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In HS2: Valuing the benefits of HS2 (London-West Midlands), the authors consider the direct benefits and disbenefits to users, the wider economic impact, and other economic and social impacts arising from land use changes. The major benefits for users are journey time savings, reduced crowding, and improved reliability. Though HS2 would generate profits, it would cost the government money to implement it. Finally, Dr. J Savin conducted a financial analysis that does not support the HS2. He believes that the numbers supporting HS2 may claim 90% more traffic than is realistically possible. He also believes that the real costs of construction are hidden because of the government's accounting methods, so that it will actually cost more than its publicized amount.
Chapter 4: Arguments in Favour of the New Line
The primary argument in favor of the new line is that it will provide high speed rail service to an area…
Better than HS2 2011, A better railway for Britain. Available from: www.betterthanhs2.org.
Bluespace Thinking 2010, A review of high speed rail- HS2 proposals. Available from:
www.bluespacethinking.com. [August 2010].
Department for Transport 2009. Britain's transport infrastructure: High speed two. Available from www.dft.gov.uk. [January 2009].
High Speed ail
With greater economic and population growth, there is crowding issues on existing rail lines, poor journey times, areas that have been neglected with existing rail ways, and a greater carbon issue. In efforts to reduce the CO2 emissions, the government has encouraged less car usage, less air travel usage, and more train travel. In these efforts a new high speed rail line has been proposed.
The proposed High Speed Two project is intended to reduce CO2 emissions and provide measures to accommodate future growth in the train travel industry. By reducing road usage and air usage, the train travel produces less CO2 emissions to further harm the environment. The HS2 project is designed to operate with existing lines to produce greater capacity and efficiency in services to new and local users.
The HS2 (London-West Midlands) project case alone will provide 13 billion more in benefits than the…
Anon., 2009. Britains Transport Infracture: High Speed Two, s.l.: Bluespace Thinking.
Anon., 2010. A Review of High Speed Rail-HS2 Proposals, s.l.: Bluespace Limited Thinking.
Anon., 2010. Financial Anaylsis of High Speed 2, s.l.: Wendover.
Anon., 2011. A Better Railway for Britain, s.l.: www.betterthanhs2.org.
As the report, is highlighting several key points that are outlining the strengths of the system. The most notable include: it will reduce congestion, there will be greater levels of productivity, it will integrate the English rail system with the rest of Europe and it can improve the nation's ability to remain competitive. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this strategy will address ritain's current and future transportation needs. As a result, the information from this source is corroborating the findings from the previous research by illustrating how this plan will meet nation's transportation needs. The differences between these articles are this is talking about specific strategies that can address the concerns of opponents. While this piece of literature is highlighting, the positive benefits and ignoring key elements that are important to all stakeholders in the process. Therefore, this source is providing us with background on…
A Better Railway for Britain, 2011.
A Review of High Speed Rail, 2010, Blue Space Thinking Limited.
Britain's Infrastructure High Speed Two, 2009, Department for Transport.
Demand for Long Distance Travel, 2011.
The National Safety Council approximates the entire losses owing to traffic accidents in 2011 was about $250 billion. There were somewhere in the region of 3 trillion vehicle miles, and 1.7 people per vehicle, so all this protection cost of cars comes to 4.6 cents a passenger mile (as it turns out is more than twice more normal approximations). By means of this 4.6 cent number, a rail line that shifts 780,000 drivers produces an additional $9 million a year of passage safety advantage.
A standard estimation is that cars produce 5 cents of blockage damage for each one vehicle mile of travel. From the same basis, let us factor in another 3 cents per vehicle mile to cover up neighborhood pollution, fuel dependence problems and road maintenance. This works out to another $9 million worth of benefits from decreasing the amount of drivers by 780,000 (the carbon impacts of…
Financial analysis of High Speed 2 Stage One
The carbon impacts of High Speed 2. Greengauge 21. Sep. 2012
Valuing the Benefits of HS2 (London -- West Midlands). April 2011.
Capturing the benefits of HS2 on existing lines. GreenGauge21. 2011
Public and mass transit are issues confronting nearly every nation as well as many individual municipalities. The UK is no exception and there are currently many proposals on the docket than attempt to resolve mass transit for distance and commute that are rapid and more environmentally sustainable than individual automobile transportation. One of those transportation proposals is HS 2, a high speed train network that would connect many locations, provide rapid service, resolve issues of environmental concern, and come at a relatively high cost to individual taxpayers and central and local governments. This high cost is often seen as an extreme barrier with regard to developing large infrastructural transportation projects. In summation this work will explore the topic of the HS 2 proposal and offer both affirmative and contrary evidence to support and/or detract from that HS 2 proposal project. This work argues that though it's difficult to calculate the…
Betterthanhs2.org 2011 Sept. A Better Railway for Britain
Bluespace Thinking Ltd. 2010 April A Review of High Speed Rail - HS2 proposals
Department of Transport
…2009 Jan Valuing the Benefits of HS2 (London -- West Midlands)
HS2 proposal is a government project to build a one hundred mile long High Speed Rail (HSR) line between London and Birmingham, England that, once completed, will have the capacity of carrying 28 trains per hour. These trains will be capable of 220 -- 250-mile per hour. It is projected by some experts that this line will reduce journey times from London to other cities by up to 30 minutes. Government reports that there is the potential of reduced emissions, job creation, and economic development(s) as a result of the construction of this line. There are quite a few individuals and groups that disagree with the government's projections, and many argue against the line due to the project's 25 billion pound cost. Others argue that it is not only the cost, but the added carbon emissions, low usage, and elitism associated with the construction and continued ridership issues.
