Constitutionality of hate-speech laws and legislation
College campus hate-speech codes,
Fighting words; hate symbols
State interest in regulating hate-speech,
Arguments for and against such laws and codes,
First Amendment protection of unpopular or offensive speech,
Sentence enhancement for bias motivated crimes,
Supreme Court handling of hate speech and hate crime issues
Constitutionality of hate-speech laws and legislation
The Constitution of the United States was drafted in 1787, ratified in 1788, and put into operation in 1789. The 10 amendments constituting the ill of Rights were adopted in 1791. The first of these restricted the new government's powers with regard to speech and the press: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of…… [Read More]
Hate Speech on Campus
Colleges and universities have always portrayed themselves as the bastions of free speech and expression. However, in the growing diversity of college communities, more universities struggle to maintain the balance between protecting free speech and providing a welcoming learning environment for all its constituents.
As a result, many campuses have initiated speech codes, intended to protect people and groups from hate speech, which is often accompanied by violence. This in turn has given rise to charges that though hate speech may be offensive, it is also free speech and therefore deserves protection under the First Amendment.
The first part of this paper examines arguments that hate speech deserves constitutional protection. The next part then examines how hate speech hurts victims and destroys tolerance. In the conclusion, this paper argues that the First Amendment protects even hate speech. Thus, campus speech codes and other restrictions on freedom…… [Read More]
The difference comes when the person, whether or not incited by hate speech, does more than just talk, but takes the hatred a bit further and commits a criminal act, such as an attack upon a person or a place simply because it is associated with some group the attacker does not tolerate. So hate speech and hate crime are not equivalent and as such hate speech is protected by the constitution.
Can we ban hate speech from our campuses? This is a touchy subject and one which has even gone to the Supreme Court. Late in the 20th Century many schools sought to limit hate speech on the campuses. It was felt that this would prevent a rise in harassment. Speech codes on campuses which have gone to court have not held up well against the First Amendment. In most cases, policies are considered to vague to be enforced.…… [Read More]
hate speech? esearch the First Amendment and the right to free speech. Is it legal for students to pass out flyers and T-shirts with anti-gay and lesbian slogans? Is advocating violence against a social group legal?
Hate speech refers to speech whether orally or written, that insults, promotes hatred or violence on a specific group, race, disability, national origin, or gender. Hate speech has been shown to incite violence in individuals, leading to hate crimes with recent crimes directed towards homosexuals. Hate speech often takes the form of propaganda as shown in World War II with the Nazis and protests like the protests of the now infamous Westboro Baptist Church. However, thanks to the First Amendment, the constitution protects the use of hate speech to a certain degree and allows the use of publications and protests with the sole purpose of promoting hatred of groups. Although the government and society…… [Read More]
Hate Speech and Word Police
One of the most basic freedoms of humankind is the freedom of speech. Democratic societies boast about their citizens' right to speak freely. Freedom has always been a controversial topic to people, but once we begin to pursue it, we will find the process being far from a simple one. Everyone has come across the notion of propaganda at least one in their lives. Propaganda relies on the power of words. Propaganda has changed popular attitudes and beliefs, it has helped control people's minds to the point when it came to joining a war or attacking a country, for example. There should be no doubt about the power of words. Yet, there is still a very lively debate among professionals and nonprofessionals alike when it comes to the freedom of speech in a democratic society. More precisely, the issue of boundaries is one that causes…… [Read More]
Hate Groups, Hate Crimes, and acism in the U.S. today
The problem of hate groups that perpetuate the hate crimes has been a challenge in the U.S. not only in the present times, but has existed from the times of the WWI with groups like the Ku Klux Klan emerged (FBI, 2014). Since the 1980s, there have been several hate groups that have emerged which have perpetuated heinous have crimes that mostly border on the race specific targets, as is the case with skinheads and the likes. As the world changes and the technology takes over the communication and information platforms, the hate crimes have been escalated to the internet with groups having inclination towards racism using the social media and internet to carry on their hate speeches and even organize hate crimes. The ever changing nature of such groups and the adverse effects that such groups forms…… [Read More]
Because of its cosmopolitan sensibilities, many of us forget that New York City also harbors hate groups. Yet according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's "hate map," 44 groups from the KKK to jihadist groups operate in the city. Some of these groups are overtly hate-filled, like the KKK, but others operate more covertly, like Castle Hill Publishers, whose leader has been an avowed holocaust denier. Because some of these groups were previously unknown to me, I decided to focus on one that might have gone unrecognized for what it is: the Alamo Christian Foundation. Typically a Christian organization should not be a hate group but the Southern Poverty Law Center shows how and why the Alamo Christian Foundation preaches "general hate."
The Alamo Christian Foundation (Tony Alamo Christian Ministries) appears to have a platform that includes conspiracy theories of all types, related to UFOs and government infiltration…… [Read More]
campus speech codes violate student rights?
