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Hate Crimes Essays (Examples)

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Labeling Theory and the Problem of Defining Hate Crime
Words: 1370 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89837563
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My Views on Hate Crimes
Although hate crime is often associated with some sort of violent crime motivated by a desire to hurt a group or person based on that group or person’s identity, Green, McFalls and Smith (2001) admit that hate crime is actually difficult “to define, measure and explain” (p. 479). The reason for the difficulty is that hate, in the obvious sense of a person persecuting another because the other person is different, is not always so explicitly manifested or expressed in the crime. In fact, it could be said that at some level hate is the motive behind all crime—hate for the state, hate for society, hate for the law, hate for one’s neighbor, hate for God, or even hate for one’s self. To make it even more complicated, Chakraborti and Garland (2009) argue that “hate crimes are not crimes in which the offender simply hates the victim, and in…

References
Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J. (2009). Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses. Sage Publications.
Green, D. P., McFalls, L. H., & Smith, J. K. (2001). Hate crime: An emergent research agenda. Annual review of sociology, 27(1), 479-504.
Spruill, L. (2020). Warren family returns home few months after hate crime incident. Retrieved from  https://www.clickondetroit.com/news/local/2020/11/27/warren-family-returns-home-few-months-after-hate-crime-incident/ 

Crime-Native Americans Crime Issues for
Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19623737
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By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).

In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).

Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…

Works Cited

Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at  http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp 

Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.

Retrieved October 20, 2005 at  http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp 

Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at  http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209

Crime and Deviance Crimes and Increasing Criminal
Words: 3462 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10446452
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Crime and Deviance

Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.

Theories of Crime and Deviance

Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…

References

Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved

 http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/20/arts/genetics-and-crime-at-institute-of-justice-conference.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0 

Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/ 

Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from:  http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm

Hate Groups
Words: 529 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44633389
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Global Communication

Hate Groups, Hate Crimes, and acism in the U.S. today

The problem of hate groups that perpetuate the hate crimes has been a challenge in the U.S. not only in the present times, but has existed from the times of the WWI with groups like the Ku Klux Klan emerged (FBI, 2014). Since the 1980s, there have been several hate groups that have emerged which have perpetuated heinous have crimes that mostly border on the race specific targets, as is the case with skinheads and the likes. As the world changes and the technology takes over the communication and information platforms, the hate crimes have been escalated to the internet with groups having inclination towards racism using the social media and internet to carry on their hate speeches and even organize hate crimes. The ever changing nature of such groups and the adverse effects that such groups forms…

References

FBI, (2014). Hate Crimes Add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to Our Communities. Retrieved February 16, 2015 from  http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes

Looking at Hate Crime and Moral Panic Today
Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70568814
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moral panic, especially with regard to those who are transgender in the society.

The Moral Panic of Transgender

The Grassroots Model describes moral panic as that which arises from a society's spontaneous reaction to what the society perceived to be morally deviant behavior. The deviance is perceived to be a danger to the society's moral fiber and this creates a lot of stress, which can lead to anger. This stress may not have an avenue to be expressed directly (Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs, n.d.). When the displacement of these anxieties happens, there may be direction of the same to the social deviants as they are regarded as the cause of all this. Kai Erickson, in her book 'the Wayward Puritans', demonstrates this when she relates how the people of Massachusetts Bay Colony went back to witch-hunting as a way to direct the anxiety that arose from social deviance.

The transgender…

References

Abowd-Chicago, M. (2013, November 5). Futurity: Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from  http://www.futurity.org/transgender-news-can-spark-gender-panic/ 

Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs Document (n. d.)

U.S. PDF Document (n. d.).

Crime the Purpose of This
Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71668087
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Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…

References

Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from  http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology

Measuring Gang-Related Crime Is an
Words: 5110 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 6186798
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The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.

Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…

References

Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved:  http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf 

Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:

 http://articles.latimes.com/2013/apr/18/local/la-me-ln-feuer-guns-20130418

1990 United States Government Passed the Hate
Words: 1451 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34525043
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1990, United States government passed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This mandated that state, local and federal law enforcement agencies report data on crimes that reflected a bias against a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or ethnicity/national origin. Several years later, people with disabilities were added to this list. Data collection was placed under the auger of the FBI, which complied by publishing an annual report through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. This program started to publish a review of national hate crimes in 1990 entitled Hate Crime Statistics, 1990: A Resource Book. By 1992, the publication reflected the reported data of all states. Because certain states, such as Wisconsin, penalize perpetrators more for the same crime if the motivation for that crime is thought to be categorical hatred, statistics reflect the opinions of law enforcement agencies.

Because of this wealth of new data, in addition to the data…

Victimization Theories of Crime Victimization Theories of
Words: 838 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51701514
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victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.

Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.

Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…

References

Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245

Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951

Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).

Rising U S Crime Rate Crime in the
Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 59061437
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ising U.S. Crime ate

Crime in the United States

Crime in the United States took a sharp uptick starting in the middle of the 20th century but has actually leveled off since then, at least for the most part. However, even with the moderation in crime, especially in larger cities that have traditionally been problematic, crime in some cities is still alarmingly high and there are some cultural and social trends that are becoming more and more prevalent and, by extension, more commonly talked about as well. This essay will explore a couple of the more notorious examples of this in motion.

