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He now learns the written form of the language. During this phase the emphasis is on the mastery of reading and writing. At the near end of this phase, an eight-year-old has a command of about 80% of the grammar and 17,000 words at their disposal.
Children with a hearing loss in one ear may fall behind their peers with normal hearing during the first two stages of language development. When these children reach school age their behaviors may be taken to mean they are disinterested or not academically inclined, when in reality they are suffer a physical, not a mental disability.
If 5% (one in twenty) of children suffer from a hearing loss in one ear one can only image the number of children who are misdiagnosed, mislabeled or simply fall through the cracks. Depending on class size, statistically a teacher can expect at least one student who suffers…
Ericson, G. (2010, May 5). Kids with hearing loss in one ear fall behind in language skills, study finds. Science daily news. Retrieved July 17, 2011 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/05/100504155411.htm
hearing loss Reflection / Feedback Log #1
Children with Deafness and Hearing Loss:
While working with children who experience difficulty in hearing, I have learned that they are essentially children who do not have a capacity to hear 25 decibel or better in both ears. It is important to note the difficulties that such children with deafness or hearing difficulty of encounter in their everyday life. The severity of the condition can range from mild to acute. The closeness and interaction with such children has shown that their condition needs to be ascertained by a specialist and then they need to be trained in specific learning techniques. The special needs for such children needs to be understood as they tend to fail to communicate with their peers in class.
Topic #2: Main functions of Behavior
Such children with hearing deficiencies tend to get isolated from the class. Their impairment causes…
Hearing Loss Among Adults
Chou , Dana T, Bougatsos C, et al.; (2011), Screening for Hearing Loss in Adults Ages 50 Years and Older: A eview of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Agency for Health Care esearch and Quality (U.S.); eport No.: 11-05153-EF-1
Among adults, hearing loss can be hereditary or acquired from aging related illnesses. esearch has shown that loss of hearing among adults may occur as a result of ototoxic drugs, tumors, accidental head injuries and natural occurring aging process. The hearing loss may be through absolute numbness in the years or through ringing in the years ("Tinnitus"). Loss of hearing is through damage to the inner ear, ear infection, buildup of earwax, or a ruptured eardrum.
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communicative Disorders (2011), Ten Ways to ecognize Hearing Loss. Available online: http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/hearing/pages/10ways.aspx. and, Yuch B, Shpiro N, Maclean CH, Shekelle PG.…
Bagardus St., Yeah B, Shekelle PG. Screaning and management of adult hearing loss in primary care: clinic Application JAMA 2003; 289(15):1986-1990
Chou R, Dana T, Bougatsos C, et al.; Screening for Hearing Loss in Adults Ages 50 Years and Older: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (U.S.); 2011 Mar. Report No.: 11-05153-EF-1
Mills, Mara. (2011). Hearing aids and the history of electronics miniaturization. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, 33(2), 24-44.
Mitchell P, Gopinath B, McMahon CM, Rochtchina E, Wang JJ, Boyages SC, Leeder SR. Relationship of Type 2 diabetes to the prevalence, incidence and progression of age-related hearing loss. Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):483-8
hearing loss in Children
It is well within our knowledge that hearing is vital to speech as well as language growth, communication, along with education. Those children who suffer from listening complexity owing to hearing loss or acoustic dispensation tribulations have persistently been under acknowledged as well as underserved population. It is clear that when a hearing problem occurs in the child during his early stage, it tend to develop more and more within the child. It is therefore advisable that the moment you realize that a child has such complication the better you start taking care of it to lessen the impact. It has always been easier said than done to categorize children with this complication of meek hearing loss minus taking the children through hearing screening programmed. This is for the reason that they more often than not contain whichever precise substantial indications or findings. On the other…
F.H. Bess, J. Dodd-Murphy, R.A. Parker, (1998). Children with minimal sensorineural hearing loss: prevalence, educational performance, and functional status, Ear Hear. 19, 339 -- 354.
J. Dood-Murphy, N. Mamlin, (2002). Minimizing minimal hearing loss in the schools: what every classroom teacher should know, Prevent. School Failure 46, 86 -- 92 (retrieved July 22, 2011), from ProQuest Central (Document ID: 113661989).
occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: A senseless workplace hazard highlights the risks associated with excess noise in the workplace. The authors are writing in a journal that is dedicated to environmental health in the workplace. The authors note that noise is a causal factor in around 37% of all adult hearing loss. The authors conducted a survey of the existing literature on the subject in order to summarize the existing knowledge the tie some of the work together to form conclusions.
The findings were interesting. Excessive noise in the workplace is attributed mainly to a handful of industries, such as mining, construction and manufacturing, and as a result 97% of workers affected are male. The authors have also noted that responses from different workplace safety agencies around the world can differ fairly dramatically, and there remains some lack of understanding about the issue of excessive noise in the workplace.
Kurmis, A. & Apps, S. (2007). Occupationally-acquired noise-induced hearing loss: A senseless workplace hazard. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health Vol 20 (2) 127-136
Diabetes Has on Hearing
Diabetes is regarded one of the major health concerns in the United States given the increase of diabetes cases throughout the country. In the past few decades, diabetes has continued to affect adults and children in the United States. The increase of this condition has been associated with several considerable impacts since it generates numerous medical and related phenomena in the American society. One of the medical phenomena generated by diabetes is hearing loss given that diabetes changes the hearing of many people in America. This paper focuses on examining the perceptual phenomenon of hearing changes brought by diabetes. This analysis will include a discussion of what it feels to live with the effect of diabetes and hearing loss among Americans. The other elements included in this article is methods for prevention, treatment, and cure of hearing impairments from diabetes as well as dangers of having…
Agrawal, Y., Platz, E.A. & Niparko, J.K. (2009). Risk Factors for Hearing Loss in U.S. Adults:
Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2002. Otology & Neurotology, 30, 139-145.
Austin et. al. (2009, September). Diabetes-Related Changes in Hearing. Laryngoscope, 119,
causes of hearing loss and reduction in people of all ages. Many people think of hearing loss as being either something a person is born with or something he or she experiences with old age, but those are far from the only factors that can result in hearing impairment. Whether the person is completely deaf or only has trouble hearing, there are a variety of causes that must be considered and ruled out before a definite determination as to the exact cause of the impairment can be made. Additionally, there are several treatments to be considered. Which one of these is best for the person with the hearing impairment will depend on the cause of that impairment and other factors. Not every option will work for every patient, and doctors must consider numerous issues before making a decision regarding which type of treatment may be the right choice. There are…
Kral, A, & O'Donoghue, G.M. (2010). Profound deafness in childhood. New England Journal of Medicine, 363: 1438-50.
Lieu, J.E. (2004). Speech-language and educational consequences of unilateral hearing loss in children. Archives of Otolaryngological Head & Neck Surgery, 130(5): 524-30.
Oishi, N. & Schacht, J. (2011). Emerging treatments for noise-induced hearing loss. Expert opinion on emerging drugs, 16(2): 235 -- 45.
Robinson, D.W. & Sutton, G.J. (1979). Age effect in hearing -- a comparative analysis of published threshold data. Audiology: Official Organ of the International Society of Audiology 18(4): 320 -- 34.
One of the most common causes of hearing loss is noise while hearing loss is regarded as one of the most common occupational illnesses in America. Noise plays a crucial factor in hearing loss because of its prevalence and people's vulnerability to exposure to noisy environments. Exposures to a single shot from a large caliber firearm can instantly result in permanent hearing loss whereas repeated exposures to loud machinery or music over a long period of time poses serious risks to human hearing (Fligor par, 1). Noise is a major cause of hearing loss because people tend to overlook or underestimate its impact as it continues to damage human hearing gradually.
In the past few years, one of the greatest contributors to hearing loss is loud music. Actually, many people are agreeing that listening to loud music for over an extended period of times can cause hearing loss.…
Dangerous Decibels. "Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL)." Dangerous Decibels. Dangerous Decibels, n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. .
Fligor, Brian J. "Noise Induced Hearing Loss." Better Hearing Institute. BHI., n.d. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. .
United States. Department of Health and Human Services. Division of Adolescent and School Health. About Hearing Loss. By Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 27 Feb. 2013. Web. 17 Dec. 2014. .
However, these units require more precision and need a professional to cast and fit them individually (Tierney, 2011).
IC, or receiver in canal, models are a newer development in hearing aid technology and are more suitable for those with mid-severe hearing loss. When compared to a classic behind the ear hearing aid, the receiver of the IC (the actual loudspeaker) is place on the ear-tip instead of in the housing, which drastically reduces the size of the unit. The IC model actually has three parts: the housing that sits behind the ear (1); a thin wire that connects the housing to the receiver (2), and the receiver that goes directly into the ear canal (3). Despite its size, the IC model is very discreet and automatic (Dillon, 2012).