The freedom of expression is not for students alone. It is for all citizens and for students the rights and liberties that are available for all citizens apply in the same manner. In that context if the citizen has a right of speech and expression, it also implies that the citizen student also enjoys this right. Where the general laws abrogate the freedom of speech, making some kinds of speech and expression culpable, it is also applicable to the student. The question is if the academic institution passes rules that prohibit speeches and other form of expressions defined as 'hate speech', it has to be assumed that the 'hate speech' as defined inside the campus differs from the general legislation, or there is no general legislation that covers the 'hate speech 'and therefore being introduced in the campus make it unique to the student…… [Read More]
Freedom of Speech
The Brandenburg Case
The central holding in the Brandenburg case is the debate about whether suppressing hate speech or speeches that have the potential to incite violence is, in fact, violates the guarantee to freedom of speech as given by the First Amendment of the U.S. constitution. In the case of Brandenburg, while the state of Ohio declared him to have incited potential violence through his speech that he made on TV and sentenced him to 1-10-year prison and a fine, the Supreme Court of the U.S. overturned the verdict and found Brandenburg not guilty and opined that the Ohio state had violated Brandenburg's right to free speech. The supreme court noted: "Freedoms of speech and press do not permit a State to forbid advocacy of the use of force or of law violation except where such advocacy is directed to inciting or producing imminent lawless action…… [Read More]
ight to Expression: The Fine Line of the First Amendment
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 and the enactment of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the PATIOT ACT), there has been a growing debate concerning the proper role of the government in protecting Americans while balancing their right to free expression. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a discussion concerning the line between an individual's right to expression and the role of the government to protect its citizens from harm, including some salient examples of this conflict in the nation's past. An analysis concerning whether Americans have come any closer to reconciling these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
On the one hand, the First Amendment to…… [Read More]
Colin Kaepernicks political activism and his symbolic taking the knee have sparked a fierce debate over the power, potential, and possible limitations on freedom of speech. According to an article in The Washington Post, survey after survey has shown that too many students at all levels including in college dont understand free speech and dont know that it is guaranteed by the First Amendment, (Strauss, 2017, p. 1). The reason why I am writing about freedom of speech in relation to the reaction to Kaepernick is that the First Amendment encompasses the fundamental rights and freedoms fundamental to democracy. The goal of the paper is to explain the facts of the case through the lens of both ethics and constitutional law. Ultimately, I want to demonstrate to the audience why a democracy cannot function without freedom of speech. I also want to show why protesting something symbolic like…… [Read More]
Hate Radio," Patricia J. illiams comments on the growing trend of "anything goes" talk radio, led by radio personalities who seem determined to anger as many people as possible, and who cater to an audience of people empowered to say almost anything, no matter how prejudiced or ill-informed about other groups of people.
She describes how she first became aware of this type of media broadcast. In 1991 she accidentally heard two radio personalities commenting about George . Bush's nomination of Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court. Their view seemed to be that Bush deliberately nominated a poorly qualified Black American candidate knowing he wouldn't be confirmed. He could then place someone there "with intelligence," presumably a non-black. They made up a new pejorative label: "Blafricans," which eliminates the reference to the American entirely.
At first she thought this exchange was unusual, and she wrote the conversation down. As an…… [Read More]
We need to stop accepting such values and themes in music in the name of freedom of speech and expression because freedom is not meant to rob another person of his rights to live peacefully and securely. If my freedom hurts the rights of someone else, it means there is something wrong with the freedom granted to me. Similarly if a person encroaches upon the rights and happiness of another person and then justifies it with freedom of speech, such a person needs to seriously reflect upon his definition of freedom.
It would be wrong to assume that people are so influenced by such lyrics that they would go around killing other people and adopt anti-social behavior but they would certainly be at risk of developing such an attitude which could prove detrimental in the long run. Secondly we must understand that artists have wider acceptance and impact among impressionable…… [Read More]
By connecting the awarding of a peace prize with the concerns of a world in which terrorism has become a constant threat, Obama makes clear the exigency of his message when he says: "I do not bring with me today a definitive solution to the problems of war."
Nobel laureates are given few formal constraints in terms of their responses but Obama faced the more general constraints of trying to meet very high expectations and the conflicting expectations of the peoples of different nations. I believe that he did a good -- though not perfect -- job in meeting these differing expectations, and so crafted a speech that served as a fitting response to the occasion.
Whether or not one believes that Obama achieved the Aristotelian concept of ethos -- the ability to make a credible ethical appeal -- depends probably more on one's own politics than the speech itself.…… [Read More]
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…… [Read More]
speech of Achilles to Agamemnon to the Speech of Hector to Andromache
The two speeches, of Achilles to Agamemnon and the one of Hector to Andromache, represent two different types of ethics in regards to rhetoric; this can be seen within the context of the speeches as well as the events. The speech of Achilles to Agamemnon is seen as a type base rhetoric, and the speech of Hector to Andromache is seen as philosophical rhetoric.