Crime Falling

One study conducted for this research noted that predicting the crime rate at any given point in time can be exceedingly maddening to predict because of how a single happenstance or course of events can have a massive effect on the overall rates. The study uses…

References

Burdett, K., Lagos, R., & Wright, R. (2003). Crime, Inequality, and Unemployment.

American Economic Review, 93(5), 1764-1777.

Carrington, K. (2006). Does Feminism Spoil Girls? Explanations for Official Rises in Female Delinquency. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Criminology

(Australian Academic Press), 39(1), 34-53.

Criminal Justice Bias Crime Several
Words: 746 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75476317
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5. Police and department decisions play a major role in the reliability and validity of hate crime data because they are the ones who classify and define hate crimes, and then send the data to the UCR. If a police department has very vague or confusing classifications and definitions, they may not report all hate crimes, or even recognize certain crimes as hate crimes. In that case, the crimes are underreported or even ignored, and the department is responsible for this. In addition, departments may fear their own self-preservation if they report too many hate crimes, so, they underreport them to "preserve" the department. For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. In addition, often violence…

Assault and Battery the Crime
Words: 1697 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7005824
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According to case law, "an infamous crime against nature" is sodomy (Yoshino, 2002). We can see here, again, a modern shift from common law with the inclusion of sodomy as a possible element of felony assault. Over the course of time, Idaho lawmakers clearly saw a need to include such a "crime" within their definitions.

While it is obvious that Idaho case law has changed over time with society with such inclusions as abortion, the death or injury of a fetus, and sodomy, it is equally clear more alterations are needed. The addition of the element of "ability" in the definition of assault (IC 18-901) may need clarification. While the addition is needed to create distinction between assault and threats, the term alone is subjective. This creates ambiguity within the definition, creating the possibility of incorrect application of the law.

Another alteration may need to be a further defining of…

References

American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Idaho Statutes, chapter 18, 18-901-18-910.

Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K. (2001). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kirland v. State, 43 Ind. 146, 154, 1873.

a discussion about hate groups in america
Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 80904716
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Discovery

Because of its cosmopolitan sensibilities, many of us forget that New York City also harbors hate groups. Yet according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's "hate map," 44 groups from the KKK to jihadist groups operate in the city. Some of these groups are overtly hate-filled, like the KKK, but others operate more covertly, like Castle Hill Publishers, whose leader has been an avowed holocaust denier. Because some of these groups were previously unknown to me, I decided to focus on one that might have gone unrecognized for what it is: the Alamo Christian Foundation. Typically a Christian organization should not be a hate group but the Southern Poverty Law Center shows how and why the Alamo Christian Foundation preaches "general hate."

Description

The Alamo Christian Foundation (Tony Alamo Christian Ministries) appears to have a platform that includes conspiracy theories of all types, related to UFOs and government infiltration…

References

Alamo Christian Foundation website:  http://www.alamoministries.com/content/english/ 

Southern Poverty Law Center. Hate Map:  https://www.splcenter.org/hate-map

Alcohol Use and Sex Crimes
Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81816996
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Social science researchers can use either qualitative or quantitative strategies to develop informed and timely answers to their research questions, but these two approaches involve analyzing fundamentally different data sets. On the one hand, qualitative researchers can use various methods such as case studies, ethnographic studies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory, narrative and/or content analyses (Neuman, 2009). On the other hand, social science researchers can use quantitative strategies such as observational studies, correlational research, experimental, quasi-experimental and survey designs (Neuman, 2009). While both qualitative and quantitative research questions seek to gain new insights into a given phenomenon, there are also basic differences between the types of data that are used.

By definition, quantitative research involves the analysis of numeric data in some form while qualitative research uses words, graphics and other data to formulate answers to guiding research questions (Neuman, 2009). These differences mean that designing a research question from a…

Crime Reporting Bias
Words: 514 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92078282
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Media Bias in Crime eporting

In what ways do the media construct crime images?

In general, the media have tremendous power to influence public thought and opinion, such as by the choice of stories to report as well as by the specific manner in which they describe offenders, victims, and circumstances. When it comes to crime, the media construct images in various realms, including the relative frequency (and risk) of certain types of crimes and the public expectation about what groups of people are more likely to be offenders or victims of those crimes. For example, by choosing to report crimes featuring a white victim and a black offender, the media can portray one race as being composed of more offenders than the other and one race as being composed of more victims than the other. Similarly, by choosing to report more on particularly gruesome crimes, the media can establish…

References

Tate, K. (2014). Illegal Immigrants Would Get Voting Rights, Medicaid, Licenses under

New NY Bill. Breitbart.com. Retrieved online:

 http://www.breitbart.com/Breitbart-Texas/2014/06/16/Illegal-Immigrants-Would-Get-Voting-Rights-Medicaid-Licenses-Under-New-Bill 

Wilkes, D.E. (2007). Unforgivable Racism: Black Men, Criminal Justice. Res Ipsa (Spring Finals Edition) University of Georgia School of Law. Retrieved online: http://www.law.uga.edu/dwilkes_more/57racism.html

Hate Goes Pop MTV Launched
Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69880839
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We need to stop accepting such values and themes in music in the name of freedom of speech and expression because freedom is not meant to rob another person of his rights to live peacefully and securely. If my freedom hurts the rights of someone else, it means there is something wrong with the freedom granted to me. Similarly if a person encroaches upon the rights and happiness of another person and then justifies it with freedom of speech, such a person needs to seriously reflect upon his definition of freedom.