IC's are similar to Behind the Ear devices but house the speaker in the ear by replacing the tube and a flexible…
CIC Instrument. (2007). The Hearing Products Report. Retrieved from: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-171539579.html
Bentler, R., et.al. (2000). Comparison of Hearing Aids Over the 20th Century. Ear and Hearing. 21 (6): 625-39.
Dillon, H. (2012). Hearing Aids. New York: Thieme Publications.
Tierney, J. (October 2011). A Hearing Aid That Cuts Out All the Clatter. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2011 / 10/24/science / 24 loops.html?ref=hearingaids&_r=0
If an underlying condition is the cause of the loss, then the logical procedure would be to treat the underlying cause. In some cases the sense of smell may return and for others the loss will be permanent.
Research supports the existence of changes in smell due to age. The causes of this loss are varied. There has not been considerable research into searching for a treatment as with other sensory declines. Loss of out sense of smell is not considered to be of greater consequence in our society. ith the rare exception of those whose careers depend on it, there is little societal impact caused by a loss of sense of smell. For the person, they may not enjoy all of the things that they used to, but it does not carry any significant impairment with it.
There has been no formal effort dedicated towards research to restore the…
Arabi, A. (2004) Cochlear Implants: My Perspective. Term Paper. NBB421 - Effects of Aging on Sensory and Perceptual Systems. Professor Halpern. Friday, December 3, 2004. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.
Bauman, N. (2004) Hair Cell Regeneration -- Overcoming the Challenges. Center For Hearing Loss Help. November 2004. http://www.hearinglosshelp.com/articles/haircellchallenge.htm. Accessed December 15, 2006.
Cain, W., Stevens, J. (1989) Uniformity of olfactory loss in aging. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 561, 29-38.
Cochlear Implants. The Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center at the Cochlear.org (2006a) Total Costs for the Procedure. http://www.cochlear.org/sys-tmpl/cochlearimplantcosts/. Accessed December 15, 2006.
population included in the study, the methodology employed by the investigators, the data analysis in the study, the authors' interpretations of their results, limitations of the study, etc. Finally how well or how poorly the study was performed.
Holt et al. (2012) investigated the epidemiological characteristics of a group of children who were hard of hearing. They wanted to identify the predictor variables that determined timely follow-up after a failed newborn hearing screening, and variables that hindered timely follow-up.
The authors studied 193 children from three states each of whom had hearing loss and did not pass the newborn hearing screening. Available records were used to capture ages of confirmation of hearing loss, hearing aid fitting, and entry into early intervention. Linear regression models were used to investigate relationships among individual predictor variables and age at each follow-up benchmark.
The authors discovered that of all variables only level of mother's…
Holte, L et al. (2012) Factors Influencing Follow-Up to Newborn Hearing Screening for Infants
Who Are Hard of Hearing American Journal of Audiology, 21, 163-175
Stroke Hearing Impaired
Plan: Physical, Occupational, Speech, and Psychological Therapies
Implementation: Daily regimen, with one of the four core areas (physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and psychological therapy) emphasized or addressed on each day.
Evaluation: After each session, therapist will write a thorough evaluation of the patient including a progress report. After the end of each six-week period, a thorough progress report will be shared among the various members of the health care team in a collaborative setting.
The follow-up will consist of maintenance therapies in each of the four core areas.
Documentation of Actions and Activities: According to the National Stroke Association (2013), the activities and actions should begin immediately after the stroke. The Physical Therapy sessions will include yoga and other systematic movement interventions to improve coordination, balance, strength, and range of motion. Each week, the therapist will implement a unique type of movement therapy,…
Hetu, R., Jones, L. & Getty, L. (1993). The Impact of Acquired Hearing Impairment on Intimate Relationships: Implications for Rehabilitation. International Journal of Audiology 32(6).
National Stroke Association (2013). Rehabilitation therapy after stroke. Retrieved online: http://www.stroke.org/site/PageServer?pagename=REHABT
"Stroke Health Center," (2011). WebMD. Retrieved online: http://www.webmd.com/stroke/tc/stroke-rehabilitation-overview
Wharton, T. (2013). Utah firm: Loop helps hearing impaired at movies and more. The Salt Lake Tribune. 24 Oct, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/money/57001349-79/loop-hearing-system-technology.html.csp
Teaching Children with Hearing Difficulties: Evidenced-Based Practice
Early evaluation and detection for hearing difficulties forms the basis for timely intervention. This text emphasizes the need for early intervention as a way of maximizing the linguistic competence and literacy development of children with hearing difficulties. It covers the JCIH position statement and uses research evidence to demonstrate how early audiological intervention could help promote academic outcomes for children with hearing difficulties.
Reaction to the JCIH 2007 Position Statement
The JCIH position statement advocates for early evaluation and diagnosis of auditory problems for children with hearing loss. Early hearing loss detection and intervention helps to maximize the literacy development and linguistic competence of children with hearing difficulties, thus helping to enhance their academic and social outcomes. Studies have, in fact, shown that children whose hearing problems are diagnosed early (before 2 months of age) and intervention initiated have better functional, language, and…
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual (7th ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Cole, E. & Flexer, C. (2016). Children with Hearing Loss: Developing Listening and
Talking (4th ed.). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing, Inc.
Cupples, L., Ching, T., Crowe, K., Seeto, M., Leigh, G., Street, L., Day, J., Marnane, V., & Thomson, J. (2013). Outcomes of 3-Year-Old children with Hearing Loss and Different types of Additional Liabilities. The Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 19(1), 20-39.
Dobie, R. A., & Hemel, D. (Eds.). (2004). Hearing Loss: Determining Eligibility for Social Security Benefits. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.
Easterbrooks, S. & Estes, E. (2007). Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students to Use
Spoken Language. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
NIH (2014). Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Retrieved from https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/Documents/health/hearing/NIDCD-Enlarged-Vestibular-Aqueducts-and-Childhood-Hearing-Loss%20.pdf
Public health issues have been a concern for society since the dawn of civilization. Current issues focus on driver safety and certain precautions taken to ensure less accidents on the road. One thing that has gained some traction is the possible universal requirement for hearing tests for all driver's licenses. The CDL or commercial driver's permit and license requires a hearing test. The non-commercial permit and licensing does not.
Of the possible tests to determine adequate hearing in order to drive safely, two are most implemented which are audiometry and the forced whisper test. In the whisper test, drivers must be at least five feet from the examiner with the driver's ear being examined turned in the direction of the examiner. The other ear has to be covered. Then the examiner has to whisper random number or words with the individual then attempting to identify the words. Failure in the…
Feke, Tanya. Medicare. Alpha, 2015. Print.
Hartenbaum, Natalie P. The DOT Medical Examination. Beverly Farms, MA: OEM Press, 2010. Print.
Miller, Lori K. Sport Business Management. Gaithersburg, Md.: Aspen Publishers, 1997. Print.
Robinson, Robert C. Commercial Drivers License Pre-Trip Inspection Training Manual. Bloomington, Ind.: AuthorHouse, 2009. Print.
Comprehension and Deafness
Language and vocabulary development and therefore reading comprehension, among deaf and hard of hearing children is challenged due to several factors. These factors relate to inherent differences between children with normal hearing and those with hearing difficulties. However, efforts and innovation have been put into practice to facilitate language and reading development among deaf and hard of hearing students in order to achieve successful comprehension despite their inabilities to learn through conventional methods. It is important that reading development is maintained at a high level to ensure hard of hearing students are able to maintain comprehension and age appropriate and grade appropriate levels. The following discussion outlines some issues and challenges faced by children with hearing difficulties and how these problems can be overcome in order to achieve effective levels of language, vocabulary, and text comprehension.
Vocabulary comprehension is encouraged and promoted through the activity of reading…
Cannon, J.E., Fredrick, L.D., Easterbrooks, S.R. (2010). Vocabulary instruction through books read in American sign language for English-language learners with hearing loss. Communication Disorders Quarterly, 31(2), 98-112.
Kelly, L.P. (2003). Considerations for designing practice for deaf readers. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(2), 171-86.
Luetke-Stahlman, B., Nielsen, D.C. (2003). The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive English to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate English. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 8(4), 464-84.
Mayer, C., Akamatsu, C.T. (2000). Deaf children creating written texts: contributions of American sign language and signed forms of English. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 394-403.
