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My Views on Hate Crimes
Although hate crime is often associated with some sort of violent crime motivated by a desire to hurt a group or person based on that group or person’s identity, Green, McFalls and Smith (2001) admit that hate crime is actually difficult “to define, measure and explain” (p. 479). The reason for the difficulty is that hate, in the obvious sense of a person persecuting another because the other person is different, is not always so explicitly manifested or expressed in the crime. In fact, it could be said that at some level hate is the motive behind all crime—hate for the state, hate for society, hate for the law, hate for one’s neighbor, hate for God, or even hate for one’s self. To make it even more complicated, Chakraborti and Garland (2009) argue that “hate crimes are not crimes in which the offender simply hates the victim, and in…
Chakraborti, N., & Garland, J. (2009). Hate crime: Impact, causes and responses. Sage Publications.
Green, D. P., McFalls, L. H., & Smith, J. K. (2001). Hate crime: An emergent research agenda. Annual review of sociology, 27(1), 479-504.
Spruill, L. (2020). Warren family returns home few months after hate crime incident. Retrieved from https://www.clickondetroit.com/news/local/2020/11/27/warren-family-returns-home-few-months-after-hate-crime-incident/
Media Presentation of Hate Crimes Against African-Americans: Annotated Bibliography
Baum, M., Potter, P. he relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: oward a theoretical synthesis. Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65. Web.
Potter and Baum's paper firstly assesses the wide-ranging advances in academic knowledge with regard to foreign policy and public opinion in the course of the last decades, placing emphasis on comparatively recent researches. Subsequently, the authors propose a structure, on the basis of the market equilibrium principle, designed to synthesize the unconnected research programs which make up the literature pool on foreign policy and public opinion. For achieving this, the authors integrate mass media -- a third key strategic player -- that, in their opinion, has a crucial part to play, together with leaders and ordinary citizens, in influencing public outlook towards, and power over, foreign policy, besides considering the leader-public relationship. hey…
This research work specifically explores game "enemies" and the extent of violence players inflict upon these virtual enemies. Findings reveal that most games scrutinized fostered conflict and intense violence toward Jews and Blacks. In the games Selepak studied, players were meant to brutally slay, dismember, and injure minorities for proceeding forward. These games were, typically, adapted classic video game versions wherein racial, ethnic, and religious minority characters replaced the original enemy characters. The study indicates that radical and hate websites offer video games aimed at indoctrinating players holding white supremacist beliefs, enabling racists to practice aggression against minorities. This can, subsequently, have a bearing on their interactions in the real world.
Mastro, Dana, Maria Knight Lapinski, Maria A. Kopacz, and Elizabeth Behm-Morawitz. The Influence of Exposure to Depictions of Race and Crime in TV News on Viewer's Social Judgments, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, (2009), 615-635. Web.
Mastro and colleagues' two-study experiment makes use of a group-centered priming structure for exploring the link of exposure to TV news depictions connecting violence and race to viewers' actual racial views. The first study's outcomes suggest that viewers' gender as well as the news suspect's racial identity have an influence on successive judgments, including victim and criminal attributions. The second research provides fairly consistent outcomes, suggesting, further, that the suspect's racial identity greatly impacts attitudes towards the Black community in the wider society, outside of the mediated situation.
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
Crime and Deviance
Crimes and increasing criminal activities have become a major concern for the security enforcement agencies. They seek help from technology as well as social and psychological theories to prevent crimes and deal with them. The first priority of security agencies is to prevent crimes and the second priority is to control them by punishing the criminals so that they become an example for the society. This paper offers an insight to how the crime prevention activities can be implemented. This includes understanding few biological, psychological and sociological theories pertaining to crimes and criminology. Human being's generally and criminals specifically act under the influence of some physical, environmental, cultural and individual factors that will be discussed in this paper.
Theories of Crime and Deviance
Crimes as well as deviance are behaviors that show violation from the settled and accepted norms of a society. Crime is something that is…
Cohen, P 2011, Genetic basis for crime: A new look, viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved
Community Crime Prevention Guide, n. d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljusticereform.gov.bc.ca/en/what_you_can_do/crime_prevention/
Crime Control: A Short Note, n.d., viewed 26 November, 2013, Retrieved from: http://ncthakur.itgo.com/chand3c.htm
Hate Groups, Hate Crimes, and acism in the U.S. today
The problem of hate groups that perpetuate the hate crimes has been a challenge in the U.S. not only in the present times, but has existed from the times of the WWI with groups like the Ku Klux Klan emerged (FBI, 2014). Since the 1980s, there have been several hate groups that have emerged which have perpetuated heinous have crimes that mostly border on the race specific targets, as is the case with skinheads and the likes. As the world changes and the technology takes over the communication and information platforms, the hate crimes have been escalated to the internet with groups having inclination towards racism using the social media and internet to carry on their hate speeches and even organize hate crimes. The ever changing nature of such groups and the adverse effects that such groups forms…
FBI, (2014). Hate Crimes Add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to Our Communities. Retrieved February 16, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/civilrights/hate_crimes
moral panic, especially with regard to those who are transgender in the society.
The Moral Panic of Transgender
The Grassroots Model describes moral panic as that which arises from a society's spontaneous reaction to what the society perceived to be morally deviant behavior. The deviance is perceived to be a danger to the society's moral fiber and this creates a lot of stress, which can lead to anger. This stress may not have an avenue to be expressed directly (Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs, n.d.). When the displacement of these anxieties happens, there may be direction of the same to the social deviants as they are regarded as the cause of all this. Kai Erickson, in her book 'the Wayward Puritans', demonstrates this when she relates how the people of Massachusetts Bay Colony went back to witch-hunting as a way to direct the anxiety that arose from social deviance.
Abowd-Chicago, M. (2013, November 5). Futurity: Research News from Top Universities. How transgender policy sets off 'gender panic' - Futurity. Retrieved December 4, 2015, from http://www.futurity.org/transgender-news-can-spark-gender-panic/
Social Context Moral Entrepreneurs Document (n. d.)
U.S. PDF Document (n. d.).
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
1990, United States government passed the Hate Crimes Statistics Act. This mandated that state, local and federal law enforcement agencies report data on crimes that reflected a bias against a person's race, religion, sexual orientation, and/or ethnicity/national origin. Several years later, people with disabilities were added to this list. Data collection was placed under the auger of the FBI, which complied by publishing an annual report through its Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program. This program started to publish a review of national hate crimes in 1990 entitled Hate Crime Statistics, 1990: A Resource Book. By 1992, the publication reflected the reported data of all states. Because certain states, such as Wisconsin, penalize perpetrators more for the same crime if the motivation for that crime is thought to be categorical hatred, statistics reflect the opinions of law enforcement agencies.