It would be wrong to assume that people are so influenced by such lyrics that they would go around killing other people and adopt anti-social behavior but they would certainly be at risk of developing such an attitude which could prove detrimental in the long run. Secondly we must understand that artists have wider acceptance and impact among impressionable…

Crime in America - The Racial and Class Implications
Words: 4614 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 31983701
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Race, Class & Crime

The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…

What Can We Do to Reduce Hate and Violence in Ourselves and Our Society
Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30410340
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Hate and Violence

Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.

In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…

Works Cited

Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.

QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004.  http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html 

Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.

Demographic Differences and Crime
Words: 1477 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44380326
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Crimes: Attitudes and Perceptions

This study was intended to provide insights into the attitudes and perceptions about crime in the local area. The study focused on the 18 to 25-year-old age group as compared to a 50 to 75-year-old age group. There were ten surveys completed as a representative sample of the local population. The hypothesis was that the older demographic would perceive more crime than the younger generation. The fear of crime has received a considerable amount of attention from the media and researchers alike because it can undermine the quality of life for the individuals that are fearful. Overall, women, older adults, and whites have been found to be more fearful compared to their counterparts and a number of correlates and predictors of fear of crime, such as demographic characteristics, disorder, and prior victimization have also been examined (Gainey, Alper, & Chappell, 2010).

The sample used in the…

References

Gainey, R., Alper, M., & Chappell, A. (2010). Fear of Crime Revisited: Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Disorder, Risk Perception, and Social Capital. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 120-137.

Newport, F. (2009, October 13). In U.S., Two-Thirds Continue to Support Death Penalty. Retrieved from Gallup:  http://www.gallup.com/poll/123638/in-u.s.-two-thirds-continue-support-death-penalty.aspx 

Appendix

Respondent

Social Marketing Plan Stop Crime Be a
Words: 3285 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30386786
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Social Marketing Plan

Stop Crime, Be a Human first

Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).

According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…

References

SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)

BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm  (Accessed 18 May 2011)

Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor

Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).

Youth Crime in Canada and
Words: 1587 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88957337
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The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.

CONCLUSION

As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.

Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.

Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.

Fear of crime is…

References

Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice

Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology

Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.

Organized Crime Scholar Mark C Gribben Defines
Words: 1777 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29747650
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organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.

The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."

The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…

Bibliography

Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html

Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm

Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm

Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003.  http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html

big data in criminology and law enforcement
Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97345409
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Crime and criminological data can be gathered, interpreted, and represented in different ways. The use of “big data” in criminology has helped illuminate the efficacy of various prevention or intervention policies and programs, as well as helping to better allocate resources for criminal justice. In the United States, the main data sources include the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The UCR is subdivided into the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), the Summary Reporting System (SRS), the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics Program, each of which track specific types of crime data (FBI, 2018). Another major crime data system used in the United States is the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). A similar tool has been used on an international scale with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)…

Organized Crime Related intelligence
Words: 3194 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92951106
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Organized Crime elated Intelligence

Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)

The Frumentarii

The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…

References

Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.

Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress:  https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/ 

Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.

Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from  https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/

People Hate America At the
Words: 3072 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35074848
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The authors go on to say that America has also forced their extreme versions of free capitalism and true democracy on the rest of the world, including into many places where those concepts really do not work. The American corporations that move into those areas control what food is eaten as well as grown there, and the conglomerates in the media bury most of the native culture of these other places under a strong onslaught full of American entertainment.

The authors, Sardar and Davies, address all of these issues with insight and research. The chapters in which they address culture very strongly, however, become somewhat repetitive and almost whiny on occasion. However, the authors are not saying that everyone has to agree with everything that they say. Even without agreeing with them completely, it is very easy to see that there are good reasons why many people do not like…

Bibliography

Sardar, Ziauddin & Davies, Merryl Wyn. (2003). Why do people hate America? Icon Books Ltd.; 2 Rev ed.

Sociology of Crime Primarily Using
Words: 3045 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64968696
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FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM

A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.

With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…

REFERENCES:

(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005

(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005

(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005

(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005

Role of Religion Beowulf Crime
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Interestingly, although Raskolnikov's punishment comes before the end of the novel, only after he is banished to Siberia is he able to truly let God into his heart. This shows how earthly punishment and salvation are not always linked. The novel ends with him throwing himself upon Sofia's mercy, as she finally understands that he has accepted God into his heart and been redeemed.

Although no figure is Christ-like in the novel, Sofia acts like a figure of wisdom and a facilitator of Raskolnikov's faith. She inspires him to reject secular philosophy for God, as philosophy and his intellect cannot save him, only religion. Although Sofia has no education, she is depicted as wiser than most of the learned men in the novel. Sofia hears Raskolnikov's first confession of his crime, before the authorities. Unlike the anonymous authors of Beowulf, for Dostoevsky true heroism is sacrifice and repentance, not manifesting…

Limitations of Crime Database Statistics of the FBi
Words: 3193 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16081026
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UCR and NIBRS
Introduction
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
Methodological Procedures
UCR
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…

References
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data.  Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.

Technology Terrorism and Crime Apa Technology Terrorism
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Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).

