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Health Care 1875-1900 the History
Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7229617
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The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.

The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.

1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.

Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)

The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…

References

 http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001282891' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Health Care Reform One of the Major
Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39500787
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Health Care eform:

One of the major topics that have had a long history in the United States is health care reforms, which has been characterized by huge debates. Following decades of failed attempts by various Democratic presidents, a new law was enacted by President Obama to overhaul the country's health care system. The enactment of this legislation came after a year of harsh partisan combat with the purpose of ensuring access to health care insurance for millions of Americans. In addition to being the most controversial topic, health care reform law was the largest single legislative accomplishment of President Obama. Notably, this legislation will cost America's government approximately $940 billion over the next decade based on an analysis by the Congressional Budget Office. The office has also estimated that the law will lessen federal deficit by about $138 billion during the same period and a further reduction of the…

References:

Cannon, M.F. (2010, March 1). The Best and Worst Health Care Reform Ideas. Retrieved December 15, 2011, from  http://dailycaller.com/2010/03/01/the-best-and-worst-health-care-reform-ideas/ 

Cohn, J. (2011, January 20). About that Whole "Replace" Thing & #8230; Retrieved December 15,

2011, from  http://www.tnr.com/blog/jonathan-cohn/81821/about-whole-replace-thing 

"Health Care Reform.." (2011, November 15). The New York Times. Retrieved December 15,

Healthcare Lobbyists Drugmakers Hospitals and
Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 91197596
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Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).

Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…

References

BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:

 http://www.citizensforethics.org/node/44211 

Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.

Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:

Health Care Reform and Occupational
Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26010517
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The SG2 report (2010, p. 9) also mentions academic medical centers (AMCs), which will have enter into affiliation agreements in order to comply with the reformed care laws. This will furthermore mean more integrated physician networks and it integration, as mentioned above.

Two further important factors are mentioned by Moyers (2010). She notes that the inclusive nature of health care definitions for occupational therapists is a significant step forward in terms of recognizing the profession as a legitimate health care service. Occupational therapy, for example, is specifically included in the "Innovations in the Health Care Workforce" section of the new legislation. This is significant, because occupational therapists will now be eligible for state workforce grants, slots on the national commission on workforce, and other similar privileges enjoyed by other health care providers.

Other items, excluded from the bill, is the second item the author mentions. She notes that one of…

References

Davis, P.A., Hahn, J., Morgan, P.C., Stone, J., and Tilson, S. (2010, Apr. 23). Medicare Provisions in the Patient Protection. Retrieved from:  http://www.nasuad.org/documentation/aca/CRS%20Reports/April%2023%20-%20Medicare.pdf 

Moyers, P. (2010, Mar. 25). What Health Care Reform Means to Occupational Therapy.

Retrieved from: http://otconnections.aota.org/blogs/moyers/archive/2010/03/25/what-healthcare-reform-means-to-occupational-therapy.aspx

Sg2 Special Report: (2010, May). The Impact of Health Reform

Healthcare and the Uninsured According
Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 91952671
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Polls examining public support of the bill and specifically the public healthcare option vary significantly. ith regard to physicians, the New England Journal of Medicine surveyed over six thousand medical doctors and found there was a majority in favor of federally provided public healthcare insurance (Keyhani & Federman). Other polls have suggested an opposition to the public option (Marmor).

The public option would provide an affordable alternative to the current private health insurance options and would provide impetus for competition and positive change. hether "America's Affordable Health Choices Act of 2009" will be passed is currently uncertain. hat is certain is that the healthcare and health insurance system is currently not sufficient to provide healthcare support for nearly 48 million uninsured Americans. Alterations need to be made to increase access and affordability for those individuals who desire health insurance.

Conclusion

The healthcare and health insurance system in the United States…

Works Cited

Harrington, Charlene, Carroll L. Estes, and Cassandra Crawford. Health policy. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2004.

Keyhani, Salomeh, and Alex Federman. "Doctors on Coverage -- Physicians' Views on a New Public Insurance Option and Medicare Expansion." N. Engl J. Med 361.14 (2009): e24.

Kotlikoff, Laurence J. The healthcare fix. MIT Press, 2007.

Marmor, T. "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." 7 Apr 2009. 1 Nov 2009 .

Healthcare Poverty Health Care Reform
Words: 3343 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 63584903
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As a result, millions of Americans remain unable to bear the heavy financial toll of medical expenses. Indeed, the problem of a lack of insurance for many is related to the problem of the cost of healthcare. So confirms the article by Consumer Reports (CR) (2008), which finds that "health-insurance premiums have grown faster than inflation or workers' earnings over the past decade, in parallel with the equally rapid rise in overall health costs. Industry spending on administrative and marketing costs, plus profits, consumes 12% of private-insurance premiums." (CR, 1) This reiterates the case that the undue imposition of costs by the healthcare industry -- a reflection of a free-market industry with little to no regulatory oversight -- has negatively impacted the accessibility and quality of healthcare for many of the poorest users.

Moreover, these users are most vulnerable to the long-term economic damages provoked by unexpected healthcare costs. So…

Works Cited:

Bureau of Labor Education (BLE). (2001). The U.S. Health Care System: Best in the World, or Just the Most Expensive? The University of Maine.

Childress, M. (2010). Poverty is on the Upswing, but Metric is Out of Date. The Washington Independent.

Cockerham, W.C. (2004). Medical Sociology and Sociological Theory. The Backwell Companion to Medical Sociology.

Consumer Reports (CR). (2008). High Health Care Costs. Consumer Reports Health.org.

Healthcare Intro of the Representative
Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 34588361
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In addition, Senator Collins led the fight to restore critical f funding to Medicare for home health care so that elderly citizens and disabled can receive needed care in their own homes ("Biography")."

Obviously the senator encourages the funding of both Medicaid and Medicare as she has fought to ensure that both are funded correctly. Collins was also a supporter of the stimulus package that improves healthcare information technology.

As it pertains to abortions Susan Collins is also pro-choice and believes in stem cell research. She is adamant about the right of a woman to choose just as Senator Kennedy. She also voted no on prohibiting HHS grants to organization who perform abortions. She has also been a proponent of expanding stem cell research.

In both the present and the past Collins has worked to ensure that healthcare coverage is affordable. From the bill that she coauthored with Senator Kennedy…

Works Cited

Biography. Official Website of Senator Susan Collins. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from;  http://collins.senate.gov/public/continue.cfm?FuseAction=AboutSenatorCollins.Biography&CFID=1388899&CFTOKEN=51070689 

Fritze, J. Moderates in Congress feel health care push. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from;  http://abcnews.go.com/Politics/story?id=7789528&page=1 

Funding for Biomedical Research at Maine Medical Center. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from;  http://senatorcollins.blogspot.com/2009/06/funding-for-biomedial-research-at-maine.html 

Healthcare. Official Website of Edward Kennedy. Retrieved June 20, 2009 from;  http://kennedy.senate.gov/issues_and_agenda/issue.cfm?id=dad5db98-20db-4e85-9b73-7a16c4eac15f

Healthcare Has Been Changing Over
Words: 2237 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98624790
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educed costs for medical education would be the second to last alternative that would be likely to be effective. First, reducing the costs of medical eduction, through tax incentives and tuition caps, may make the medical field more attractive to some students; however, even with these in place, the costs would still be so significant that many potential future doctors would be still turned off from the profession. In contrast, free medical education would likely be very effective in recruiting students to pursue the medical profession. This would likely be especially attractive to good students who weren't good enough to receive significant scholarship money to help offset their education. However, this would be the most expensive alternative to implement for the United States. This cost could be offset by the service these doctors give, in exchange, for government-run medical facilities, but the infrastructure alone to this type of innovative plan…

References

Fox, R. & Abrahamson, K. (Oct-Dec 2009). "A critical examination of the U.S. nursing shortage: Contributing factors, public policy implications." Nursing Forum, 44(4). p. 235-244.