A transaction between Company M. And Company W. has caused some serious accounting problems and a complex legal scheme and law set is necessary to figure out how to resolve this issue. Company M. And Company W. have been tied up in a long and drawn out legal battle over some copyright and patent infringement argument. In May 2007, W filed a claim against M. And a verdict was reached in September of 2009. This jury found that M. must pay W $18.5 for their mistakes. M did not like this and called for an appeal in November of 2009. More than one year later, the appeals court ruled in favor of M. And the jury's verdict was overturned. W was still upset and filed a petition for a rehearing the next month. That request for appeal was denied and the matter was over according to all legal…
Financial Accounting Standards Board. "Accounting Standards Codification." Viewed 17 Sep 2013. Retrieved from https://asc.fasb.org/section&trid=2127165&analyticsAssetName=subtopic_page_section &nav_type=subtopic_page
Nilsen, K. (2011). Renewed Focus on Loss Contingency Disclosures. Journal of Accountancy April 2011. Retrieved from http://www.journalofaccountancy.com/Issues/2011/Apr/20113854.htm
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
There is an initial purchase of sound field equipment and some installation and in-service costs which are stated to be negotiable. (Ray, 1995; paraphrased)
III. Computers in the Classroom and Deaf Learners
The government is presently making a dedicated effort to put computers into place in every classroom throughout America however in regards to learners who are deaf technological solutions have appeared slowly however, it has been indicated in online science and mathematics studies that computer technology is promising for learners who are deaf. In what was a metasynthesis of 287 studies, the work of raden and Shaw (1987) report that "the degree of success with computer-assisted instruction was inversely related to methodological rigor." Technology in the classroom for deaf learners may include use of:
(1) closed-captioning; and/or
(2) Real-time captioning. (National Science Foundation, 2009)
Study findings appear to indicate that deaf students are inherently more rigid in their manner…
Ray, Helen (1995) Mainstream Amplification Resource Room Study (MARRs) (1995) Educational Programs that Work. Online available at: http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EPTW/eptw12/eptw12d.html
How Does C-Print Work? (2009) National Technical Institute for the Deaf -- Rochester Institute of Technology. Speech to Text System. Online available at: http://www.ntid.rit.edu/cprint/how_cprint.php
Technology in the Classroom (2009) National Science Foundation. COMETS. 02 Oct 2002. Online available at: http://www.rit.edu/ntid/msse/technologyinclassunit.htm#captions
Bandura A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory.
The volume in iPods is normally not limited, as the people at Apple believe that the volume level should be up to the user, with certain people sometimes preferring to increase levels with the purpose of making outside sounds impossible to hear. Using an iPod makes it difficult for an individual to understand that music gradually becomes less piercing as time goes by and the respective individual is as a consequence influenced to increase volume level without noticing the fact that the level he is using is more close to the maximum. Even with the fact that it seems perfectly normal for people to control the time they are listening to their iPods, their presence in crowded and noisy places consists the perfect environment in which music listening with the volume up seems like the best solution. It is extremely difficult for one to control the time they listen to…
The Returning of Soldiers from Combat in America
Although Earnest Hemmingway's, "Soldiers Home" (187) was written in 1925, and the war at that time was different, there are several things in the story that still ring true today for servicemen. In "Soldiers Home" (187) Krebs, the main character in the story goes through some changes while he is away fighting in the Marine Corps. Krebs was a young man from Kansas who is in college at the time that he is drafted into the Marine Corps. So he leaves his friends and family to go overseas to fight for his country, as do the young men and women of todays armed forces. As told by the author Krebs fights in some of the toughest battles that were ever fought, "Belau ood, Soissons, Champagne St. Mihiel, and The Argonne Forrest" (187), he feels out of place when…
With Krebs not really trusting his parents, and his loss of love as well the author shows the reader several issues that can affect a soldier returning home from combat. Along with the loss of interest in relationships, and not having a reason to interact with the towns people or even listen to his parents, they all show some of the struggles facing returning servicemen and women then and today, and that they have faced upon their return from foreign places where they have been busily waging war for the entire twentieth century (Associated Content)
The problems with the American soldier returning home from combat are worse than people may think. They go a lot deeper than people may think. They can range from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Traumatic Brain Injury, hearing loss, anxiety, depression, and even isolation. These are the problems that are unseen by society and have been written about since at least 1925. Hemingway's story is not prescient or "ahead of its tie" because it recognized and described the issues of coming home from war in ways that can be identified with modern diagnoses and that reflect modern experiences. Instead, it is the simple commonality of the experiences of warfare that existed in the First World War and that still exist in today's military conflicts that makes this work still relevant. The fact that Hemingway so accurately describes a case of post Traumatic Stress Disorder doesn't matter nearly as much as the fact that this disorder still exists, and for the same reasons it existed nearly a hundred years ago. Until mankind learns to end warfare, traumas like those experienced by Krebs and by real soldiers in ongoing wars will continue to lead to the development f psychological disorders like PTSD as described in "Soldier's Home" and by countless servicemen and servicewomen that have served honorably in places of combat today.
As Krebs returns home from war in 1919, he is faced with issues of being back in the civilian society. Whether a soldier fought in World War I, World War II, Vietnam, Desert Storm, Somalia, or Iraq and Afghanistan, the problems of the returning veteran are handled the same then as they are now personally, within the soldier and with the general public.
Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment
One common question parents ask is if and when they should be concerned when a child manifests delayed speech. For an infant, delayed speech is of concern when the baby "isn't using gestures, such as pointing or waving bye-bye by 12 months; prefers gestures over vocalizations to communicate by 18 months; has trouble imitating sounds by 18 months; [and] has difficulty understanding simple verbal requests" (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1). In an older child, a lack of developmentally-appropriate speech becomes worrisome when the child does not engage in spontaneous speech; repeats words or phrases without apparent understanding; cannot follow simply instructions; and has difficulty being understood by members outside of the family (Delayed speech or language development, 2012, Kid's Health: 1).
Early intervention for children who exhibit language delays has a significantly higher success rate than later interventions. "First, there is…
Esch, B.E., Carr, J.E., & Grow, L.L. (2009). Evaluation of an enhanced stimulus-stimulus pairing procedure to increase early vocalizations of children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(2), 225-41.
Delayed speech or language development. (2012). Kid's Health. Retrieved:
Kelley, M.E., Shillingsburg, M.A., Castro, M.J., Addison, L.R., & LaRue, Robert H., Jr.
The last step is to get the Associate Director's approval. If other obstacles arise, I will seek simple solutions such as I was able to do with this barrier
XI. To whom will your final project be submitted? Did he or she provide input or criticism along the way? If so, what was it, and how did you react?
This project will be submitted to the Associate Director, as she is more approachable and available to discuss problems.
The Associate Director had an "open" workshop that students both looked toward and dreaded the outcome, because of criticism toward them.
Identifying the right incentive that will support the large variety of employee incentive and award programs in use today, that will appeal to all levels within the organization and is easy and efficient to administer can seem virtually impossible," said Springbok Services (2007).
Annotated Outline Grading Checklist
Payne, Julia, (2007). Developing executive thinking skills. HR Management. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.hrmreport.com/pastissue/article.asp?art=268504&issue=172 .
Elmit, Chris, (2007), Can you hear me? HR Management. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.hrmreport.com/pastissue/article.asp?art=268500&issue=172 .
Springbok Services. (2007). HR management employee incentive, recognition and reward case study. HR Management. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.hrmreport.com/pastissue/article.asp?art=268464&issue=172 .
In a separate study, researchers at Brandeis University concluded that aging adults with moderate hearing loss may spend cognitive energy on hearing accurately to the extent that their ability to remember spoken language suffers (Medical, 2005).
Although the studies above may have determined that age has some effect on loss of cognitive function, no definitive determination has been made as to whether hearing loss is the cause or simply a part of the reason for loss of cognitive function.
The research proposed will examine the effects of hearing loss on cognitive function regarding verbal recognition and performance of auditory processing. Whether hearing loss in individuals of any age affects their loss of cognitive function will be determined by testing 60 subjects who have experienced hearing loss due to aging or other reasons, compared to a control group of comparable subjects without hearing loss by administering the same test to them.…
Andersson, U. 2002, Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol 14, Jul 2002, 335-352.
Balota, D.A. (Ed.). 2004, Cognitive Psychology, New York: Psychology Press.
Gates, G.A. Rees, T, S, 1997, Hear ye? Hear ye! Successful auditory aging. West J. Med. Oct. 1997, 167(4): 247-252.