Technology, Terrorism, and Crime

One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.

The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…

References

"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from  http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an 

Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from  http://www.aryan-nation.org/ 

"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from  http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/ 

Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from  http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106

Shadow of Hate
Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 19827412
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Hate documentary leads one to believe that the only reason why America is still a vibrant and ongoing society is due to the perseverance and courage of all the immigrants that have come to the United States that have overcome the natural white prejudice and bias against them. According to the documentary, the first American settlers were Anglo Saxon Protestants who immediately began to subjugate the native population and then set about ensuring that the only people who would benefit from the country's resources would be individuals who believed in the same manner as they did, or at least pretended to believe in that same manner. The documentary presented all the groups that have been wronged by the first American settlers and their ancestors, and then determined that America was full of hate. The film showed how the entire American society was based on hate, prejudice and bias against any…

References

National Organization for Human Services (2015) What is human services? Accessed on April 15, 2015 at  http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88 

Norris-Tirrell, D.; (2014) The changing role of private, non-profit organizations in the development and delivery of Human Services in the United States, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 37(3) p. 304-324

Terrorism Convergence Between Terrorism Organized Crimes in
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Terrorism: Convergence Between Terrorism Organized Crimes in Mexico

Assessment eport for Marceline

Demographic Information

D.O.B. 1/10/1993

123 Crawford Lane

Age

Florida

Sex: Female

Phone: +54-675 5545

Ethnicity: Caucasian

Presenting Problem or eason for eferral

Marceline is a 19yr old that is self-referred, with a 26-month-old male child. Marceline is very frustrated with her child and her boyfriend, Leon, for whom she is seeking counseling. Marceline's frustration with her child is making her think of giving him off to her mother-in-law. M reports feeling frustrated, uses alcohol and other substances to calm her nerves, is miserable from her job loss four months ago, and mounting bills. M also indicates to be confused on to stay with Leone her current live in boyfriend or gets back to her husband Michael the father to Michael Junior. She also indicates to be depressed with suicidal thoughts, which she overcomes with alcohol and substance abuse.…

References

Burwell, R.P. & Chen, C.P. (2006). Applying the principles and techniques of solution-focused therapy to career counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 189-203.

Buss, D.M. & Larsen, R.J. (2002). Personality psychology: dimensions of knowledge about human nature (1 de edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Including 2010 Amendments. (2012). American Psychological Association, APA. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=7.

Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological testing: principles, applications, and issues. (6th edition). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Acquainted With the Law Various Law Terms-3
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Acquainted With the Law

Various Law Terms-3

Insider Trading

This is either legal or illegal (Priebe, 2012). It is legal and legitimate when corporate officers, directors and shareholders of at least 10% of the outstanding stock of the business. They file the required information with the Securities and Exchange Commission at regular periods (Priebe).

Illegal Insider Trading

This is conducted by trusted person but violates that company's trust (Priebe, 2012). The person is usually someone who enjoys fiduciary trust in working for and keeping the best interest of the company or its shareholders. He may be an officer, a director or an outsider who has access to confidential information about the company. That outsider may be the company's banker, auditor, or lawyer. In general, he is an insider who gives or receives inside information or tips (Priebe).

Characteristics of the Inside Information

It must be important and private (Priebe, 2012).…

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Daniels, R. (2012). First property domain laws. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_8009319_first-property-domain-laws.html

Menamos, J. (2012). Why are hate crimes difficult to prosecute? eHow: Demand Media,

Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8769064_hate-crimes-difficult-prosecute.html

Montoya, D. (2012). How has the exclusionary rule impacted criminal cases? eHow:

National Incident-Based Reporting System Ibrs Is a
Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 80804776
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National Incident-Based Reporting System (IBRS) is a system used by national and state law enforcement agencies to report and analyze crimes. he system allows for the widespread use of data related to a variety of crimes coming to law enforcement agencies. he data collected includes the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.

he information collected by the IBRS is extensive and the use of the system can be, therefore, complex. Since the system was introduced in 1985 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation the basic system has been adopted by a number of local and state law enforcement agencies as well. Some of these jurisdictions, including the State of New York, have chosen to enhance the system or adapt it to their…

The reporting of hate crimes is still in its infancy. Data is only available from 1992 to the present and it is only in the past ten years that wholesale participation has been available. As participation becomes more universal, the results will be more complete and as reporting protocols are improved the results will be more accurate. By their nature, hate crimes involve a high degree of bias and therefore discplined reporting protocols are a necessity.

The IBRS system affords law enforcement agencies with the opportunity to take advantage of the phenonmenal capacity of modern police and data processing systems to accumulate a myriad of details regarding criminal activity and criminals. The sophistication of the system allows investigating officers the ability to record pertinent facts in a systematic method that results in the organizing of data into specific segments. This leads to more accurate and complete analysis and, arguably, this leads to better law enforcement techniques.

The mission of the IBRS system is to enhance the quality, and timeliness of crime data collection and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing of the collected crime statistics. Presently, participation in the use of the IBRS system is not universal and a great deal of the reporting of crime statistics by the FBI and other reporting agencies is still done using summary format. It is the hope that in the near future the IBRS system will be used by all law enforcement agencies throughout the country. It is believed that this will result in better reporting results.

