cited Julian Silverman's conclusions in which schizophrenia was characterized as a disorder in which the "individual withdraws form society and the outer world and becomes preoccupied by internal processes with a resulting disintegration of the personality. The symptoms, broadly described, include autism and unreal ideation, disturbed perception and thinking,…
Ardery, Philip. "Ramifications of Julian Jaynes's Theory of Consciousness for Traditional General Semantics." ETC.: A Review of General Semantics 61, no. 1 (2004): 83+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/ . Internet. Accessed 21 July 2005.
Bemak, Fred, and Lawrence R. Epp. "Transcending the Mind-Body Dichotomy: Schizophrenia Reexamined." Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development 41, no. 1 (2002): 14+. Database online. Available from Questia,
ichter and Gardiner in Bach's Canata ecordings
The Baroque was a style expressed in art, music, architecture and even literature from the Age of Discovery in the 16th century until the early 18th century. Most describe it as more dramatic, florid, embellished and a move away from the total religiosity of the Middle Ages and into a more secular and emotional, time frame. However, the spread of the Baroque in music, art and architecture was certainly tied to the spread of Catholicism and how art was used in the Church to help express emotion and tell the Biblical stories through painting or music for those not literate. Later in the era, the idea of music and art being reflective of religiosity became even more important with the split between Catholics and Protestants. Just like the philosophical materials that arose, the Baroque in music tending to use the past as a…
Cantata BWV4. (2008). Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved from: http://www.bach-
Buelow, G., ed. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana
Martin Luther's involvement in sixteenth century's Christian controversy brought forward the Protestant Reformation. His teachings generated a new Christian branch that has come to be one of the ideology's most important beliefs. In comparison to Catholic law, Lutheranism promotes the idea that the church is not necessarily one of the most important institutions making it possible for people to connect with God. Moreover, the ideology encourages individuals to focus on developing a more personal relationship with God, as this respective connection can apparently be even stronger as long as the person is determined and as long as he or she concentrates on faith.
I chose to speak about Lutheranism because this branch of Christianity attempts to have people use both rationality and morality in trying to interpret religious passages. By refraining from putting across subjective ideas, Lutheranism serves a greater good and is actually intended to provide assistance for…
Bishop, Paul A., "Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation," Retrieved April 17, 2013, from the Hillsborough Community College Website: http://www.hccfl.edu/media/173616/ee2luther.pdf
Gritsch, Eric W., "Fortress Introduction to Lutheranism," (Fortress Press, 1994)
Handerl, Gerald, "Social welfare in western society," (Transaction Publishers, 2009)
Kersten, Lawrence K., "The Lutheran Ethic: The Impact of Religion on Laymen and Clergy," (Wayne State University Press, 1970)
collective ideals, religion is reinforced through ceremonies and rituals," (Calhoun, et al., 2012, p. 199). One of the most important ceremonies that reinforces cultural norms and institutions is the wedding ceremony. I had the opportunity to attend a wedding at a church recently, providing an opportunity to analyze Durkheim's sociological theories and apply them to daily life. I selected this ritual because I do not attend many other rituals that have a religious context like this one, and because I have attended two other weddings and none of the three were from the same religious tradition. Therefore, my observations highlight some of Durkheim's core theories about the ways social bonds are reinforced through ritual, regardless of the technical manifestations of those rituals. My observations also show how even in modern, secular societies, the concept of the "sacred" remains salient for individuals and their communities.
The wedding I attended took place…
Calhoun, C. et al. (2012). Classical Sociological Theory. 3rd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.
Greenwald, D.E. (1973). Durkheim on society, thought, and ritual. Sociological Analysis 34(3): 157-168.
Lynch, G. (2012). Emile Durkheim: religion, the very idea. The Guardian. Dec 24, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2012/dec/24/emile-durkheim-religion-ritual-ancient-modern
isks and Benefits of Enterprises
Creating a culture of innovation
Innovation in emerging Countries
Government's involvement in innovation
2008 Hot Trends
Value of Video
isks and Benefits of Enterprises
Categorize some of the risks and benefits for each:
small medium enterprises
One of the prime advantages of small and medium enterprises is that it caters to small markets and thus is able to improvise and know exactly the requirements and demands of the customers. His gives them expertise and makes most of them specialists.
Another advantage of a small and medium enterprise is that being small, such firms are able to adjust quickly to changes in the market place. There is very little red tapism and hierarchies are not present this enhances the decision making process. This form of enterprises also allows for job flexibilities for employees as they do not have roles that are cast-in-stone (Kuratko &…
Handel, M. (2003). The sociology of organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Horibe, F. (2001). Creating the innovation culture. Toronto: J. Wiley & Sons.
Kuratko, D. (2013). Introduction to entrepreneurship. [Australia]: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Kuratko, D., & Hodgetts, R. (2004). Entrepreneurship. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Concepts of Altered Health in Older Adults
What physiological factors would typically increase Joseph’s risk of falling while walking outdoors?
Considering Joseph's age, he is likely to suffer from fatigue when walking outdoors and this might increase his likelihood of falling. Walking is considered to be a tiring exercise and Joseph walks for a long period. This increases his chances of getting tired and with tiredness, fatigue will check in. Fatigue results in Joseph's reaction and they might not be able to respond appropriately. A person is most likely to lose balance control when they are tired and this increases for persons who are elderly (Morrison et al., 2016). Therefore, as Joseph walks for long distances when his body is getting fatigued, he might lose balance and this might result in him falling. The mechanisms that are related to balance control are impacted, which increases their risk of falling. It…
From the research I know he was a ladies man. In Joan Peyser's book (The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin) it is 1927 and Gershwin is discovered in bed with one of the attractive women from a show he and Harry Richman were working on. Caught with his shirt and pants still in his hand, Gershwin offered: "Mr. Richman, what can I say to you? I'm waiting for a streetcar?" (Peyser, 2007, p. 136).
Question #3: Music is far, far more than entertainment. A soft playing of Pieces (8) for Piano, Opus 76, by Johannes Brahms is the healing salve that helps a widow relate to the passing of her 88-year-old husband of 58 years. The Piano Sonata in E Minor D. 566 by Franz Schubert is the ideal theme to be played respectfully in the background as a new artist shows her latest abstract art…
Butterton, Mary. (2004). Music and Meaning: Opening Minds in the Caring and Healing
Professions. Oxon, UK: Radcliffe Publishing.
Peyser, Joan. (2007). The Memory of All That: The Life of George Gershwin. Milwaukee, WI:
Hal Leonard Corporation.
classroom instruction and are these ideas/strategies feasible for a particular classroom, can they be adapted, alter, or incorporated to benefit students with disabilities?
A Critique of the Journal Article 'Cultural Models of Transition: Latina Mothers of Young Adults with Developmental Disabilities' and Implications for Classroom Instruction
The journal article Cultural models of transition: Latina mothers of young adults with developmental disabilities was a qualitative examination of attitudes of Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities, toward approaches to the transitions of those young adults from school-age activities to more independent living. According to the authors: "Sixteen Latina mothers of young adults with disabilities participated in the study, recruited from an agency
serving low-income, predominantly Spanish-speaking communities" (Rueda,
Monzo, Shapiro, Gomez, & Blacher, Summer 2005). The qualitative study emphasized five themes: life skills and social adaptation; importance of family and home vs. individualism and independence; mothers' roles and decision-making expertise; information…