people using rail in the country has grown by 50 per cent and is mainly driven by sensitivity to the environmental. As a result the government has introduced an investment in a railway network and service improvements that will sustain the growth. This project has triggered some debate where some feel that the network is necessary and that it will benefit those who are inclined to use rail as a preferred means of transportation. The government through the department of transportation makes a case for the development of the line arguing that the line will link major centres in the UK. The line is expected to benefit businesses by improving the links between the major terminals thereby saving time and creating more job and business opportunities. In addition, HS2 is most likely to reduce a substantial amount of CO2 emissions as recommended by the Climate Change Act 2008.
AGAHST Federation 2011, A Better Railway for Britain, viewed 16 December 2012.
Bains, J 2011, Working with Word, Live in Hope Publishing, Frustration City.
Blackett, J 2011, Business Benefits, viewed 16 December 2012, .
Bloggs, J 2010, More About Nothing, Rampant Publishing, New York.
High Speed II (HS2) in an initiative by the British government to invest in the future of the country's rail network in order to transform its economic geography. The project is aimed at helping businesses to function more productively, bring key cities closer together, and foster the growth of employment and regeneration. Moreover, the high speed II rail initiative is for the purpose of providing alternatives to domestic aviation and developing a platform that supports long-term and sustainable prosperity and economic growth. As part of the strategy, the British government has set up the High Speed Two Limited Company (HS2 Ltd.) to consider the feasibility of the rail services between London and the West Midlands.
Problems Associated with High Speed II Strategy:
While the strategy is geared towards accomplishing several goals that will transform the rail network, there are various problems associated with the high speed II initiative. Some of…
Aizlewood, K. & Wellings, R (2011), High Speed 2: The Next Government Project Disaster?
Institute of Economic Affairs, viewed 9 December 2011,
g. Chunnel), take upwards of 1.5 to 2 decades to adequately plan and construct. Thus, no is the time to look forward to the future of railway in Britain and invest in the possible. This will, in fact, protect the next two generations from being saddled with even higher debt and potentially a lower rate of benefits (Department of Transport 2009).
However, other research shows that the government's economic case is unsound because it depends on rates of return that are implausible as well as unproven synergies of growth demands created by the railway itself (e.g. because the railway is high-speed, more people will choose to use it). Less expensive solutions are available through alternative transport systems, and can likely be implemented more quickly, thus relieving congestion and serious urban problems now, rather than in years or decades. This is surmised by looking at the transportation trends over the past…
Atkins, K 2009, Approaisal of Sustainability: A Report for HS2, viewed December 2011, http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110131042819/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/pgr/rail/pi/highspeedrail/hs2ltd/appraisalofsustainability/pdf/summary.pdf .
Bluespace Thinking 2010, A Reviwe of High Speed Rail - HS2 Proposals, viewed December 2011, http://www.bluespacethinking.com/assets/user/reports/HS2%20Review%20PDF%203.pdf.
Cheap fast trains "are transport future" 2009, viewed December 2011, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8434653.stm .
Department of Transport 2009, Britain's Transport Infrastructure - High Speed Two, viewed December 2011, http://www.hs2.org.uk/assets/x/55872 .
As a result of these major issues and ineffectiveness of the project, future research on the project should focus on the development of a suitable alternative for the new high speed railway. The development of a cost-effective and less expensive alternative should be based on accurate financial analysis and precise projections of economic benefits. In literature review, there are 1,090 words between the background and conclusion sections.
BetterthanHS2.org (2011), A Better ailway for Britain, BetterthanHS2.org, viewed 28
Bluespace Thinking Ltd. (2010), A eview of High Speed ail -- HS2 Proposals, Bluespace
Thinking Ltd., viewed 28 December 2011,
Department for Transport (2009), Britain's Transport Infrastructure: High Speed Two,
Department for Transport, viewed 28 December 2011,
Greengauge21 (2011), Capturing the Benefits of HS2 on Existing Lines, Greengauge21, viewed
28 December 2011,
High Speed Two (HS2) Ltd. (2011), Demand for Long Distance Travel, High Speed Two (HS2)
Ltd, viewed 28…
BetterthanHS2.org (2011), A Better Railway for Britain, BetterthanHS2.org, viewed 28
Bluespace Thinking Ltd. (2010), A Review of High Speed Rail -- HS2 Proposals, Bluespace
Thinking Ltd., viewed 28 December 2011,
The British government is set to spend billions of dollars to build a High Speed Rail (HSR) line that will run between London and Birmingham. Opinions on this project have been as varied as they are vitriolic. For every person that sees the enormous benefits of the project, an opposite member of society sees the huge drawbacks that such a project can entail. There has already been a large amount of money spent on determining if the project is feasible, and many a report has been generated both on the pro-side of the argument, and on the con side of the same argument.