Ganley, B. & Sheets, I. (Jul 2009). "Educational innovations: A strategy to address the nursing faculty shortage." Journal of Nursing Education, 48(7). p. 401-405.

Medical student debt. (2011). Retrieved January 9, 2011, from  http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/about-ama/our-people/member-groups-sections/medical-student-section/advocacy-policy/medical-student-debt.shtml .

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. (No date). Retrieved January 9, 2011, from  http://dpc.senate.gov/healthreformbill/healthbill04.pdf .

Healthcare Reform
Words: 2404 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52304044
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Uninsured Population

Insurance Premiums

Budget Deficits

Healthcare Trends

Public Opinion

"Obamacare"

The topic of this research is "PPACA- Patient Protection an Affordable Care Act." PPACA has created a great impact in the healthcare industry of United States of America. The study is based on the critical analysis of the act by reviewing the performance since its inception.

Arguably the most prominent recent healthcare reform has been PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). PPACA is also known as the Affordable care act and Obamacare. It was signed by the President Obama in the year 2010 in collaboration with the Healthcare econciliation Act. This act is considered to be one of the most major reforms passed in the healthcare system of United States; the last such major reform was passed in the year 1965 in the form of Medicaid.

When this provision Act was passed in 2010, there were 50 million…

References:

Barr, Donald A. Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. JHU Press. 2011

Blendon RJ, Benson."Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform." N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (16): e55. 2010

Elmendorf, Douglas. "CBO's Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010." Congressional Budget Office. 2011

Feldman, Arthur M. Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap between Myth and Reality. CRC Press. 2011

Health Care Drivers for Increased
Words: 3735 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23797263
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097

United States

0.109

0.093808

0.036112

0.068

Utah

0.1071

0.1401

0.035696

0.073

Vermont

0.1326

0.0988

0.040851

0.114

Virgin Islands

NA

NA

NA

Virginia

0.1048

0.0829

0.080009

0.092

Washington

0.1229

0.0669

0.027831

0.068

West Virginia

0.1293

0.0774

0.036499

0.055

Wisconsin

0.0954

0.0357

0.032367

0.097

Wyoming

0.1251

0.1453

0.053867

0.075

Notes

All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.

Definitions

Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30.  for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.

Sources

Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).

From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…

References

Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.

Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.

Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].

Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.

Healthcare Leadership & Prejudices Healthcare
Words: 1543 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 3466094
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Conclusion

Prejudice and ethical/leadership issues with healthcare are nothing new but the fight to keep those standards and ethics on an even keel and prevent racism, bigotry and predudice of any sort including based on class, money, political ideology, nationalism, and so forth should be stomped out and eviscerated whenever it can be. People are people and should treated with dignity and respect regardless of their race, gender, beliefs and so forth. Even convicted murderers and rapists should not be treated disdain due to their actions because doing otherwise lowers the ethics and standards of the healthcare community that can and should still apply at all times.

eferences

Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),

143-146.

Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., ay, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.

(2008). Effect of racial differences…

References

Callahan, M. (2008). Healthcare providers constricted by financial, legislative, and regulatory issues. The Journal of Medical Practice Management: MPM, 24(3),

143-146.

Cobaugh, D., Angner, E., Kiefe, C., Ray, M., Lacivita, C., Weissman, N., & ... Allison, J.

(2008). Effect of racial differences on ability to afford prescription medications.

Healthcare Legal Issues Discuss the Impact Federalism
Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27941325
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Healthcare Legal Issues

Discuss the impact Federalism has on the regulation of health care delivery; how do the different sources of law as they related to the federal and state governments matter, if at all?

In general, federal regulation of health care delivery would be much more appropriate and efficient than state or local law, at least in so far as major aspects of health care delivery are concerned. That is because state laws vary considerably; that makes it impossible to establish a consistent or uniform standard of health care delivery across state lines. Certainly, there are aspects of health care that are appropriate to regulate at the state or even the local level, but there are others that would be much better to regulate on a national or federal level.

One of the best examples of an aspect of health care delivery that should be regulated federally are elements…

Reference

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

Health Care Reform in the United States
Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32231164
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Health Care eform:

In March 2010, after protracted public and political debate, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted into law by President Barack Obama. This legislation was one of the many health care reforms initiatives that have sought to rectify major features of the health care system in the United States such as service delivery, care coordination, and financing. Since its enactment, PPACA is considered as a milestone along the historical continuum of health care reform in America. Generally, health care reform in the United States is an issue that has continued to evolve based on the ever-growing health care needs of the population. However, this issue has been characterized with several challenges that are mainly influenced by the public's response to reform efforts.

Principal Features of U.S. Health Care System:

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which is commonly known as the Affordable…

References:

Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2012). Understanding health policy: a clinical approach (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.

"Key Features of the Affordable Care Act by Year." (n.d.). Features of the Health Law.

Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website:  http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/facts/timeline/timeline-text.html 

Leflar, R.B. (2013, July 12). Reform of the United States Health Care System: An Overview.

Health Care Program Past Current Future
Words: 2421 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 52306007
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Health Care Past, Current, And Future

The health of any nation should be a top priority for leaders and elected political representatives, but in the United States it took several centuries for the nation to begin to come to terms with providing health care for its citizens. This paper covers the gradual implementation of health care services and doctor training facilities in the U.S., and also covers the recent attempt by President Barack Obama to reform a chaotic, poor-functional and expensive health care system. Thesis: It is a scandal of massive proportions that a well-functioning, citizen-friendly universal health care system cannot be instituted in America, the world's most democratic superpower. Until the divisive and toxic political climate can be reformed, there is no chance of major reforms -- or for universal health care coverage -- in these United States.

Past Health Care Services -- Early America

Health care in colonial…

Works Cited

Daly, John. (2005). Professional Nursing: Concepts, Issues, and Challenges. New York:

Springer Publishing Company.

Gorsky, Martin. (2010). Good Health for America? History Today, 60(2), 1-6.

McCarthy, Robert L., and Schafermeyer, Kenneth W. (2007). Introduction to Health Care

Health Care Reform Federal Deficit the American
Words: 4331 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 22551835
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Health Care Reform Federal Deficit

The American Health Care Crisis and the Federal Deficit

The United States spends more than any other country on medical care. In 2006, U.S. health care spending was $2.1 trillion, or 16% of our gross domestic product. At the same time, more than 45 million Americans lack health insurance and our health outcomes (life expectancy, infant mortality, and mortality amenable to health care) are mediocre compared with other rich democracies. We spend too much for what we get.

Nothing is new about these sobering realities. The Nixon administration first declared a health care cost crisis in 1969. Four decades later, the United States still has not adopted systemwide cost controls because the politics of health care make it extraordinarily difficult to control costs. I explain below why this is so (Marmor, et al., 2009).

The starting point for understanding the politics of cost control is…

Bibliography

1. Eakin, Douglas and Michael Ramlet. (2010) "Health Care Reform is Likely to Widen Budget Deficits -- Not Reduce Them." Health Affairs, 29, no.6:1136-1141. Eakin and Ramlet examine the underpinnings of the Congressional Budget Office's projection that enacting the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will decrease deficits, and conclude that it is built on a shaky foundation of omitted costs, premiums shifted from other entitlements, and politically dubious spending cuts and revenue increases. A more comprehensive and realistic projection suggests that the new reform law will raise the deficit by more than $500 billion during the first ten years and by nearly $1.5 trillion in the following decade. This is an excellent article with regards to my article, written by two policy commentators at the forefront of their field. This article shows expertise in medical economics and offers compelling, clear arguments for the increase in the federal deficit due to the massive spending on entitlements as a result of passing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. They project deficits, opposing the Congressional Budget Office, through their insightful analysis.

