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Healthcare Management (discussion Questions)
Healthcare Management: Compliance and egulation
Various regulatory and compliance issues that dictate how health care professionals conduct themselves standardize the healthcare industry. According to Goodman and Norbeck (2013), the healthcare sector is turning into an industry focused on regulatory compliance, as opposed to patient care. Some of the top issues that may keep me worrying relates to compliance with employment laws. Employment laws bring about two main issues. The first entails work shifts and compensations while the second one revolves around occupation health and safety among the employees.
The issue of work shifts is a sensitive area that must be handled with utmost care since working in the health care sector incorporates working at night. As such, employers should manage night and shift to conform to legislation as well as prevent fatigue and any illnesses that may arise among employees (Health & Safety Authority, 2012). There…
Bailey, M., et al. (2008). Occupational Safety and Health Law Handbook. Lanham: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
Goodman, L. & Norbeck, T. (2013). "Healthcare Is Turning Into An Industry Focused On Compliance, Regulation Rather Than Patient Care." Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/physiciansfoundation/2013/11/05/healthcare-is-turing-into-an-industry-focused-on-compliance-regulation-rather-than-patient-care/
Health and Safety Authority. (2012). "Guidance for Employers and Employees on Night and Shift Work." The Health Safety Authority.
Kwon, J. & Johnson, M. (2013). "Security practices and regulatory compliance in the healthcare industry." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 20(1): 44-51.
medical evacuation company. Indeed, the complexity and intricacies of the medical field have led to a higher and higher amount of specialization and customization. Some of the layers of that proverbial onion are special services that are not needed all or most of the time but are very important when they are needed. This is where medical evacuations come in. Whether it is the transporting of a patient from one hospital to a better or more well-equipped hospital, whether it be plucking medically-stricken people out of storm-damaged or otherwise compromised areas or plucking patients from car accident scenes, getting people to medical facilities quicker and/or out of harm's way is a very important niche within the medical services field and that need is what the proposed company mentioned in this report is meant to address.
One major roadblock to providing such services is to provide them in a way that…
Armenakis, A., Brown, S., & Mehta, A. (2011). Organizational Culture: Assessment and Transformation. Journal of Change Management, 11(3), 305-328.
Conger, M., Knuth, M., & McDonald, J. (2014). Creating a culture for value measurement.
PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 7 June 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145032
Centralization and decentralization of HM
Centralized HM operations are conducted within the HM department and they assume that all employee related actions be implemented by the human resources specialists. Such an endeavor creates a context in which the human resource actions are taken in an objective and professional manner. Specifically, the decisions are made based on the organizational benefits and the technical considerations at an overall organizational level. In the case of decentralization nonetheless, the human resource decisions are taken in a less formal manner and they are influenced by personal bias of the medical staff conducting the interviews. The benefit is nevertheless that of the staff decisions being made not on grounds of organizational benefits, but on skills and abilities at a medical level.
A centralized human resource department then supports organizational gains and objectives, whereas a decentralized human resources act supports professional and medical benefits. It is expected…
Connor, E.T., Educational tort liability and malpractice, University of Iowa, http://www.uiowa.edu/~c07p134/tort.htm last accessed on March 3, 2011
Salvador, F.A., Which is better? Formal authority or informal authority? Entrepreneur, http://www.entrepreneur.com.ph/features/article/which-is-better-formal-authority-or-informal-authority last accessed on March 3, 2011
Website of Medicare, http://www.medicare.gov last accessed on March 3, 2011
The penalties for being out of compliance when OSHA comes knocking should be enough to motivate any healthcare facility to devise a plan to make sure that they are in compliance with OSHA's regulations. The startling thing is that it took an initiative like NEP to wake these facilities up and get them thinking about being compliant. Since they deal with people and their well being on an everyday basis, these are things that they should have been doing all along and not just because there is an increased probability of getting into trouble by OSHA.
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? etreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). etrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). etrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6EM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and esidential
Care Facilities. (2012). etrieved from http://www.hancocklaw.com/p/OSHA_Newsletter_212_May_H1768037.PDF
Prepare Your Facility…
Harris, S. (2012). OSHA in Health Care: Out of Sight & Out of Mind? Retreived from http://ohsonline.com/articles/2012/04/01/osha-in-health-care.aspx
Healthcare workers. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/healthcare/
New OSHA inspection initiative focuses on healthcare. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.puresafety.com/public/workingwell/?p=1209#.UAa4aFJ6REM
Occupational Safety and Health Administration ("OSHA") Targets Nursing and Residential
Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).
Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…
BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:
Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.
Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:
The SG2 report (2010, p. 9) also mentions academic medical centers (AMCs), which will have enter into affiliation agreements in order to comply with the reformed care laws. This will furthermore mean more integrated physician networks and it integration, as mentioned above.
Two further important factors are mentioned by Moyers (2010). She notes that the inclusive nature of health care definitions for occupational therapists is a significant step forward in terms of recognizing the profession as a legitimate health care service. Occupational therapy, for example, is specifically included in the "Innovations in the Health Care Workforce" section of the new legislation. This is significant, because occupational therapists will now be eligible for state workforce grants, slots on the national commission on workforce, and other similar privileges enjoyed by other health care providers.
Other items, excluded from the bill, is the second item the author mentions. She notes that one of…
Davis, P.A., Hahn, J., Morgan, P.C., Stone, J., and Tilson, S. (2010, Apr. 23). Medicare Provisions in the Patient Protection. Retrieved from: http://www.nasuad.org/documentation/aca/CRS%20Reports/April%2023%20-%20Medicare.pdf
Moyers, P. (2010, Mar. 25). What Health Care Reform Means to Occupational Therapy.
Retrieved from: http://otconnections.aota.org/blogs/moyers/archive/2010/03/25/what-healthcare-reform-means-to-occupational-therapy.aspx
Sg2 Special Report: (2010, May). The Impact of Health Reform
Healthcare in Sweden
The healthcare system in Sweden is used as one of the model systems in the world. hen Johan Hjertoqvist from the Timbro Policy Group spoke before the Montreal Economic Institute in 2002, he said, "...you refuse to accept the consumer as an equal partner, you still look upon the client, the patient, as an inferior partner in the relation" and "you deny the need for good working condition when it comes to the staff, etc." (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Moreover, he stressed the need to move interests and priorities away from the processes and production organization to "the quality of the outcome for the consumer" (http://www.iedm.org/conference5_en.html).Quality seems to be synonymous with healthcare in Sweden.
Two important characteristics of the Swedish healthcare system are that it is "decentralized and it is run on democratic principles" (http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf).All residents of Sweden are covered by the national health insurance system which covers medical care, pharmaceuticals,…
Fact Sheets on Sweden: The Health Care System in Sweden. Swedish Institute. May 1999. http://www.si.se/docs/infosweden/engelska/fs76.pdf .(accessed 06-27-2003).
Gennser, Margit. "Sweden's Health Care System." http://oldfraser.lexi.net/publications/books/health_reform/sweden.html.
A accessed 06-27-2003).
Hadenius, Stig; Lindgren, Ann. "Sweden: On Sweden Health care." Countries of the World. January 01, 1991.
S. healthcare structure do not include the unobserved disparities. This may sound very rudimentary, even silly to point out, but in by understanding that the numbers are actually worse than they appear, and that the rising costs of healthcare services re associated with both what we see and can't see, it is easier to understand how costs rise so quickly.
It is also a sobering fact that what we cannot observe is still out there, existing beyond the scope of the government and social programs designed to help people overcome obstacles to access to healthcare and health insurance. The ethnic group that is most unobserved within the bounds of many of the studies and statistics related to the disparities in the U.S. healthcare industry is non-Mexican Latinos (Bustamante, et. al., 2009). This group represents a major portion of the U.S. population that currently lacks access to healthcare. In understanding this…
Bodenheimer, T., Chen, E., and Bennett, H.D. (2009). "Reorganizing Care:
Confronting The Growing Burden Of Chronic Disease: Can The U.S. Health Care Workforce Do The Job?" Health Affairs. Vol. 28, No. 1. Pp. 164-174.