McArthur, G.M. And Bishop, D.V.M. 2004. Which people with specific language impairment have auditory processing deficits? Cognitive Neuropsychology. Vol www.informaworld.com1, Feb 2004.
HSMS Gap Analysis and Hazard Identification Risk Assessments
Description of APM Terminals
Review of the Health and Safety Management System
Health and Welfare Hazards
Physical Hazard -- Working at Height - Scaffolding
Health & Welfare Hazard -- Noise
Action Plan 1 - Management System
Action Plan 2 -- Hazards and Risks
Barbour Checklist: BS OHSAS 18001 Audit Checklist
Occupational health and safety management has numerous benefits for business, not only an employer's duty of care, a legal and moral obligation but also critical part of business equal in importance to other business functions like finance, marketing and production. When health and safety is embedded as part of business, results would be, good company image and reputation, better employee motivation and morale, improved efficiency and ultimately increased profitability.
The implementation of a sound health, safety and environment (HSE)…
Denise is a 4th-grade student with a bilateral moderately-severe sensorineural hearing loss. She uses binaural hearing aids but is refusing to use her personal Hearing Assistive Technology (HAT) system. Denise has Down syndrome and is enrolled in a full-time Life Skills Support classroom. As part of providing itinerant auditory/speech/language services to Denise, it is important to conduct formal and informal assessments to determine progress in the area of auditory, speech, and language skills. It is important to evaluate her auditory skills, speech production skills, and receptive & expressive language skills. Some of the assessment instruments that would help in her case include the Preschool Language Scale-4 (PLS-4), Infant-Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (IT-MAIS), and Preschool-Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals (CELF-P) (Cupples et al., 2018). Parent interview will be used as an informal assessment instrument to determine Denise’s auditory, speech production, and receptive & expressive language skills.
While the assessments are…
Cupples et al. (2018, May). Language and Speech Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss and Additional Disabilities: Identifying the Variables that Influence Performance at 5 Years of Age. International Journal of Audiology, 57(SUP2), S93-S104.
Rose et al. (2008). Resources for Assessment of Students who are Deaf and Hard of Hearing. Retrieved from College of Education and Human Development – University of Minnesota website: https://www.cehd.umn.edu/dhh-resources/assessment/AssessmentManual.pdf
Unlike previous studies, the current research measured results-based partly on conversational samples recorded during parent-child interactions. The real-life, natural language environment offers a unique perspective on the effectiveness of cochlear implants. The focus on natural spoken language scenarios may also be of particular importance to parents with little exposure to deaf culture.
Participants in the current study included 76 children who received cochlear implants between their first and third birthdays. Intervening conditions were ruled out, including nonverbal intelligence scores, and all participants were enrolled in oral education programs. All the hearing impaired children were deaf from birth. A control group included children with unimpaired hearing, measured by conventional tests. Sample populations were culled from all over North America.
Methods included observing a thirty-minute parent-child play session to assess real-life language scenarios. The play session was recorded twice: once when the child was 3.5 years old and again at 4.5 years.…
Speech Problems and Psychological Damage From Cleft Lips and Cleft Palates
Cleft lips and cleft palates are among the most common of birth defects and if left untreated can lead to serious speech problems as well as psychological damage that can result both from those speech and communication problems as well as from the ostracism that a child with a facial deformity must endure.
However, while the consequences of cleft lips and palates can be severe and long-lasting, these can be averted by medical intervention, especially if it is done as early as possible. This paper explores the various options for surgical and medical management of cleft lips and palates and the ways in which these interventions can help children with these particular birth defects.
We should begin this discussion of treatment of cleft lips and palates by establishing what exactly is meant in medical terms by these two terms.…
Bebout, L., & Arthur, B. (1992). Cross-cultural attitudes toward speech disorders. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 35, 45-52.
Bernthal, J.E., & Bankson, N.W. (1993). Articulation and phonological disorders (3rd ed.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Broen, P.A., Strange, W., Doyle, S.S., & Heller, J.H. (1983). Perception and production of approximant consonants by normal and articulation- delayed preschool children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 26, 601-608.
Catts, H.W. (1993). The relationship between speech-language impairments and reading disabilities. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 948-958.
However, recent spot checks suggest that many operators are unaware of the risk and therefore have not taken precautions to prevent dangerous concentrations of CO (NIOSH, 1984). This could prove to be fatal.
When employees are around aircraft it is important to practice the utmost safety, in order to ensure the safety of the ground crew, the people are on board of the aircraft, and all other employees involved in the handling of the flight line. Individuals must watch and listen for newly arriving or passing aircraft. If driving, employees must keep a proper distance from the aircraft and drive slowly, at 5 miles per hour only (AFOSH, 2003). Caution must also be taken with forklifts and k-loaders, as they must be lowered while aircraft is moving.
When working at night and around hazardous equipment, employees must utilize luminous wands, practice safe driving techniques, as those mentioned above, and use…
AFOSH, Std 91-100 (2003). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from AFOSH Web site: http://www.hill.af.mil/safety/chklists/ChecklistIndex.htm
CDC (2005). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from CDC Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/factsheet.htm
FAA (2005). Retrieved June 19, 2005, from FAA Web site: http://www.faa.gov/about/mission/activities/
NIOSH: Controlling carbon monoxide hazard in aircraft refueling operations (1984). Retrieved June 20, 2005, from NIOSH Web site: www.cdc.gov/niosh/84-106.html
Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.
Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.
Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…
Minter, Stephen G. (2002). "Does Your Hearing Conservation Program Measure Up? Once Described as "Sleep Aid Material," the Dry Topic of Hearing Conservation Metrics Draws Increased Interest as OSHA's STS Trigger Undergoes Review." Occupational Hazards, 3/1/2002.
Mosley, Gerry L. (2004). "National Guard and Reserve Unit Health Protections." Congressional Testimony, 3/30/2004.
PR Newswire (2003). "Compound Licensed by American BioHealth Group From U.S. Navy Shown to Protect Against Hearing Loss From Impulse Noise; - New Data Presented at Association for Research in Otolaryngology Meeting." PR Newswire Release, 3/3/2003.
Rabinowitz, Peter M. (2000). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. American Family Physician, 5/1/2000,.
The disease stems from toxic reactions to structures of the ear, including the cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals and otoliths. Drug-induced damage to these structures of the auditory and balance system can result in hearing loss, tinnitus, disequilibrium or dizziness (yback 2007).
The propensity of specific classes of drugs to cause ototoxicity has been well established and over 100 classes of drugs have been associated with ototoxicity. Hearing loss can be temporary but is usually irreversible with most agents. Generally, antibiotic-induced ototoxicity is bilaterally symmetrical, but it can be asymmetrical. The usual time of onset is often unpredictable, and marked hearing loss can occur even after a single dose (Ishiyama 2006). Additionally, hearing loss may not manifest until several weeks or months after completion of antibiotic or anti-neoplastic therapy (Dille 2003). Vestibular injury is also a notable adverse effect of aminoglycoside antibiotics and may appear early…
Campbell KC, Durrant J. (1993) Audiologic monitoring for ototoxicity. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 26(5): 903-14.
Dille M., et al. (2010). Ototoxicity risk assessment combining distoration product otoacoustic emissions with a cisplatin dose model. J. Of the Accoustical Society of America. 128(3): 1163-1174.
Fausti S., et al. (2009). Auditory and vestibular dysfunction associated with blast-related traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehab Research and Development. 46(6): 797-810.
Grant KW, et al. (1998). Auditory-visual speech recognition by hearing-impaired subjects: consonant recognition, sentence recognition and auditory-visual integration. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 103(5): 2677-2690.
Equally destructive is the attitude that communicating with the Deaf person may involve more time and effort than one wishes to expend" (Zieziula, 1998, p. 193).
Moreover, and perhaps one of the most important challenges related to this issue, a large percentage of deaf individuals do not trust the hearing society. "Historically, the dominant hearing culture has relegated deaf people to social categories such as "handicapped" and "outsider." The history of oppression and exclusion of the deaf community -- although with important variations depending on the countries -- and the ignorance and rejection of the natural and preferred means of communication of many of them is a well-known and many times denounced phenomenon," (Munoz-Baell & uiz, 1999, p. 1).
Finally, there is a real deficiency of information in Deaf culture regarding hospice and its related services. Finding appropriate facilities can be a time-consuming and frustrating process.