2. Marmor, Theodore, Jonathan Oberlander, and Joseph White. (2009) "The Obama Administration's Options for Health Care Cost Control: Hope vs. Reality." Ann Intern Med. 150:485-489. Controlling the costs of medical care has long been an elusive goal in U.S. health policy. This article examines the options for health care cost control under the Obama administration. The authors argue that the administration's approach to health reform offers some potential for cost control but also embraces many strategies that are not likely to be successful. Lessons the United States can learn from other countries' experiences in constraining medical care spending are then explored. This article offers evidence for the lack of cost containment in the Obama administrations' plans for health reform. It gives a good analysis of the international scene in health care as well.

3. Collins, Sara, Michelle M. Doty, Karen Davis, Cathy Schoen, Alyssa L. Holmgren, and Alice Ho. (2004) "The Affordability Crisis in Health Care." Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey. Published in 2004, The Commonwealth Fund Biennial Health Insurance Survey, conducted from September 2003 -- January 2004, presents new and timely information on where the American public stands on solutions to reform the health care system. The survey finds widespread support for federal efforts to extend health insurance to more people, as well as a widely held belief that the financing of health care should continue to be a shared responsibility among individuals, employers, and the government. The survey also uncovered potential reasons for such strong support for health care reform. Among the insured and the uninsured alike, there is concern that health care security in the United States is eroding. People are experiencing reductions in insurance coverage that are threatening their financial security.

4. Etheridge, Lynn (1984) "An Aging Society and the Federal Deficit." The Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health and Society, 521-543. This article serves as early warning sign of the deficit battles to come. It argues that the conflict between the growing needs of an aging society and a federal budget which cannot afford its current commitments has become one of the nation's most difficult government policy dilemmas. Assistance for the elderly through Social Security, Medicare, and other programs-is already the federal government's largest fiscal responsibility. In 1985 these programs will require nearly half of all domestic program spending an estimated $256 billion. The future costs of these commitments will rise rapidly well into the next century, accounting-with national defense and interest costs-for virtually all of the spending increases in the projected $200 to $300 billion deficits. Etheridge asserts that the decisions about the nation's assistance to the elderly -- and about reaffirmation, reform, and/or retrenchment of these commitments-will thus be central to the coming budget debates.

Healthcare in the United States Where We
Words: 2445 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5665201
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Healthcare in the United States: Where We Have Been, Where We Are Going

The current healthcare crisis in America is not one that happened over night. It is one that has been building for more than a quarter century. There was a time in America when healthcare was a stellar institution: research, cures, technological advances, and treatments. The focus of healthcare was maintaining and improving the quality of life. Then, during the early 1980s, managed care became an entity between the physician, the patient, and the healthcare provider of hospital services. It began subtly, but has, today, become one of the most aggressive and successful business ventures of our time; and it has been the unmaking of a once stellar and progressive American institution.

Managed care is a "distinctly American" product (Birenbaum, 1997). It was legislation introduced by the Nixon Administration with the intent to regulate healthcare and to maintain…

Reference List

Bernstein, A.B., Hing, E., Moss, A.J., Allen, K., Siller, A., and Tiggle, R. (2003). Health Care in America: Trends in Utilization. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.

Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Committee on Health Care Access and Economics Task Force on Mental Health (2009). Improving Mental Health Services in Primary Care: Reducing Administrative and Financial Barriers to Access and Collaboration. The Official Journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics, March, 30, 2009, pp. 1248-1251.

Healthcare Infrastructure
Words: 372 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82828454
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Healthcare Infrastracture

Role of the Federal Government in National Healthcare Programs

The Federal Government should be among the foremost organizations that should play significant role in the National Healthcare Programs. This is because they are the leaders that the people had voted to take the responsibility of taking care of people -- and this includes the general role of establishment and support to health organizations.

There are many issues where the Federal Government should focus their role of establishing and supporting national healthcare programs. From News-Medical online, an article suggests that the Federal Government must expand its role in financing healthcare organizations such as the HIV / AIDS treatment of Americans that are affected with the disease. They must ensure that all the necessary healthcare needs and services are provided to patients especially to the low-income Americans.

To be able to perform their function of supporting the National Healthcare Programs,…

Bibliography

The Federal Government Should Expand Its Role in the Financing of HIV / AIDS Treatment for Low-Income Americans. (2004). Retrieved on Dec 09, 2004, from News-Medical Online. Web site:  http://www.news-medical.net/?id=1590 

Schoenbaum, S., Audet, A.J., Davis, K. Obtaining Greater Value from Health Care: The Role of the U.S. Government. Health Affairs, Vol. 22. No. 6.

The Government's Role.

Retrieved on Dec. 09, 2004, from HHCorp Online.

Health Care Financing Delivery
Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84141615
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WHO rates France as having the best healthcare ("World Health," 2000). In addition to universal healthcare, France also has non-profit supplementary providers, which means that the government subsidizes 70% of regular expenses but pays 100% of more expensive or long-term treatment plans (Sandier, Paris, & Polton, 2004). Money for subsidies comes from mandatory earnings contributions such as 5.25% salary, capital income, and gambling winnings (Sandier, 2004).

An argument that often arises is that people say they don't want the government deciding what medical procedures they can have. However, decisions regarding what procedures are covered by a particular health plan are made by the healthcare insurance companies, which are for-profit ("Insurance Verification," n.d.). Many people are denied treatment regardless of the illness. As already mentioned, some of the other nations with universal healthcare have supplementary plans in addition to the government plans that allow the patient more choice.

There are many…

References:

Carrasquillo, O., Himmelstein, DU.,Woodhandler, S., Bor, DH. (1999). A Reappraisal of Private Employers' Role in Providing Health Insurance. NEJM, 340(1), 109-114.

"Insurance Verification & Eligibility Services." (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.globaledgeusa.com/insurance_verification_eligibility_services/

Mahon, Mary. (2010, June 23). U.S. ranks last among 7 countries on health system performance. EurkAlert. Retrieved from  http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2010-06/cf-url062210.php 

Reid, T.R. (Producer). (2008, April 15). Frontline: Sick around the world [Television broadcast]. New York: Central Broadcasting Service.

Healthcare - Unions Implications of
Words: 2117 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32690040
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ecause unions retain the exclusive right to negotiate on behalf of its members, the individual worker may have little recourse to easily address incompetent leadership.

The Disadvantages of Unionized Labor for Healthcare Employers:

The primary disadvantages of unionized labor for healthcare employers correspond to the relative loss of control over issues and workplace elements commonly transferred to workers (through their unions), which accounts for the traditional resistance with which many employers responded to unionization attempts. On the one hand, unionized workforces are able to secure better pay and benefits from employers than would have been available to workers without union representation; likewise, employers must cede control over many aspects of operational and personnel decisions traditionally within administrative control.

On the other hand, particularly in light of the beneficial effect that unionized nursing has had on the quality of patient care and reduction in patient mortality, it is difficult to conceive…

Bibliography

Daft, R. (2005) Management (7th ed.) Mason: Thomson South Western.

Nevins, J., Commager, H. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.