Laramie Project Matthew Shepard Was a 21-Year-Old
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Laramie Project

Matthew Shepard was a 21-year-old gay student attending the University of yoming in the fall of 1998 when he was kidnapped, robbed, tied to a split-rail fence, beaten, and left for dead by Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson. A little after midnight on October 7 McKinney and Henderson met Shepard for the first time at the Fireside Lounge in Laramie, yoming. The two men subsequently offered Shepard a ride home, but instead of driving him there they took him to a remote rural area. Shepard, still alive but in a coma, was discovered 18 hours later by a cyclist, Aaron Kreifels, who at first thought he was a scarecrow.

Shepard sustained skull fractures to the back of his head and in front of his right ear. The beating caused severe damage to his brainstem, which affected his body's ability to regulate heart rate, temperature, and other vital functions.…

Works Cited

FBI. "Hate Crimes add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to our Communities." Federal Bureau of Investigation. (nd.). Web. 20 June 2012.

Kaufman, Moises, Dir. The Laramie Project. Home Box Office, 2002. DVD.

Kaufman, Moises. The Laramie Project. New York: Vintage Books, 2001. Book/Play.

NASP. "Promoting Tolerance and Peace in Children." National Association of School Psychologists, (2002). Web. 20 June 2012.

UCR vs NIBRS
Words: 1662 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 60193597
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UC vs NIBS

Data gathering in criminal justice research

Qualitative research strategies for gathering information are the most commonly used in a criminal justice setting. They include focus groups, groups of people, individual case studies, and interviews. Qualitative research concentrates on real human life experience in a social setting. This research strategy stresses on comprehending the significance connected to events in criminal justice. The perception of study subjects in a natural social environment is basic to qualitative examination. In criminal justice, qualitative examination strategies can give the criminal justice analyst with an improved comprehension of how and why crimes happen in a social setting (Nolan, Haas & Napier, 2011).

The UC and NIBS

NIBS is a crime-reporting framework based on an incident. It aims to collect information on individual crimes while making arrests within a single crime occurrence. A notable difference between UC and BIBS systems is the magnitude in…

References

Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.

Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519

Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

How the Media Depicts Violence against Blacks
Words: 654 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28342392
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hate crimes against African-Americans. In particular I want to address media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans and how media interprets this phenomenon and in turn depicts it. As media is responsible for shaping much of public opinion (Baum, Potter 39), it is helpful to understand how the public is impacted by media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans through popular news reports, film and television portrayals, books, magazines, music and even scholarly articles. This essay wants to see if different types of media portray hate crimes against African-Americans with more or less sensitivity, with a more or less judgmental approach, with a more or less confrontational/antagonistic tone, and with more or less sympathy and empathy. This may help us to better understand why hate crimes against African-Americans occur.

In order to answer these questions, I will look in particular at films such as Malcolm X by Spike Lee, books…

Works Cited

Baum, M., Potter, P. "The relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: Toward a theoretical synthesis." Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65.

Holt, Lanier Frush. "Writing the Wrong: Can Counter-Stereotypes Offset Negative

Media Messages about African-Americans?" Journalism and Mass Communication, vol. 90, no. 1 (2013): 108-125.

Lee, Spike, dir. Malcolm X. LA: Warner Bros., 1992. Film.

Criminal Justice - Research Methods Sourcebook of
Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91166645
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Ciminal Justice - Reseach Methods

Soucebook of ciminal justice statistics Online

http://www.albany.edu/soucebook/pdf/t200282010.pdf

Respondents' concen ove effects of illegal immigants

Gallup, Inc., The Gallup Poll [Online]. Available: http://www.gallup.com/poll/

127649/Ameicans-Value-Aspects-Immigation-Refom.aspx [June 16, 2010].

Table adapted by SOURCEBOOK staff.

Oveall, the suvey espondents indicate substantive concens with the pesence of illegal immigants in the U.S. Thee items elate to the oveall question: (1) Unfai buden on U.S. schools, hospitals, and govenment; (2) Encouages othe immigants to move hee illegally; (3) Low wages eaned by illegal immigants educes oveall wages paid to Ameican wokes. The oveaching question is how concened espondents ae fo each of the items, and the highest anking item was elated to the unfai buden immigants place on schools, hospitals, and govenment. Fo all thee items, thee is significant diffeence in the pecentage of esponses unde vey concened vs. unde somewhat concened. A majoity of U.S. citizens ae vey concened about…

references the Audits and Strategies Toolkit. The URL to that paper is  http://www.leics.gov.uk/nwl_2_method.pdf  Specifically, the resource that I located was an audit report from a work group conducted by the Research and Information Team of Leicestershire County Council, the focus of which was crime, disorder, and drugs. The audit workshop was conducted on February 13, 2004. From this paper, I was able to make some comparisons between the Audits and Strategies toolkit and our readings about Problem Analysis Evaluation methods and strategies. Both approaches have a problem-centered focus that helps to generate strategies for addressing problems that include: (1) Summarization of data that embeds considerations about spatial analysis (i.e., mapping crimes presented a challenge as the data sources vary with respect to the type of census and mesh maps -- based on a grid system --employed); (2) key problem identification; (3) deep data analysis

Police Strategies
Words: 1955 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50516603
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Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department