Braveman, P.A., Cubbin, C., Egerter, S., Williams, D.R., and Pamuk, E. (2010).
"Socioeconomic Disparities in Health in the United States: What the Patterns Tell Us." American Journal of Public Health. Vol. 100, No. 1. Pp. 186-196.
Universal healthcare is the only saving formula for this nation, which is doomed in a health care crisis of unprecedented proportions. There is a urgent need to transform healthcare from its present state of commercialism towards the humanitarian approach which guarantees 'healthcare for all' independent of their social or financial circumstances. A shared and collective responsibility of healthcare management is the only viable formula for America. It is high time we learn from Canada, UK and other European nations and restructure the current broken state of our healthcare. The successful passing of the USNHC act (H.R. 676) is the only way for America to wake up from its healthcare nightmare. Will the powerful insurance industry hold its ground yet again and resist this awakening leaving all the citizens doomed? This is an important question for all the citizens of our country.
1) Science Daily, 'American Values lamed for U.S.…
1) Science Daily, 'American Values Blamed for U.S. Healthcare Crisis',
Accessed May 11, 2009, Available at, http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081204160558.htm
2) Laura K. Altom, BS, MSIII and Larry R. Churchill, PhD, Ann Geddes Stahlman
'Pay, Pride, and Public Purpose: Why America's Doctors Should Support
the Allied health care staffing agency is a staffing agency that focuses on the niche of the nursing jobs within the healthcare industry in Chicago
The Allied healthcare staffing agency works to recruit registered nurses belonging to all medical Specialties, Practical Nurses that are licensed also called LPNs, Nursing Assistants that are certified also called CNAs and Specialists from the allied health sciences. These professionals would be hired both from the area of the metro city as well as the suburbs and placed within the hospitals, the neighborhood medical centers, Adult care facilities, clinics, and rehabilitation centers.
The mission of the Allied Healthcare Staffing Agency is to provide the best opportunities of employment both to its collaborators which are the local healthcare organizations as well as serving the entire nursing community to provide amply amount of job opportunities to choose from in a time when the turnover of…
Bureau, U.C. (2000). Census 2000 Demographic Profile Highlights:. chicago illinois, fact sheet .
commerce, U. d. (2010). bear facts, state illinois. bureau of economic analysis .
directory, a. h. (2010). free stats & national stats. Retrieved september 7, 2011, from american hospital directory: www.ahd.com
Lindberg, R.C. (1991). To Serve and Collect: Chicago Politics and Police Corruption from the Lager Beer Riot to the Summerdale Scandal. chicago: praeger publications.
Health care, and that too, a quality health care is one of the most basic needs of any human being. In current times, where the fast paced lives are getting faster each day, work stresses are increasing, streets are being storm with junk foods and fast foods, and pollution and congestion is increasing, human lives are getting more and more prone to physical and mental diseases. As a result, the importance of health care systems and health care facilities increases. While, surgeons and doctors are generally seen as the captain of the ship as far as health sector is concerned, very important personnel of the health sector are the nurses. Once quite ignored, the importance of the nursing profession was highlighted by Florence Nightingale, one of the nursing pioneers. Florence Nightingale broke the conventional perceptions associated with the profession of nursing and took it to a new level, explored various…
Lee, H. & Winters, C. (2006). Rural nursing: concepts, theories and practice. New York:
Joel, A. & Kelly, L. (2002). The nursing experience: trends, challenges and transitions. New York: Mc Graw Hill.
Lumby, J. & Picone, D. (2000). Clinical Challenges: focus on nursing. St. Leonards, N.S.W: Allen and Unwin.
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
..above all - its situation." (Ibid)
II. Leadership Strategy for Transition or Change
Watkins proposes 'Five Fundamental Propositions' in his work and the first is which that the "root causes of transition failure always lie in a pernicious interaction between the situation, with its opportunities and pitfalls, and the individuals with his or her strengths and vulnerabilities." Or otherwise stated no superheroes exist and the leadership is not a complete failure but the combination of the two determine the direction of the organization. The second proposition is that "there are systematic methods that leaders can employ to both lessen the likelihood of failure and reach the breakeven point faster." (2003) There are however proven and reliable methods that leaders must use to ensure success or at least minimize possibilities leading to failure. Third Watkins proposes that "overriding goal in a transition is to build momentum by creating virtuous cycles that…
Watkins, Michael (2003) The First 90 Days: Critical Success Strategies for New Leaders at all Levels. Harvard Business School Publishing 2003. Team Lib ISBNB: 1591391105.
Healthcare Leadership and Strategy in the Clinical Audit Unit for Healthcare
Healthcare for Mentally Impaired Patients
Probing what information is available about the current status of placement or accommodation and level of personal healthcare available to mentally impaired and emotionally disturbed individuals, it is clear that the analysis is as diverse as there are different mental illnesses. While statistics on managed care treatment for people with severe and disabling mental illnesses are sparse, it is evident that the financial responsibility to care for and house these patients is enormous.
According to Dr. David Satcher, the Surgeon General (1999), approximately 20% of the U.S. adult population has a mental illness. He says, "These illnesses include anxiety disorders, mood disorders, anorexia nervosa, and severe cognitive impairment. More serious mental illnesses include ipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Mental illness accounts for 15% of overall burden of disease -- more than malignant cancer and respiratory diseases -- and as far back as 1996 the direct cost…
Boulard, G. (2000, April). Forgotten Patients the Mentally Ill. State Legislatures, 26, 12. Retrieved February 13, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Callahan, D. (1993, October) Minds and hearts: priorities in mental health services.
The Hastings Center Report.
Fox, M. & Kim, K. (2004, January) Evaluating a Medicaid Home and Community-based Physical Disability Waiver. Family and Community Health. Vol 27: 37.
Healthcare Organization Case Study
Health Care Organization Case Study
Health Care Organization Case Study
Banner Healthcare represents a set of diverse healthcare related facilities that provide healthcare services to societies in USA and beyond. Banner seeks to establish a healthier life for communities through developing a healthy environment. Banner Healthcare is arguably the largest healthcare provider in the country. The organization spans seven states, including Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, Alaska, Nebraska and Wyoming. The organization operates 20 hospitals, including healthcare facilities. The organization offers such services as hospice care, home care and physician services. Banner Healthcare also provided $130 million as their contribution to charity. The organization is a healthcare leader in all the communities it offers its services. The agency has shown tremendous growth in the past years. They admit over 190 000 patients every year and have a workforce in excess of 29-000. The emergency departments…
Banner Health, (2008). Here Now: Making a Difference. Retrieved from http://www.bannerhealth.com/_communityupdate/Banner_Health_Community_Update.pdf on 18 May 2016
Harrington, C. & Estes, C. (2008). Health Policy: Crisis & Reform in the U.S. Health Care Delivery System, 5th Ed. Jones & Bartlett Publishers
Wolf, J., Hanson, H. & Moir, M. (Eds.) (2011). Organization Development in Health Care: High Impact Practices for a Complex and Changing Environment. IAP
Health Care Administration
A recent change in Health IT architecture or infrastructure is the use of cloud computing. In the present day, cloud computing is having a positive effect on healthcare processes and outcomes and the healthcare organization as a whole through the provision of quality services to patients. To begin with, healthcare organizations have shifted to a digital basis in the contemporary where they gather a great deal of data. Through cloud computing it become possible to transform this significant amount of data into sensible information and facilitates the sharing and accessibility of data (O’Dowd, 2016).