That new forms of transportation, or at least vastly improved forms of old transportation norms, are greatly needed by Europe in general, and specifically Great Britain is considered by many to be a given fact. As a two thousand and eight study by the Department of…
Honolulu's Impeding Rail System:
Addressing the Necessary Factors to Ensure the Successful Implementation of a Mass Transit Rail System in Honolulu, Hawaii
The Honolulu High-Capacity Transit Corridor Project has already gone through a plethora of designs and revisions and has recently the project has been approved by the governing authorities. The project is meant to address many issues that can propel Honolulu into a more sustainable direction. Inspiration for this project did not require a great leap in human inventions and technology. In fact, many nations have already successfully constructed such rail systems. Not only have they proven successful, but they have been successfully transporting people for many decades now. However, for whatever reason, the United States has never adopted the efficiency of rail systems to the extent that other cultures around the globe have.
These issues that stand the most room for prosperity from the implementation of…
Au, L. (2008, November 10). Voters on route drive rail victory. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from Honolulu Star Bulletin: http://archives.starbulletin.com/content/20081110_Voters_on_route_drive_rail_victory
Elfes, H. (2011, January 31). Siemens Prepares Bid for U.S. High-Speed Train Project. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from Bloomberg: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-01-31/siemens-prepares-bid-for-u-s-high-speed-train-project-faz-says.html
Environmental Graffiti. (2011). The 5 Best Mass Transit Systems in the World. Retrieved Feburary 2, 2011, from Environmental Graffiti: http://www.environmentalgraffiti.com/green-living/free-ride-the-five-best-mass-transit-systems-worldwide/1095
Hansen, e. a. (2007). Target Atmospheric CO2: Where Should Humanity Aim? NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 1-35.
The possibilities for job creation are truly endless.
At the same time, there's a tremendous downside to the possibility of HS2 being created. We live in the 21st and the days of polluting the planet and worrying about it later are long gone. The international community is worried about the fate of the earth, and with good reason. Thus, all forms of new transportation need to be scrutinized in order to see if they will help or hinder the environment. This subject deserves the most careful critique as on the one hand -- any form of mass transit seems like it would be good for the environment as opposed to the single car driver. On the other hand, this is far too unique of a viewpoint to readily embrace. The supporters and leaders behind HS2 say that its fine for the environment, but this may not be the case. "However…
Betterthanhs2.org. (2011). A Better Railway for Britain. betterthanhs2.org, 1-11.
Bluespace. (2010). A Review of High Speed Rail - HS2 proposals. Bluesoace.
HS2. (2011). Demand for Long Distance Travel. HS2, 2-16.
HS2. (2011). Valuing the Benefits of HS2. HS2, 2-18.
He however mentioned that the construction of the system would revolutionize the way people travel in the region. Professional Engineering (2009) mentioned that the railway system account for about six percent of total passenger kilometers that are travelled in Britain. This figure need to be higher with the need for at least trebling the figure. HS2 is noted to be important in also presented the benefits of the HS2 system over the existing line. Bluespace Thinking (2011) performed a demand forecast, economic benefits as well as the alternative options to the ail as well as oad HS2 demand forecast.
The arguments for the proposed HS2 rail system
The Department of Transport (2011) presented a series of arguments that are in support of the proposed construction of a high speed rail system, HS2. The proposed railway system is expected to slash the time of travel between cities in order to bring…
Bluespace Thinking (2011). A Review of High Speed Rail - HS2 proposals.
Else, H (2011). Transforming the way we travel. Professional Engineering
Hibbert, L (2011). Businesses back plans for a second high-speed rail line but the No campaign is vociferous.Professional Engineering
The Department of Transportation (2011)Economic Case for HS2:The Y Network and London -- West Midlands.
The motivation that makes the researcher to investigate this problem is to assist Amtrak to cut costs to generate yearly profitability. It is essential to realize that the government is funding a business that is not generating profits due to the inefficiency of the company management. The annual grant giving to the company is the taxpayer money that needs to be diverted into other useful venture. The Amtrak Company could generate net profits without the assistance of the Federal government if the company is being run by competent people. Recent report by New York Times reveals that Amtrak is losing $80 Million annually on food sales. "It's an outrageous cost to taxpayers," (2). These are part of the activities where the company is losing money making the company to run at a loss yearly. Amtrak's management needs to be replaced with people skilled in management practice to make…
Amtrak. Amtrak Annual Report 2011. Amtrak Rail System. USA. 2011.