For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…

References

Official web site of the New York Police Department:  http://www.nyc.gov 

Official Web site of the Los Angeles Police Department:  http://www.lasd.org

Cointelpro an Acronym for Counterintelligence Program
Words: 1922 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45496221
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Cointelpro

In the United States during the 1960s, the nation was in a period of social turmoil. The post-orld ar II suburban culture was giving way to rebellion and revolution and a total upset of the status quo. Particularly in the school and universities, educated members of the youth population began to question the rules and morays established by their predecessors and became determined to change things. This did not sit well with the older Americans, those who had fought in the world wars or Korea and who had taken over the guardianship of the country, this included holding positions of political power in the United States government. Those in power did not trust the youth movement and were highly suspicious of their activities. To understand them and determine if the youth were a threat to the government, a program was designed to covertly spy on the activities of members…

Works Cited:

FBI document. (1969). Director FBI to SAC San Francisco. FBI Reading Room.

Glick, B. (1989). The War at Home: Covert Action against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do

About It. South End: Boston.

Haak, N. (2011). Preying on the panther: the FBI's covert war against the Black Panther Party

Behavioral Profiling Behavioral Scientists and Investigate Often
Words: 1093 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83287687
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Behavioral Profiling

Behavioral scientists and investigate often rely on criminal profiling to narrow down the list of possible suspects in a crime scene or in a potentially threatening situation. This is primarily done by matching personal traits and behavioral patterns of criminals to the way in which the crime was committed and that can help in shrinking the large pool of suspects to a few which makes it relatively easier to solve the crime. (Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M., 1986). Profiling has often been a target of intense debate by people who feel victimized by the process, however, it must be understood that profiling can never lead to one specific person. It can only help in providing leads to possible suspects and that too by means of their personality traits and behavioral past. In other words, a person who has not committed crimes and doesn't have suspicious behavior or personality traits…

References

Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman: Criminal profiling from crime scene analysis, in: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 4 (1986), p. 401 -- 426.

Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.: The Anatomy of Motive, Scribner, New York, 1999.

Arab-Americans Racism Before and After
Words: 2354 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48275290
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This abuse of Arab-Americans and Muslim-American follows the ritualized sacrifice of the pharmakos, which involved the projection of a specific set of characteristics onto the scapegoated victim, who was then sacrificed in order to restore the health and unity of the community" (p. 165). As Taslitz (2002) emphasizes, such hate crimes and stereotypical portrayals of Arab-Americans represent a firmly entrenched set of beliefs held by many Americans that contribute to the government's ability to increase its power at the expense of the civil rights afforded the ordinary citizenry. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps," Taslitz notes, and, "The risks we assume are, in large part, reflections of laws that encourage certain customs and values" (p. 125).

This step-by-step erosion of civil liberties can be best understood as a response to the demonizing of Arabs in America as far back as the late 1800s (Akram,…

References

Abu-Laban, B. (2007). Reflections on the rise and decline of an Arab-American organization. Arab Studies Quarterly, 29(3-4), 47.

Akram, S.M. (2002). The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly, 61.

Babbitt, S.E. & Campbell, S. (1999). Racism and philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Chermak, S., Bailey, F.Y., Brown, M. (2003). Media representations of September 11. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Losing Matthew Shepard the Book
Words: 1863 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83766374
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More thought was given to the matter once the national spotlight was turned on Laramie because of the murder. The people were forced to confront these ideas as they also sought to defend the town against those who thought simply that Laramie must have fostered these ideas and must be complicit in the death. Even without that element, the horror of the situation caused many to ask how anyone in their community could do such a thing, a common response in any community where a terrible crime takes place.

Loffreda's analysis is extensive, and she is able to talk to many people ion the town who otherwise were avoiding speaking to the media at all. Her investigation took place at the same time as the trial and other events related to the crime, making her ability to get answers from a shell-shocked public all the more remarkable. She shapes the…

References

Barak, G., Flavin, J., & Leighton, P. (2001). Class, Race, Gender and Crime: Social Realities of Justice in America. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing.

Loffreda, B. (2000). Losing Matthew Shepard. New York: Columbia University Press.

Teacher Rights and Responsibilities in
Words: 1604 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94484867
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esponding to hate crimes

Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).

eferences

Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.

eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.

Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20

Catalog/Course%20Catalogue%202006.pdf.

Black's law dictionary. (1990).…

References

Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.

Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.

Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from  http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20 

Catalog/Course%20Catalogue%202006.pdf.

Homosexuals Working in the Criminal
Words: 3709 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2905727
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The first of these is regarding their share of population and they have been compelled to admit that they do not have 10% share of population as has been claimed earlier. This admission was recorded at a Friends of the Court filed in the Supreme Court on March 26, 2003 for a case known as the Texas Sodomy Case identified as Lawrence v. Texas case. This was a case through which the homosexuals were trying to get the Texas law against Sodomy declared as unconstitutional. The declaration made was "The NHSLS found that 2.8% of the male, and 1.4% of the female, population identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This amounts to nearly 4 million openly gay men and 2 million women who identify as lesbian." (Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series) This is also reflected in the 2000 census figures which show that homosexuals exist in far lesser numbers…

References

Economic theory' and 'cultural stereotype'? 7 February, 2005. Retrieved at  http://kipesquire.blogspot.com/2005/02/libertarian-professor-gays-poor.html . Accessed on 18 May, 2005

Cameron, Paul. Violence and Homosexuality. Retrieved at http://www.familyresearchinst.org/FRI_EduPamphlet4.html. Accessed on 18 May, 2005

Gay rights. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at  http://www.answers.com/topic/gay-rightsAccessed  on 17 May, 2005

Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series. Retrieved at http://traditionalvalues.org/urban/two.php. Accessed on 18 May, 2005

Ethical Practices Related to My
Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60288075
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Wit the help of these assistants, I will also ascertain that the following does not exist; implicit value judgments in questions, leading questions, context effects and so forth. Since people like to present themselves in a positive light when filling in surveys, I will stress the need for an honest response and will also assure the participants that come the end of the study and following interpretation of these results, the feedback will be trashed or they can receive their answers returned to them as given would they so wish.