New York: Pocket Books

Seago, J., Ash, M. (2002)

Healthcare - The Truth About
Words: 3685 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 27551651
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The experiences of seniors within the healthcare delivery system will alter how all Americans view healthcare. The healthcare delivery systems and overall organizational structure in the United States has been slow to adjust but that rest of the world is currently in flux that will migrate into our system. Technological advances in communication have made telehealth and telemedicine vialbel solutions to our outdated healthcare industry orgainzational structre. While these types of advances are only in their infancy, "...there seemed to be broad acceptance that telehealth and telemedicine had provided positive benefits to the worlds healthcare delivery system." (Telehealth Applications) Our technoloically challenged seniors have actually discovered the trend within the healthcare system and telehealth and telemedicine seems to be an advance that will find worldwide support so we as a nation will be reqquired to jump on the bandwagon.

In conclusion, this article review focused on new Healthcare Delivery Systems…

References

Farnsworth, Chris. "The Truth About Fraud" Washington Monthly 01 May 1997.

Joshua-Amadi, Mabel. "Recommendations: A Study in Motivation: Recruitment and Retention in the NHS" Nursing Management. February (2003).

Soloye, Daniel J. "Privacy and Power: Computer Databases and Metaphors for Information Privacy" Stanford Law Review July (2001).

Telehealth Applications. (2004) "Current Telehealth Applications" Retrieved October 26, 2004, at  http://www.startegis.com/epic/internet/inict-tic.nsf/PrintableE/it07545e.html

Health Care Privatization Unlike a
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Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.

Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.

It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…

Bibliography

Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:

 http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html  (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).

Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:

 http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm  (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).

Health Care The Next Twelve Months Over
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Health Care: The Next Twelve Months

Over the next twelve months, there will be many changes to health care in the United States. The largest and most ambitious goal is to provide the majority of Americans with health insurance (Blendon & Benson, 2010). However, there will be a presidential election and a Supreme Court ruling, which means that 2012 could be the year that determines whether the health care law moves forward or whether it is shut down. It could also go forward in part, after having large pieces of it removed, and it could go forward with some fundamental changes. How the elections go will greatly affect the law - unless, of course, the Supreme Court strikes the law down before the elections arrive. It seems like that the Supreme Court will rule on the individual mandate from a constitutional standpoint, and that could lead to some of the…

References

Blendon R.J., Benson J.M. (2010). Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 362 (16): e55.

Elmendorf, D.W. (2010). Additional information on the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Congressional Budget Office.

Peterson, C.L. & Chaikind, H. (2010), Summary of small business health insurance tax credit under PPACA. Congressional Research Service.

Health Care Blog Alycia-Care Peace of MIND& 8230 A
Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14507343
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Health Care Blog:

"Alycia-Care: Peace of Mind…a Sick Child on't Be Denied Health Coverage"

hen Alycia Steinberg found out that her baby girl had cancer, of course as a mother Alycia was very upset and worried for the health and for the life of her daughter Avey. The kind of cancer that little Avey had was also a very serious kind of cancer, leukemia, and so Alycia and her husband worried about two main problems. One, a child that was only two years old, and two, would the insurance company that the family has cover a pre-existing condition?

But because the Obama Administration managed to get the Affordable Care Act through Congress in 2010 -- and now the United States Supreme Court has ruled that the Affordable Care Act is constitutional -- Alycia and her husband can feel safe as far as their daughter's health is concerned because their insurance…

Works Cited

Salcido, Dori. (2012). Alycia-Care: Peace of Mind in Knowing a Sick Child Won't Be Denied

Health Coverage. Healthcare.gov. Retrieved July 7, 2012, from  http://www.healthcare.gov .

Healthcare Reform PPACA Determine How This Federal
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Healthcare eform PPACA

Determine how this Federal law will affect market-driven and non-market driven decisions.

One of the industries that has felt the effects of the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act most immediately and intensely was the insurance industry in the United States. One of the chief reasons that the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act was introduced and passed into American legislation was the effect of rising health care costs attributed to arbitrary and non-competitive costs exacted from healthcare consumers from the insurance industry. There was a general lack of regulation within the industry, which had been demonstrated to have had a negative impact on healthcare outcomes and trends. The United States, while the largest economy and a dominant world superpower, has an underperforming healthcare industry compared to other developed, industrialized nations.

One of the central conflicts associated with the Patient Protection Affordable Care Act is related to philosophical differences…

References

Gitlin, Saul. (2002) "Demystifying the Asian-American Market" Retrieved from: http://www.mrcc-online.com/presentations/Asian_American_Market_11-12-02.pdf

Greenfield, Lazar. (2010). "National Health Care Expenditures: Addressing the Cost of Health Care in the United States" Annals of Surgery. 251: 2.

Weiss, Joshua A., Medical Marketing in the United States: A Prescription for Reform. George Washington Law Review, Vol. 79, p. 260, 2010. Available at SSRN:  http://ssrn.com/abstract=1748902

Healthcare Strategic Management
Words: 1155 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64828413
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Healthcare management (Strategic operations plan)

Several studies, including Kelly arnes, show that healthcare generally moves from "costly settings" such as hospitals into cheaper and more flexible options, such as retail clinics and mobile health

What this actually shows as a future trend is that the global recession has played an important role in defining the customer profile. Clients are no longer interested solely in the best available services, but in low-cost services. For this, they look at flexible options and, in the same context of flexibility, they look more and more towards customization. Customization includes customized treatments and customized location (home, hospital, clinics, mobile)

At the same time, the demand for innovation remains key. The Harvard usiness Review points to the demand for innovation in emerging markets, such as China and India, but this is also true, to a different degree, for the U.S. market

. Innovation can take different…

Bibliography

1. Barnes, Kelly. Factors affecting 2014 Medical Cost Trend. PriceWaterHouse Coopers. On the Internet at  http://www.pwc.com/us/en/health-industries/behind-the-numbers/index.jhtml . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014

2. Top Trends in Healthcare, medicine & pharmaceuticals. What's Next. On the Internet at  http://www.nowandnext.com/?action=top_trend/list_trends&sectorId=10 . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014

3. N.a. Megatrends in Global Health Care. On the Internet at  http://hbr.org/web/extras/insight-center/health-care/globaltrends/2-slide . Last retrieved on March 6, 2014

4. Child Trends. (2013). Fertility and birth rates. Available at: http://www.childtrends.org/?indicators=fertility-and-birth-rates

Healthcare Dan Hall a Self-Described
Words: 2809 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 77363048
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A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.

The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).

Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…

References

Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44

Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9

Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow,  http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009

Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11

Health Care Reform Several Years
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Contracts with doctors often contain a clause which doesn't allow the doctors to discuss

Health care 7 with their patients financial incentives to deny treatment or about treatments not covered by the plan (Glazer, 1996). This has caused many consumers, especially those with chronic illnesses, to form organizations with the American Medical Association and physician specialty groups to promote legislation forbidding "gag rules" (Glazer, 1996). One group, Citizen Action, has 3 million members and "has been lobbying in state legislatures for laws that would require plans to disclose how they pay their doctors; give patients the right to choose specialists outside the plan; and provide appeals for patients who get turned down for expensive treatments" (Glazer, 1996).

The doctor-patient relationship is also affected if a patient must switch to a new doctor under managed care. Having a longterm relationship with a primary doctor is important because he or she is…

Works Cited

Bennett Clark, Jane (1996, July). What you should ask your HMO.

Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine. pp. 92-93.

Glazer, Sarah (1996, April 12). Managed Care. CQ Researcher, 6,

Koop, C. Everett (1996, Fall). Manage with care. Time. pp. 69.

Health Care Reform Through the
Words: 2167 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13494733
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Not only do these practices discourage preventative care and monitoring, they also diminish the quality of the good that insured individuals are buying from the health insurance companies. Insured individuals are paying for insurance and paying for most of their healthcare costs in addition because of the exorbitant deductibles. PPACA's prohibition of these practices ultimately forces health care companies to raise the bar and give health insurance customers more value for money.