The base rhetoric is something which follows a direction of evil; it ends in exploitation and is something condemning. This type of rhetoric hates all which oppose it, and would rather that it were greater than everything else -- it despises anything equal or greater than it. The base rhetoric is something which tries to keep anything from achieving or receiving any types of support which can be seen in the form of noble…… [Read More]
Anti-Intellectualism: Why We Hate the Smart Kids
While the title of the essay "Anti-Intellectualism: Why we hate the smart kids" may resonate emotionally with many self-identified nerds, its author Grant Penrod ultimately relies too much on arguments-by-anecdotes to be really persuasive. While there is certainly evidence from modern political life about a strong anti-intellectual current within the American culture, most of Penrod's is based in personal experiences or subjective emotions. The essay opens with a complaint about a football team at one high school that received more school praise than the equally successful science bowl team, the speech and debate team, and the academic decathlon team. Penrod seems to be trying to make a persuasive case to his peers about the persecution of nerds but the essay reads more like a self-serving complaint than a true argument in defense of a persecuted segment of high school or greater American society.…… [Read More]
Lincoln's Speech Compared
The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…… [Read More]
Socrates' speech in Plato's Apology. It is this author's opinion that Socrates' position that the unexamined life is not worth living has validity. We will see that this is the case as we examine Socrates' spontaneous oration regarding virtue and how it can not be learned. Obviously, if the lives of these youths had been virtuous, then it might have been possible for them to learn this character trait and to prove Socrates wrong. This is the case because only when someone examines their life do they shake off their bigotry and raise their awareness to a higher level.
As alluded to in the introduction, Socrates is correct that the unexamined life is not worth living. This is because only those people who struggle to resolve the contradictions in their life have an existence that is real. Those who do not are at best ignorant and at worst bigots who…… [Read More]
There are a number of poignant similarities between Mama in Alice Walker's short story "Everyday Use" and Delia in Zora Neale Hurston's short story "Sweat." Both women are matriarch figures, African-American, and live in rural surroundings. As such, they each have a healthy dose of what is referred to as common sense -- although to other cultures and outsiders they may talk and act like simple, ignorant country bumpkins. Perhaps it is this perception of the two that makes them so accommodating to the will of others. But the principle similarity between each of these women is that she has a threshold for her tolerance level, and once it is broached she acts in a way that is belied by her simple, rustic manners.
There are domestic issues plaguing each of the matriarchs in their respective tales, which substantially contribute to the point at which they refuse to tolerate…… [Read More]
cause of Othello's tragedy: a fine line, not between love and hate, but too heavy a line between men and women
Othello: "It is the cause, oh my soul"
Act 5, Scene II
hat is the cause of the bloody end of "Othello?" Othello has one of the most horrifying ends of all of Shakespeare's tragedies -- a man smothers a woman he apparently loves, who gave up everything to marry him, and then kills himself when he discovers that she was chaste. Is it the cause of this terrible rooted in Othello's soul? The protagonists himself suggests that the cause is the thin line that exists between love and hate, as he looms over what will become his bride's death-bed at the end of the tragedy that bears his name, and his dying words are that he is a man who loved too much rather than too little. In…… [Read More]
Nijole V. Benokratis, Social Identity
The Christian Identity Movement
Technology made it possible for people to interact in new and interactive ways. However, many are inclined to use these mediums as a means to project their hatred toward other people or groups. These people can go as far as to organize hate groups meant to discriminate those particular people or communities. hile the authorities struggle to address this issue by investing as many resources as possible, conditions are critical as a consequence of the fact that it is especially easy for one to create and support an internet hate group.
The internet provides hate groups with the ability to support each-other and makes it possible for individuals who are part of these groups to organize thoughts and strategies meant to support discrimination toward the people or communities they are interested in differentiating. The Christian Identity Movement is a good example…… [Read More]
Martin Luther King Jr.'s iconic speech "I Have a Dream" in relation to some of the reactionary racism fuelled by Barack Obama's ascendancy to the White House. Many people believe that Obama's election to President of the United States was a fulfillment of King's infamous speech and it is not difficult to see that Obama's speech "A More Perfect Union" can easily be compared to King's speech as well. The two have quite a bit in common for important figures from different eras, and one of the things that they have in common is that racism is still alive and well in the United States. While King was faced by rampant public racism of his time, Obama has faced a new kind of racism that King was never subjected to -- Internet racism. In the months leading up to his being elected to President, the amount of threatening remarks on…… [Read More]
Since U.S. forces helped to establish this government, there is a general sense of distrust directed at Americans and American affiliated individuals. Furthermore, the use of "drones" is an especially charged subject. Stanley McChrystal, who authored the U.S. counterinsurgency strategy in Afghanistan, has publically stated that "the resentment created by American use of unmanned strikes ... is much greater than the average American appreciates. They are hated on a visceral level, even by people who've never seen one or seen the effects of one (Alexander, 2013)." Therefore, overcome the biasness towards even the most benevolent use of unmanned aerial vehicles would likely be a daunting affair.