Because of this wealth of new data, in addition to the data…
victimization theories of crime. Victimization theories of crime focus on victim characteristics and behavior patterns, rather than focus exclusively on the perpetrators of crime. These theories help present a broader picture of crime rates and patterns within any given community. Victimization theories also help to identify vulnerable groups, and can therefore be helpful when creating public policy or law enforcement strategies.
Some victimization theories include victim participation theory, victim lifestyle theory, deviant place theory, and routine activity theory. Each of these theories can be useful in helping communities, individuals, and law enforcement officials discover ways of promoting public safety and minimizing crime. For example, a victimization theory revealing that people in a certain neighborhood are more vulnerable can help raise awareness about crime in that community so that the local residents and law enforcement can collectively pool resources.
Data on victimization can be used in a number of different ways.…
Bureau of Justice Statistics (2011). Retrieved online: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=dcdetail&iid=245
Herek, G.M., Gillis, J.R. & Cogan, J.C. (1999). Psychological sequelae of hate-crime victimization among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 67(6), Dec 1999, 945-951
Ybarra, L.M.R. & Lohr, S.L. (2002). Estimates of repeat victimization using the national crime victimization survey. Journal of Quantitative Criminology 18(1).
ising U.S. Crime ate
Crime in the United States
Crime in the United States took a sharp uptick starting in the middle of the 20th century but has actually leveled off since then, at least for the most part. However, even with the moderation in crime, especially in larger cities that have traditionally been problematic, crime in some cities is still alarmingly high and there are some cultural and social trends that are becoming more and more prevalent and, by extension, more commonly talked about as well. This essay will explore a couple of the more notorious examples of this in motion.
One study conducted for this research noted that predicting the crime rate at any given point in time can be exceedingly maddening to predict because of how a single happenstance or course of events can have a massive effect on the overall rates. The study uses…
Burdett, K., Lagos, R., & Wright, R. (2003). Crime, Inequality, and Unemployment.
American Economic Review, 93(5), 1764-1777.
Carrington, K. (2006). Does Feminism Spoil Girls? Explanations for Official Rises in Female Delinquency. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Criminology
(Australian Academic Press), 39(1), 34-53.
5. Police and department decisions play a major role in the reliability and validity of hate crime data because they are the ones who classify and define hate crimes, and then send the data to the UCR. If a police department has very vague or confusing classifications and definitions, they may not report all hate crimes, or even recognize certain crimes as hate crimes. In that case, the crimes are underreported or even ignored, and the department is responsible for this. In addition, departments may fear their own self-preservation if they report too many hate crimes, so, they underreport them to "preserve" the department. For example, studies show that prosecutions are rare in hate crime cases, so departments may feel that reporting a hate crime will result in little justice in the justice system, and so, they will not report the crime as a hate crime. In addition, often violence…
According to case law, "an infamous crime against nature" is sodomy (Yoshino, 2002). We can see here, again, a modern shift from common law with the inclusion of sodomy as a possible element of felony assault. Over the course of time, Idaho lawmakers clearly saw a need to include such a "crime" within their definitions.
While it is obvious that Idaho case law has changed over time with society with such inclusions as abortion, the death or injury of a fetus, and sodomy, it is equally clear more alterations are needed. The addition of the element of "ability" in the definition of assault (IC 18-901) may need clarification. While the addition is needed to create distinction between assault and threats, the term alone is subjective. This creates ambiguity within the definition, creating the possibility of incorrect application of the law.
Another alteration may need to be a further defining of…
American Heritage Dictionary. (2003). Common law. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Idaho Statutes, chapter 18, 18-901-18-910.
Jacobs, J.B. & Potter, K. (2001). Hate crimes: Criminal law & identity politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kirland v. State, 43 Ind. 146, 154, 1873.
Because of its cosmopolitan sensibilities, many of us forget that New York City also harbors hate groups. Yet according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's "hate map," 44 groups from the KKK to jihadist groups operate in the city. Some of these groups are overtly hate-filled, like the KKK, but others operate more covertly, like Castle Hill Publishers, whose leader has been an avowed holocaust denier. Because some of these groups were previously unknown to me, I decided to focus on one that might have gone unrecognized for what it is: the Alamo Christian Foundation. Typically a Christian organization should not be a hate group but the Southern Poverty Law Center shows how and why the Alamo Christian Foundation preaches "general hate."
The Alamo Christian Foundation (Tony Alamo Christian Ministries) appears to have a platform that includes conspiracy theories of all types, related to UFOs and government infiltration…
Evaluation of the Federal Bureau of Investigations Uniform Crime eporting ProgramEstablished in 1908, the current stated mission of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is to protect the American people and uphold the Constitution of the United States (Our vision and mission, 2021, para. 2). To achieve this vital mission, the FBI investigates a wide range of domestic crimes, including white-collar, organized and violent crimes, among others. One of the key strategies that the FBI uses to fight these types of crimes is their Uniform Crime eporting Program which can identify important trends to help the organization focus its efforts where they are most needed. To gain a better understanding of these tools, the purpose of this paper is to provide an evaluation of the FBIs Uniform Crime eporting Program websites resources on crime and victimization, including a description of these online resources, the UL where they can be located…
ReferencesOur vision and mission. (2021). Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved from https://www. fbi.gov/about/mission.
Social science researchers can use either qualitative or quantitative strategies to develop informed and timely answers to their research questions, but these two approaches involve analyzing fundamentally different data sets. On the one hand, qualitative researchers can use various methods such as case studies, ethnographic studies, phenomenological studies, grounded theory, narrative and/or content analyses (Neuman, 2009). On the other hand, social science researchers can use quantitative strategies such as observational studies, correlational research, experimental, quasi-experimental and survey designs (Neuman, 2009). While both qualitative and quantitative research questions seek to gain new insights into a given phenomenon, there are also basic differences between the types of data that are used.
By definition, quantitative research involves the analysis of numeric data in some form while qualitative research uses words, graphics and other data to formulate answers to guiding research questions (Neuman, 2009). These differences mean that designing a research question from a…
Media Bias in Crime eporting
In what ways do the media construct crime images?