House of Representatives. Management of Amtrak systemic problems require actions to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability: report to the Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. DIANE Publishing. USA. 2007.
York Times. Amtrak Losing Millions Each Year on Food Sales. Published: August 2, 2012.
Public Administration Concepts
Babcock Place -- A 6-story subsidized apartment that houses 150 seniors. 20% of the residents requests that the city put in a crosswalk to reach food, library services, and religious centers. The city's traffic engineer said that the crosswalk was not warranted based on need. The Council has postponed voting until an analysis can be done.
There would be a considerable cost to putting in the cross-walk, as well as a reallocation of resources. Essentially, this asks a question of utilitarianism -- what would provide the greatest good for the greatest number. 30 senior citizens might be happier, but if traffic became a problem, thousands might suffer.
There is a fine balance in this situation; certainly no one wishes to deny seniors the ability to walk to services; yet there are larger issues; how will this be funded, what impact will it have economically, and what…
The U.S. is particularly interested in the technology, particularly as oil prices continue to climb in an increasingly volatile market. hereas Japan once looked to the United States for knowledge and aid in modernizing the country, the Japanese are now able to set the standard for the U.S. And the rest of the world with respect to high-speed rail.
The advent of high-speed rail furthers what cultural theorist Michel de Certeau calls the "insidiousness" of consumption. "It insinuates itself everywhere, silently and almost invisibly, because it does not manifest itself through its own products, but rather through its ways of using the products imposed by a dominant economic order" (de Certeau 1984 qtd. In Storey 140). People were able to travel through Japan, obviously, before the existence of the bullet train, but once introduced it gradually became a central feature in the country. Once people got used to traveling at…
"Shinkansen: Japanese Bullet Train." Japan-Guide. 2011. Web. 6 March 2011. <
Siebert, Loren. "Shinkansen: From Bullet Train to Symbol of Modern Japan." (book review).
Pacific Affairs 1 Mar. 2007: 112-114.
Not everyone is of a like mind when it comes to the potential benefits of magnetic levitation technologies, though. While research into maglev train technologies has been underway in the United States since the mid-1960s following the passage of the High Speed Ground Transportation Act of 1965, but much of the interest was limited to paper studies based on the perceived constraints involved in deploying maglev technologies (Uher, 1999). Based on the successes enjoyed by other countries, most notably Germany and China, maglev technologies for the nation's train system received some new support during the late 1990s. For example, Macdonald points out that, "In 1998, President Bill Clinton signed the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, a $218 billion blueprint for America's transit systems, highways and bridges. It included $60 million from the Highway Trust Fund for the Magnetic Levitation Transportation Technology Deployment Program, and the possibility of…
At least 15 die as maglev crashes. (2006, September 23). The Birmingham Post, 8.
Baard, M. (2006, April/May). Working on the railroad. Plenty, 26-27.
Banutu-Gomez, M. (2007). Production and trade factors between China and U.S.. Journal of Global Business Issues, 1(1), 81-82.
Cavendish, M. (2003). How it works: Science and technology. New York: Marshall Cavendish.
S. transportation infrastructure is a bad idea. But in contrast to these doom and gloom pessimists, a restructuring and revitalization of U.S. transportation infrastructure is not only an excellent idea, but is very necessary if the U.S. economy is going to survive and continue to be a major global economic superpower (Lindsey, 2007).
Without the highway infrastructure, the U.S. would have been unable to grow as it did in the 1950's and 1960's. The same idea is true for future growth. Since the 1960's there has been little development of the current system and many of the U.S.'s bridges and highways are falling into disrepair as other priorities, like the War in Iraq, have taken priority. But the transportation infrastructure, the skeleton and circulatory system of the U.S. economic body, is vastly important for both economic and political stability and security.
US power plants and the internet infrastructure are grossly…
IMPA. (2010). IMPA Homepage. Accessed via web on August 19, 2010 at .
The Metro Atlanta Regional Transportation Association (MARTA) is the supervising authority of the mass public rail system that serves Atlanta and its surrounding areas. (Orr, April 1, 2011) MARTA is also responsible for the majority of the bus routes that serve Atlanta's urban areas. The outlying counties' bus routes fall under the jurisdiction of each individual county that they run to, from, and through, such as Cobb County's Cobb Community Transit (CCT), which has a total of 131 local, express and paratransit buses. (Camp, December 12, 2010) Within this multitude of service areas is a bus or train that will run practically anywhere and everywhere a commuter wants to go.
For the places that are currently unreachable by the mass transportation systems in existence are plans to bolster these systems with additional service routes and times. In the past, Atlanta has been a city that favors individual automobiles. ut this…
Associated Press. (April 17, 2011) Metro Atlanta Government Asks For Mass Transit Expansion in Wishlist. The Associated Press.
Bullard, Robert, Johnson, Glenn S., and Torres, Angel O. (2001) Sprawl City: Race, Politics, and Planning in Atlanta. New York: Island Press. 1st Edition.