Public-Private Partnerships Prevent ureaucratization of Health Care

There are widespread misconceptions that the PPACA will provide health insurance through some government-run bureaucracy. Actually, PPACA is built on close cooperation between health insurance companies and the government. Under PPACA, the government does not operate hospitals nor does it provide medical insurance to individuals. Actually, it requires individuals to carry some form of private health insurance or suffer a penalty. The only time the government becomes involved is when an…

Bibliography

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Public Law 111 -- 148. Available at  http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf 

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - Summary.  http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z-d111:HR03590:@@@L&summ2=m&summary 

"An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act,

Letter to the Honorable Evan Bayh." Congressional Budget Office. Douglas W. Elmendorf. November 18, 2009. Available at  http://cbo.gov/ftpdocs/107xx/doc10781/11-30-Premiums.pdf .

Healthcare Infrastructure
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Healthcare Infrastructure

JCAHO:

The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations -JCAHO is among the leading health-care benchmarks setting and accrediting bodies in the world today. To provide for continuous improvement to the safety and quality of health care provided to the general public through the provision of health care accreditation and the related services, which enable performance improvement in organizations that provide healthcare is the mission of JCAHO. The Joint Commission assesses and accredits almost 20,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States. It is an independent and non-profit organization. JCAHO has developed modern and professionally-based benchmarks. The Joint Commission assesses the compliance healthcare organizations using these standards. JCAHO services are provided to the full range of organizations involved or assisting in healthcare in any form. An organization accredited by the Joint Commission is acknowledged all around the country as meeting the performance standards of JCAHO, which…

References

"Health Facility Quality Assurance" Retrieved from http://66.102.7.104/search?q=cache:slYBAH_cu48J:www.doh.wa.gov/HWS/doc/HS/HS_FSL.doc+DOH+regulates+hospitals& hl=hi& ie=UTF-8 Accessed on 18 November, 2004

"HHS: What We Do" Retrieved from  http://www.hhs.gov/about/whatwedo.html/ 

Accessed on 18 November, 2004

"JCAHO: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations" Retrieved from http://www.qmsonline.com/jcaho.htm. Accessed on 18 November, 2004

Healthcare Bill
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Healthcare Bill

ef: The Health Care bill signed by Andrew M. Cuomo -- Governor for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder

I wish to state that the legislation must have come in earlier than this. Autism is a condition that requires medication and care for children and the legislation passed by the Governor Albany, NY on November 1, 2011 requires that the treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder be brought under the health care coverage. This is a laudable step in New York and it will be a blessing to such families with autistic children to afford the expensive health care costs. The law now makes it mandatory for the health insurance companies to provide coverage for treatment of autism spectrum disorders, and the companies however may resort to 'deductibles, co-pays, and coinsurance consistent with those imposed on other benefits.' (Cuomo, 2011)

Discussing the law Governor Andrew M. Cuomo said that the…

References

Cuomo, Andrew M. (2011) "Governor Cuomo Signs Law to Expand Health Care

Coverage for Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder"

Retrieved 12 November 2011 from  http://www.governor.ny.gov/press/1112011Spectrum%20Disorder 

National Conference of State Legislatures. (2011) "Insurance coverage for Autism"

Health Canadian Health Care the
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In 2004, a Ten-Year Plan to Strengthen Health Care was announced, primarily intended to improve access to medical services, decrease wait times, and update medical equipment and ensure accurate reporting and enhance public health promotion and prevention programs. Shortly thereafter, the Canadian Supreme Court affirmed the nation's health care philosophy and the immediate need to implement further improvements envisioned by the ambitious 2004 plan in striking down a Quebec law that had prohibited private medical insurance for covered services:

The evidence in this case shows that delays in the public health care system are widespread and that in some serious cases, patients die as a result of waiting lists for public health care...In sum, the prohibition on obtaining private health insurance is not constitutional where the public system fails to deliver reasonable services."

According to legal experts, the decision could "open the door to a wave of lawsuits challenging the…

References

Canadian Medical Association Journal.

1939 September; 41(3):

Chaoulli v. Quebec: Judgments of the Supreme Court of Canada Accessed, September 2, 2007, at http://scc.lexum.umontreal.ca/en/index.html

Kraus, C. (2005) Canada's Supreme Court Chips Away at National Health Care.

Health Care Bill Formulation Oral
Words: 3227 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15017313
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The research thus concludes the essence of having quality and effective legislation addressing the aspects of overall oral health of the people.

Additionally, the Canadian Dental Association also relates several issues of the overall body health to the oral health of the individual. In view of the article on the relation "oral health -- good life," the article gives information on the essence of good oral health, indicating some of the illnesses of ill oral health (Chattopadhyay, 2011). In this article, the relation between the ill oral health and the overall health of the body is that the mouth is the ingress to the body. Therefore, an individual with ill oral health is at the highest risk of having infection that affects the whole body system severely. According to this article, it emphasizes the need for dentists-patient relation as the dentists is the only person with the skill, expertise and…

References

Chattopadhyay, a. (2011). Oral health epidemiology: Principles and practice. Sudbury, Mass:

Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Ramseier, C.A., & Suvan, J.E. (2010). Health behavior change in the dental practice. Ames,

Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell.

Healthcare Addressing the Issue of
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Stated to be barriers in the current environment and responsible for the reporting that is inadequate in relation to medical errors are:

Lack of a common understanding about errors among health care professionals

Physicians generally think of errors as individual that resulted from patient morbidity or mortality.

Physicians report errors in medical records that have in turn been ignored by researchers.

Interestingly errors in medication occur in almost 1 of every 5 doses provided to patients in hospitals. It was stated by Kaushal, et al., (2001) that "the rate of medication errors per 100 admission was 55 in pediatric inpatients. Using their figure, we estimated that the sensitivity of using a keyword search on explicit error reports to detect medication errors in inpatients is about 0.7%. They also reported the 37.4% of medication errors were caused by wrong dose or frequency, which is not far away from our result of…

Bibliography

Discussion Paper on Adverse Event and Error Reporting In Healthcare: Institute for Safe Medication Practices Jan 24, 2000

Patient Safety/Medical Errors Online at the Premiere Inc. page located at:  http://www.premierinc.com/all/safety/resources/patient_safety/downloads/patient_safety_policy_position_2001.doc 

Medstat / Shortell, S. Assessing the Impact of Continuous Quality Improvement on Clinical Practice: What It Will Take to Accelerate Progress.

Health Policy Monitor (2001) A Publication of the Council of State Governments Vol. 6, No. 1 Winter/Spring 2001 PO18-0101

Healthcare Propsal Are Immigrants Left
Words: 2880 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 45935050
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Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.

What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?

The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:

"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…

Reference List

Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,

CT.

Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly

Health Conundrum Healthcare Financing and Nursing Healthcare
Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89048695
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Health Conundrum

Healthcare Financing and Nursing

Healthcare is one of the most contentious subjects in the United States today, with the financing of the healthcare system the specific issue of concern in legal, ethical, and pragmatic spheres. The debate surrounding this industry has impacted all areas of the healthcare industry, including the nursing profession, in a variety of complex ways that are both direct and indirect. ising healthcare costs without a rising ability to pay has created a strain on many medical institutions, and a rising demand for are with the rapidly aging population of the United States (that is, with a much larger older generation(s) in the country, the overall demographic of the nation is shifting quickly towards more elderly and care-intensive individuals) has not been adequately met with a rising provision of services (Kovner et al. 2011). The following paragraphs will explore several implications of this situation on…

References

Cleverley, W., Cleverley, J. & Song, P. (2011). Essential of Healthcare Finance. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett.

Kovner, A., Knickman, J., Weisfield, G. & Jones, S. (2011). Jonas & Kovner's Health Care Delivery in the United States. New York: Springer.