In general, the media have tremendous power to influence public thought and opinion, such as by the choice of stories to report as well as by the specific manner in which they describe offenders, victims, and circumstances. When it comes to crime, the media construct images in various realms, including the relative frequency (and risk) of certain types of crimes and the public expectation about what groups of people are more likely to be offenders or victims of those crimes. For example, by choosing to report crimes featuring a white victim and a black offender, the media can portray one race as being composed of more offenders than the other and one race as being composed of more victims than the other. Similarly, by choosing to report more on particularly gruesome crimes, the media can establish…
Tate, K. (2014). Illegal Immigrants Would Get Voting Rights, Medicaid, Licenses under
New NY Bill. Breitbart.com. Retrieved online:
Wilkes, D.E. (2007). Unforgivable Racism: Black Men, Criminal Justice. Res Ipsa (Spring Finals Edition) University of Georgia School of Law. Retrieved online: http://www.law.uga.edu/dwilkes_more/57racism.html
We need to stop accepting such values and themes in music in the name of freedom of speech and expression because freedom is not meant to rob another person of his rights to live peacefully and securely. If my freedom hurts the rights of someone else, it means there is something wrong with the freedom granted to me. Similarly if a person encroaches upon the rights and happiness of another person and then justifies it with freedom of speech, such a person needs to seriously reflect upon his definition of freedom.
It would be wrong to assume that people are so influenced by such lyrics that they would go around killing other people and adopt anti-social behavior but they would certainly be at risk of developing such an attitude which could prove detrimental in the long run. Secondly we must understand that artists have wider acceptance and impact among impressionable…
Race, Class & Crime
The confluence of race, class and crime is a hot topic nowadays. This is especially true when discussing events or topics of various types. Very or fairly specific examples of this would include the recent shooting of Mike Brown in Ferguson, MO and the subsequent non-indictment of the officer who shot him despite the fact that Brown was not armed and the ongoing discussion about how paying a "wage" should be a moral imperative of all employers and how people in poverty are much more apt to commit crimes. Throw in the fact that people that exist in racial minorities are much more likely to be in poverty, it seems to make sense to some that minorities are also more commonly incarcerated and committing crimes in general. However, this is not entirely true as white people commit plenty of crimes themselves. However, blacks and Hispanics are…
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…
Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004. http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html
Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.
Crimes: Attitudes and Perceptions
This study was intended to provide insights into the attitudes and perceptions about crime in the local area. The study focused on the 18 to 25-year-old age group as compared to a 50 to 75-year-old age group. There were ten surveys completed as a representative sample of the local population. The hypothesis was that the older demographic would perceive more crime than the younger generation. The fear of crime has received a considerable amount of attention from the media and researchers alike because it can undermine the quality of life for the individuals that are fearful. Overall, women, older adults, and whites have been found to be more fearful compared to their counterparts and a number of correlates and predictors of fear of crime, such as demographic characteristics, disorder, and prior victimization have also been examined (Gainey, Alper, & Chappell, 2010).
The sample used in the…
Gainey, R., Alper, M., & Chappell, A. (2010). Fear of Crime Revisited: Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Disorder, Risk Perception, and Social Capital. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 120-137.
Newport, F. (2009, October 13). In U.S., Two-Thirds Continue to Support Death Penalty. Retrieved from Gallup: http://www.gallup.com/poll/123638/in-u.s.-two-thirds-continue-support-death-penalty.aspx
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…
SouthAfrica.info, (2011). South Africa's population. Available at http://www.southafrica.info/about/people/population.htm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
BBC (2003). Xenophobia in South Africa. Available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/3153461.stm (Accessed 18 May 2011)
Beggs, John J., and Wayne J. Villemez. (2001). Regional Labor Markets. Sourcebook of Labor
Markets: Evolving Structures and Processes, edited by Ivar Berg and Arne L. Kalleberg. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. (503-29).
The fear of adolescents and young adults is also being driven by the media's choice to sensationalize events that are actually very isolated in their number, and occurrence.
As Canada continues to grow and its focus on crime continues to change, it is important to understand the freedom that the media has when it comes to what to cover and how to do it.
Crime is rising in Canada in areas that should be a concern to the general public but part of the seeming significant increase is really only increased media coverage for the purpose of getting ratings.
Across the nation teenagers are performing good deeds, getting good grades, becoming Eagle Scouts and moving on to college and careers, yet the public never hears about those teenagers. The media focuses only on what will bring in ratings and that unfortunately includes violent exciting events.
Fear of crime is…
Schissel, Bernard (1997) Youth crime, moral panics, and the news: the conspiracy against the marginalized in Canada. ('moral panic' caused by increased incidence of youth crime in Canada, and young offenders identified as coming from homes led by single mothers and racial minorities)(Reconfiguring Power: Challenges for the 21st Century) Journal of Social Justice
Sprott, Jane B (1996) Understanding public views of youth crime and the youth justice system.(Canada) Canadian Journal of Criminology
Doob, Anthony N. And Julian Roberts 1988 Public punitiveness and public knowledge of the facts: Some Canadian Surveys. In N. Walker and M. Hough (eds.), Public Attitudes to Sentencing. Aldershot: Gower.
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
Crime and criminological data can be gathered, interpreted, and represented in different ways. The use of “big data” in criminology has helped illuminate the efficacy of various prevention or intervention policies and programs, as well as helping to better allocate resources for criminal justice. In the United States, the main data sources include the Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) from the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The UCR is subdivided into the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), the Summary Reporting System (SRS), the Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted (LEOKA) Program, and the Hate Crime Statistics Program, each of which track specific types of crime data (FBI, 2018). Another major crime data system used in the United States is the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). A similar tool has been used on an international scale with the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI)…
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…
Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.
Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/
Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.
Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
The authors go on to say that America has also forced their extreme versions of free capitalism and true democracy on the rest of the world, including into many places where those concepts really do not work. The American corporations that move into those areas control what food is eaten as well as grown there, and the conglomerates in the media bury most of the native culture of these other places under a strong onslaught full of American entertainment.
The authors, Sardar and Davies, address all of these issues with insight and research. The chapters in which they address culture very strongly, however, become somewhat repetitive and almost whiny on occasion. However, the authors are not saying that everyone has to agree with everything that they say. Even without agreeing with them completely, it is very easy to see that there are good reasons why many people do not like…
Sardar, Ziauddin & Davies, Merryl Wyn. (2003). Why do people hate America? Icon Books Ltd.; 2 Rev ed.
FIGHT AGAINST TEOISM
A similar crime was witnessed on September 11, 2001. The United States of America saw the sad death of thousands of innocent people just because some people wanted to acquire their goals. This followed an economic crisis and many innocent civilians faced unnecessary loss of jobs. The political environment has ever since been changing constantly and the United States went into war against Afghanistan. After Afghanistan there was a pre-emptive action on Iraq against the regime of Saddam Hussein who was accused of possessing weapons of mass destruction.