Imperatively, through cloud services, it is conceivable to share huge files of data with the expediency that does not just save general healthcare expenses but at the same time augments efficacy as well. In the contemporary, healthcare organizations have to provide care to millions of consumers and therefore require potent systems to accomplish…
Healthcare Delivery System Challenges
The American healthcare system has been criticized as favoring the middle and upper classes while ignoring the lower classes. Based on these speculations, the federal government has constantly tried to institute reforms in the healthcare sector though some of the proposals have failed to overhaul the industry. With rising insurance costs, the number of citizens barred from accessing quality healthcare has increased to more than 45 million uninsured Americans. On the same note, it is hypothesized that with time, the problems currently witnessed in the industry are likely to increase and finding solutions to them will be a tall order for the government (Stolberg & Pear, 2010). Despite the advent of new technology in the sector, which is likely to improve service delivery over the years, it is speculated that the cost of new tests and treatments will outweigh the savings. With the better technology, physicians…
Stolberg, S.G. & Pear, R. (March 24, 2010). Obama signs health care overhaul bill, with a flourish. The New York Times: p. A19. Retrieved March 1, 2013.
Woolhandler, S. & Himmelstein, D.U. (1997). Costs of care and administration at for-profit and other hospitals in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine 336 (11): 769-774.
Swanson, E. (July 30, 2009). Health Care Plan: Favor / Oppose. Huffington Post.
Blumberg, L.J. & Holahan, J. (2009). The Individual Mandate: an Affordable and Fair Approach
A good example of this can be seen with popular Chinese talk show host Yang Lang donating $72 million, to start his own foundation to: help support and develop the health care system. This is important, because it shows how both international and domestic-based non-profits are addressing these underlying problems facing the health care sector. (Dobryzski, 2010)
Clearly, the biggest challenges facing the health care systems in the United States and China are vastly different. Yet, they are also wrestling with similar problems, as they face the issue of increasing numbers in the elderly population. In the case of the United States, this is challenging because there are a variety of disadvantages that must be addressed to include: they have access to some of the most cutting edge procedures, there is large number of choices about health care providers and the elderly can be able to receive effective treatment for…
Advanced Practice Nurses. (2010). Bukisa. Retrieved from: http://www.bukisa.com/articles/352958_advanced-practice-nurses-a-global-role
Health Systems. (n.d.). WHO. Retrieved from: gis.emro.who.int/HealthSystemObservatory/.../Conceptual%20frameworks. Ppt Health Care in China. (2006). IBM. Retrieved from: http://www-05.ibm.com/de/healthcare/downloads/healthcare_china.pdf
More About RN's. (2011). ANA. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/especiallyforyou/studentnurses/rnsapns.aspx
Opportunities in the Health Care Sector. (2006). Grail Research. Retrieved from: http://www.grailresearch.com/pdf/ContenPodsPdf/Opportunities_in_the_China_Healthcare_Sector.pdf
These needs are only beginning to be addressed in Canada and while there do not appear to be many well-established initiatives there is a growing recognition of the need for such if Canada's healthcare sector is to gain and retain the necessary workers to deliver optimal healthcare in Canada.
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
ack, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the C Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, What's Ailing our Nurses? A…
Polls & Research (2006) Health Care, Environment Top Issues in Canada. 1 Nov 2006. AngusReid Global Monitor. Online available at: http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/13653
Back, Chris (2008) Current and Emerging Trends: Occupational Health and Safety in the BC Healthcare Sector. 19 Sept 2008. Prepared for the OHSAH Stakeholder Meeting. Online available at: http://www.ohsah.bc.ca/media/240-OHS-Current-and-Emerging-Trends-full.pdf
Canadian Institute for Health Information, Workforce Trends of Registered Nurses in Canada, 2006 (Ottawa: CIHI, 2007).
Canadian Nursing Advisory Committee, Full-time Equivalents and Financial Costs Associated with Absenteeism, Overtime, and Involuntary Part-time Employment in the Nursing Profession, February 15, 2002.
" (2004, p.159) Activities have included:
(1) Development and promotion of industry-wide standards;
(2) Funding of research for investigation of the impact of IT on quality;
(3) Provision of incentives that provide encouragement of investment in IT;
(4) Giving grants to investors in IT; and (5) Development of strategies to improve the flow of information across providers. (Report to Congress, June, 2004, p.159)
Stated additionally in the Report to Congress is that there are multiple functions that must be considered when purchase IT and hundreds of applications that various vendors offer. The various IT applications are stated to be within three categories including those of:
(1) Administrative and financial systems that facilitate billing, accounting and other administrative tasks;
(2) Clinical systems that facilitate or provide input into the care process; and (3) Infrastructure that supports both the administrative and clinical applications. (Report to Congress, June 2004, p.160)
The work published…
BC Medical Association. Getting IT Right: Patient Centered Information Technology [discussion paper]. Vancouver: BCMA. 2004:39-40.
Blum E. Paperless medical record not all it's cracked up to be AMNews; 17 February 2003. Online available at: www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/pick_03/bica0217.htm
Brookstone A, Braziller C. Engaging physicians in the use of electronic medical records. Electronic Healthcare 2003;2:23-27.
Brookstone, Alan. 2004. Electronic Medical Records: Creating the Environment for Change. BCMJ, Vol. 46, No. 5 June 2004. Online available at: http://www.bcmj.org/electronic-medical-records-creating-environment-change
American Health Care
After leading the world in the health of its citizens throughout most of the 20th century, the United States has fallen behind virtually all other wealthy nations in that regard, not to mention having fallen behind several nations that once relied substantially on U.S. aid (Dykman, 2008). While most of the developed world has already embraced the concept of universal government-funded national health care systems, the U.S. still relies on a for-profit model that has proven to be incapable of meeting the health care needs of society in any manner that is efficient, cost-effective, and equally available to all members of society. Even worse, the ongoing political influence of lobbyists for the for-profit health insurance industry continues to succeed in undermining meaningful health care reform (Kennedy, 2006), including by watering down the historic Affordable Care Act that eventually passed into law in 2009. Finally, the available evidence…
Dykman J. (2008). "Five truths about health care in America." Time, 172(22): 42-51.
Kennedy E. (2006). America: Back on Track. New York: Viking.
Reid T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin.
Tumulty K., Pickert K., and Park A. (2010). "America, the doctor will see you now."
Strategic Management of a Healthcare Facility in St. Louis
In the late 1800's and early 1900's St. Louis was a major center for automotive and other heavy manufacturing but the industrial restructuring of the Midwest during the latter half of the century has resulted in consistent economic decline of the St. Louis region. Today however as the rest of the country faces a slowing economy this region is showing new signs of growth. [Kotkin, 2002] Due to changing socio-demographics, the demand for health care and advanced medical technologies is growing consistently with a concomitant rise in health expenditure. [Zhou 2001] Health expenditure in the U.S. has risen from 7.4% of the GNP in 1970 to 15% of the GNP in 1995.[Zhou, 2001] The Health care sector deals with not only the clinical medical services, but also include methods which finance them, for e.g. insurance, benefit schemes, Medicare and Medicaid. eforms…
1. Kotkin, J, 2002 St. Louis: On the Way to Somewhere? Rebuz Inc.
2. Author not available, 1997, Economic Report of the President. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. [accessed on 4/4/03]: http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/erp/1997/chap3.htm
3.Author not available, 1996, Focus... Non-Elderly Missourians without Health Insurance, March 1996, Vol. 30, No. 1 [accessed on 4/4/03]: http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/MonthlyVitalStatistics/March96Vol30No1.html
4. Author not available, January 1999, Focus... Managed Care (MC+) in Medicaid Population, January 1999 Vol. 32, No. 11[accessed on 4/4/03] at http://www.dhss.state.mo.us/MonthlyVitalStatistics/Jan99Vol32No11.html
overwhelming connections between healthcare costs and the macroeconomic performance of the U.S. economy. The impact of healthcare industry on the macroeconomic performance is evident from the fact that in 2009 healthcare expenditure of the U.S. was 18% of the gross domestic product (GDP) of the country. It was also estimated that should the healthcare costs continue to grow at historical rates, 34% of the U.S. GDP will compose of healthcare spending by 2040 (Whitehouse, 2009). The major sources of funding the healthcare costs are the Federal, State, and local governments of the U.S. Medicare is a healthcare program that subsidizes healthcare for citizens above 65 years of age. Medicaid subsidizes healthcare delivery for people below a certain income level. Approximately 50% of the healthcare expenditure is bore by governments at the federal, state and local level. It is also estimated that Medicare and Medicaid spending of Federal and State governments…
CMS. (2013, Nov). National Health Expenditure Projections 2012-2022. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Retrieved from: http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/NationalHealthAccountsProjected.html
Kolstad, J.T., & Kowalski, A.E. (2012). Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform (No. w17933). National Bureau of Economic Research.