Mason, D., Leavitt, J. & Chaffe, M. (2007). Policy & Politics in Nursing & Healthcare. New York: Elsevier.

Health Care Professions Issues and Questions I
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Health Care Professions: Issues and Questions

I believe that health care is indeed a right for all people. Just as personal and public safety is a right that we all believe in, ascribe to, and pay to uphold, so we should also protect the right to be healthy. It is the nation's job to help create an existence for its citizens that is free from disease and other forms of harm. The government does this in other concrete ways for its people, such as by providing definitive means of protection through a police force and through legislation to protect public and personal safety. Thus the health and wellness safety of its people needs to be treated as equally important. Those who oppose a pervasive and comprehensive healthcare system for all (and with it, the taxes that come to all in order to afford such a system) often argue that sick…

References

Boseley, S. (2005, December 19). UK agencies still hiring poorest nations' nurses. Retrieved from theguardian.com:  http://www.theguardian.com/society/2005/dec/20/health.politics 

Roy, A. (2013, March 28). Yes, Health Care is a Right -- An Individual Right. Retrieved from Forbes.com:  http://www.forbes.com/sites/theapothecary/2013/03/28/yes-health-care-is-a-right-an-individual-right/

Health Care Systems Management as
Words: 9550 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 98461776
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The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.

In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.

Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…

References:

Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .

Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.

Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.

Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .

Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients Probing What
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Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients

Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.

According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…

Bibliography

Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database,  http://www.questia.com .

Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.

The Hastings Center Report.

Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.

Healthcare Issues in the Law
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IV. HOME-GENERATED SHARPS CONSOLIDATION POINT COMPLIANCE home-generated sharps consolidation point must comply with the requirements stated as follows:

1) All sharps waste shall be placed in sharps containers;

2) Sharps containers ready for disposal shall not be held more than seven (7) days without the written approval of the enforcement agency." (State of California Division of Drinking Water and Environmental Management, 2007)

V. RESPONSE of the SHARP'S CORPORATION

According to the representative for the Sharps Corporation:

We believe this to be a break-through event for the Company as the legislative process now mandates the proper disposal of used syringes, needles and lancets outside of the traditional healthcare setting in California. We believe that the California legislation could prove to be the model for legislation throughout the country. This legislation has the potential to not only positively impact our residential community business but also sales opportunities in all markets we serve…

Bibliography

OSHA eTools and Electronic Products for Compliance Assistance Teen Worker Safety in Restaurants, 2007 Cleanup/Cuts. Online available at: www.osha.gov/SLTC/youth/restaurant/cleanup_cuts.htm

Sharps Compliance Corp. Announces Passage of California Legislation; California Senate Bill 1305 Requires Proper Disposal of Home-Generated Sharps." Business Wire. July 17, 2006. FindArticles.com. 28 Feb. 2007.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2006_July_17/ai_n16535433 

Senate Bill No. 1305 Passed the Senate May 11, 2006, Passed the Assembly June 26, 2006. Online available at http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/05-06/bill/sen/sb_1301-1350/sb_1305_bill_20060628_enrolled.pdf.

Promote Foster Improve Workplace Opportunity California Department of Industrial Relations (2000-2001 Biennial Report) State of California OPS 02 69225.

National Health Care Reform --
Words: 1528 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70137445
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nytimes.com/2010/05/24/health/policy/24health.html?scp=6&sq=congress%20health%20care%20may%202010&st=cse http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/28/why-americans-hate-single-payer-insurance/?scp=7&sq=health%20care%20the%20single%20payer%20issue&st=cse

Peter Baker, "As Oil Slips Away, So Do Chances for Obama," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/us/politics/03memo.html?scp=3&sq=obama health care plan&st=cse

Robert Pear, "Health Insurance Companies Try to Shape Rules," New York Times,  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/16/health/policy/16health.html 

Robert Pear, "Study Points to Health Law's Penalties," New York Times,  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/24/health/policy/24health.html?scp=6&sq=congress%20health%20care%20may%202010&st=cse   http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/28/why-americans-hate-single-payer-insurance/?scp=7&sq=health%20care%20the%20single%20payer%20issue&st=cse 

Peter Baker, "As Oil Slips Away, So Do Chances for Obama," New York Times,  http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/us/politics/03memo.html?scp=3&sq=obama  health care plan&st=cse

National Health Care Reform the
Words: 1329 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51364811
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Obama's health care reform will make health care more accessible and more affordable and make insurers more accountable, as well as expand health care coverage to every American and make the health care system sustainable by stabilizing family budgets, the economy and the Federal budget.

The cost of Obama's overall health care bill will cost approximately $940 billion over 10 years, according to the Congressional udget Office. The bill will include that by the year 2014 there will be significant health access reforms. Insurers will be prohibited from denying coverage to people with medical problems of charging them more money (CS 2010).

While these numbers do sound manageable, Congress has not responded kindly to Obama's health care reform ideas. When Obama has even mentioned the idea of health care for illegal immigrants, the president was rudely interrupted by a heckler yelling, "you lie" ( ). Under Obama's proposal of health…

Bibliography

CBS News. "What's in a health care bill? Take a dose." Retrieved on June 1, 2010, from the Web site:

 http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/03/19/politics/main6314410.shtml 

CNN.com. (2010) "Obama calls for congress to face health care challenge." Retrieved on June 5, 2010, from the Web site:

 http://www.cnn.com/2009/POLITICS/09/09/obama.speech/index.html

National Health Care Reform --
Words: 1572 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74363540
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The ultimate House vote was two hundred and twenty to two hundred and seven. The senate vote was fifty three to forty three. The republicans were collectively opposed in both chambers (3 June 2010, 3).

The Future of the Health Care ill

Subsequent to disagreements as political enemies for more than a year, the Obama administration and the health insurance industry realized that they require one another.

oth have huge stakes in the success of the new health care law (14 May 2010, 1)

The political destiny of President Obama and Congressional Democrats rely on their capability to interpret it's assurance into realism for voters. This can be attained by restraining health expenses and making insurance accessible to everybody at reasonable price. Similarly, the fiscal future, in fact the continued existence, of the health insurance industry relies on the government. That is on set of laws being written by federal…

Bibliography

1. "Critics Question Study Cited in Health Debate, " New York Times, 2 June 2010, sec. a, p. 1.

2. "Health Reforms," New York Times, 26 March 2010, sec. a, p. 1.

3. "Two Health Care Adversaries Find a Need to Collaborate, " New York Times, 3 June 2010, sec. B, p.3.

4. "Companies Try to Shape Rules, " New York Times, 15 May 2010, sec. a, p.22

History of Health Care Mandate the Signing
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History Of Health Care Mandate

The signing of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) by President Obama must be considered a landmark event in the history of the nation regardless of how one views the constitutionality of the legislation. Passage of the legislation marked the end of a long and acrimonious debate and brought the United States in line with the rest of the developed world in terms of providing universal health coverage to its citizens (Orszag, 2010). Unfortunately, the debate over the constitutionality of the ACA did not end with Obama's signing of the legislation as within days several different states filed suit against the law's requirement that most Americans purchase health; against the health care mandate.

The health care mandate was first offered as an option by the conservative think tank, the Heritage Foundation, as an option to the single-payer system that had been historically supported by Democrats and…

References

Block, S. (2010, April 29). IRS Lacks Clout to Enforce Mandatory Health Insurance. USA Today, pp. www.usatoday.com/money/perfi/insurance/2010-04-29 healthirs28_CV_N.htm?loc=interstitialskip.

Jost, T.S. (2010). Health Insurance Exchanges and the Affordable Care Act: Eight Difficult Issues. Lexington, VA: Washington and Lee University School of Law.