With terrorism becoming more organized, the law enforcement bodies try to formulate more laws to provide security to their citizens. There have been many congressional debates on the Antiterrorism and the Immigration policies of the United States. The immigration laws have been made stricter with a better screening of who comes in and who does not. ecently the citizens…
(1) The History Guide -- Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History [ http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/marx.html ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(2) Frank Elwell - The Sociology of Karl Marx [ http://www.faculty.rsu.edu/~felwell/Theorists/Marx/#Printable%20Version ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(3) Conflict Theories [ http://www.sociology.org.uk/p2t3.htm ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
(4) Council on Foreign Relations [ http://cfrterrorism.org/home/ ] Accessed on 27/08/2005
Interestingly, although Raskolnikov's punishment comes before the end of the novel, only after he is banished to Siberia is he able to truly let God into his heart. This shows how earthly punishment and salvation are not always linked. The novel ends with him throwing himself upon Sofia's mercy, as she finally understands that he has accepted God into his heart and been redeemed.
Although no figure is Christ-like in the novel, Sofia acts like a figure of wisdom and a facilitator of Raskolnikov's faith. She inspires him to reject secular philosophy for God, as philosophy and his intellect cannot save him, only religion. Although Sofia has no education, she is depicted as wiser than most of the learned men in the novel. Sofia hears Raskolnikov's first confession of his crime, before the authorities. Unlike the anonymous authors of Beowulf, for Dostoevsky true heroism is sacrifice and repentance, not manifesting…
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime (APA).
Technology, Terrorism, and Crime
One of the most heinous terrorist groups currently operating in the U.S. In called the "Aryan Nations." This group openly states on their website that they have been "Fighting Jewish Takeover for over 35 years." (aryan-nation.org) This group of domestic terrorists post articles on their website with grammatically incorrect titles like "The menace of Multiculturalism," and "Jews that control Hollywood: Meet the filthy Kikes are behind that industry." (aryan-nation.org) There is no doubt that his group is one that is dedicated to ideals of Adolph Hitler and the supremacy of the Aryan race. This group has also used the latest technology to spread their message of hate.
The Aryan Nations is a far right white supremacist religious organization based on the teachings of Wesley Swift, who founded a church based on anti-Semitism in California in the 1940's. In the 1970's, ichard…
"Aryan Nations/Church of Jesus Christ Christian." Extremism in America. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/learn/ext_us/aryan_nations.asp?xpicked=3&item=an
Church of Jesus Christ Christian: Aryan Nations. Retrieved from http://www.aryan-nation.org/
"Identity Theft." (2006, Jan. 5) Retrieved from http://www.bloomshare.com/identity-theft/identity-theft-stories/identity-theft/
Squires, Jennifer, (2009, March 5). Aptos 'neighbors from hell' sentenced in massive ID theft case. Santa Cruz Sentinel. Retrieved from http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/localnews/ci_11840106
Hate documentary leads one to believe that the only reason why America is still a vibrant and ongoing society is due to the perseverance and courage of all the immigrants that have come to the United States that have overcome the natural white prejudice and bias against them. According to the documentary, the first American settlers were Anglo Saxon Protestants who immediately began to subjugate the native population and then set about ensuring that the only people who would benefit from the country's resources would be individuals who believed in the same manner as they did, or at least pretended to believe in that same manner. The documentary presented all the groups that have been wronged by the first American settlers and their ancestors, and then determined that America was full of hate. The film showed how the entire American society was based on hate, prejudice and bias against any…
National Organization for Human Services (2015) What is human services? Accessed on April 15, 2015 at http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=88
Norris-Tirrell, D.; (2014) The changing role of private, non-profit organizations in the development and delivery of Human Services in the United States, Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 37(3) p. 304-324
Terrorism: Convergence Between Terrorism Organized Crimes in Mexico
Assessment eport for Marceline
123 Crawford Lane
Phone: +54-675 5545
Presenting Problem or eason for eferral
Marceline is a 19yr old that is self-referred, with a 26-month-old male child. Marceline is very frustrated with her child and her boyfriend, Leon, for whom she is seeking counseling. Marceline's frustration with her child is making her think of giving him off to her mother-in-law. M reports feeling frustrated, uses alcohol and other substances to calm her nerves, is miserable from her job loss four months ago, and mounting bills. M also indicates to be confused on to stay with Leone her current live in boyfriend or gets back to her husband Michael the father to Michael Junior. She also indicates to be depressed with suicidal thoughts, which she overcomes with alcohol and substance abuse.…
Burwell, R.P. & Chen, C.P. (2006). Applying the principles and techniques of solution-focused therapy to career counseling. Counseling Psychology Quarterly, 19(2), 189-203.
Buss, D.M. & Larsen, R.J. (2002). Personality psychology: dimensions of knowledge about human nature (1 de edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: Including 2010 Amendments. (2012). American Psychological Association, APA. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx?item=7.
Kaplan, R.M., & Saccuzzo, D.P. (2005). Psychological testing: principles, applications, and issues. (6th edition). Belmont, USA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Acquainted With the Law
Various Law Terms-3
This is either legal or illegal (Priebe, 2012). It is legal and legitimate when corporate officers, directors and shareholders of at least 10% of the outstanding stock of the business. They file the required information with the Securities and Exchange Commission at regular periods (Priebe).
Illegal Insider Trading
This is conducted by trusted person but violates that company's trust (Priebe, 2012). The person is usually someone who enjoys fiduciary trust in working for and keeping the best interest of the company or its shareholders. He may be an officer, a director or an outsider who has access to confidential information about the company. That outsider may be the company's banker, auditor, or lawyer. In general, he is an insider who gives or receives inside information or tips (Priebe).