The Whitehouse. (2009). Deficit-Reducing Health Care Reform. The Whitehouse. Retrieved from: http://www.whitehouse.gov/economy/reform/deficit-reducing-health-care-reform
CBO. (2011, March). The Economic Case for the Health Care Reform. Congressional Budget Office: Executive Office of the President Council of Economic Advisers. Retrieved from: http://www.cbo.gov/publication/22077
Health Care Free
SHOULD HEALTH CAE BE FEE?
The following debate takes place between four individuals as follows: Dr. Barker, a public health sector physician with an experience of fifteen years; Ms. Gomez, a social activist working for improving opportunities and living conditions for immigrants to the United States; Mr. Walters, a journalist who writes on social and political issues in several newspapers and self-professed atheist; and Mr. Bucelli, a modern poet and novelist with strong humanist inclinations. All four are residents of the Green Springs Community and are recognized members of the community. The debate takes place at the community hall where the debaters are taking part in the annual debate challenge where they have been given the topic Should health care be free? Ms. Gomez and Mr. Bucelli support the proposition that health care should be free for all residents whereas Dr. Barker and Mr. Walters are against…
Abelson, Reed. "Health Insurance Costs Rising Sharply This Year, Study Shows." The New York Times. 27 September 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. < http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/28/business/health-insurance-costs-rise-sharply-this-year-study-shows.html?pagewanted=all&_moc.semityn.www >.
Ball, James, and Denis Campbell. "More Patients Waiting Too Long for NHS Treatment." The Guardian. 14 July 2011: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
Bialik, Carl. "The unhealthy accounting of uninsured Americans." Wall Street Journal. 24 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
CBS News. "The debate Over Health Care." CBS News. 20 June 2009: Web. 24 Sep. 2012. .
In the field of nursing, there are a variety of challenges which are having an impact on practices. To deal with these issues, various theories have been developed. They are focusing on the way specific approaches can improve quality and enhance professionalism. In the case of treatment and care, these issues are problematic as many nurses are often overworked and can spend only a select amount of time with patients. To address these issues, Watson's Theory of Human Caring was developed. It is a practice based theory that concentrates on several different areas to include: kindness, transpersonal relationships, spirituality and enhancing the environment. These theories are augmented with my experiences in the field to improve quality and alleviate suffering. This is important, as it showing how Watson's views are critical in providing better attention and support to patients. (Watson, 2011)
At the heart of this approach, is a…
Evaluation of Teaching Experience
Watson's Theory of Human Caring is focusing on how to improve safety and quality inside the clinic. This is achieved by concentrating on several different variables in conjunction with each other. The most notable include: practicing kindness, cultivating spiritual practices, being supportive, teaching, creating a healing environment, assisting with basic needs and allowing for open miracles to occur. In this case, the theory can become a credo for all nurses and healthcare professionals inside the facility to follow. This means placing more of an emphasis on monitoring the patient's condition, educating them about their role in the treatment and alleviating suffering as much as possible. (Jones, 2007) (Kelly, 2013)
The way it will be applied is to show how the lack of
The topic of this research is "PPACA- Patient Protection an Affordable Care Act." PPACA has created a great impact in the healthcare industry of United States of America. The study is based on the critical analysis of the act by reviewing the performance since its inception.
Arguably the most prominent recent healthcare reform has been PPACA (Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act). PPACA is also known as the Affordable care act and Obamacare. It was signed by the President Obama in the year 2010 in collaboration with the Healthcare econciliation Act. This act is considered to be one of the most major reforms passed in the healthcare system of United States; the last such major reform was passed in the year 1965 in the form of Medicaid.
When this provision Act was passed in 2010, there were 50 million…
Barr, Donald A. Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. JHU Press. 2011
Blendon RJ, Benson."Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform." N. Engl. J. Med. 362 (16): e55. 2010
Elmendorf, Douglas. "CBO's Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010." Congressional Budget Office. 2011
Feldman, Arthur M. Understanding Health Care Reform: Bridging the Gap between Myth and Reality. CRC Press. 2011
This work will first provide a synopsis of a more detailed review of literature developing the case of transformational leadership model in healthcare, exploring some of the claims of the model as it is observed in practice. (Edmonstone & Western, 2002) the work will then provide a qualitative review of 50 healthcare professionals, from leadership to trade. Ultimately the work will attempt to focus on a single hospital organization setting and review all departments, through a questionnaire regarding the leadership model (based on characteristics of the TrLM) and attempt to determine first if the literature is accurate in its assessment of TrLM being the most common and i.e. popular model in health care and then determine if this leadership model is reflective of better health outcomes for the community served than were provided prior to implementation of the TrLM. Lastly I will determine if some of the…
Aarons, G.A. (2006). Transformational and Transactional Leadership: Association With Attitudes Toward Evidence-Based Practice. Psychiatric Services, 57, 1162-1169.
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectation. New York, NY: Free Press.
Bowles, a., & Bowles, N. (2000). A comparative study of transformational leadership in nursing development units and conventional clinical settings. Journal of Nursing Management, 8 (2), 69-76.
Dunham-Taylor, J. (2000). Nurse Executive Transformational Leadership Found in Participative Organizations. Journal of Nursing Administration, 30 (5), 241-250.
Hand-held devices and portable digital assistants (PDAs) are being integrated into the health care setting in the United States. It is important to understand which devices are being used, how they are being used, what they are being used for, and why. Understanding the role that hand-held devices and other portable electronics play in health care can help to inform organizational policy, and help health care administrators better implement electronic medical records.
History of use
The first documented PDA was the Newton MessagePad, issued by Apple in 1993. It was described as being "revolutionary" (Wiggins, 2004, p. 5). Palm, Inc. developed the next big handheld device: the Palm Pilot, in 1996. By the late 1990s, PDAs were equipped for Internet access, and memory capacity and other features improved with each product release. Microsoft also entered the portable electronic devices marketplace in the 1990s. The devices were not yet being…
Alerndar, H. & Ersoy, C. (2010). Wireless sensor networks for healthcare. Computer Networks 54(15): 2688-2710.
Fornell, D. (2008). PDAs bring hand-held solutions to healthcare. Acuity Care Technology. Retrieved online: http://www.soti.net/PDF/PDAsBringHandHeldSolutionsToHealthcare_Article.pdf
Garritty, C. & El Emam, K. (2006). Who's using PDAs? Journal of Medical Internet Research 8(2).
Huang, V.W. (n.d.). PDAs in medicine. Power Point Presentation Retrieved online: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&ved=0CF4QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cs.princeton.edu%2Fcourses%2Farchive%2Fspr02%2Fcs495%2Fpda.ppt&ei=xxqAUsq_NtTFqQG25IHwAQ&usg=AFQjCNE4Wf4YrX7slTbcdYJwxujV3rwgog&sig2=Uee9rvdDYwY0uYM33n1ZBg&bvm=bv.56146854,d.aWM
Human esource Management in Heath Care
ole of HM in Health Care
Impact of Human esource Management in Health Care
HM and Strategic Plan of Organization
ole of HM in Health Care
The various types of staff I the clinical and non-clinical sections who are responsible for intervention in individual and public health is known as the human resources in health care system. The knowledge, skills and motivation of the employees and the staff of the health care system who deliver health services are responsible to a great extent for the performance and the benefits that people can derive from the health care system.