Bullard, Robert, Johnson, Glenn S., and Torres, Angel O. (2004) Highway Robbery: Transportation Racism and New Routes to Equity. Chicago: South End Press.
Camp, Kathy Ruth. (December 12, 2010) Stop and Go: CCT Route Lifeline for Some, Costs Taxpayers Millions. The Marietta Daily Journal.
This has weakened their global position over the long-term. The reason why, is because they were focused on select demographics of the population instead of which regions can provide the largest amounts of growth. However, the major marketing initiatives in the Western hemisphere have helped the firm to show future potential. This had caused the company to be sold from one organization to next, who think that they will be able to make it successful. ("Country and Evaluation")
Evaluate urger King's strategy of using razilian experience to guide its entry into Russia.
The strategy that urger King is using in razil allowed them to take into account factors that could increase the possible risks they are facing in a location. These include: developing infrastructure, establishing a good management team, focusing on major cities, establishing local offices and supporting continuous development. These elements are important, because they are providing the company…
"Country and Evaluation," n.d.
Cooper, Chris. "Japan Offers California Loan." Bloomberg, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Naylor, Brian. "Stimulus Puts High Speed Rail on Track." NPR, 2009. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
public budgeting comparisons of the federal, state and local budget distributions. This thesis will be focused on whether or not the increased budget allocations for transportation in the federal, state and local government will enhance travel security, efficiency, performance measures and &D development in the domain. The thesis will start off with a proposal for an agency that works across and is allocated budget in all the federal, state and local legislatures. The agency chosen for the thesis is the United States Department of Transportation. The proposal will include a detailed overview of the chosen agency inclusive of some financial data in recent years for the agency and a comparative analysis of the performance measures accomplished with those measures that were not completed. This will be followed by the details and comparative analysis of the budgetary performances of the federal, state and local budget departments in the United States which…
Budget.Gov. 2012. Fiscal year 2012: Historical tables -- Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.
Budget.Gov. 2012a. Fiscal year 2012: Budget of the U.S. Government. Office of Management and Budget.
Dinapoli, T.P. (2011). Report on the State Fiscal Year 2011-12 -- Enacted Budget. New York State Comptroller
Leigland, J. And Russell, H. 2009. Another lost decade? Effects of the financial crisis on project finance for infrastructure, Grid Lines No. 48. Washington, PPIAF.
Balfour Beatty, founded in 1909, is the 19th-largest contractor in the world, and a highly-respected firm that designs, engineers and manages large infrastructure projects all over the world, including the UK, U.S., Europe, Australia, South America and the Middle East. It has over a century of experience in building highways, railroad, power plants and utilities, including the National Grid in Britain. For decades, the company has been very active in overseas infrastructure projects such as railroads, tunnels, bridges, water systems and utilities in many nations, and participated in the construction of high-prestige projects like the Channel Tunnel and Hong Kong Airport (Balfour Beatty Company History 2011). This company has 50,000 employees in over 100 countries, from the U.S. And UK to Africa, Asia and the Middle East, and is a leader if the management of highways, utilities and public facilities. Through its partners and associates, it can offer services along…
Balfour Beatty Website (2011).
Retrieved from: http://www.balfourbeatty.com
Business Plan for Green Tongues
Environmental and Industry Analysis
Products or Services
Marketing esearch and Evaluation
Manufacturing and Operations Plan
Critical isks and Assumptions
Benefits to the Community
Green Tongues is an advertising company that provides environmentally friendly advertising solutions to all those companies that value their environment and want to give back to the society in which they exist. Green Tongues envisions itself to be the premier advertising company in the near future in the entire Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region as consumers and businesses in this region are slowly beginning to realize the importance of environmental conservation. The six member states that comprise the GCC (i.e., Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) are shown to be well situated to take advantage of their political and economic clout in ways that promote environmentally…
Bains, K. (2008, January 9). Solar powered billboards in San Francisco, Africa, and Canada.
Solar Power Authority. Retrieved from http://solarpowerauthority.com/solar-powered-billboards-in-san-francisco-africa-and-canada/ .
Blanche, E. (2011, February). Gulf rail network: The dream becomes reality. The Middle East,
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
The private financing initiatives
When the Private Finance Initiative was launched in 1992, it was seen as a mechanism to achieve extra public-sector investment by bringing in private finance for capital projects as well as a means to improve the public procurement process that was routinely criticized for poor project management and construction cost overruns. PFIs cut across a range of public services, including hospitals, prisons, public transport, roads, and schools. Each PFI depended on the public-sector purchaser to specify the outputs or outcomes it hoped to achieve, and put private-sector capital at risk for the delivery of those outputs or outcomes. By relaxing the emphasis on input specification, PFIs sought to mobilize innovation and optimize whole-life costs and quality to meet the public requirements. The financing mechanism served to reinforce the long-term nature of the relationship by linking payments to the achievement of outputs over the life…
Chung, Demi. 2009. "Developing an Analytical Framework for Analysing and Assessing Public-Private Partnerships: A Hospital Case Study." Economic and Labour Relations Review 19:69+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5033188311 ).