Characteristics of the Inside Information
It must be important and private (Priebe, 2012).…
Daniels, R. (2012). First property domain laws. eHow: Demand Media, Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_8009319_first-property-domain-laws.html
Menamos, J. (2012). Why are hate crimes difficult to prosecute? eHow: Demand Media,
Inc. Retrieved on June 19, 2012 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8769064_hate-crimes-difficult-prosecute.html
Montoya, D. (2012). How has the exclusionary rule impacted criminal cases? eHow:
National Incident-Based Reporting System (IBRS) is a system used by national and state law enforcement agencies to report and analyze crimes. he system allows for the widespread use of data related to a variety of crimes coming to law enforcement agencies. he data collected includes the nature and types of specific offenses in the incident, characteristics of the victim(s) and offender(s), types and value of property stolen and recovered, and characteristics of persons arrested in connection with a crime incident.
he information collected by the IBRS is extensive and the use of the system can be, therefore, complex. Since the system was introduced in 1985 by the Federal Bureau of Investigation the basic system has been adopted by a number of local and state law enforcement agencies as well. Some of these jurisdictions, including the State of New York, have chosen to enhance the system or adapt it to their…
The reporting of hate crimes is still in its infancy. Data is only available from 1992 to the present and it is only in the past ten years that wholesale participation has been available. As participation becomes more universal, the results will be more complete and as reporting protocols are improved the results will be more accurate. By their nature, hate crimes involve a high degree of bias and therefore discplined reporting protocols are a necessity.
The IBRS system affords law enforcement agencies with the opportunity to take advantage of the phenonmenal capacity of modern police and data processing systems to accumulate a myriad of details regarding criminal activity and criminals. The sophistication of the system allows investigating officers the ability to record pertinent facts in a systematic method that results in the organizing of data into specific segments. This leads to more accurate and complete analysis and, arguably, this leads to better law enforcement techniques.
The mission of the IBRS system is to enhance the quality, and timeliness of crime data collection and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing of the collected crime statistics. Presently, participation in the use of the IBRS system is not universal and a great deal of the reporting of crime statistics by the FBI and other reporting agencies is still done using summary format. It is the hope that in the near future the IBRS system will be used by all law enforcement agencies throughout the country. It is believed that this will result in better reporting results.
Matthew Shepard was a 21-year-old gay student attending the University of yoming in the fall of 1998 when he was kidnapped, robbed, tied to a split-rail fence, beaten, and left for dead by Aaron McKinney and Russell Henderson. A little after midnight on October 7 McKinney and Henderson met Shepard for the first time at the Fireside Lounge in Laramie, yoming. The two men subsequently offered Shepard a ride home, but instead of driving him there they took him to a remote rural area. Shepard, still alive but in a coma, was discovered 18 hours later by a cyclist, Aaron Kreifels, who at first thought he was a scarecrow.
Shepard sustained skull fractures to the back of his head and in front of his right ear. The beating caused severe damage to his brainstem, which affected his body's ability to regulate heart rate, temperature, and other vital functions.…
FBI. "Hate Crimes add an Element of Bias to Traditional Crimes -- and the Mixture is Toxic to our Communities." Federal Bureau of Investigation. (nd.). Web. 20 June 2012.
Kaufman, Moises, Dir. The Laramie Project. Home Box Office, 2002. DVD.
Kaufman, Moises. The Laramie Project. New York: Vintage Books, 2001. Book/Play.
NASP. "Promoting Tolerance and Peace in Children." National Association of School Psychologists, (2002). Web. 20 June 2012.
UC vs NIBS
Data gathering in criminal justice research
Qualitative research strategies for gathering information are the most commonly used in a criminal justice setting. They include focus groups, groups of people, individual case studies, and interviews. Qualitative research concentrates on real human life experience in a social setting. This research strategy stresses on comprehending the significance connected to events in criminal justice. The perception of study subjects in a natural social environment is basic to qualitative examination. In criminal justice, qualitative examination strategies can give the criminal justice analyst with an improved comprehension of how and why crimes happen in a social setting (Nolan, Haas & Napier, 2011).
The UC and NIBS
NIBS is a crime-reporting framework based on an incident. It aims to collect information on individual crimes while making arrests within a single crime occurrence. A notable difference between UC and BIBS systems is the magnitude in…
Gaines, L.K., & Miller, R.L.R. (2013). Criminal justice in action. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2012). Basics of research methods for criminal justice and criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. & Napier, J. (2011). Estimating the Impact of Classification Error on the "Statistical Accuracy" of Uniform Crime Reports. J Quant Criminol (2011) 27:497 -- 519
Reaves, B.A., & United States. (2013). Using NIBRS data to analyze violent crime. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. Of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.
hate crimes against African-Americans. In particular I want to address media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans and how media interprets this phenomenon and in turn depicts it. As media is responsible for shaping much of public opinion (Baum, Potter 39), it is helpful to understand how the public is impacted by media portrayals of hate crimes against African-Americans through popular news reports, film and television portrayals, books, magazines, music and even scholarly articles. This essay wants to see if different types of media portray hate crimes against African-Americans with more or less sensitivity, with a more or less judgmental approach, with a more or less confrontational/antagonistic tone, and with more or less sympathy and empathy. This may help us to better understand why hate crimes against African-Americans occur.
In order to answer these questions, I will look in particular at films such as Malcolm X by Spike Lee, books…
Baum, M., Potter, P. "The relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy: Toward a theoretical synthesis." Annual Review of Political Science, vol. 11 (2008): 39-65.
Holt, Lanier Frush. "Writing the Wrong: Can Counter-Stereotypes Offset Negative
Media Messages about African-Americans?" Journalism and Mass Communication, vol. 90, no. 1 (2013): 108-125.
Lee, Spike, dir. Malcolm X. LA: Warner Bros., 1992. Film.
Police Programs and Strategies between New York and Los Angeles Police Department
For the past decade, the prevalence of deaths caused by crimes and other crime-related activities in the society has increased. Especially with the increasing development of weaponry, strategies, and prevalence of drug addiction, the occurrence of crime in the America society has been one of the primary concerns of most police enforcers and the government in the present time. New York and Los Angeles are examples of cities wherein the occurrence of crime and other offenses against the law and society are prevalent. This paper will discuss the police programs and strategies and crime statistics of the New York and Los Angeles Police Departments, and analyze each department's effectiveness in combating crime an offenses caused by the criminals and delinquents of the society. In relation to the analyses of both departments' police programs, this paper will also study…
In the United States during the 1960s, the nation was in a period of social turmoil. The post-orld ar II suburban culture was giving way to rebellion and revolution and a total upset of the status quo. Particularly in the school and universities, educated members of the youth population began to question the rules and morays established by their predecessors and became determined to change things. This did not sit well with the older Americans, those who had fought in the world wars or Korea and who had taken over the guardianship of the country, this included holding positions of political power in the United States government. Those in power did not trust the youth movement and were highly suspicious of their activities. To understand them and determine if the youth were a threat to the government, a program was designed to covertly spy on the activities of members…
FBI document. (1969). Director FBI to SAC San Francisco. FBI Reading Room.
Glick, B. (1989). The War at Home: Covert Action against U.S. Activists and What We Can Do
About It. South End: Boston.