While the health care system is also dependent on various other forms of physical resources like medicines and machinery, there needs to be a balance between the physical and the human resources in the system. However, what is more important is the management of the human…
Elarabi, H., & Johari, F. (2014). THE IMPACT OF HUMAN RESOURCES Management ON HEALTHCARE QUALITY. ASIAN JOURNAL OF Management SCIENCES & EDUCATION, 3(1), 3-7. Retrieved from http://www.ajmse.leena-luna.co.jp/AJMSEPDFs/Vol.3(1)/AJMSE2014(3.1-02).pdf
Karstadt, L. (2012). Human resources for health care: a global issue?. British Journal Of Nursing, 21(19), 1178-1178. http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2012.21.19.1178
Munda, S. (2015). Work-Family Supportive Strategy: A Perfect Remedy to Manage Human Resources in Indian Health Care Organizations. ANVESHAK-International Journal Of Management, 4(1), 11. http://dx.doi.org/10.15410/aijm/2015/v4i1/59872
Patient portals, electronic medical records, and personal monitoring devices are three of the most revolutionary technologies in the healthcare sector. Each of these technologies presents patients with the potential to empower themselves, taking control of their own healthcare outcomes, and taking part in their overall healthcare goals. These technologies also streamline healthcare administration and minimize medication and billing errors. However, each of these technologies is also constrained by a range of issues related to accessibility, with potent socioeconomic class disparities evident. Security and standardization of healthcare technologies are also proving problematic. Patient portals, electronic medical records, and personal monitoring devices are all technologies that have the potential to radically improve the quality of healthcare and patient outcomes, as well as improve overall patient experiences. Because of their abundant benefits, these technologies need to be embraced and promoted through effective public health policies. Otherwise, disparities will continue to threaten to exacerbate…
The term health care refers to the inter-related system of care provided to persons during illness. In most of the cases, healthcare begins with the family doctor who refers patient to specialists if needed or directly order further diagnostic testing. Community health clinics perform the same procedure as a family doctor, but alongside with that, clinics also provide insight into patterns of health or illness seen within the community. Hospital just form one part of the healthcare community, as are mostly visited when a patient's condition is more acute and requires intervention by the hospitals high-end staff, since more can be done for him in a hospital rather than in a clinic where he is just an out-patient.
Clinics of various types provide very specific services, such as "pain management clinics" these clinics are targeted for towards people suffering from pain conditions. ehabilitation services also form a needed part…
DDI (2006) Health Care Global Comparison: Leadership Forecast 2005|2006. DDI, Pennsylvania.
DDI (2007) Leading the Past: Preparing the Future. DDI, Pennsylvania.
Fischer (2007) Culture and cultural analysis as experimental systems. Cultural Anthropology. 21(1) 1-65.
Greenfield D (2007) The enactment of dynamic leadership. Leadership in Health Sciences. 20(3) 159-168.
Health Care Marketing
Marketing is the management and social process of identifying, anticipating and satisfying the needs of present and potential customers while making long-term profits. The choice of marketing techniques may vary in the marketing of services from the marketing of products, but the basic principles and concepts of marketing are equally important and relevant in both, and apply across the spectrum of products and services, into the home health care industry. Successful marketing regards the customer as the focal point of business. In the many businesses, selling is often misunderstood as marketing. Selling is a micro function which means offering existing products at an agreed price, while marketing is a macro function which governs many other tactical areas. Marketing includes:
Collecting, storing and analyzing important information regarding markets, competition and future trends.
Segmenting the market and identifying specific needs of different customers.
Adjusting existing products and creating new…
Steckler A, Allegrante JP, Altman D, et al. Health education interventions strategies: recommendations for future research. Health Ed Q. 1995;22:307-328.
Cowan EL. In pursuit of wellness. Am Psychol. 1991;46:404-408. As quoted in: Murdaugh, Carolyn L. Vanderboom, Catherine. Individual and community models for promoting wellness.Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 04/01/1997.
Study of Post-Acute Care, A Final Report, HCFA No. 17-C98891 (University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Institute for Health Services Research and Policy, October 1993), p. i. As quoted in: Murdaugh, Carolyn L. Vanderboom, Catherine. Individual and community models for promoting wellness.Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 04/01/1997.
Home health care presents opportunities and challenges. Chain Drug Review. 05/26/1997.
Health Information System
Promoting Action Design esearch to create value in healthcare through IT
ecently there has been varying proof showing that health IT reduces costs while improving the standard of care offered. The same factors that had caused delays in reaping benefits from IT investment made in other sectors (i.e. time consuming procedural change) are also very common within the healthcare sector. Due to the current transitive nature of the Healthcare sector, new IT investment is likely not going to provide maximum value unless this new investment is backed up with a total reform of healthcare delivery. The overall ability of healthcare IT value researchers to add value to practice will be severely limited as a result of the traditional ex-post approach to measuring IT and the fact that government spurs significant investment. It may be risky to generalize or compare results from traditional IT value research with those…
Fichman, R., Kohli, R., & Krishnan, R. (2011). The role of information systems in healthcare: Current research and future trends. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 419-428.
Goh, J.M., Gao, G., & Agarwal, R. (n.d.). Evolving work routines: Adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 565-585.
Hoffnagel, E., Woods, D., & Leveson, N. (2006). Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts. Abingdon: GBR: Ashgate Publishing.
Jones, S., Heaton, P., Riudin, R., & Schneider, E. (2012). Unraveling the IT productivity paradox lessons for health care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2243-2245.
Health Care eform Effecting Public Health United States
Healthcare reform is an integral part of the United States healthcare system. Below is an evaluation of the effects healthcare reform has had on healthcare in the U.S. Internet sources as well as peer-reviewed journals will be looked at so as to see the effects.
The cost of healthcare has been on the rise. Issues of healthcare quality ought to be paid attention to and healthcare access equity improved upon (Health Care Transformation). Given these causes, while some differences exist on what reforms to carry out, a majority of Americans hold the belief that the U.S. Healthcare delivery systems need some improving. For a long time ANA has been advocating for reforms in healthcare and several of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) provisions are in line with the Health System eform Agenda of the ANA. The ANA gave a chart that gives…
Kemp, C. (2012, October 11). Public Health in the Age of Health Care Reform. Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/12_0151.htm
How National Health Care Reform Will Affect a Variety of States. (2011, April 5). Retrieved January 21, 2015, from http://www.rand.org/news/press/2011/04/05.html
For most industries, the advancement and implementation of technology is moving at a fairly quick pace. However, healthcare has been and remains one of the exceptions and outliers to this trend. There is some debate as to why this is the case. However, there are also some clear clues and signs that indicate why precisely this has and continues to happen. The reasons for this lagging implementation and adoption of technology will be explained in this report. The reasons run the gamut from compliance hurdles to uneven adoption practices and change management miscues. While advancements in technology and the related practice is certainly the future for effective healthcare technology management, there are some kinks that need to be worked out to put it lightly.
A major reason that technology adoption in the healthcare sector is slow is resistance from the personnel within that sector. Indeed, even when…
England, I. (2017). Information technology adoption in health care: when organisations and technology collide. - PubMed - NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 29 April 2017, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11186051
Kandel, I. (2017). The Slow Pace of Technology Adoption in Healthcare Explained. HIPAA
Journal. Retrieved 29 April 2017, from http://www.hipaajournal.com/the-slow-pace-of-technology-adoption-in-healthcare-explained-8261/
Health Care Staff Trends
The healthcare system has seen various changes over the decades with the aim of making the care more efficient and quality to the citizens. One of the most important changes is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care (PPAC) which has significantly changed the demand for healthcare professionals and the vacancies they have as well as the hiring and staffing practices by the healthcare organizations. These changes occasioned by the PPAC have various tenets and also implications that come with them especially for the healthcare sector in the future.