The consent form attached to the questionnaire will emphasize anonymity and confidentiality. After the survey is complete, debriefing will occur where I can address any questions or concerns the participant has would be mailed to respondents. I may conduct this debriefing on the online environment where I originally found my participants.

As regards my attempts in finding the particular sites…

Reference

Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.

Feature Story on Transwoman and Cause
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Geena Rocero is a model with a purpose. Rocero was born and raised in the Philippines, and recently returned to her homeland to help victims of Typhoon Haiyan. In the midst of a busy schedule, Rocero spends time in her first interview because she feels that sharing her life story is one of the first steps toward helping others. "e're all in this journey together," Rocero exclaims.

Coincidentally, the interview falls on Transgender Day of Remembrance, which commemorates all transmen and transwomen who lost their lives because of targeted attacks. "Transwomen of color are the most marginalized," Rocero reminds us. "70% of hate crime in the LGBT community is committed against transwomen of color. I want this to change. I need this to change. I get so emotional about this and I'm reminded how privileged I am," she says with tears in her eyes.

Rocero works as a model…

When she was a young girl, Rocero knew she was female. Her dream was to become a model. She borrowed her sister's clothes, wore her mom's lipstick, entered local beauty pageants, and eventually self-medicated with hormones. Her parents, especially her mom, supported Geena and helped her to enter beauty pageants. When she was 17, Rocero moved to the United States. She was able to work in the United States and save enough money for the gender reassignment surgery, which she had done at age 19. In fact, while on her upcoming trip to Thailand, Rocero is meeting her surgeon to "thank him for giving me a wonderful vagina."

After her sexual reassignment surgery, Geena pursued her dream of modeling. She moved to New York City in 2005 and while working as a bar hostess, met a photographer who helped her develop a portfolio. That same year, Rocero signed with her first modeling agency. Currently, Rocero is signed with NEXT Model Management. In addition to modeling, Geena has worked as a makeup artist with Benefit Cosmetics, a manager at Inc. Magazine, and a sales representative for First Go Green biodegradable products. Rocero has also worked with the Summit Series, an entrepreneurial organization, to learn how to collaborate with partners on achieving mutual goals. It was because of her broad working experience and her networking with Summit Series contacts that Rocero has been able to develop a plan for promoting her public policy initiatives around the world. Rocero's ultimate goal is to transform public policy at the trans-national level. Her vision is to serve as an ambassador for transgender issues with the United Nations.

Rocero knows she has led a privileged life because of supportive friends, supportive family members, and a supportive spiritual community in both her native Philippines and in the United States. Rocero wants to ensure that the underprivileged people of the world also have access to the support systems and resources needed to live a healthy life. Referring to brutal assaults on transwomen around the world, Geena states, "People are dying. I need to do something."

Welcoming Homosexual Lifestyles at Historically Black Colleges and Universities
Words: 3029 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86596399
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Black Colleges Homosexuality

In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.

Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…

References

Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).

Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).

Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.

Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226

Community Oriented Policing vs Problem
Words: 7854 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7099404
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(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)

The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.

Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…

References

About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at  http://www.communitypolicing.org/about2.html 

BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at  http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/bja/fs000267.txt 

COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7

Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from, http://www.wsurcpi.org/resources/citizen_invol/Community-Oriented%20Policing%20Blessing%20or%20Curse.htm

Training of the Metropolitan Police
Words: 12930 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50785881
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Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.

These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.

esearch Questions

What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?

What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?

Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?

What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?

Significance of the Study

esearch Design…

References

Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.

About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available:  http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.

Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.

Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.

Changes Within Criminal Justice Organization
Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43777253
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Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…

References

Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-

American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,

2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319

Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York

Criminal Offender
Words: 1083 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17153874
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criminal offender and their motivations, but also gave me some interesting statistics, such as fewer than 1% of crimes are committed by people over 65 years old. I also learned that crime statistics have been around for a long time, and that so many people have studied them effectively. I learned about hate crimes too, and what constitutes hate crimes, and what a fairly recent addition they are to the criminal statistics analyzed and counted today.

I learned that crimes reported are one source of information analyzed and reported on, but that other research tries to determine how many crimes are not reported, and analyzes them with crime data, too. These different research methods were new to me, and the information was quite helpful for future reference. Now, I know that when I hear crime statistics, I will not simply accept them, but I will see what report was used,…

References

Chapter Two: Patterns of Crime.

Campus Security Act of 1990 Clery Act
Words: 5610 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46676144
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Clery Act

The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).