Haak, N. (2011). Preying on the panther: the FBI's covert war against the Black Panther Party
Behavioral scientists and investigate often rely on criminal profiling to narrow down the list of possible suspects in a crime scene or in a potentially threatening situation. This is primarily done by matching personal traits and behavioral patterns of criminals to the way in which the crime was committed and that can help in shrinking the large pool of suspects to a few which makes it relatively easier to solve the crime. (Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M., 1986). Profiling has often been a target of intense debate by people who feel victimized by the process, however, it must be understood that profiling can never lead to one specific person. It can only help in providing leads to possible suspects and that too by means of their personality traits and behavioral past. In other words, a person who has not committed crimes and doesn't have suspicious behavior or personality traits…
Douglas, Ressler, Burgess and Hartman: Criminal profiling from crime scene analysis, in: Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 4 (1986), p. 401 -- 426.
Douglas, J.E., Olshaker, M.: The Anatomy of Motive, Scribner, New York, 1999.
This abuse of Arab-Americans and Muslim-American follows the ritualized sacrifice of the pharmakos, which involved the projection of a specific set of characteristics onto the scapegoated victim, who was then sacrificed in order to restore the health and unity of the community" (p. 165). As Taslitz (2002) emphasizes, such hate crimes and stereotypical portrayals of Arab-Americans represent a firmly entrenched set of beliefs held by many Americans that contribute to the government's ability to increase its power at the expense of the civil rights afforded the ordinary citizenry. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps," Taslitz notes, and, "The risks we assume are, in large part, reflections of laws that encourage certain customs and values" (p. 125).
This step-by-step erosion of civil liberties can be best understood as a response to the demonizing of Arabs in America as far back as the late 1800s (Akram,…
Abu-Laban, B. (2007). Reflections on the rise and decline of an Arab-American organization. Arab Studies Quarterly, 29(3-4), 47.
Akram, S.M. (2002). The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly, 61.
Babbitt, S.E. & Campbell, S. (1999). Racism and philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Chermak, S., Bailey, F.Y., Brown, M. (2003). Media representations of September 11. Westport, CT: Praeger.
More thought was given to the matter once the national spotlight was turned on Laramie because of the murder. The people were forced to confront these ideas as they also sought to defend the town against those who thought simply that Laramie must have fostered these ideas and must be complicit in the death. Even without that element, the horror of the situation caused many to ask how anyone in their community could do such a thing, a common response in any community where a terrible crime takes place.
Loffreda's analysis is extensive, and she is able to talk to many people ion the town who otherwise were avoiding speaking to the media at all. Her investigation took place at the same time as the trial and other events related to the crime, making her ability to get answers from a shell-shocked public all the more remarkable. She shapes the…
Barak, G., Flavin, J., & Leighton, P. (2001). Class, Race, Gender and Crime: Social Realities of Justice in America. Los Angeles: Roxbury Publishing.
Loffreda, B. (2000). Losing Matthew Shepard. New York: Columbia University Press.
esponding to hate crimes
Finally, all employees of the Trenton Public School District who become aware in the course of their employment that a student or other staff person has committed a hate crime or is about to commit one are required to immediately inform the principal and chief school administrator. According to the District's Equal Educational Opportunity Policy (File Code 5145.4), "All incidents of hate/bias shall be reported whether they occur during school hours on school grounds, on the way to or from school or otherwise" (p. 2). Teachers can play an important role in mitigating hate crimes in the schools by addressing anti-Semitism and Islamophobia (Haynes, 2011).
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
eference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. etrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
Black's law dictionary. (1990).…
Anderson, J.B. (2009, Fall). Academic freedom in post-September 11 America: A research guide.
Reference & User Services Quarterly, 49(1), 13-15.
Applied Engineering and Science Academy mission statement. (2007). Trenton Board of Education. Retrieved from http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/tchs/Course%20
The first of these is regarding their share of population and they have been compelled to admit that they do not have 10% share of population as has been claimed earlier. This admission was recorded at a Friends of the Court filed in the Supreme Court on March 26, 2003 for a case known as the Texas Sodomy Case identified as Lawrence v. Texas case. This was a case through which the homosexuals were trying to get the Texas law against Sodomy declared as unconstitutional. The declaration made was "The NHSLS found that 2.8% of the male, and 1.4% of the female, population identify themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual. This amounts to nearly 4 million openly gay men and 2 million women who identify as lesbian." (Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series) This is also reflected in the 2000 census figures which show that homosexuals exist in far lesser numbers…
Economic theory' and 'cultural stereotype'? 7 February, 2005. Retrieved at http://kipesquire.blogspot.com/2005/02/libertarian-professor-gays-poor.html . Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Cameron, Paul. Violence and Homosexuality. Retrieved at http://www.familyresearchinst.org/FRI_EduPamphlet4.html. Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Gay rights. Wikipedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://www.answers.com/topic/gay-rightsAccessed on 17 May, 2005
Homosexual Urban Legends: The Series. Retrieved at http://traditionalvalues.org/urban/two.php. Accessed on 18 May, 2005
Wit the help of these assistants, I will also ascertain that the following does not exist; implicit value judgments in questions, leading questions, context effects and so forth. Since people like to present themselves in a positive light when filling in surveys, I will stress the need for an honest response and will also assure the participants that come the end of the study and following interpretation of these results, the feedback will be trashed or they can receive their answers returned to them as given would they so wish.
The consent form attached to the questionnaire will emphasize anonymity and confidentiality. After the survey is complete, debriefing will occur where I can address any questions or concerns the participant has would be mailed to respondents. I may conduct this debriefing on the online environment where I originally found my participants.
As regards my attempts in finding the particular sites…
Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.
Geena Rocero is a model with a purpose. Rocero was born and raised in the Philippines, and recently returned to her homeland to help victims of Typhoon Haiyan. In the midst of a busy schedule, Rocero spends time in her first interview because she feels that sharing her life story is one of the first steps toward helping others. "e're all in this journey together," Rocero exclaims.
Coincidentally, the interview falls on Transgender Day of Remembrance, which commemorates all transmen and transwomen who lost their lives because of targeted attacks. "Transwomen of color are the most marginalized," Rocero reminds us. "70% of hate crime in the LGBT community is committed against transwomen of color. I want this to change. I need this to change. I get so emotional about this and I'm reminded how privileged I am," she says with tears in her eyes.