The program: breaking down…
Berke, J. (2009). Deaf Awareness Week. Retrieved April 10, 2010, from the About.com Website: http://deafness.about.com/cs/events/a/deafawareness.htm
Deaf Community Health Workers Provide Education and Support to Deaf Patients, Facilitating
Access to Linguistically and Culturally Appropriate Care, Improving Patient Health
Knowledge and Adherence to Recommended Care. (2005.) Retrieved April 10, 2010, from the AHRQ Health Care Website: http://www.innovations.ahrq.gov/popup.aspx?id=2757&type=1&name=print
Employee Exposure to Static Noise: Measurement and Control
The purpose of this report is to analyze the issues arising from exposure to static noisy machinery throughout the day within the company. The report identifies and evaluates noise exposure within the company and will provide recommendations on how to reduce or eliminate the employee exposure to noise, which leads to noise-induced hearing loss. In order to gain insight and increase knowledge a review of various articles relating to noise exposure was conducted. According to Basner et al. (2014) the exposure to high levels of noise can lead to noise-induced hearing loss. Employees can also lose their ability to concentrate on work and conversations. Employees can suffer from psychological stress, fatigue, irritability, and reduced productivity because of loud noise. Working for long periods in noisy conditions can result in a permanent hearing loss, which cannot be corrected. Within the United States, hearing…
ARENAS, J. P. & SUTER, A. H. 2014. Comparison of occupational noise legislation in the Americas: An overview and analysis. Noise and Health, 16, 306.
BASNER, M., BABISCH, W., DAVIS, A., BRINK, M., CLARK, C., JANSSEN, S. & STANSFELD, S. 2014. Auditory and non-auditory effects of noise on health. The Lancet, 383, 1325-1332.
CACIARI, T., ROSATI, M. V., CASALE, T., LORETI, B., SANCINI, A., RISERVATO, R., NIETO, H. A., FRATI, P., TOMEI, F. & TOMEI, G. 2013. Noise-induced hearing loss in workers exposed to urban stressors. Science of the total environment, 463, 302-308.
HUANG, Y. & GRIFFIN, M. J. 2012. The effects of sound level and vibration magnitude on the relative discomfort of noise and vibration. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 131, 4558-4569.
(Northern & Downs, 1974)
In China, otoacoustic emissions studies on patients with Alport Syndrome have determined, specifically by way of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) tests, that the location of pathological changes due to Alport Syndrome are located in the basilar membrane (Zhang & McPherson, 2005). Other studies have found "no statistically significant average difference between left and right ears for average values of TOAE (transitory otoacoustic emissions) response amplitude with no contralateral acoustic stimulation in patients with Alport's syndrome. (Abreu Alves & al, 2008)"
Auditory brainstem response results for Alport Syndrome patients indicate the cochlea as the site of damage, with dramatic alterations of the stria vascularis.
Hearing loss from Alport Syndrome complications is usually permanent. ecommendations for patients include: urine testing alongside SNHL testing; otologist involvement at all stages of treatment once hearing loss presents; counseling and education to enhance coping skills; instruction for lip reading and sign…
Deaf Ears: An Exercise in Understanding
The hearing world intersects with the deaf world all the time. As a hearing person, I count many hearing impaired people as friends and I feel that I generally have a good sense of what they go through to make their way in a society dominated by sound. By depriving myself of hearing for one day through the use of earplugs, I was suddenly privy to insights about deafness that might not have otherwise occurred to me. I came away from the experience with a greater understanding of the deaf world, including the disorientation and fear that people with hearing impairments must integrate into their lives.
It is easy to go without realizing how much one interacts verbally on a given day until that function is impaired. In attempting to talk to family, friends, and coworkers, I found myself struggling to make sense of…
M Backenroth-Ohsako, G.A., Wennberg, P., & Klinteberg, B.A. (2003). Personality and Work Life: a Comparison between Hearing-impaired Persons and a Normal-hearing Population. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(2), 191+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035372814
McKay, S. (2006). Management of Young Children with Unilateral Hearing Loss. The Volta Review, 106(3), 299+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5044769123
Most, T., Weisel, A., & Tur-Kaspa, H. (1999). Contact with Students with Hearing Impairments and the Evaluation of Speech Intelligibility and Personal Qualities. Journal of Special Education, 33(2), 103. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001868253
Tideiksaar, R. (2003). Sensory Impairment and Fall Risk. Generations, 26(4), 22+. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045059262
Three years later, the company improved its picture clarity and introduced the "emotional intonation" feature, considered important components of visual language. ut at present, only 10% of the deaf and hard-of-hearing know about VRS. The Internal Revenue Service refuses to accept VRS calls. And VRS can be performed only with high-speed internet access. ut companies, like Sorenson, provide videophones for free. Those who have no high-speed internet access or a videophone may use IPP relay. It is similar to the outdated TTY but performs faster and more smoothly. The deaf user types his message on a computer.
For the working deaf who need to use the telephone, Able Planet launched the wireless device. This is a telephone and a hands-free set for a cell phone to address these difficulties in the use of a telephone. The technology enables wireless communication with a telecoil in hearing aids. At the same time,…
Associated Press. Hearing Impaired Get Help with Wireless Device. Deseret News:
Deseret News Publishing, 2003. Retrieved on October11, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20030623/ai_n11400486/?tag=content;col1
Bergstein, Brian. IBM Develops Virtual Deaf Interpreter. Oakland Tribune: ANG
Newspapers, 2007. Retrieved on October 11, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4178/is_20070917/ai_n20504469/?tag=content;col1
Sign language is one of the most important elements of deaf communication, and losing this element frightens and outrages some members of the deaf community.
In addition, many deaf people feel that the rehabilitation necessary after implant surgery is often neglected or not budgeted for, and so, it is not managed effectively, and the implants are not used to their full potential. In addition, the implants do not miraculously cure deafness, what implanted patients experience is a reduced and altered sense of sounds and speech at best. Some patients have described the voice as "robotic," and the device will never allow people to hear the same way that a non-deaf person hears. This is another reason the deaf community is against the implants. They believe they make a deaf person even more "handicapped," to put it one way, because they do not fit in either world. They cannot hear the…
Blamey, Peter J. "17 Development of Spoken Language by Deaf Children." Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. Ed. Marc Marschark and Patricia Elizabeth Spencer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 232-246.
Glickman, Neil S., and Sanjay Gulati, eds. Mental Health Care of Deaf People: A Culturally Affirmative Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
Harkins, Judith E., and Matthew Bakke. "29 Status and Trends." Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education. Ed. Marc Marschark and Patricia Elizabeth Spencer. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 406-419.
Harvey, Michael a. "9 Does God Have a Cochlear Implant?." Mental Health Care of Deaf People: A Culturally Affirmative Approach. Ed. Neil S. Glickman and Sanjay Gulati. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003. 327-346.
Characteristics on Mild/Moderate Disabilities
Special Education and Inclusion: Characteristic on Moderate Disabilities
The inclusion of special needs students in a standard classroom continues to be a topic of debate among educators that covers an array of issues including academic, social, emotional, medical, and economic concerns. Opinions range greatly; however, at the heart of debate lies the question, which parents and educators on all sides attempt to answer, is "what is best for the child?" One approach is the inclusion of children with mild disabilities into standard classrooms. This paper shall give a brief overview of the meaning of inclusion, and present characteristics and classroom strategies for the inclusion of a child who is hard-of-hearing in a standard classroom.
A discussion on inclusion would be benefited by clarifying two common terms that mark distinct approaches in special education. These terms are 'integration' and 'inclusion.' The concept of integration implies that a…
Thomas, G, (1997), Inclusive schools for an inclusive society. British Journal of Special Education. 24, pp. 103-107.
Unfortunately, I could not hear any sound from my right ear even with the help of hearing aid. For this reason, I used my right ear for the cochlear implant. My right ear had been sleeping for 28 years until the cochlear implant woke it up on September 19th, 2002" ("FAQ," Heather hitestone ebpage, 2010). Heather writes on her webpage that she strongly supports implants for children and decided to have one as an adult so she could hear the voices of her two young sons.
hitestone was not only "the first deaf Miss America; in fact, she was the first Miss America with a physical disability of any kind" ("Heather hitestone," Alabama, 2003). She and continues to come fire because of her public and vocal support of acoupedics and orally-based deaf education. Today, hitestone lives in Alabama, raising her children. hitestone married a hearing man, John McCallum, an aide…
"FAQ." Heather Whitestone. Official Webpage. February 23, 2010.
"Heather Whitestone." Alabama. 2003. February 23, 2010.
For instance, a decline in peripheral vision may impact the ability to pass approaching vehicles safely, and the decreased range of motion in an older person's neck may impair the ability to look behind when backing up. Also, reaction time decreases by almost 40% on average from age 35 to 65 (Jackson, 1999).