Orszag, P.R. (2010, August 12). Health Care Reform and Cost Control. New England Journal of Medicine, pp. 601-603.

Ponnuru, R. (2012, March 27). The History of the Individual Mandate. Retrieved from National Review Online:  http://www.nationalreview.com/corner/294585/history-individual-mandate-ramesh-ponnuru

President Clinton's And Obama's Health Care Policies
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President Clinton's And Obama's Health Care Policies

President Obama's Healthcare policies

The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has drawn some comparisons to elements of past efforts, including Mitt omney's health care plan in Massachusetts and the Clinton plan from the 1990s. This paper will mainly examine the context of the Clinton Plan vs. The ACA. After winning office, President Clinton followed up on a campaign promise to provide health care to the 37 million uninsured Americans. This plan had motivation citing a strong sense of social justice, especially in light of America's tremendous wealth. There was majority public approval for the plan at the time. However, a single payer plan idea faced opposition and Clinton needed to create an alternative (Pfiffner, 1994).

The Clinton government recognized that a major overhaul was not going to find favor, so he sought to implement a plan that would expand coverage rather than dramatically restructure…

References

Pfiffner, J. (1994). President Clinton's health care reform proposals of 1994. Executive-Legislative Relations. Retrieved April 30, 2013 from http://www.thepresidency.org/storage/documents/President_Clintons_Health_Care_Reform_Proposals.pdf

Mary, W. (2010). The Affordable Care Act. Journal of Vermont Nurse Connection, 13(4), 3.

Ha, J. (2012). "Health Care Reform" vs. "ObamaCare": Partisan Framing of FOX, MSNBC,

NYT, and WSJ. Journal of Communication, Culture & Technology (CCT), 8(1).

U S Health Care System to
Words: 1546 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88869998
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Where, it will reduce the total amount by $138 billion in ten-year. This is despite, the fact that $950 billion is going to be spent implementing such changes. What this shows, is that when implementing the strengths of the French system with that of the American system, you can have high quality health care services and maintain costs.

ibliography

Health Care ill to Cut Deficit. (2010, March 18). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Reuters website:

http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61O4NV20100318

Tired of Waiting for Your Doctor. (2006, November 20). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from MSNC website:

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15487676/

Dutton, P. (2007, August 11). France's Model Health Care System. Retrieved April 12, 2010 from oston.com

website:

http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2007/08/11/frances_model_healthcare_

system/

Foley, T. (2009, March 8). 5 Questions about French Health Care. Retrieved April 12, 2009 from Change.org website: http://healthcare.change.org/blog/view/5_questions_about_french_health_care

Foy, A. (2009, September 10). Give Me Liberty or Give Me Health Care. Retrieved April 12, 2010 from American…

Bibliography

Health Care Bill to Cut Deficit. (2010, March 18). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from Reuters website:

 http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE61O4NV20100318 

Tired of Waiting for Your Doctor. (2006, November 20). Retrieved April 12, 2010 from MSNBC website:

 http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/15487676/

History of Healthcare in the
Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 7178250
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By 1935, during the Presidency of Franklin oosevelt, the Social Security Act, "one of the great landmarks in the history of healthcare legislation in the United States" (Couchman, 2001, p. 245), prompted the government to accept some responsibility for the future security of the aged, the handicapped and the unemployed as it relates to healthcare needs. In 1939, the oosevelt Administration also introduced the Wagner National Health Act which "gave general support for a national health program to be funded by federal grants to states and administered by states and localities" ("A

Brief History," 2009, Internet); however, due to a rapid decline in progressivism and the costs linked to World War I, this act failed to create a national healthcare agenda.

In 1943, the federal government finally came to acknowledge that healthcare was a major national priority which soon led to the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill which called for "compulsory national health…

REFERENCES

"A Brief History: Universal Healthcare Efforts in the U.S." (2009). PNHP. Internet.

Accessed June 15, 2009 from  http://www.pnhp.org/facts/a_brief_history_universal_health_care_efforts_in_the_us.php .

Anderson, William H. (2006). The U.S. Healthcare Dilemma: Mirrors and Chains.

New York: Auburn House.

Strategic Management of Healthcare Strategic
Words: 600 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 36359287
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These environmental factors of patients' rights with regard to reporting their medical histories, allowing them to review them, and also ensuring they are archived to HIPAA standards are all risks for the clinic as well (Huang, Liu, 2011).

The governmental factors that pose the most risk to the clinic are the regulations on how quality management programs are put into place and reported over time (Edmund, 2010) and the requirement of ensuring consistency of reimbursement processes of payments from government agencies (Navarro-Espigares, Torres, 2011). These two factors are going to create higher levels of risk for the clinic from a government compliance standpoint, in addition to future services planning one. All future services of the clinic will need to be consistent with the approaches as defined by the current and future healthcare legislation being enacted by Congress as of March 2011. These laws and the future oens being enacted will…

References

Edmund, M.. (2010). Quality Key Ingredient in Healthcare Reform. Quality Progress, 43(5), 12,14.

Huang, H., & Liu, K.. (2011). Efficient key management for preserving HIPAA regulations. The Journal of Systems and Software, 84(1), 113.

Navarro-Espigares, J., & Torres, E. (2011). Efficiency and quality in health services: a crucial link. The Service Industries Journal, 31(3), 385.

National Health Care Reform Type
Words: 1556 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 18425829
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nytimes.com/2009/02/01/business/01unbox.html accessed June 5, 2010

Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's Views of What Ails Health Care." New York Times, September 8, 2007 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/08/business/08interview.html accessed June 5, 2010

Pear, Robert. "At a House Party on Health Care." New York Times, December 22, 2008 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2008/12/23/health/23health.html accessed June 5, 2010

Pear, Robert. "Democrats Woo Abortion Foes." New York Times, March 19, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/20/us/politics/20health.html accessed June 5, 2010

Rabin, Roni. "ig Gains for Young People." New York Times, May 24, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/25/health/25land.html accessed June 5, 2010

Sack, Kevin. "usiness Group Joins Suit on Health Law." New York Times, May 14, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/15/health/policy/15lawsuit.html accessed June 5, 2010

Urbina, Ian. "ig Insurance Rate Increase for Pennsylvania Poor." New York Times, March 16, 2010 [online] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/17/health/policy/17penn.html accessed June5, 2010

End Notes

"Health Care Reform." New York Times, March 26, 2010 [online] http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_managed_care/health_care_reform/index.html?scp=1-spot&sq=health%20care%20reform&st=cse accessed June 5, 2010

Ibid

Holstein, William. "A Drug Maker's…

Bibliography

"Health Care Reform." New York Times, March 26, 2010 [online]  http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/health_insurance_and_managed_care/health_care_reform/index.html ?scp=1-spot&sq=health%20care%20reform&st=cse' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

President Clinton's and Obama's Health Care Policies
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President Clinton's And Obama's Health Care Policies:

Since the 1960's, universal health care has continued to be a major aspect of social reform to an extent that the right to health care for all Americans has been a central issue in political debates. The debate regarding universal health care was particularly fueled by the enactment of the Social Security Act in 1965 that guaranteed care services for the poor and elderly through Medicare and Medicaid. Despite of these attempts to provide health care to the poor and elderly, universal health care has remained a lurking legislative fiasco for more than four decades. During the 1990's, the then presidential candidate, Bill Clinton, propelled this issue to the vanguard of his campaigns as the focus shifted to health care reform. However, his administration failed to enact a health care bill because of a stubborn Democratic Congress. Universal health care was also a…

References:

Klein, J. (2012, December 17). Obamacare vs. Medicare. Time, 180(25).