Rocero works as a model…
When she was a young girl, Rocero knew she was female. Her dream was to become a model. She borrowed her sister's clothes, wore her mom's lipstick, entered local beauty pageants, and eventually self-medicated with hormones. Her parents, especially her mom, supported Geena and helped her to enter beauty pageants. When she was 17, Rocero moved to the United States. She was able to work in the United States and save enough money for the gender reassignment surgery, which she had done at age 19. In fact, while on her upcoming trip to Thailand, Rocero is meeting her surgeon to "thank him for giving me a wonderful vagina."
After her sexual reassignment surgery, Geena pursued her dream of modeling. She moved to New York City in 2005 and while working as a bar hostess, met a photographer who helped her develop a portfolio. That same year, Rocero signed with her first modeling agency. Currently, Rocero is signed with NEXT Model Management. In addition to modeling, Geena has worked as a makeup artist with Benefit Cosmetics, a manager at Inc. Magazine, and a sales representative for First Go Green biodegradable products. Rocero has also worked with the Summit Series, an entrepreneurial organization, to learn how to collaborate with partners on achieving mutual goals. It was because of her broad working experience and her networking with Summit Series contacts that Rocero has been able to develop a plan for promoting her public policy initiatives around the world. Rocero's ultimate goal is to transform public policy at the trans-national level. Her vision is to serve as an ambassador for transgender issues with the United Nations.
Rocero knows she has led a privileged life because of supportive friends, supportive family members, and a supportive spiritual community in both her native Philippines and in the United States. Rocero wants to ensure that the underprivileged people of the world also have access to the support systems and resources needed to live a healthy life. Referring to brutal assaults on transwomen around the world, Geena states, "People are dying. I need to do something."
Black Colleges Homosexuality
In order to create more egalitarian, prosocial, and productive campus environments, it is necessary to understand attitudes toward homosexuality and homosexual students. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) students experienced relatively high rates of substance abuse, depression, and stress related to discrimination, difficulties forming social relationships, and low self-esteem (Heck, Flentje & Cochran, 2011). As Kirby (2011) points out, "Having a negative self-concept plays a major role in youth suicides, in how well one does in school, and in how one interacts with society at large." Therefore, the need for a more supportive social environment on college campuses is a pressing one.
Unfortunately, traditionally white universities and historically black universities in the United States have addressed the needs of the LGBT student community differently. Historically black colleges and institutions are defined as "institutions classified as higher education that were chartered prior to 1964 and created with the…
Burleson, Douglas A. "Sexual orientation and college choice: Considering campus climate." About Campus 14, no. 6 (January 2010): 9-14. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed October 14, 2013).
Eisen, V., & Hall, L. (Eds.). (1996). Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people and education [Special issue]. Harvard Educational Review, 66(2).
Griffin, H. (2000). Their Own Received Them Not: African-American Lesbians and Gays in Black Churches. Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality, 6(12), 1.
Heck, N.C., Flentje, A., & Cochran, B.N. (2011). Offsetting risks: High school gay-straight alliances and lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. School Psychology Quarterly, 26(2), 161-174. doi:10.1037/a0023226
(1990) Municipal Government Involvement in Crime Prevention in Canada. This work provides insight into the way that municipal government interacts with the police in the organization of crime prevention structures and the delivery of crime prevention services and activities. (Hastings, 1990, p. 108)
The idea of municipal government interaction in crime prevention is shown to have been spurred on in Canada by "....the successes of locally organized and community-based initiatives in North America. In both cases, the involvement reflects a sense that, whatever crime prevention is, the police cannot do it alone." (Hastings, 1990, p. 108) This again attests to the prevailing theme in the literature that there is a general consensus that the police force faces problems that are complex and which require the interaction and the assistance of other local community and municipal structures.
Hastings emphasizes this sense of interaction in the field of community policing and particularly…
About Community Policing. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://www.communitypolicing.org/about2.html
BJA Bureau of Justice Assistance Fact Sheet. Comprehensive Communities Program: A Unique Way To Reduce Crime and Enhance Public Safety. (2000) Retrieved 18 August, 2006, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles1/bja/fs000267.txt
COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING. Retrieved 16 August 2006, at http://safestate.org/index.cfm?navID=7
Community-Oriented Policing: Blessing Or Curse? Retrieved15 August, 2006, from, http://www.wsurcpi.org/resources/citizen_invol/Community-Oriented%20Policing%20Blessing%20or%20Curse.htm
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
Yet Arab-Americans are not necessarily hostile to the idea of greater community intervention, provided it is done to enhance community life, and not done to profile all Arab-American residents as terrorists. In fact, in the city of Chicago, there have been calls for greater police intervention in Arab-American communities by parents and local leaders, to reduce the threat of violent crime. Nizar Hasan, president of the Arab-American Police Association, believes Arab-American youth are increasingly falling into negative criminal behaviors. "It's getting worse…Some of these kids first try [drugs], get hooked, want more and look for ways to make money to support their habit, which means criminal activity" (Bohn & Schott 2009). However because Chicago, like many cities, does not track crime rates amongst Arab-Americans they are not labeled as 'minorities' -- "according to the U.S. Office of Management and Budget, persons from the Middle East and North Africa, like those…
Bohn, Lauren E. & Paul Schott. (2009, November 17). Blight of street crime creeping into Arab-
American community. Merrill reports. Northwestern University. Retrieved October 19,
2010 at http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx?id=147319
Elliott, Andrea. (2006, June 13). After 9/11 Arab-Americans fear police, study finds. New York
criminal offender and their motivations, but also gave me some interesting statistics, such as fewer than 1% of crimes are committed by people over 65 years old. I also learned that crime statistics have been around for a long time, and that so many people have studied them effectively. I learned about hate crimes too, and what constitutes hate crimes, and what a fairly recent addition they are to the criminal statistics analyzed and counted today.
I learned that crimes reported are one source of information analyzed and reported on, but that other research tries to determine how many crimes are not reported, and analyzes them with crime data, too. These different research methods were new to me, and the information was quite helpful for future reference. Now, I know that when I hear crime statistics, I will not simply accept them, but I will see what report was used,…
Chapter Two: Patterns of Crime.
The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).