Alexander, D. (2013, January 7). Retired general cautions against overuse of "hated" drones. Retrieved from Reuters: http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/01/07/us-usa-afghanistan-mcchrystal-idUSBRE90608O20130107
Hughes, M. (2013, March 21). arlords Set to Rule Post-NATO Afghanistan. Retrieved from Afghan Online Press: http://www.aopnews.com/opinion/hughes_warlords.shtml… [Read More]
Fictional Talk Show Script for Speech Class
The mother of a British boy who committed suicide and left behind a printout of Eminem's lyrics gets to tell her side of the story during this fictional talk show for speech class.
My name is Mary Hurcombe, mother of David Hurcombe and my son is gone. While I cannot say I hate the American rapper, Eminem, because of his influence over my son, today I listen to all music with keener interest and I hope I can deliver a message to other parents. ather than analyzing lyrics to music, parents must take the time to listen to their children. It could be a matter of life and death.
Despite the articles and news to the contrary, I'd like to say that I do not believe the lyrics of Eminem's song "ock Bottom" inspired my son to jump in front of a train…… [Read More]
The governments of China clearly believe that if they do not ban shows where the premise is based on the voting then it could lead their citizens to want the right to vote in the government on their own opinions. The influence that television has, in this case by indirectly helping Chinese citizens move in the direction of being slightly more "democratic," is seen as a threat- it is hard to believe that television could threaten the national security of a world super power.
The current influence that television has on individual's lives is only growing stronger as technology continues to develop. Recent developments have shown that television will now be in "three-dimensions," so that individuals who view TV can be full immersed in the movie or show they are watching ("ho Needs It"). But is that even necessary when nine out of ten homes have televisions in their homes…… [Read More]
A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of the work. This is accomplished by examining specific literary devices (symbols, themes, metaphors, tone, point of view, diction, structure, etc.), within the work. The purpose of a critical analysis is to demonstrate how these elements convey meaning. In your analysis, you will most likely discuss how certain literary techniques are used to convey specific ideas. You will discuss what a literary piece means and how it achieves its effect. To write critically, you must provide analysis of specific evidence from the text (words and phrases; avoid long quotes). The goal of this assignment is to give the audience an interpretation of the literature.
1. Introduction (explore the subject? of your analysis and end with a thesis statement).
2. Body Paragraphs…… [Read More]
Language and Culture
In many, if not all, instances culture is not beneficial to its subscribers. Inherent within a culture is language. Language itself is very fluid and flexible and can elicit many emotions and feelings within a person or larger group of people. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the social influences of language by describing several issues that deal with interpersonal communication and more specifically the use of language to manipulate, hypnotize and ultimately inspire others. The essay will investigate the issues of jokes, speech laws, and specified slur-words to illuminate the qualities that language brings to society.
Humor is a gift that should be enjoyed by all. Laughing makes us feel good and provides a deeper psychological function. Lickerman (2011) agreed when she wrote "perhaps laughter could be most properly considered as a weapon against suffering and despair. If we can joke about a disappointing…… [Read More]
Acquainted With the Law
Various Law Terms-3
This is either legal or illegal (Priebe, 2012). It is legal and legitimate when corporate officers, directors and shareholders of at least 10% of the outstanding stock of the business. They file the required information with the Securities and Exchange Commission at regular periods (Priebe).
Illegal Insider Trading
This is conducted by trusted person but violates that company's trust (Priebe, 2012). The person is usually someone who enjoys fiduciary trust in working for and keeping the best interest of the company or its shareholders. He may be an officer, a director or an outsider who has access to confidential information about the company. That outsider may be the company's banker, auditor, or lawyer. In general, he is an insider who gives or receives inside information or tips (Priebe).
Characteristics of the Inside Information
It must be important and private (Priebe, 2012).…… [Read More]
Internet Service Provider (ISP) Web Content Law and Ethics
The objective of this work is to answer whether Internet service providers have a responsibility to regulate the content that is available on the World Wide Web? This work will additionally answer as to whether the presence and ease of availability of pornography to the general public a tribute to free speech and a reflection of social maturity or an example of the potential damage that unregulated markets and the hegemony of technology have reaped upon society?