Flemming, John, and Peter Oppenheimer. 1996. "Are Government Spending and Taxes Too High (or Too Low)?." National Institute Economic Review. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637892 ).
Forrer, John, James Edwin Kee, and Zhibin Zhang. 2002. "Private Finance Initiative: A Better Public-Private Partnership?." The Public Manager 31:43+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000818745 ).
Gibb, Kenneth, and Duncan Maclennan. 2006. "Changing Social Housing: Economic System Issues." Public Finance and Management 6:88+. Retrieved September 26, 2011 ( http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045014514 ).
Buy American equirement is an implementation of rules and/or laws by the Buy American Act, which outlines that no foreign steel, iron, or any other manufactured goods should be permitted into the United States of America. This is irrespective of the source of funding to such items in public works or public building, which receives AA (American ecovery and einvestment Act). The Buy American clause states that none of the appropriated funds or otherwise made available through this act may be useful for a project for the alteration, construction, repair, or maintenance of public works and public buildings unless all of the steel, iron, and manufactured products used within the project are produced from within the United States (Frank, 2000).
The provision of this act engrosses the public work and public building projects, meaning public work and public building of governmental entities, including both local and the regional government entities.…
Elliot, J. & Peter J. (1990).The Political Economy of the U.S. Socialism: The Formative
Years, 1918 -- 1928. Boston: Kluwer.
Frank, D. (2000). Buy American Requirements: The Untold Story of Economic Nationalism.
New York, NY: Beacon Press.
The Effects of War and Peace on Foreign Aid on Iran
Prior to 9/11 and the invasion of the Middle East by the U.S., the countries in this region, from Afghanistan to Pakistan to Iraq, Egypt and Libya, had used foreign aid and investment to stabilize their governments and build up their economies. In the wake of 9/11 and with the threat of war and revolution, upheavals have occurred, governments have been toppled, and societies have been decimated. As Scott and Carter (2015) point out, “no region in the world has received more US foreign aid than the Middle East” (p. 740). Following 9/11, however, that foreign aid was coupled with invasion and investment became almost impossible. For one country in particular, Iran, which has stood relatively outside the continuing wars (aside from intervening with Russia in Syria to fight back against ISIS), the effects of war and peace on foreign aid…
The industry is highly dependent upon the United States' economy, as economic health and growth in this country and its businesses is largely responsible for supplying customers -- and especially more profitable customers, as business travelers pay higher prices than pleasure travelers/tourists -- making competition somewhat fiercer in the current economic environment. Larger competitors with more substantial reserves that are capable of offering more diverse flight opportunities on more diverse schedules are definitely better suited to continue growth or at least maintain profitability during this period. As a mid-sized high quality provider serving a broad enough array of destinations to remain attractive to commuters with diverse needs, however, EVA is actually in a position to differentiate itself from competition and become the airline of choice for the selected area.
Large operators often offer greater overall flexibility and certainly operate with higher reserves -- especially as larger airlines…
strategic analysis of the Southwest Airlines. By examining the SWOT analysis of the Southwest Airline it is concluded that the best strategy for the company is the low cost leadership strategy because the competitive advantage that Southwest Airlines enjoys is its low operating cost. The company has to plan its future tactics keeping in mind the cost-cutting phenomenon; this will help the company to sustain its position. The recommendation for the company is to continue the provision of service at low price and improve employee management relationship for a better and coordinated implementation of the strategies.
Southwest Airlines is the largest airline company with the lowest cost present in the United States. It was established in 1967 and since then it has continued its strategy of cost minimizing efficiently. In this paper, the focus is on the specific strategy of the Southwest Airlines. From the Porter generic strategies, Southwest Airlines…
Drucker, P.F., & Drucker, P.F. (1999). Management. Chicago: Taylor & Francis.
Gittell, J.H. (2005). The Southwest Airlines Way. New York: McGraw-Hill, London.
Grubbs-West, L. (2005). Lessons in Loyalty: How Southwest Airlines Does it: an Insider's View. Dallas, Tex.: CornerStone Leadership Institute.
Hunger, J.D., & Wheelen, T.L. (2011). Essentials of Strategic Management. Boston; London: Prentice Hall.
Business innovation and enterprise -- Innovation in China
The buzzword of today is represented by the internationalized economic crisis which has commenced from within the American real estate sector and soon expanded to impact all sectors across the entire globe. Before the emergence of the crisis however, the buzzword was that of globalization, understood as the process by which boundaries between states are gradually eliminated and the values, beliefs, cultures and resources of one region can easily transcend to another region.
Globalization has impacted all aspects of life, from the means in which one spends their leisure time to the means in which one completes their professional tasks. Globalization has generated effects on all fields of life, from politics, to economics and culture.