It also appears that the aging process may affect cognitive skills. Short-term memory loss, for instance, can decrease driving skills by interfering with an individual's ability to process information effectively when merging onto a highway into traffic or changing lanes. Such issues are magnified when driving under stressful situations. The higher incidence of cognitive impairment, particularly dementia, among older men and women leads to an increased risk of accident involvement (Jackson, 1999).
According to AAP, as a group, persons age 65 and older are relatively safe drivers. Although they represent 14% of all licensed drivers, they are…
Bedard, M., Stones, M., Guyatt, G. & Hirdes, J. (2001). Related fatalities among older drivers and passengers: past and future trends. The Gerontologist. 41 (6), 751-57.
Beers, M.H. & Berkow, R. (eds.) (2000) the Merck Manual of Geriatrics. 3rd ed. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck & Co.
Central Intelligence Agency (1998). World Fact Book Washington, D.C.: Government
Zapper: Zapping Away the Annoying Sounds of Modernity
One of the most annoying aspects of modern life is the inability to find peace and quiet. Our entire lives are filled with noise, and our only respite is often turning up the volume on our own iPods. Zapper provides a solution to this problem of over-stimulation. The Zapper is a small device that can literally 'zap' away unwanted noise, spanning from background noise in a shopping mall to the loud phone conversation of your neighbor on train. In the workplace, it can give the customer a 'home away from home,' enabling him or her to find solitude amongst noisy coworkers. At home, it allows harried mothers and fathers to escape the loudness of a child's video game.
Consumers have had to resort to a variety of techniques to separate themselves from annoying, distracting sounds. Some people use earplugs; others use noise…
Noise pollution. (2012). UMDMJ. Retrieved:
Yu, Justin. (2012). Best noise-cancelling headphones. Retrieved:
Descibe the effect of execise on blood suga levels. How will this effect you execise ecommendations fo both insulin dependent and non-dependent clients food intake?
Execise cetainly helps to monito and assue healthy blood suga levels. It can help to decease cuent glucose levels in the blood as well as buning stoed blood suga, which is a leading facto in helping individuals lose weight. Moeove, execise can incease muscle mass and cadiovascula enduance. The addition of muscle can futhe help in egulating blood suga levels and glucose usage duing execise sessions.
When making ecommendations fo execise schedules fo clients with diabetes and othe insulin elated disodes, I would cetainly begin with a solid examination of the individual's specific backgound. While I would cetainly be inteested to know about any potential poblems even with non-diabetic clients, I would like to know about the seveity and specificity of the diabetic…
references - Each client has a preferential learning style involving a dominant sensory channel. The trainer should take an active approach to learning style of each participant.
29) Give an example of each rule of professional conduct for teachers of older adults.
1. Professionalism -- Trainers should do their best to maintain the utmost levels of professionalism during sessions. An example of a commonly made mistake would be perhaps taking a cell phone call during a session.
2. Punctuality -- Knowing that many older adults are chronically early, it is critical for trainers to be on time and ready to begin their sessions.
3. Appropriate Language and Terminology -- Being that many older clients will not likely recognize most modern fitness terminology, it is important for trainers to convey their messages in a clear and understandable way. Failure to do so could potentially result in injury.
enhance ou ability to engage in meaningful intepesonal elationships cannot be ovestated. This is moe so the case at the familial level, whee thee is a geat need to maintain mutual positive elations. Being social animals, human beings lagely thive on intepesonal elationships. Sound undestanding of the need fo maintenance and development of intepesonal elationships is theefoe not only necessay but also beneficial.
Smith, S.M. & Kampfe, C.M. (1997). Intepesonal Relationship Implications of Heaing Loss in Pesons who ae Olde. The Jounal of Rehabilitation, 63(2), 15-26.
One of the most impotant components of effective and fuitful intepesonal elationships is listening. In addition to being a sign of inteest and concen, listening is of geat impotance when it comes to the povision of appopiate feedback -- sound intepesonal elationships especially at the familial level ae founded on the pope matching of esponses to the situation. The authos of this paticula aticle…
references used by the authors in seeking to support their assertions are relatively outdated. This could affect the applicability of findings to modern situations.
There is need to familiarize oneself with the various concepts relating to not only the development but also the maintenance of interpersonal relationships. This way, one can easily come up with strategies meant to enrich and enhance relationships. Careful reading of the articles presented herein is therefore of great significance in the further development of one's professional capabilities.
Pedagogic Model for Teaching of Technology to Special Education Students
Almost thirty years ago, the American federal government passed an act mandating the availability of a free and appropriate public education for all handicapped children. In 1990, this act was updated and reformed as the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, which itself was reformed in 1997. At each step, the goal was to make education more equitable and more accessible to those with special educational needs. During the last presidential term, the "No Child Left Behind" Act attempted to assure that individuals with disabilities were increasingly mainstreamed and assured of high educational results. All of these legislative mandates were aimed at insuring that children with disabilities were not defrauded of the public education which has become the birthright of all American children. The latest reforms to IDEA, for example, provided sweeping reforms which not only expanded the classification of special…
Excessive noise in the workplace is associated with several negative health outcomes. In the workplace, exposure to excessive noise can be commonplace, but such chronic exposure can have lasting consequences. OSHA (2015) notes that noise exposure is one of the most common occupational hazards, with some 30 million workers being exposed to high noise levels at some point in any given year. The organization's statistics shows that since 2004, 125,000 workers have suffered significant, permanent hearing loss. Short-term effects can also include loss of hearing or diminished hearing and tinnitus. Long-term exposure to high noise levels can result in psychological stress, reduced productivity and reduced communication.. When hearing loss occurs, this increase workplace risk because of the way that hearing loss inhibits concentration, communication and the ability to hear warning signals. The effects of hearing loss are also felt outside of work, making this an overall quality of life…
Brauch, R. (2015). Vibration hazards in the workplace: The basics of risk assessment. Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from https://ohsonline.com/Articles/2015/02/02/Vibration-Hazards.aspx?Page=1
NIOSH (no date). Heat stress. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/heatstress/
OSHA (2015). Occupational noise exposure. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Retrieved November 21, 2015 from https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/noisehearingconservation/
While it is true that in many countries like Canada there has been a reduction in vulnerabilities such as poverty among the elderly, it is equally true that;
some 3.3 million seniors still live below the poverty line Good housing and proper medical care are often out of reach for the poor elderly -- or so expensive that little money is left over for other needs. Hundreds of thousands of elders go hungry every month. (Callahan, 1999, p. 74)
Poverty is however also a strong indicator of elderly vulnerability in Canada; where the lack of resources is also linked to safety and security issues. Many elderly people live alone and they become more vulnerable to abuse and attack if they so not have enough funds to afford adequate home security. As one Canadian resource notes; "Examples include safety devices that would reduce their chances of a fall or an alarm…
Abuse of the elderly. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2002/9241545615_chap5_eng.pdf
Ageism: Canadian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.cnpea.ca/ageism.htm
Barer M. And Hertzman C. (1972) on Being Old and Sick: The Burden of Health Care for the Elderly in Canada and the United States. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(4), pp.763-782.
Brownell P., Welty a., Brennan M. Elder Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.aging.state.ny.us/explore/project2015/artabuse.htm
PPE (personal protective equipment) on the job.
esearch shows that Personal protective equipment (PPE) actually denotes to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other clothes or gear intended to protect the wearer's body from damage. The dangers that are addressed by protective equipment have to do with the following: physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter (Sakaguchi, 2010). Protective equipment is normally worn for job connected occupational health and safety purposes, in addition to for sports and other recreational actions. "Protective clothing" is useful to traditional groups of clothing, and "protective gear" has something to do with for instance guards, shields, pads, or masks, and others. With that said, this paper will discuss the how important it is to have the PPE protection
The main purpose of personal protective equipment has a lot to do with reducing employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not…
Deborah, B.P. (2002). Profiles of rural nurses' use of personal protective equipment: A cluster analysis. The Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 17(8), 34-45.
Sakaguchi, H.W. (2010). Maintenance of influenza virus infectivity on the surfaces of personal protective equipment and clothing used in healthcare settings. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 15(6), 344-349.
Visentin, L.M. (2009). EM ADVANCES: Use of personal protective equipment during infectious disease outbreak and nonoutbreak conditions: A survey of emergency medical technicians. CJEM: Journal of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, 11(1), 44-56.