The PPAC has resulted in the rising of the nurse practitioner and the physician assistant roles within the healthcare system. This has made many healthcare organizations to focus more on the team approaches to providing care which is geared towards employing more nursing practitioners and physician assistants who will help in providing care to the aging population. This…
Barnet S., (2015). 5 ways the PPACA has changed healthcare staffing and workforce trends. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from http://www.beckershospitalreview.com/workforce-labor-management/5-ways-the-ppaca-has-changed-healthcare-staffing-and-workforce-trends.html
Moore M., (2015). What are HRM Strategies. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/hrm-strategies-59260.html
Wright P.M., (2015). Human Resource Strategy. Adapting to the Age of Globalization. Retrieved November 12, 2015 from http://www.shrm.org/india/hr-topics-and-strategy/strategic-hrm/Documents/HR%20strategy%20EPG-%20Final%20Online.pdf
Leadership in Healthcare
Is the physician performing at high performance?
One widely employed, vital indicator to measure health care quality is patient satisfaction. This element impacts clinical results, claims of medical malpractice, and client retention. It impacts effective, timely, patient-focused, and good-quality healthcare delivery. Therefore, patient satisfaction represents an alternative, but rather effectual indicator for measuring healthcare facilities' and physicians' success (Prakash, 2010). Hence, the physician doesn't appear to be showing high performance as some of his patients continue to be unsatisfied with his service.
There are a few physicians who deliver superior quality patient care, but aren't efficient in their service (quadrant 2); while others are good in the efficiency aspect, they deliver poor quality care (quadrant 3). Also, some physicians depict poor performance on efficiency as well as quality (quadrant 1), while others are good performers in both aspects (quadrant 4) (NBCH, 2011). That is, a physician…
Dickinson, D. L., & Isaac, R. M. (1998). Absolute and relative rewards for individuals in team production. Managerial and Decision Economics, 19(4-5), 299-310.
Ladleya, D., Wilkinsonb, I., & Young, L. (2015). The impact of individual versus group rewards on work group performance and cooperation: A computational social science approach. Journal of Business Research, 68(11), 2412-2425.
Luecke, R., Rosselli, V., & Moss, J. (1991). The economic ramifications of "client" dissatisfaction. Group Pract J, 8-18.
NBCH. (2011). Physician Performance Measurement & Reporting Introduction. National Business Coalition on Health.
Healthcare Financial Management
To quote Jonathan Clark at the beginning of his article, "Improving the revenue cycle can be a daunting task due to the scope and complexity of the interdepartmental process." Of the suggestions offered by the authors, which concept(s) give you the greatest insight into creating an improved evenue Cycle process in the organization where you work (or one in which you are familiar)? Be sure to identify which article or author you are referencing.
In his comprehensive advisory article to improve the medical industry's revenue capturing capabilities, entitled Strengthening the evenue Cycle: A 4-Step Method for Optimizing Payment, Jonathan Clark provides a series of sensible solutions to the ongoing dilemma of payment optimization. David Hammer also provides guidance to healthcare finance professional in his article The Next Generation of evenue Cycle Management, by reminding them that the key performance indicators (KPIs) which dictated policy in previous years…
Clark, J. (2008). Strengthening the revenue cycle: a 4-step method for optimizing payment. Healthcare Financial Management, 62(10), 44.
Hammer, D.C. (2007). The next generation of revenue cycle management. Healthcare Financial Management, 61(7), 49.
Seddon, J. (2008). Think system. Management Services, 52(2), 10.
Wilson, D.B. et al. (2004). 3 steps to profitable managed care contracts. Healthcare Financial Management, 58(5), 34.
Care Coverage and Inequalities in the Education System
Traditional Care Coverage vs. Managed Care Coverage
Traditional care coverage is also known as Fee-for-service (FFS). Under this model, the patient pays for services that are itemized in the Invoice. The physicians gain an incentive to offer more treatments as payment depends on the quantity of care and not the quality of care. In the health insurance and healthcare sectors, traditional care coverage happens when physicians and other caregivers get a fee for each service like laboratory tests, office visit, procedure and other healthcare services. After providing services, the patient makes payments retrospectively. Traditional health coverage enables the patients to choose a healthcare provider, including a favorite hospital or doctor. The services rendered are paid for by the patient and then submits the bill to the insurance firm for reimbursement of the percentage it agreed to the insurer for the patient (Kongstvedt,…
Conchas, G. & Gottfried, M. (2015). Inequality, Power and School Success: Case Studies on Racial Disparity and Opportunity in Education. New York: Routledge
Duncan, G. J. & Murnane, R. J. (2014). Restoring Opportunity: The Crisis of Inequality and the Challenge for American Education. Boston, MA: Harvard Education Press
All spending includes state and federal expenditures. Growth figures reflect increases in benefit payments and disproportionate share hospital payments; growth figures do not include administrative costs, accounting adjustments, or costs for the U.S. Territories.
Federal Fiscal Year: Unless otherwise noted, years preceded by "FY" on statehealthfacts.org refer to the Federal Fiscal Year, which runs from October 1 through September 30. for example, FY 2009 refers to the period from October 1, 2008 through September 30, 2009.
Urban Institute estimates based on data from CMS (Form 64) (as of 12/21/11).
From this entire chart, the entire increase in expenditure of…
Clark, Cheryl et al. "State Medicaid Eligibility and Care Delayed Because of Cost." New England Journal of Medicine, 368 (2013): 1263-1265. Print.
Ellwood, Marilyn Rymer et al. An Exploratory Analysis of the Medicaid Expenditures of Substance Exposed Children Under 2 Years of Age in California. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. Print.
Goodnough, Abby. "October 25th." The New York Times. 25th October. 2012. Web. 29th March 2013. [ http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/26/us/spending-on-medicaid-has-slowed-survey-finds.html?_r=0 ].
Grannemann, Thomas W. And Mark V Pauly. Controlling Medicaid Costs: Federalism, Competition, and Choice. Washington DC: American Enterprise Institute, 1983. Print.
Realistically this compliance and assistance should be sought and used before, during and after negotiations with other health care organizations with which this organization might merge or enter a joint venture. Furthermore, the proposed contract itself should be passed by the FTC's Office of the General Counsel or its designee for approval before final ratification of the contract.
In order to merge and operate in a joint venture acceptable to the FTC, the organization must be mindful of Title 15 of the U.S. Code, specifically Section 7 of the Clayton Act, 15 U.S.C. § 18, Sections 1 and 2 of the Sherman Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1, 2, and Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act. In addition, due to the FTC's recent special interest in the mergers/joint ventures of health care organizations, particularly but not solely in connection with price fixing, the organization should assume that…
Cornell University Law School. (n.d.). Legal Information Institute - 15 U.S.C. Section 1. Retrieved on March 19, 2013 from www.law.cornell.edu Web site: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15 /1' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The American Public Health Association (APHA) is founded. This organization is concerned with the social and economic aspects of health problems.
The National Quarantine Act is signed into law. This legislation is designed to prevent entry into the country of persons with communicable diseases.
1899 the National Hospital Superintendent's Association is created. It later becomes the American Hospital Association.
Patel & ushefsky, 1995, p. xvii)
The seeds of health care legislation and centralization began before 1875 but began to take hold as the most accepted manner in which to ensure safe and scientifically founded health care for many and to begin to ensure that diseases that commonly plagued a newly urbanized and highly stressful environment of mass immigration could be dealt with, in a more centralized and practical manner. Founded earlier in 1847, the American Medical Association began to have a concrete and centralized role in the health care decisions…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001282891' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Healthcare Legislative Bill
The expanded and improved Medicare for all Acts
The Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Act was introduced to the House of Representatives in 2009 and seeks to lobby for the implementation of a common single-payer health care system throughout the United States o0f America. The bill if enacted would require that all medical care costs be paid for automatically by the government instead of private insurances for the same. The move will significantly alter the role of private insurance companies as merely offering supplemental coverage especially when the kind of medical care sought is not all that essential (McCormick, 2009).