Within the business community, globalization has translated into a myriad of impacts. For once, the phenomenon allowed economic agents to transcend boundaries and benefit from the comparative…
Ashton, A., 2010, 7 technologies where China has the U.S. beat, GreenBiz, http://www.greenbiz.com/blog/2010/12/07/7-technologies-where-china-has-us-beat last accessed on November 8, 2011
Chang-Rong, K., Fu-Yu, L., 2011, Cultural innovation industry exports talent to China, Want China Times, http://www.wantchinatimes.com/news-subclass-cnt.aspx?cid=1504&MainCatID=15&id=20110207000010 last accessed on November 8, 2011
Li, W., 2011, Applying Grey relational analysis to evaluate the factors affecting innovation capability: evidence from Chinese high-tech industries, Canadian Social Science, Vol. 7, No. 3
Lin, C.Y., 2007, Factors affecting innovation in logistics technologies for logistics service providers in China, Journal of Technology Management in China, Vol. 2, No. 1
Second, Proposition 30 focuses on what is important to a group of citizens -- and education should be important for the current and future health of any State. Finally, political rhetoric aside, it will take bi-partisan support and public policy initiatives working together to find a way out of California's issue.
Brown, D. "Education Crisis in California." 26 January 2011. wsws.org. eb. November 2012. .
Campbell, D. "California's Education Crisis and the Need for New Revenues." 19 March 2012. California Progress Report. eb. November 2012. .
Follow the Money. "Campaign for Mental Health." December 2004. followthemoney.org. eb. November 2012. .
KCET. "Election 2012 Prop Fundings by Donor." 30 October 2012. kcet.org. eb. November 2012. .
Legislative Analyst's Office. "The 2012-2013 Budge: California's Fiscal Outlook." 16 November 2011. lao.ca.gov. eb. November 2012. .
Lin, J. "Calfornia Budget Trigger Cuts." 28 June 2012. Huffington Post Los Angeles. eb. November 2012.…
Brown, D. "Education Crisis in California." 26 January 2011. wsws.org. Web. November 2012. .
Campbell, D. "California's Education Crisis and the Need for New Revenues." 19 March 2012. California Progress Report. Web. November 2012. .
Follow the Money. "Campaign for Mental Health." December 2004. followthemoney.org. Web. November 2012. .
KCET. "Election 2012 Prop Fundings by Donor." 30 October 2012. kcet.org. Web. November 2012. .
Furthermore, the importance of the metro in moving people in St.
Petersburg is illustrated in the impact the metro has on people's lives.
The article by Irina Titova on the St. Petersburg metro cites Valentina
Ivanova, deputy head of the State Duma's education and science committee.
According to the article, the city will open a Southwest aste Treatment
Station shortly, causing the district to develop. Ivavnova maintains that
when the district develops because of the opening of the Treatment Station,
that "the metro will be essential" and that two new stations will need to
be opened "at the south-west of the city" (Titova 2004). The fact that the
opening of a waste treatment center will create the need for two new metro
stations showcases the importance of the metro on daily life and the
movement of people in the city. Anywhere in the city that people need to
Bennett, Philip. "The Daily Drama of St. Petersburg." The Boston Globe
[Boston] 8 Aug 1993:
Japan Fact Sheet. "Railways." Web Japan. 10 Mar 2007.
< http://web-japan.org/factsheet/pdf/TRANSPOR.PDF >
Intercity Train System
History of the train System
The modern intercity train system is dominated by the latest revolutionary rapid transit which is an electric passenger railway with high capacity, frequency and a characteristic separation from the other transport systems of the city. These rapid transit systems are normally located either in underground tunnels or are elevated above the city streets, though once they snail their way out of the city they can run on the ground like any other traffic but way separated from the road.
The first transit system to be developed was the London underground that was opened in 1863; this was quickly replicated in many cities across Europe and the U.S.A. The revolution went on so fast with the largest growth of these systems experienced in Asia with the driverless systems. Currently, there are more than 160 cities with the rapid transit system and 25 cities…
Eurail, (2011). Train Travel in Germany with Eurail. Retrieved March, 4, 2011 from http://www.eurail.com/countries/germany?gclid=CNnY0dipg6gCFQMjfAodfXcTrw
InterKnowledge Corp. (2006). Russia's. Trans-Siberian Railway. Retrieved March, 4, 2011 from http://www.geographia.com/russia/trasib01.htm
(iii) Among the ones who are dependent on transit, merely 37% stated that they would drive to work by availing the services of an automobile if available. Almost 50%of those driving to work could be taken as potential transit riders depending on flexibility and convenience of availability of transit services. (iv) the other factors which would fuel more use of transit were services of non-transfer nature, express avenues and higher fees for parking. (v) Congestion in traffic was regarded as a very grave situation in 36% among the respondents and fairly serious by 28%. (Byrd, 621) d) Steps to improve transit image and attract choice riders:
Among the modes of transit, introduction of a Bus apid Transit -- BT is a novel innovation which can be promoted as a measure for improvement of the failing image of transit among the population. A good implementation normally entails several of the features…
Bailey, Lee Worth. The enhancements of technology.
University of Illinois Press. 2005.