This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…
Clery, Connie and Howard. (2001). What Jeanne Didn't Know. Security On Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/aboutsoc/didntknow.html
Security on Campus. (2004). Campus Crime Statistics Summary. http://www.securityoncampus.org/crimestats/index.html
2002). What to Do If You Become a Victim of Campus Sexual Assault. Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.og/victims/campussexualassault.html
United States Congress. (2001). Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights. Higher Education Amendments of 1992.Victim Assistance: Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/victims/billofrights.html
(Harris, 2002, p. 8)
Terrorist acts are both crimes and forms of warfare, and in both respects are unlike what we are used to." 2 Understanding the larger possibilities, such as warfare, law enforcement will be able to make informed decisions on matters concerning data collection. When gathering information it is important to document and standardize every step of the process. This will alleviate any complications when categorizing behaviors or activities and will ensure that all participants in the process are on the same playing field. (onczkowski, 2004, p. 72)
Following the 9/11 attacks on the U.S. which is an example of foreign terrorism, though domestic terrorism has been present in the U.S. For decades, many individuals accepted new standards of security that might infringe upon their rights as citizens to freely travel, assemble and speak, yet more recent protests have been leveled against law enforcement and security measures as…
Califano, J.A. (1998, October). A New Prescription: Investing in Substance-Abuse Treatment Would Take a Big Bite out of Crime. Washington Monthly, 30, 9.
Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., & Herbert, D.T. (Eds.). (1992). Crime, Policing, and Place: Essays in Environmental Criminology. New York: Routledge.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., et al. (2003). Training the 21st Century Police Officer: Redefining Police Professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department / . Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Groth, a.N. (1979). Men Who Rape: The Psychology of the Offender. New York: Plenum Press.
The Jean Cleary disclosure of campus crime statistics and campus security or clery act is a federal statute that was codified with the implementation of the U.S. code of federal regulations .this act requires that all universities and colleges which are participants of financial aid by the federal programs to always keep and disclose information that pertains to crime on or near the respective campuses. The compliance to this act is strictly monitored by the department of education in the United States which has the mandate of the imposition of civil penalties for violation of this act. Institutions found with any infraction can be suspended from the participation of student financial aid programs by the federal government (Wood, & Janosik, 2012). The paper will look at how the clery act and similar reporting legislations have impacted how universities and colleges deal with issues that pertain to security.
Clery Center for Security on Campus. (2012). Summary of the Jeanne Clery Act. Retrieved May 31, 2013 from http://clerycenter.org/summary-jeanne-clery-act
Wood, A.R & Janosik, M.S. (2012).The clery Act: Crime reporting concerns. Retrieved May 31, 2013 from http://www.soe.vt.edu/highered/faculty/janosik/CleryCrimeReporting2012.pdf
I think that my knowledge of procedure is probably my strongest. I feel very comfortable with the level of knowledge I have about proper police procedure. I feel confident that I not only understand basic procedural rules, but also the justification or reasoning behind those rules. Furthermore, I feel as if my understanding of the basis for these various procedural rules will help me easily grasp any additional procedural rules that I will encounter on the job.
While I do feel as if I have had a strong educational background, there are two areas where I feel as I could benefit from more education: psychology and human services. The more I study the psychology of criminals and victims, the more I realize I do not know about why perpetrators do things. I understand that people who align with certain profiles may be more likely to commit crimes, but I am…
City of Houston. (2013). Victim services unit. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from Houston Police
Department website: http://www.houstontx.gov/police/vsu/
Stevens, M. (2003, June 18). Victimology theory. Retrieved February 6, 2013 from North
Carolina Wesleyan College website:
Three different approaches and philosophies to the problem of crime
The three philosophical cornerstones of the corrections system are retribution, rehabilitation, and restoration. However, while most modern theorists of criminal justice believe that there must be some proportion of these elements in all forms of punishment, not all believe that they must be present to the same degree. This paper will advance the idea that ultimately the concepts of rehabilitation and restoration must be more present within the judicial system today while retribution should be deemphasized.
The concept of retribution in the justice system dates back to the classical theory of crime, which stressed that the punishment for a crime must exceed its likely rewards. "For a rational system of criminal justice to work, punishment must be certain, swift, and proportional. The ultimate goal was to insure that the benefits of crime never outweighed the potential pain from…
Greek, C. "The Classical School." FSU. 2005. 21 Apr 2014.
"Our broken justice system." Fair Sentencing of Youth. 21 Apr 2014.
I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.
II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.
Roe v. Wade
From a constitutional perspective,…
Multicultural Law Enforcement
Racism in U.S. Law Enforcement
There is much controversy with regard to race and the Criminal Justice System, as many are inclined to believe that people belonging to particular racial groups are more likely to suffer from discrimination as a result of their skin color. Police officers are instructed in order for them to gain a complex understanding of moral values and ethics and this makes it possible for them to learn more about differentiation and the degree to which discriminating a person can affect the respective individual and society as a whole. Many believe that in some cases stereotypes are people's only ability to differentiate between a potential criminal and an innocent person. However, the chances to go wrong are particularly high and it is thus essential for each police officer to refrain from targeting particular groups simply because they have the same skin color as…
Campbell, A. "Florida Cops Fired Over Racist Texts, KKK Video," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/03/22/cops-fired-racist-video_n_6918652.html
Keesee, T., & Nila, M.J. "Fairness and Neutrality: Addressing the Issue of Race in Policing," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.policechiefmagazine.org/magazine/index.cfm?fuseaction=display_arch&article_id=2334&issue_id=32011
Shusta, R.M., Levine, D.R., Wong, H.Z. Harris, P.R. "IMPACT OF CULTURAL DIVERSITY ON LAW ENFORCEMENT," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/wps/media/objects/4173/4273671/Ch01.pdf
"Obama says other police departments are racist in first remarks on Ferguson," Retrieved April 27, 2015, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2982267/Obama-holding-town-hall-historically-black-college.html
al, 2002). In addition, change occurs quicker when leadership is diverse, as well (Hampton and Lee, 2007). Finally, ethnicity and diversity issues should be included in organizational behavior courses, so that all business and industry has more access to this information (Mamman, 1996). Change must occur in our society, and an end to prejudice must be achieved for our society and our workplaces to be truly free and equal.
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf.
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. etrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/H022.
Griessman, G. (1993). What is…
Barnes & Noble, & the Anti-Defamation League. (2001). 101 ways to combat prejudice. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Anti-Defamation League Web site: http://www.adl.org/prejudice/closethebook.pdf .
Ehrlich, H.J. (2002). Understanding hate crimes. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Prejudice Institute Web site: http://www.prejudiceinstitute.org/understandinghatecrimes.html.
Green, K.A., L pez, M, Wysocki, a., and Kepner K. (2002). Diversity in the workplace: Benefits, challenges, and the required managerial tools. Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the University of Florida Web site: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/HR022 .
Griessman, G. (1993). What is diversity? Retrieved 19 March 2008 from the Multi-Cultural Center Web site: http://www.multi-culturalcenter.org/diversity.php.