This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…

Bibliography

Clery, Connie and Howard. (2001). What Jeanne Didn't Know. Security On Campus, Inc.  http://www.securityoncampus.org/aboutsoc/didntknow.html 

Security on Campus. (2004). Campus Crime Statistics Summary.  http://www.securityoncampus.org/crimestats/index.html 

2002). What to Do If You Become a Victim of Campus Sexual Assault. Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.og/victims/campussexualassault.html

United States Congress. (2001). Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights. Higher Education Amendments of 1992.Victim Assistance: Security on Campus, Inc.  http://www.securityoncampus.org/victims/billofrights.html

Offender Profiling Essential and Effective
Words: 4763 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 75779490
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(Harris, 2002, p. 8)

Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (onczkowski, 2004, p. 72)

Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…

References

Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.

Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.

Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.

Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.

Clery Act the Jean Cleary Disclosure of
Words: 812 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96980086
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Clery Act

The Jean Cleary disclosure of campus crime statistics and campus security or clery act is a federal statute that was codified with the implementation of the U.S. code of federal regulations .this act requires that all universities and colleges which are participants of financial aid by the federal programs to always keep and disclose information that pertains to crime on or near the respective campuses. The compliance to this act is strictly monitored by the department of education in the United States which has the mandate of the imposition of civil penalties for violation of this act. Institutions found with any infraction can be suspended from the participation of student financial aid programs by the federal government (Wood, & Janosik, 2012). The paper will look at how the clery act and similar reporting legislations have impacted how universities and colleges deal with issues that pertain to security.

Crime…

References

Clery Center for Security on Campus. (2012). Summary of the Jeanne Clery Act. Retrieved May 31, 2013 from  http://clerycenter.org/summary-jeanne-clery-act 

Wood, A.R & Janosik, M.S. (2012).The clery Act: Crime reporting concerns. Retrieved May 31, 2013 from  http://www.soe.vt.edu/highered/faculty/janosik/CleryCrimeReporting2012.pdf

Criminal Justice Associates Program When
Words: 1192 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23144061
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I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.

While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…

References

City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police

Department website: http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/

Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North

Carolina Wesleyan College website:

Retributive Rehabilitative and Restorative Justice
Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 83016714
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Correctional System:

Three different approaches and philosophies to the problem of crime

The three philosophical cornerstones of the corrections system are retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration. However, while most modern theorists of criminal justice believe that there must be some proportion of these elements in all forms of punishment, not all believe that they must be present to the same degree. This paper will advance the idea that ultimately the concepts of rehabilitation and restoration must be more present within the judicial system today while retribution should be deemphasized.

The concept of retribution in the justice system dates back to the classical theory of crime, which stressed that the punishment for a crime must exceed its likely rewards. "For a rational system of criminal justice to work, punishment must be certain, swift, and proportional. The ultimate goal was to insure that the benefits of crime never outweighed the potential pain from…

Works Cited

Greek, C. "The Classical School." FSU. 2005. 21 Apr 2014.

http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/week3.htm

"Our broken justice system." Fair Sentencing of Youth. 21 Apr 2014.

 http://fairsentencingofyouth.org/the-issue/crime-and-safety/

Difficult to Answer the Following
Words: 2305 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10578152
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I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.

II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.

Roe v. Wade

From a constitutional perspective,…

Racism in Law Enforcement
Words: 1917 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64314480
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Multicultural Law Enforcement

Racism in U.S. Law Enforcement

There is much controversy with regard to race and the Criminal Justice System, as many are inclined to believe that people belonging to particular racial groups are more likely to suffer from discrimination as a result of their skin color. Police officers are instructed in order for them to gain a complex understanding of moral values and ethics and this makes it possible for them to learn more about differentiation and the degree to which discriminating a person can affect the respective individual and society as a whole. Many believe that in some cases stereotypes are people's only ability to differentiate between a potential criminal and an innocent person. However, the chances to go wrong are particularly high and it is thus essential for each police officer to refrain from targeting particular groups simply because they have the same skin color as…

Works cited:

Campbell, A. "Florida Cops Fired Over Racist Texts, KKK Video," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from  http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/22/cops-fired-racist-video_n_6918652.html 

Keesee, T., & Nila, M.J. "Fairness and Neutrality: Addressing the Issue of Race in Policing," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from  http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=2334&issue_id=32011 

Shusta, R.M., Levine, D.R., Wong, H.Z. Harris, P.R. "IMPACT OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY ON LAW ENFORCEMENT," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from  http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/4173/4273671/Ch01.pdf 

"Obama says other police departments are racist in first remarks on Ferguson," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from  http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2982267/Obama-holding-town-hall-historically-black-college.html

Prejudice in the Workplace Specifically
Words: 1621 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72855143
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al, 2002). In addition, change occurs quicker when leadership is diverse, as well (Hampton and Lee, 2007). Finally, ethnicity and diversity issues should be included in organizational behavior courses, so that all business and industry has more access to this information (Mamman, 1996). Change must occur in our society, and an end to prejudice must be achieved for our society and our workplaces to be truly free and equal.

eferences

Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf.

Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.

Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/H022.

Griessman, G. (1993). What is…

References

Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site:  http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf .

Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.

Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site:  http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HR022 .

Griessman, G. (1993). What is diversity? Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Multi-Cultural Center Web site: http://www.multi-culturalcenter.org/diversity.php.