The Internet is such that allows consumers, businesses, and industry, alike to "do many new things in unique and efficient ways." (Tekxam, nd) There are however, reported to be areas of both legal and ethical concern with regards to the responsibilities of Internet Service providers. Some of those areas include protection of intellectual property, fraud prevention, protection of freedom of expression, protection of privacy,…… [Read More]
IT Ethics -- Annotated Bibliography
Bowie, Norman E. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information
Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Norman Bowie takes great pains in his peer-reviewed article to point out what is legal an what is not legal when it comes to recording / taping from television and from the Internet. In fact Bowie uses an illegal issue (downloading music from the Internet)
to present a moral issue: young people and students know it is illegal to download copyrighted music and movies, but they don't see it as immoral.
While Bowie zeros in on students and young people for their lack of morality vis-a-vis getting copyrighted music for free, his overall argument goes further than that copyright laws are justified when protecting "artistic creativity." He points to the fact that between
1999 and 2005, "...downloaders…reduced industry revenues by at least $700 million" and…… [Read More]
Censorship and Freedom of the Press
In 2009, Frank ainimarama, the self-appointed Prime Minister of Fiji said that freedom of speech causes trouble and is to blame for his country's political turmoil (AC News, 2009). This is only a small portion of controversial remarks and actions made by ainimarama surrounding the announcement made by President Iloilo stating the abrogation of Fiji's constitution, the dismissal of the judiciary, and the deferral of democratic elections until 2014 (Puppet show, 2009). Iloilo's decision, given its relationship to ainimarama's interim regime, which took power in a coup in 2006, being declared illegal by ruling of the Court of Appeals demanding that a neutral leader replace ainimarama immediately with dissolution of the existing government and elections to commence as soon as possible (Puppet show).
ainimarama expressed his grievance towards this decision by the Court and did not hesitate to ignore it as he showed up…… [Read More]
Power and the Use of Language, Orwell's 1984 And Beyond
George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel 1984 has become almost iconoclastic in its meaning for contemporary society. Almost like the term Machiavellianism, 1984 evokes images in popular culture, along with the author's name as an adjective, and phrases that were used in the book. Even the term "Orwellian" denotes a certain type of society; phrases like "Big Brother," "Newspeak," "Thought-Police," etc. are now part of the vocabulary when describing totalitarian regimes. The novel's premise has become part of a modern archetype, imitated on television, popular music, movies, and even one of the most popular advertisements ever made, the 1984 launch of Apple's Macintosh.
Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses on a new type of society -- repressive, totalitarian, staunch, all-powerful, all knowing, oligarchical, and pervasive. The novel's main character, Winston Smith, is a simple civil servant assigned to the daily task of perpetuating the…… [Read More]
Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement
ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.
Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…… [Read More]
On the Hobby Lobby case, the First Amendment was challenged about whether it protected the religious beliefs of an employer when it comes to the decision not to pay for insurance meant for contraceptives. The Snyder vs. Phelps case was also related to religious picketing where the issue of sidewalk picketing was under the scrutiny of whether it was outrageous. The WBC church had held a picketing in a funeral and was found guilty of saying outrageous comments in a funeral. However, the Supreme Court of United States in an 8-1 decision argued that the church was constitutionally protected to say whatever they wanted as far as they did not affect the ceremony. It was established that they had avoided the ceremony and had not been involved directly in stopping the ceremony (Zipursky, 473).
The Supreme Court of the United States favored Hobby Lobby in its ruling asserting that under…… [Read More]
The types of speech prohibited by the Emory speech code are not those pertaining to rational discourse, but the type of speech designed to make students feel inferior and unsafe while they pursue a (very expensive and time-consuming) education. The student's right to an education cannot be 'trumped' by another student's right to say hateful things designed to make another student feel as if he or she has no right to attend class, to be on campus, or to speak his or her own opinion.
Of course, some may disagree with Emory's educational philosophy. Those who do are free to seek their higher education elsewhere: "Court rulings have prohibited public (state-run) colleges and universities from enacting codes that restrict the constitutional right to free speech based on content. Private institutions, in contrast, are not subject to these decisions. Emory, for example, as a private university, can ignore public law rulings…… [Read More]
The problem is that there is no protection against this issue. This is due to the newsfeed in the profile of each user. The argument of the company is that the news feed will ensure the users get to see more content from others. however, this means that there is no certainty of the next item that the user will see on the news feed. This is a serious privacy issue to the user because they cannot view their news feed at free will because of fear on the content of the feed (Milenkovski, 2011, p1). This limits the convenience of this site to the users because of the indecency that arises out of the website.