With the Expanded and mproved Medicare for All Bill, the country's national system will be paid for through taxes and the monies that will replace the regular insurance premiums. Proponents of the bill argue that by eliminating the need for private insurance companies in the national…
Institute of Medicine of the National Academies of Science, (2010), Insuring America's Health: Principles and Recommendations
The American Journal of Medical Practices, (2011), The Impact of single-payer Medicare
Program, New York
Health Care eform:
In March 2010, after protracted public and political debate, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was enacted into law by President Barack Obama. This legislation was one of the many health care reforms initiatives that have sought to rectify major features of the health care system in the United States such as service delivery, care coordination, and financing. Since its enactment, PPACA is considered as a milestone along the historical continuum of health care reform in America. Generally, health care reform in the United States is an issue that has continued to evolve based on the ever-growing health care needs of the population. However, this issue has been characterized with several challenges that are mainly influenced by the public's response to reform efforts.
Principal Features of U.S. Health Care System:
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), which is commonly known as the Affordable…
Bodenheimer, T., & Grumbach, K. (2012). Understanding health policy: a clinical approach (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Medical.
"Key Features of the Affordable Care Act by Year." (n.d.). Features of the Health Law.
Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://www.hhs.gov/healthcare/facts/timeline/timeline-text.html
Leflar, R.B. (2013, July 12). Reform of the United States Health Care System: An Overview.
(Health Insurance Coverage, 2009). This is just a little higher than what was reported in the state of Pennsylvania over the last two-year period, which was at 25% (Krawczeniuk, 2009). "The number of uninsured rose 2.2 million between 2005 and 2006 and has increased by almost 8 million people since 2000" (Health Insurance Coverage, 2009).
Most Americans are provided with health insurance coverage through their employers. But in today's society employment is no longer a guarantee of health insurance coverage. "As America continues to move from a manufacturing-based economy to a service economy, and employee working patterns continue to evolve, health insurance coverage has become less stable. The service sector tends to offer less access to health insurance than the manufacturing sector does. Further, an increasing reliance on part-time and contract workers who are not eligible for coverage means fewer workers have access to employer-sponsored health insurance" (Health Insurance Coverage,…
Descriptive Statistics. (2006). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from Research Methods Knowledge Base
Web site: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/statdesc.php
Health Insurance Coverage. (2009). Retrieved May 5, 2009, from National Coalition on Healthcare Web site: http://www.nchc.org/facts/coverage.shtml
Krawczeniuk, Borys. (2009, March 26). Study Finds Health Care Gaps. Times-Tribune, The
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive economic landscape of the modern world; governments, businesses and institutions must remain diligent in their care and compassion for their citizens and staff members. With the current exponential growth and advancement of technology and the computerization of business and learning, voters, workers and consumers have become much more connected to the organizations they patronize (Kurzweil). Accordingly, these important groups are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of their followers, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. One of the most important needs presented in all demographics is reliable healthcare. Thus, with the inelasticity in the demand for healthcare, countries need to determine an applicable system, whereby citizens can have access to the medical services they will inevitably need. Collective access to healthcare represents the main problem in field of…
Blumenschein, K. And M. Johannesson. "Economic Evaluation in Healthcare. A Brief History and Future Directions." Journal of Pharmacoeconomics 10.2 (1996): 114-122.
Cox, Malcolm, et al. "Health Care Economics, Financing, Organization and Delivery." Family Medicine January 2004: 20-30.
Hamburger, Tom and Kim Geiger. "Healthcare Insurers Get Upper Hand." The Los Angeles Times 24 August 2009.
Jeremiah Hurley. "An Overview of the Normative Economics of the Health Sector." Journal of Health Economics 1.1 (2000): 55-118.
Healthcare Plan eview
The author of this report is to answer three general questions relating to healthcare program evaluation. The first question asks the author of this report to examine the overall purpose of healthcare program evaluation. The second question asks the author to identify at least five different types of common healthcare program evaluation techniques. Finally, one of those methods in particular will be selected and there will be a drilling down into more detail on that single type. While the purpose and method of operations is quite similar with all program evaluation types, there are some subtle to major differences from type to type.
At its core, the purpose of healthcare program evaluation is to analyze and improve the operations and performance of a healthcare program based on a systematic and full review of what is going right, what is going wrong and what needs to be changed.…
Fink, A. (1992, October 15). Formats:. National Center for Biotechnology Information.
Retrieved September 16, 2014, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/
MUSC. (2014, September 16). Program Evaluation 101. Program Evaluation 101. Retrieved
(Menzel, 1990, p. 3) Fisher, Berwick, & Davis alude to the idea of integration in health care, with providers linking as well as creating networks of electronic medical records and other cost improvement tactics.
The United States and other nations over the last twenty or so years, have begun a sweeping change in health care delivery, regarding the manner in which health information is input, stored and accessed. Computer use in the medical industry has greatly increased over the last thirty years the culmination of this is fully networked electronic medical record keeping. (Berner, Detmer, & Simborg, 2005, p. 3) the electronic medical record trend began in the largest institutions first, as hospitals and large care organizations attempted to reduce waste and improve patient care, while the adoption has been much slower among physician's practices and smaller medical institutions. (Hillestad, et al., 2005, pp. 1103-1104) Prior to this time medical…
Resources, and Utilization
Changes to Healthcare Practice and Delivery: A Study of Two Detroit, MI Healthcare Facilities Separated by Twenty Years
Changes to technology and to the political and regulatory landscape have led to many changes in the ways that businesses in all manner of industries operate. Increased communications capabilities, the shrinking size and cost for advanced technologies, and a variety of other changes have provided many businesses with an opportunity to operate more efficiently, and in so doing have also made many industries and markets more competitive. An examination of some typical businesses operating in these industries today as compared to their counterparts that were in operation twenty years ago provides ample evidence of the changes that have occurred and the ways in which businesses have adapted.
The healthcare industry has by no means been immune from these changes, but in fact has changed more than many other industries due…
Anderson, J. & Aydin, C. (2005). Evaluating the organizational impact of health care information systems. New York: Springer.
Armoni, A. (2000). Healthcare information systems: challenges of the new millennium. Hershey, PA: Idea Group.
Wager, K., Lee, F. & Glaser, J. (2009). Health care information systems: a practical approach for health care management. New York: Wiley.
Health Care Market
In discussing the market for a health care good or service, one must first understand that in speaking of "health care," one is actually speaking of the entire health care industry, along with each of the goods and services that are produced and exchanged within this market. From organ transplant operations and blood donation to therapeutic massages and nursing home activity programs, the span of health care goods and services is both vast and varied. Further, in viewing today's uncertain economy, the market for health care goods and services is one that brings with it many different questions that must be addressed in order for a stakeholder to fully comprehend what decisions need to made in order to turn a profit.
Scarcity of esources
Scarcity of resources within this market significantly influences the decisions that stakeholders are forced to make. With scarcity of resources comes limited action…
Case, K. And Fair, R. (2007). Principles of economics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson
Fullerton, D. (2008). How economists see the environment. Nature, 385(6701), p. 433.
Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Health Care: The Next Twelve Months
Over the next twelve months, there will be many changes to health care in the United States. The largest and most ambitious goal is to provide the majority of Americans with health insurance (Blendon & Benson, 2010). However, there will be a presidential election and a Supreme Court ruling, which means that 2012 could be the year that determines whether the health care law moves forward or whether it is shut down. It could also go forward in part, after having large pieces of it removed, and it could go forward with some fundamental changes. How the elections go will greatly affect the law - unless, of course, the Supreme Court strikes the law down before the elections arrive. It seems like that the Supreme Court will rule on the individual mandate from a constitutional standpoint, and that could lead to some of the…
Blendon R.J., Benson J.M. (2010). Public opinion at the time of the vote on health care reform. New England Journal of Medicine, 362 (16): e55.
Elmendorf, D.W. (2010). Additional information on the effect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act on the Hospital Insurance Trust Fund. Congressional Budget Office.
Peterson, C.L. & Chaikind, H. (2010), Summary of small business health insurance tax credit under PPACA. Congressional Research Service.
Information technology and computers have also begun to affect, in ways that are both bad and good, family life, community life, education, freedom, human relationships, democracy, and many other issues. By looking into the broadest sense of the word it can be seen that cyber ethics should actually be understood as a branch of applied ethics, and ethics should be something that is believed in by all that provide medical information, whether via the Internet or in some other way, since providing false or fraudulent information could be damaging and potentially deadly for many people.