Age Stratification and Methods of Social Networking
Old Age and Interpersonal Relationships
As the baby boomer generation ages, America becomes increasingly a senior nation. This has caused an increasing degree of scrutiny to be directed at the process of aging, and the effects which it has upon the social fabric of the nation. Only a few decades ago, as Grant McCracken puts it, old people were "expected to remove themselves from the public stage, to relinquish positions of influence and usefulness, to retire their claims to a place at the center of things." (2004) hether they were locked away in nursing homes or the back bedrooms of their own children's homes or quaint little apartments and retirement facilities, the elderly were generally like ideal children seen and not heard or noticed. However, increasingly middle aged and senior individuals are beginning to appear as vibrant actors in society and culture, boosted…
Mahoney, S. (2003) "Seeking Love" AARP Magazine (online). Accessed at http://www.aarpmagazine.org/lifestyle/Articles/a2003-09-23-seekinglove.html,25 Jun 2004.
McCracken, G. (2004) "Plenitude" Accessed at http://www.cultureby.com/books/plenit/html/Plenitude2p4.htm,25 Jun 2004.
Navon, A. & Sieger, M. (2000) "Pal Power: If friends are the gifts we give ourselves, it's good to be greedy. Hold on to the ones you've got -- and grab some more."
Time, Nov 13, 2000.
Journey into the Deaf-World
his book looks at the Deaf-World culture in depth. In the process, the authors consider many practical, legal, educational, medical and social issues facing those in the Deaf-World. While the book covers many technical issues in detail, the underpinning for all of it is that the Deaf-World is its own unique culture with its own unique language, and is every bit as much of a subculture as it is to be African-American or some branch of Hispanic.
he authors work hard to establish the Deaf-World as a legitimate subculture. hey point out that although most minority groups can point to a geographic location they're from, the Deaf-World is bound by language and experience but not geography. So while Mexican-Americans can point to Mexico on the map, those of the Deaf-World cannot do that.
hroughout the course of the book, the authors demonstrate that often the beliefs…
The people of the Deaf-World recognize that their own culture is rich and vibrant with meaning. They recognize sign language, specifically ASL, as the fabric binding them together. They also know, both from personal experience and from looking at the research, that sign language from an early age will give their children their best chance to learn well and to be successful educationally. Rather than having the educational system try to force their deaf children to function as if they were not deaf, the great majority of the Deaf-World want to be accepted as they are. They don't want their deafness viewed as something requiring medical intervention, and they want to see educational and other institutions work with them to help them be the best they can be as they are, instead of trying to change them to conform to the standards set by non-deaf society.
Harlan, Hoffmeister, and Bahan have written a detailed report of the philosophy, society and needs of the Deaf-World, including pertinent research to support important points. While their book presents a specific view and doesn't pretend to present a balanced view of both sides of important issues, they do explain the other side as perceived by the Deaf-World, and put forth persuasive arguments for their opinions. Every professional and specialist who works with the Deaf-World population in any way should read this eye-opening book.
Lane, Harlan, Hoffmeister, Robert, and Bahan, Ben. A Journey into the Deaf-World. San Diego: DawnSignPress. 1996.
In order to compare educational strategies from the two lingual forms, the study used signed video tapes using both ASL and English sign. The three students then watched the tapes over a period of two separate sessions, after which they were asked to produce "a written version of the text they had viewed," (Mayer & Akamatsu 2000 p 295). This was then followed up by later interviews comparing and evaluating the two different signed texts they had been exposed to. Study results showed that the three students understood both forms of sign rather similarly, with some slight misunderstandings based on differing contexts between the two. Errors in grammar became the element that showed various distance between the two languages used within the study. One student showed similar mistakes in both, the others showed more grammatical understanding in the English form. The types of mistakes the students made based on language…
Borgna, Georgianna; Convertino, Carol; Marschark, Marc; Morrison, Carolyn; & Rizzolo, Kathleen. (2010). Enhancing deaf students' learning from sign language and text: Metacognition, modality, and the effectiveness of content scaffolding. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 16(1), 79-101.
Hoffman, Mary & Wang, Ye. (2010). The use of graphic representations of sign language in leveled texts to support deaf readers. American Annals of the Deaf, 155(2), 131-138.
Mayer, Connie & Akamatsu, C. Tane. (2000). Deaf children creating written texts: Contributions of American sign language gauge and signed forms of English. American Annals of the Deaf, 145(5), 294-405.
Mueller, Vanessa & Hurtig, Richard. (2009). Technology-enhanced shared reading with deaf and hard-of-hearing children: The role of a fluent signing narrator. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 15(1), 72-102.
educationists and teachers in the classroom today is identifying and dealing with children who have a speech, language or communication impairment, which negatively impacts on learning.. Many children find it difficult to understand how conversation works or don't make use of language at all. There are different terms used to describe specific speech and language difficulties, including "phonological difficulties, articulation difficulties, verbal dyspraxia, dysarthria, semantic pragmatic disorder, Asperger Syndrome and selective mutism." (Speech Impairments)
These specific speech and language difficulties can impact severely on the development and natural psychological and social growth of the child. Furthermore, it can also lead to further and more complicated problems - as will be discussed in this paper. "Children with a variety of speech and language impediments are increasing at risk as their language abilities fall behind those of their peers." (Children and Mental Health)
Emphasis must also be placed on recognizing the speech…
Bradford, J. Using multisensory teaching methods. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Dyslexia magazine Com. Web site: http://www.dyslexia-parent.com/mag30.html
Bredenkamp, S. (1990) Protecting Children from Inappropriate Practices. ERIC Digest. Retrieved December 21, 2000 from ERIC Digest. Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-9218/children.htm
Children and Mental Health. Retrieved February 6, 2005, from Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General Web Site: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/chapter3/sec1.html
DeBord, K. (1997) Developmentally appropriate 4-h experiences for the 5- to 8-year-old. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from NC State University. Web site: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/human/pubs/develop_appropriate.html
Reward motivates a particular action and discourages another and this observation appears to be applicable across all ages. Growing evidence, however, reveals that older adults could be less influenced by the consequences of their behavior than younger ones and suggests that reward has greater appeal to younger adults than to older adults. Related literature supported the view that older adults were less susceptible to motivation, such as financial gain, and that simple payoffs failed to elicit response from them (Sanford 1978 as qtd in Tripp). While young adults would be influenced by financial or social rewards, older people would prefer the acquisition of skill or learning.
The study was based on the responses of 31 younger adults and 31 older adults (Tripp 1999). The findings indicated that the reduced interest in reward was a direct consequence of the aging process (McCarthy 1991 as qtd in Tripp), and age-related changes in…
Chasteen, a.L. (1999).The Effect of Age-Related Stereotypes on Response Initiation and Execution. Journal of General Psychology: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_1_126/ai_54826718
Chatterie, P. (2001). Adolescence and Old Age. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_4_28/ai_83530634
Cherry, KE. (1999). Age-Related Differences in Spatial Memory. Journal of General Psychology: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3848/is_199906/ai_n8871495
Fingerman, KL. And Permutter, M.(1995). Future Time Perspective and Life Events Across Adulthood. Journal of General Psychology, Health and Fitness: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_n1_v122/ai_16999626
The decision as to which protests should be permitted needs thorough evaluation in this particular case.
The Amnesty International protest proves to be at a safe enough distance from the convention and is also a more secure situation, where police and other law enforcement can better keep suspicious bags and packages from entering the area. However, there could be a number of legal claims if the Committee grants a permit to Greenpeace to conduct a protest at the shopping mall. There is a possibility that protesters might spill into the roadway adjacent to the American Airlines Arena, where the Conference is taking place. Due to the fact that it is so close, it would be difficult to keep people from entering that area from the protest, which could be a danger to all the attendees and politicians inside. If the permit is granted, police can not lawfully conduct pat downs…
ACLU. (2011). Bystander sues the city of Pittsburgh over pain and hearing loss caused by the use of Long-Range Acoustic Device at G-20 protest. Press Room. Web. http://www.aclupa.org/pressroom/bystandersuespittsburghove.htm
ACLU North Carolina. (2012). Right to protest. Democrats.com. Web. http://www.democrats.com/right-to-protest
Knoxville News-Sentinel. (2004). First Amendment Zones restrict free speech. Common Dreams. Web. http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0125-02.htm
McKechnie, Douglas B. (2011). Don't daze, phase, or lase me bro! Fourth Amendment excessive-force claims, future nonlethal weapons, and why requiring an injury cannot withstand a constitutional or practical challenge. Kansas City Law Review, 60(2011), 139-192.