In this instance, the company should introduce appropriate measures to curb against this issue on indecency. There should be software that detects some indecent language. This will then inhibit the viewing of such information…… [Read More]
Promoting Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
Like the many other freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, freedom of expression is deemed to be a fundamental and inalienable human right. Towards this end, it is understood, within the said framework, to constitute the “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” (United Nations, 2010, p. 107). For this reason, freedom of expression ought to be granted and guaranteed protection by any jurisdiction that prides itself as a beacon of modern democracy. The United Kingdom is one such country, alongside other countries such as the United States and Canada. It is important to note that over time, social media has become a marketplace of sorts for the exchange, advancement, as well as promotion of ideas concerning a wide array…… [Read More]
Internet Censorship in China, South Africa and the est
Internet censorship in China, South Africa and other countries is something that prohibits real discussion from taking place regarding issues that affect the public. For instance, in China, certain key word searches are automatically filtered out so that users cannot find the information they are seeking. hile Internet censorship may be good from one perspective (in terms of stemming the flow of child pornography, curbing false information, or putting a nation's interests first), it can be viewed as bad from another perspective (in terms of cutting down on the opportunity to inform sides of a dialogue, promoting free exchange of ideas, or discussing why one form of pornography is allowed but not another). This paper will show why Internet censorship can be interpreted in both positive and negative ways depending on the perspective that one adopts (whether one is pro-Statist or…… [Read More]
Globlal Organized Crime, ISIS and Criminal Justice
The impact of globalization has not just been felt around the planet in economic, political and social terms: it has also been felt in the sector of criminology. The current crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system on a global basis are, in other words, not as isolated or unconnected as they were a century ago. Today's world is connected in complex ways, especially thanks to the ease of communication that the digital era has provided. In places where the digital divide exists, crimes and criminal issues are more unique and remote (examples include genocide, such as that conducted by Boko Haram for instance in Africa). But in countries where there is no digital divide, the crimes and criminal issues that impact the criminal justice system range from counterfeiting to human trafficking to various forms of cyber crime and terrorist-related…… [Read More]
large, pornography is not harmful. Pornography has been stigmatized as have many expressions of sexuality, but for the most part the performers are adults performing of their own volition, and the consumers of pornography are finding an outlet for their sexuality. That there is stigma and judgment associated with pornography to the point where expression of human sexuality is considered to be harmful by some is unfortunate. This essay will construct the case that pornography is not harmful.
For much of the 20th century, pornography was considered to be harmful, and there were many perspectives put forward to support that idea. Some perspectives were rooted in the vestiges of Victorian-era prudishness, that considered nudity and the human form to be vulgar, and those perspectives are fairly easy to dismiss as either cultural or religious oddities. Believing something harmful and it being so are really not the same argument at all.…… [Read More]
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…… [Read More]
This essay is on the law cases Virginia v. Black and Texas v. Johnson.
Issues before the Court
The issues before the court in the two cases were related to the first Amendment about the speech. Hate speech, in particular, was the concept that was analyzed. In Texas vs. Johnson, the issue was whether cross burning is one of the constituents of symbolic speech as provided by the First Amendment. In Virginia vs. Black, the issue was whether cross burning statutes in Virginia or any other state as a prima facie evidence unconstitutional or not (Holzer, 649).
The decision of the courts and the reasons
In Texas vs. Johnson, the court ruled in favor of Johnson. It argued that cross burning constitutes symbolic speech and the First Amendment in the Constitution protects it. The reasoning of the majority argued that the freedom of speech protects some of the actions that…… [Read More]
Welcome to your new classroom, everyone place their backpacks and jackets on the hooks with your nametags and take a seat at a desk. Each of you will take all the materials you need from your backpack before you sit down, but today you don't need anything but a smile. You can sit where you like because we are all going to work together to rearrange the classroom and mark the desks with these nametags I made for you. If you will notice the nametags are just plain white but you will have time in a few minutes to decorate your nametag and make it look more like yourself, with the supplies you see on the desks. There are a few things I will talk about while we decorate nametags." (Pass out nametags to students one at a time) "First, hold up your hand if you are new to the…… [Read More]
Why was Orkut so successful in Brazil? What caused the problems later?
The path to the internet opened up in Brazil in 1988. Commercial internet operations in Brazil, however, began in 1995 after the department of communications and the department of science and technology helped create private access provider through a decree. The access to the internet for the private citizens opened up with the privatization of telecommunications. The trend of internet use spread rapidly across the country and within a few years, Brazil had the third largest internet users among the Americas after the U.S. and Canada. The social media application that was made possible by the internet gained tremendous popularity in Brazil as they became more passionate about the internet and the social media applications.