This particular branch of ethics analyzes and studies information technology and what type of ethical and social impacts it has. Within recent years this new field has led to countless courses, workshops, articles, journals, and many other ways of expression. With the World Wide Web becoming so popular when it comes to health care information,…
Bynum, T.W. (1999) the Foundation of Computer Ethics. A keynote address at the AICEC99 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 1999. Published in the June 2000 issue of Computers and Society.
Surgeons in Canada report that, for heart patients, the danger of dying on the waiting list now exceeds the danger of dying on the operating table. Emergency rooms there are so overcrowded that patients awaiting treatment frequently line the corridors. Not only is there a long wait for care, but care is frequently denied to patients who prognosis is poor. In ritain kidney dialysis is generally denied patients over the age of 55. At least 1,500 ritons die each year because of lack of dialysis.
Countries with national health care systems also lag far behind the U.S. In the availability of modern medical technology. In Canada, high-technology medicine is virtually unavailable. In addition to being biased against new medical technologies, national health care systems generally discriminate against nontraditional practitioners, such as naturopaths and chiropractors.
It is true that Canada spends only about nine percent of its GDP on health care,…
Financing National Health Insurance." (2003, February 4). Available:
http://www.pnhp.org/nhibill/nhi_financing.html (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Health Care Policy Issues. Sept. 2004. Available:
http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm (Accessed 9 Feb. 2005).
Healthcare Budgetary Decision Making
With resources becoming increasingly limited in the healthcare industry, managers are continually challenged with devising effective strategies for dealing with budgetary concerns. The most prominent challenge comes in the form of decision making that results in striking a balance between cost reduction and the maintenance of high quality care and safety for patients. The following discussion outlines approaches that can be utilized by managers to effectively deal with budgetary concerns in healthcare settings, with an emphasis on the advantages of group decision making strategies.
It is evident that there is often a struggle in the healthcare industry for managers to continually and effectively manage depleting resources, address the ever-changing needs of patients, and all the while provide a high level of patient care (Sibbald et al., 2010). This struggle has at its core a need for improvement in regards to the processes in which priorities are…
Burleson, G. (1984). Management, budgeting and the use of resources -- a private sector review. Hospital and Health Services Review, 80(3), 124-5.
Sibbald, S.L., Gibson, J.L., Singer, P.A., Upshur, R., Martin, D.K. (2010). Evaluating priority setting success in healthcare: a pilot study. BMC Health Services Research, 10, 131.
Xie, H., Chaussalet, T., Toffa, S., Crowther, P. (2005). A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, 114, 284-90.
Healthcare spending by the New York State persistently surpasses its earnings. That difference continues to be expanding and is also anticipated to broaden unless of course there happen to be severe, continuous modifications in spending budget actions. Lieutenant Governor ichard avitch, in "A 5-Year Strategy to Deal with the State of New York's Spending budget Deficit" released during March 2010, approximated this structural disproportion within the state's spending budget to become no less than $13 billion. The structural inequality isn't simply the consequence of the economic downturn that started during 2007, and a commonly strengthening economic climate is not going to get rid of it.
To help the State of New York in providing the solutions and dedication to quality that its residents rely on, structural modifications are needed. The aim of this paper is actually to summarize one particular realignment - solving an outright inequity involving the state as…
California Public Employees' Retirement System, "Facts at a Glance: Health," September 2010, http://www.calpers.ca.gov/eip-docs/about/facts/health.pdf .
Citizens Budget Commission, Out of Balance: A Comparison of Public and Private Employee Health Benefits in New York City, December 2009, http://www.cbcny.org/sites/default/files/REPORT_Survey_12162009.pdf .
City of New York Office of Labor Relations, "New York City Summary Program Description, Health Benefit Program," 2010, http://www.nyc.gov/html/olr/downloads/pdf/healthb/full_spd.pdf.
Government Finance Officers Association, "Recommended Practices, Health Care Cost Containment 2004," http://www.gfoa.org/downloads/corbaHealthCareCostContainment.pdf .
Health Care Administration Profession
As a health care manager, the reason for choosing this profession and the day-to-day activities which fill my schedule are often vary different. As a health care professional, I entered this profession to make a contribution to the health and well being of my fellow soldiers. I chose to become a part of the support system which keeps the military functioning, and able to freely commit themselves to the defense of our country. As a health care manager, my time is filled with responsibilities which revolve around 4 categories that have little to do with the daily care of the soldiers and civilians who use our facilities. My job responsibilities focus on the Administrative, financial, legal, ethical, and financial aspects of keeping the medical care facilities operational (so that the other health card staff, such as doctors and nurses, can tend to the medical well-being of…
Kirkman-Liff, Brad. Keeping an eye on a moving target: quality changes and challenges for nurses. Nursing Economics. 11/01/2002;
South Florida Employees Face Higher Health-Care Premiums, Fewer Benefits. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News. 10/12/2003
Shah, Bimal R. Reed, Shelby D. Francis, Jennifer Ridley, David B. Schulman, Kevin A The cost of inefficiency in U.S. hospitals, 1985-1997. Journal of Health Care Finance. 10/01/2003
Healthcare Delivery Systems Annotated
Parnaby, J., & Towill, D.R. (2008). Seamless healthcare delivery systems. International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, 21(3), 249-73.
Towill, D.R., & Christopher, M. (2005). An evolutionary approach to the architecture of effective healthcare delivery systems. Journal of Health Organization and Management, 19(2), 130-47.
A recent article touted the 6.1% growth of spending on medical care in 2007.
The same article cautioned however that, "most experts know that no matter what the numbers say, there is still a great deal of work ahead to reform a healthcare system that is still fundamentally broken -- and is facing one of the worst economic recessions in decades" (Lubell, 2009, pg. 6).
Government and industry officials have been working to reform the industry for more than a decade yet the problem seems to be getting worse rather than better. More and more individuals are finding that insurance takes too much of their income and are forced therefore to forego that expense. Government is leery of committing to the cost of such expense, and industry is reluctant to offer expanded coverage without the backing of the federal government. As the interested parties do the two-step the problem becomes…
Bentley, C.S.; (2005) the new healthcare system, New American, Vol. 21, No. 18, pg. 44
Blizzard, R.; (2002) the haves and have nots of healthcare, Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing, pp. 8-9
Brown, J.; (2009) Obama healthcare plan would shut down private sector, OneNewsNow, http://www.onenewsnow.com/Politics/Default.aspx?id=414372 , Accessed February 10, 2009
Conn, J,; DerGurahian, J.; (2008) HIT budgets taking a hit: study, Modern Healthcare, Vol. 38, No. 50, pp. 10-11
In the case of pill mills, participating physicians and pharmacists bill insurance companies or Medicare for prescription drugs, allowing participating beneficiaries to resell those drugs to criminal middlemen. The pharmacy then repurchases the drugs at a lower cost. According to the USGAO, any misuse of beneficiary identification information is a felony.
Criminals may also steal beneficiary information by creating drop boxes. The drop box scheme involves establishing a phony health care company in order to obtain insurance or Medicare payments. Like the drop box scheme, the pill mill scheme, and the rent-a-patient scheme, third-party billing also involves felony acts. Illegally obtaining beneficiary identification numbers, a criminal can use third-party billing agents to receive insurance payouts. The third-party billing company may not even be aware of the scheme. In other cases, the third-party billing company is a part of the scheme, defrauding by tacking on fraudulent claims to legitimate ones and…
Cornell University Law School. "Health Care Fraud." Retrieved Aug 7, 2008 from http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/healthcare_fraud
United States General Accounting Office (USGAO). "Health Care Fraud." Retrieved Aug 7, 2008 from http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:NcKXTYWPgDEJ:www.gao.gov/new.items/os00015t.pdf+health+care+fraud&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&client=firefox-a
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.