Levin, Y. & Ponnuru, R. (2012, February 6). Romney vs. Obamacare: What the Presumptive

Nominee Should Say, National Review, 34-35.

Santana, A. (2012). Obama vs. Clinton on Health Care. Slope Media Group.

Why Don't Republicans Support Healthcare Reform
Words: 839 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96895138
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Media and Health Policy Processes

There is no doubt that politics plays a crucial role in healthcare legislation and reforms in the United States. After all, the U.S. Congress passes laws, and so automatically any proposed legislation is passes or fails due to how political representatives act on the law. Professor Thomas Oliver (John Hopkins University) makes that point abundantly clear in his scholarly article. This paper references Oliver's article and a peer-reviewed piece in the journal Economics, Management, and Financial Markets (Boubacar, 2006).

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

It should be noted that when Barack Obama ran for election among his major points was the need to reform healthcare policies in America -- and the need to create new laws and policies. He was elected by a wide margin and he set out to develop legislation that could bring meaningful reform and could provide insurance for an…

Works Cited

Boubacar, I, and Foster, S. (2014). Analysis of Small Business Owners' Perception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: Evidence from Wisconsin Farmers.

Economics, Management, and Financial Markets, 9(1), 11-20.

CNN. (2009). Obama calls for health-care reform in 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2014, from  http://www.brandnewz.com .

O'Keefe, E. (2014). The House has voted 54 times in 4 years on Obamacare. Here's the full list. The Washington Post. Retrieved June 13, 2014, from  http://www.washingtonpost.com .

Public Policy Healthcare Issue --
Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9969418
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Unfortunately, the influence of the healthcare industry lobbyists is tremendous. One need only look up the publicly available information of how much large healthcare interests contribute to members of the U.S. Congress in any given year to understand why healthcare legislation continues to favor corporations over the members of the American public, almost half of whom cannot afford health insurance (Kennedy, 2006; eid, 2009).

Challenges, Problems and Next Steps

The principal problem responsible for the perpetuation of this issue is that political lobbying is currently an accepted process in the U.S. That poses tremendous challenges, largely because the very individuals whose attention, resolve, and action would be required to rectify the situation are those who currently benefit the most from it: elected members of the U.S. Congress. Unfortunately, only a small minority of those stakeholders -- most notably epresentative Anthony Weiner of New York and Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont…

References

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.

Health Care Reform Has Been
Words: 1375 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79622410
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Despite of the receipt of federal funding to assist in the set-up of an insurance exchange program, the Minnesota legislature is not cooperating with the Governor Drayton's plans to design a program. Instead, in a classic example of partisan politics, the legislature is going forward with its own plans to design an exchange program. In doing so, the legislature is placing the State of Minnesota in a position of possibly losing the grant provided by the federal government. According to the grant provisions, the state must show it can operate an effective exchange program by the end of calendar year 2012 or the federal government under the terms of ACA will impose a one size fits all exchange on the state. Even the state's most conservative political groups oppose this happening and advocate that the state's executive and legislative branches cooperate in formulating an acceptable state exchange program.

The effect…

Works Cited

Berkel, Jessica Van. "HCMC fights back against Pawlenty's GAMC Cuts." 3 December 2009. Minnesota Daily .  http://www.mndaily.com/2009/12/03/hcmc-fights-back-against-pawlenty%E2%80%99s-gmac-cuts . 7 April 2012.

Gray, Virginia. "Incrementing Toward Nowhere: Universal Health Care Coveragein the States." Publius (2010): 82-113.

Harrington, Scott E. "The Health Insurance Reform Debate." The Journal of Risk and Insurance (2010): 5-38.

Minnesota Department of Human Services. "General Assistance Medical Care." 11 September 2011.  http://www.dhs.state.mn.us/main/idcplg?IdcService=GET_DYNAMIC_CONVERSION&RevisionSelectionMethod=LatestReleased&Redirected=true&dDocName=id_006257 . 7 April 2012.

Canada Health Care Act of 1984 Helping the Health of Citizens
Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57227011
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Canadian Healthcare Legislation

The people of Canada did not have elected officials who were creative enough or bold enough to put universal healthcare legislation on the books until 1984, although there were attempts to provide healthcare coverage for Canadians before that date. This paper reviews the way in which healthcare coverage was introduced in Canada and reviews two programs, Canada Health Act and Medical Care Insurance Act.

Development of Health Services in Canada

Before the end of orld ar II, the Saskatchewan government -- moved by the Cooperative Commonwealth Federation Party (CCF) -- began plans to introduce a publically financed health care system. The Saskatchewan government hired Johns Hopkins professor Henry Sigerist to help devise a plan, and he urged the government to go ahead and develop a "total health care organizations that would ensure that all citizens ... " could get good medical care (Crichton, 1997). There had been…

Works Cited

Crichton, A. (1997). Health Care: A Community Concern? Developments in the Organization of Canadian Health Services. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.

Were poor people as salutary as the rest of those living in America, there would likely be a slight decline in inpatient admission. This writer believes that the decline would not exceed 15 percent of the current inpatient admission for this population, which is approximately 17 percent. Therefore, the decline would only be approximately 3 percent. Quite obviously, this figure of 3 percent is engedered by multiplying the 15 percent by the percentage of the current population, which is in fact 17 percent. That figures equals .0255; when rounding up, it is approximately three percent. As such, there are numerous considerations which, when properly applied to the foregoing scenario, reinforce the fact that the decline in inpatient admission percentage would not be excessive. Perhaps the most cogent of these, and the ones to which the other considerations inextricably relate, pertains to the fact that poor people simply cannot afford healthcare…

Healthcare Reform and Healthcare Strategic Human Resources
Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97937260
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Human esources

Healthcare

Strategic human resource management:

Applications in a healthcare organization

It has been said that one of the great ironies of healthcare is that despite the fact it is an industry where the 'human' dimension is so important, the H department is often one of the most-overlooked aspects of healthcare organizations. "There is arguably no other labor-intensive industry that is so reliant upon a highly skilled, highly educated, high-cost, and high-in-demand workforce that literally makes life-or-death decisions every day. And yet, in many hospitals and health systems H remains an afterthought in the C-suite" (Commins 2013:1). However, the need for change is constant, and many organizations are finding they must 'adapt or die,' given the new realities they are facing. "by the federal healthcare law, the inevitable and growing shortages of skilled healthcare professionals, and the newfound and measurable importance of patient satisfaction scores for reimbursements will prompt…

References

Commins, J. (2013). Ready or not healthcare HR is going strategic. Health Leaders Media.

Retrieved from: http://www.healthleadersmedia.com/content/HR-266470/Ready-or-Not-Healthcare-HR-is-Going-Strategic

Kabene, S. (et al. 2006). The importance of human resources management in health care: A

global context. Human Resources Health, 4: 20. Retrieved from:

Healthcare Privacy and Security
Words: 769 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62912507
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American History: Discussion

Today, the existence of America is often assumed to be obviously good because of the existence of American democracy and positive American democratic values exported all over the world. However, that was not always the case. The American colonists did not find untouched, virgin land but land that was already occupied by native peoples with unique cultural worldviews. Because the Indians did not 'own' land in a manner that was comprehensible to the Europeans the colonists viewed the territory as effectively 'up for grabs.'

The initial motivation of many of the early colonists was purely mercenary such as in Jamestown: "The colony was sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, a group of investors who hoped to profit from the venture. Chartered in 1606 by King James I, the company also supported English national goals of counterbalancing the expansion of other European nations abroad, seeking a northwest…

References

What is quality improvement? (2014). Duke University. Retrieved from:

 http://patientsafetyed.duhs.duke.edu/module_a/introduction/contrasting_qi_qa.html