As Orkut was launched in Brazil, it became very popular. Already internet-based blogs and photographs were a hit with the Brazilians…… [Read More]
Immigration in America
Education is important in American society because it is a pathway by which success is achieved. The traditional theories that attempt to explain academic success can be divided into various groups, such as deficit thinking, which suggests that the reasons one succeeds or does not succeed are found within the person; other theories are based on economic conditions, social conditions, or a combination of both. Then there are also theories that look at the role of the method of education that is used and its function in academic success. These theories highlight the role that various factors play in whether one is successful or not in academics -- in short, all of them shed light on parts of the issue but individually, they all come up a bit short in explaining the whole phenomenon. Thus, it is important to take critical approaches to the idea, and to…… [Read More]
Most of the Jews who had settled in the Austro-Hungarian Empire were in the hinterlands, and were as poor as their neighbours. In those provinces where Jews could own land, there was a requirement that the Jews live on and work their land -- in order to prevent land speculation. As a result, many Jews in Niederoestereich and around Linz, where von Schnerer and his family resided, were themselves farmers. Natural increases and immigration resulted in large Jewish populations in the Austrian Empire; it has been estimated that over 70% of all the Jews in the world lived in these areas in the late 19th century (Engleman, 1933) One can imagine that the entry of Jewish farmers created tension within the communities of rural Austria, as they competed in the marketplace for customers, and demonstrated their abilities to succeed through education and hard work. This contrasted with the Austrian "auern,"…… [Read More]
gay couple walks hand-in-hand across campus. A man driving by in a car sees them and shouts, "Fags!" A black student is working late at a local coffee shop. A professor from one of her classes comes in and tries to order a meal. She explains that the coffee shop is closing. He insists, becomes more and more upset until he calls her a "*****" and a "nigger" and stalks away.
Both the gay couple and the young woman have been subjected to extreme verbal abuse. But should the people who said these hateful things be punished? According to Thomas Grey's article, "Civil Rights vs. Civil Liberties: The Case of Discriminatory Verbal Harassment," whether or not the speakers should pay a price for their words depends on whether one adopts a civil liberties point-of-view or a civil rights point-of-view.
The civil liberties point-of-view holds that the speakers, though undeniably obnoxious,…… [Read More]
Washington's Criminal Code CWs
The Washington Criminal Code Title 9 covers crimes and punishments, with Title 9a detailing the criminal code. Both include ample detail for everything from fraud to crimes against animals. A few of the most surprising details include abortion, abandoned refrigeration equipment, and lasers. In Title 9.02, for example, the state lists concealing birth by disposing of a dead baby as an aptly named "gross misdemeanor," (CW 9.02.050). It is, however, unsurprising and relieving to see the state "may not deny or interfere with a woman's right to choose to have an abortion prior to viability of the fetus, or to protect her life or health," (CW 9.02.110). Interestingly, though, no physician or healthcare provider can be forced to provide an abortion, which could foreseeably pose problems to women living in rural areas where access to clinics is limited and could be restricted only to facilities that…… [Read More]
Limiting te Spread of Radical and
Online ate speec or retoric tat calls for violence against anoter organization or te government itself.
Sources of information about operational tecniques, suc as ow to create bombs, develop poisons or to carry out effective violent attacks.
Wenever te subject of terrorism comes up, te question of ow to balance law-abiding Americans' rigts to individual freedom wit te need for public safety inevitably must be addressed. In 2010, in Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project, te U.S. Supreme Court found tat even "peaceful speec in te U.S. can be criminalized if it is 'coordinated' to support a foreign terrorist organization named by Congress" (Feldman 2010). Te material in question did not meet te standard of Brandenburg v. Oio, "wic eld tat advocacy of violence can be made criminal only if it is directed to incite imminent lawless action and is also likely to produce suc…… [Read More]
Social Marketing Plan
Stop Crime, Be a Human first
Historically, South Africa was colonized under a brutish Apartheid system where there was a clear distinction in South Africa between the various divisions of the population before 1991. These racial categorizations were the Africans (black), Asians, the Coloreds and the Whites. This law has long been abolished but the majority of the South Africans still view each other along these racial lines (U.S. Department of state, 2011). It is estimated that the population of South Africa is 49.9 million people of whom the black Africans make up the 79.4% of the population and are also divided into various ethnic groups. The whites take up 9.2% while the Indian/Asians make up 2.6% of the total population and 8.8% being the coloreds (SouthAfrica.info, 2011).
According to Beggs et.al, (2001) there is a wide disparity between the blacks and the whites holding white collar…… [Read More]
Terrorist Organizations and the Media
Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.
Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]
Social Media: Privacy and Free Speech
Although social media has its conveniences, there are definitely some scenarios whereby one may find it difficult to engage their intended audience. This is more so the case in those instances where the message being passed on is confidential. While there are questions I would have no problem posting on an organization's social media platform, there are definitely some queries I would prefer to have addressed via the traditional mediums like emails or phone calls. Such queries would most definitely be of a private nature. One of the key weaknesses of social media systems is their lack of privacy. Messages sent could be viewed by thousands of people and circulated widely within a matter of minutes. This is unlike is the case with an email message whose only viewers are the sender and the recipient. With social media communications, 'Big Brother' is always watching.…… [Read More]
Many sports teams use Indian logos and names as their moniker. One such team is the Washington Redskins. There are many people, both Indians and non-Indians, that say that the use of such logos is wrong and that the word "redskin" is racist. However, not all people (even including many Indians) agree on this matter (Cox et al., 2017).