The most frequent symptom is difficulty in walking or gait ataxia (Unicorn Self-Help Committee 2000), which spreads slowly to the arms and the trunk. Foot deformities, such as clubfoot, flexion of the toes or foot inversion are other early signs. In time, muscles weaken and waste, especially the muscles in the feet, lower legs and hands and, at this time, deformities s begin to show. Other symptoms are the loss of tendon reflexes especially in the knees and ankles, the gradual disappearance of sensation in the extremities, dysarthria or slowness of speech or slurring, easy fatigue, rapid and involuntary movements of the eyes, scoliosis, chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, heart enlargement, myocardial fibrosis, tachycardia, heart block and heart failure. Studies showed that about 20% of FA patients also develop carbohydrate intolerance and 10%, of diabetes mellitus, while others lose their hearing or eyesight.
In most cases, the patient gets…
Adler, Tina. Single Gene Causes Ataxia, Cancer Risk - Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated Gene Causes Fetal Disorder or Increased Risk of Cancer. Science News: Science Service, Inc., 1995. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1200/is_n25_v147/ai_7142442
Barrett, Julia. Ataxia-Telangiectasia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine, Gale Research, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/ai_2601000157
Bird, Thomas D. Hereditary Ataxia Overview. Gene Reviews: National Human Genome Research Institute, 2005. http://www.geneclinics.org/profiles/ataxia/details.html
Robinson, Richard. Friedreich's Ataxia. Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Gale Research, 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0005/ai_2601000562
Pursuit of Silence
The book In Pursuit of Silence: Listening for Meaning in a orld of Noise is about the difficulties faced by modern people in a world that is full of cacophony. hat author George Prochnik believes is that the world has changed in the recent past because there are no places you can go where you can have true silence. Prochnik surveyed men and women from many different aspects of society to try to find the importance that they place on sound and on silence. He further asserts that there is a real danger in this bombardment of sounds. This constant noise is creating in the body some severe ramifications in terms of the cardiovascular system, in terms of the mental processes of the human mind, and in the ways we converse, communicate, and debate with our fellow men and women.
The human body's cardiovascular system controls the…
Prochnik, George. (2010). In Pursuit of Silence: Listening for Meaning in a World of Noise.
Doubleday: New York, NY.
Education Structures for Deaf Students
The paper focuses on six different studies that focus on two different viewpoints on the higher education learning structures for deaf students. The paper first highlights the viewpoints of the students towards their learning structure and then highlights the perceptions of the teachers on the teaching structures and how they highlight the teaching characteristics and structures that prove to be most effective for the deaf or hard of hearing students.
Deaf Student Perceptions of Higher Education
Deaf students generally have trouble in learning the English language across all academic levels despite their linguistic expertise or knowledge. In an earlier study conducted by Berent and colleagues (2000), the researchers highlighted that the deaf individuals or even those who are hard of hearing usually experience learning disabilities (LD) when learning the English language. The combined impact of deafness and LD for English language is difficult to analyze,…
Berent, G.P., Samar, V.J. And Parasnis, I. (2000). College Teachers' Perceptions of English Language Characteristics That Identify English Language Learning Disabled Deaf Students. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 145, No. 4.
Lang, H.G., McKee, B.G. And Conner, K. (1993). Characteristics of Effective Teachers: A Descriptive Study of the Perceptions of Faculty and Deaf College Students. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 138, Number 3, pp. 252-259.
Marschark, M. Richardson, J.T.E. Sapere, P. And Sarchet, T. (2010). Approaches to Teaching in Mainstream and Separate Postsecondary Classrooms. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 155, No. 4.
Nickerson, J.F. (2003). Deaf College Students' Perspectives on Literacy Portfolios. American Annals of the Deaf, Volume 148, No. 1.
For instance a patient suffering from hypotonia may receive physical therapy to assist them in gain more control over bodily movements. Likewise an individual with Sotos syndrome that has been diagnosed with ADD may be treated with behavioral counseling and medications. Behavioral therapies may also be needed to combat aggressiveness, develop social skills, combat tantrums and some personality disorders that may be present. The mental retardation that can occur as a result of Sotos may be treated with learning therapies and through special education. Also language delay may be treated with speech therapy.
Individuals that develop tumors and cancer as a result of the disorder may be treated with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy. Likewise those with heart defects or kidney problems may need surgery or dialysis. Medical treatments may also be necessary as it relates to any skeletal malformations that may persist into adulthood as some researchers have reported that…
Finegan, J.K.,Cole, Trevor R.P.;Kingwell, E.,Smith, M. Lou;Smith, M.,;Sitarenios, G. (November 1994) Language and behavior in children with Sotos syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Hglund, P., Kurotaki N., Kytl S., Miyake N., Somer M., Matsumoto N. (2003)
Familial Sotos syndrome is caused by a novel 1 bp deletion of the NSD1 gene. J Med Genet 2003; 40:51-54
NINDS Cephalic Disorders Information Page. Retrieved August 11, 2007 from;
Chromosomal Abnormality: Down Syndrome
Down Syndrome is a chromosomal abnormality which is accompanied by both serious physical and mental developmental problems, and it is one of the most common genetic syndromes. According to Rebecca Saenz (1999), Down Syndrome occurs in one out of every 800 to 1,000 live births, which is an extremely high rate of incidence. This disorder occurs equally among both boys and girls. There are several genetic occurrences that can cause Down Syndrome to appear in a child, but all of them lead to the same chromosomal abnormality. An extra chromosome, which is the unit of genetic information that exists within each cell, appears in the genetic code of the affected person. When a baby is normally conceived, the egg cell of the mother and the sperm cell of the father each contribute 23 chromosomes to the genetic makeup of the child. In some cases, there may…
Bower, B. "Disabilities develop as family affair." Science News. Nov. 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1200/18_160/80344963/p1/article.jhtml
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn. "Down syndrome." Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2601/0004/2601000443/p1/article.jhtml
Mayor, Susan. "Parents of people with Down's syndrome report suboptimal care." British Medical Journal. Mar. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0999/7185_318/54342406/p1/article.jhtml
Saenz, Rebecca. "Primary Care of Infants and Young Children with Down Syndrome." American Family Physician. Jan. 1999. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m3225/2_59/53730237/p1/article.jhtml
Interview With the Elderly
As Cavanaugh and Blanchard-Fields (2014) assert, "We cannot understand adults' experiences without appreciating what came before in childhood and adolescence" (p. 4). The interviewee, therefore, was asked to describe her childhood experiences on the farm where she grew up. She recalled a life that was much more rugged and basic than today's childhood experiences. She described having to help with the slaughter of pigs, which she did not like, because it smelled terribly. She described the flowers that her father grew and the greenhouse that was popular. She talked about the stone house and how it was divided up among her parents and her siblings and how they would have curtains separating "rooms" and how there was no such thing as television when she was a child. These experiences clearly shaped her character and her perspective of things as she grew older and the world around…
Abel, V. (2013). Insight into Psychology of Aging. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-31glZYYr8
Carstensen, L. (2012). Emotion and Aging: Exploding the Misery Myth. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BXhrrbQCElw
Cavanaugh, J. C. & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2015). Adult development and aging. (7th
Edition). Stanford, CT: Thompson Learning.
In the third trimester of pregnancy, caution must be taken concerning congestive heart failure, hypertension and decreased renal and hepatic function, interstitial nephritis, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia and renal papillary necrosis, anticoagulation abnormalities, leucopenia, granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia. The use of Celecoxib is aimed primarily at suppressing pain and inflammatory stimuli, but it may contribute to NSAID gastrointestinal toxicity. The lowest possible dose of celecoxib should be prescribed and taken. On the whole, NSAIDs can mask the usual signs of infection, therefore, caution must be taken in the presence of existing controlled infection. The physician should investigate symptoms and signs, which suggest liver dysfunction or abnormal liver lab results.
On September 30, 2004, Merck and Company voluntarily withdrew rofecoxib from the American and world markets because of its association with an increase in cardiovascular incidence (Keldaya 2005). A major Food and Drug Administration study linked the medication to a three-fold rise in the…
Avicena. (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Disease Targets. Avicena Group. http://www.avidenagroup.com/disease_targets/neuromuscular/cmt_php?print=on
Kedlaya, D. (2005). Charcot-Marie=Tooth Syndrome. eMedicine.com, Inc. http://www.emedicine.com/arthoped/topic43.ht
National Center for Biotechnology Information (2005). Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome. Genes and Diseases. U.S. National Library of Medicine. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv_fcgi?call=bv.view.ShowSection&rid=gnd.section.197
National Human Genome Researc Institute. (2004). Learning About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. National Institutes of Health. http://www.genome.gov/11009201