The issue to address is whether the trademark/patent and other offices have the right to impose a rule or guideline based on the presumption that "redskin" is racist. There is, of course, the question of whether there are violations of Title VII, hate speech laws, etc. (Cox et al., 2017).
Rule of Law
Even if the trademark office has yanked Redskin as a usable name, there is not a clear violation of the law and there is rampant disagreement about whether redskin is a racist term. It would…… [Read More]
Psychologists’ Roles, the Law, and Juries
The role of the psychologist as a consultant in jury selection is like that of an advisor: the psychologist assesses the pool of jurors, their responses to questions put to them by the defense or prosecution, the demographics, and the demographic that would be most favorable to the defense or the prosecution. The psychologist then gives advice to either side in terms of describing which jurors should be selected and which should be challenged.
Three examples of psychological concepts that are applied to the selection of juries are: (a) self concept, (b) prejudice and discrimination, and (c) attribution theory, which is the idea that a person will attempt to understand another’s actions by attributing feelings or beliefs to that person. A psychologist will make advice based on these concepts: the self concept is the image that the individual projects—the ideas that make up…… [Read More]
On the other hand, parents are not the only ones who should feel responsible for the caliber of popular entertainment. At some point, the media industry must look inward and decide what kind of role it can or will take in the society. Because the media will be concerned primarily with the bottom line, we must, however, forgive any industry that chooses consciously to air and market violent media. When that media is aimed directly at children, though, a line has been crossed. The entertainment industry can and should be self-regulated regarding the promotion of violent video games, films, and television shows. Based on the fact that media violence potentially contributes to the public health issues that Bok addresses in Mayhem: increased fearfulness in the society; increased appetite for more media violence; desensitization to violence; and increased levels of aggression, the media industry and parents alike need to shoulder some…… [Read More]
Queen v. Dudley, a group of sailors were hired to captain a yacht from Essex, England to Sydney, Australia. Dudley was the captain, and Stephens, Brooks, and Parker were his mates and seamen. When The Mignonette capsized, the four men climbed aboard the lifeboat dinghy but had no water or supplies. Several weeks into the ordeal, Captain Dudley suggested that one of the men be sacrificed as a food source for the others so that at least three of them might remain alive rather than having them all die. Dudley first suggested they draw straws to see who would be chosen, but then decided that Parker, one of the seamen aboard, showed signs of sickness and would make an ideal candidate for sacrifice. Dudley killed Parker and the three other men ate Parker's body until they were rescued several days later. When the men returned home to England, they were…… [Read More]
Black Lives Matter’s Approach is Contradictory to the Civil Disobedience of the Civil Rights Era Movement
The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement has risen in response to what is perceived to be unfair treatment of African Americans by police. The movement stemmed from a social media hashtage #BlackLivesMatter that generated a following and resulted in the formation of a social activist group—BLM. The group’s objective is to “build local power and to intervene in violence inflicted on Black communities by the state and vigilantes” (Black Lives Matter). However, the interventionist method or approach of the BLM organization is more aggressive and hostile in terms of how it expresses itself, with many people viewing the BLM organization as similar to the Black Panthers, which advocated violence in order to achieve the desired change (Rankin). While the perception may be wrong and BLM may not in fact advocate violence, the behavior and…… [Read More]
DOJ Policy Changes
The plethora of commentary regarding the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11 has created much confusion. The overwhelming quality of the circumstances altered the collective psyche of America in deep and profound ways. In many cases these changes have provided solutions, problems and more questions.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss how 9/11 changed criminal justice policies in the United States. The essay will argue that although there have been many worthwhile and successful alterations, a small portion of the policies have provided more questions than answers. To help illuminate this hypothesis, this essay will analyze many of these changes that have been implemented and evaluate them from a new perspective.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is essentially responsible for enforcing and promoting the ideas of justice, fairness and retribution. In a ten-year retrospective of their own accomplishments and principles regarding…… [Read More]
articles that form the foundation of this analysis is Disruptive Behavior and Social Concerns (Barnes, 2015). Included in this analysis is an overview of the ethical, moral and legal implications of cyberterrorism, network and computer hacking, computer viruses, hate speech and pornography. The analysis strives to provide a balanced analysis of each area, illustrating how the inherent freedoms the Internet also provide powerful catalysts for criminals, hackers and hate groups to thrive. The paradoxical nature of Internet freedom is most clearly demonstrated in the examples of how hackers had been able to permeate a wide variety of systems and gain access to valuable data, intent on destroying it (Barnes, 2015). This article discusses the technologies underlying these areas in light detail, choosing instead to concentrate on the societal dilemmas of having an entirely open publishing medium that anyone at any time can use either ethically or unethically. The bottom line…… [Read More]