Byrd, Joseph. P. "Perceptions of Public Transportation." In Public Transportation: Planning,
Operations and Management, G.E. Gray and L.A. Hoel, eds., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1979, pp: 617-633.
S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, ineffective fireproofing and a shortage of staircases are highlighted in a preliminary federal safety report into the attacks on the World Trade Center, issued by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology, report concludes that a combination of factors caused both buildings to collapse.
The Ladbroke Grove ail Inquiry, for example, if management had applied the lessons of past SPADs (Signal Passed at Danger), and if signallers had been adequately instructed and trained in how to react to a SPAD, it may well be the case that the signaller would have been able to send the emergency message in time to enable the (Thames) Turbo to be brought to a halt before reaching a point at which it fouled the path of the high speed train.
According to the France-Stanford Conference on risk, the collapse of the Twin Towers was not surprising…
Delage, Pierre. France-Stanford Conference on Risk issues in contemporary science and engineering. 4-6 April 2003. 1 March, 2007. http://francestanford.stanford.edu/Conferences/Risk/Delage.pdf
Health and Safety Executive. 2 March 2007. http://www.hse.gov.uk
U.S. Infrastructure Is in Jeopardy and Consequently So Are We
The federal highway trust fund is the fiscal foundation of the highway system in the United States. Without adequate funding, highway construction stalls and road construction workers are out of work. Congress has dallied with the economic future of America for years as it refused to pass a multiyear transportation bill. The reason for this is likely to be readily apparent to most people: the conservative Congress does not want to increase taxes, even to fund repairs and new roads to meet the infrastructure needs of the country.
A recent study from the White House reports that more than two-thirds of the nation's roadways need to be repaired and that the continued dilapidation results in higher eventual costs that run into the billions of dollars (unningen, 2014). The 27-page report released mid-July 2014 by the Council of Economic Advisers and…
Bennen, S. (2015, May 14). Boehner rejects Amtrak question as 'stupid.' The Rachel Maddow Show. MSNBC. Retreived from http://www.msnbc.com/rachel-maddow-show/boehner-rejects-amtrak-question-stupid#break
Buettner, R. And Fitzsimmons, E.G. (2015, February 12). In New York area, points where train and tragedy are likely to intersect. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/13/nyregion/at-rail-crossings-in-new-york-area-a-constantly-lurking-danger.html
Caygle, J. (2015, May 13). House panel votes to cut Amtrak budget hours after deadly crash. Politico. Retreived from http://www.politico.com/story/2015/05/amtrak-budget-house-panel-crash-117904.html#ixzz3aGPH9LPR
de Blaseo, B. And Cornett, M. (2015, May 13). Let our cities move. The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/nyregion/metro-north-engineer-tried-to-slow-train-before-crash-with-suv-report-says.html
In short, providing transit using the current paradigms and strategies is unsustainble. Transit's success depends on the ability of planners to make the lives of travelers worse off by making it harder to get around, restricting housing choice and type, and subjecting people to all manner of externalities and lifestyles they routinely choose to avoid in the current housing market place (e.g., small homes, urban noise, and air pollution" (Stanley 2007).
Facts and figures publication of the Road Information Program, a Mobility omparison of Investments in Highways and Mass Transit, notes that Despite a 148.8% increase in operating subsidies between 1980 and 1990, mass transit was unable to increase its share of the nation's PMT. In fact, between 1980 and 1990, mass transit's share of the nation's passenger miles of non-marine, surface transportation decreased from 1.43% to 1.27%...total PMT provided by mass transit exceeded 1% of total transportation in only…
From the evidence in this paper, mass transit is important for long-run economic growth and less traffic. This can be shown in many cities where the economic cost of the commuting time is huge. By eliminating issue, it would bring a significant improvement in the economy's efficiency and modern day continence. The economic and military power of a nation has been closely tied to efficient methods of transportation since it provides access to natural resources and promotes trade. A nation can gain wealth and power by increasing the use of mass transit since it allows the movement of soldiers, equipment, and supplies so that a nation can wage war. "Metra ridership grew by about 15% between 1985 and 1995.... Generally, all Metra zones have been experiencing steady growth since 1985.... Ridership in zones a and B (combined) increased by about 800,000 annual riders between 1990 and 1994. These are the zones closest to the CBD. This 14% increase may be due to switching of CTA (Heavy Rail) passengers to Metra to benefit from better fares and a better passenger environment." (Weyrich and Lind). Furthermore, it has become apparent that reliable transportation allows a population to expand throughout a country's territory without being traffic congested.
Union Pacific ailroad Logistics
The Union Pacific ailroad is the largest railroad in the nation, and it serves 23 western states, with agreements with other railroads to link it to the East Coast. It was one of the first railroads to operate in the West, it participated in the building of the transcontinental railroad, and it continues to make history today. It has participated in a variety of new technologies, and it is one of the largest logistic and intermodal companies in the country. It operates several different logistical operations, including Union Pacific Intermodal, and it operates many different terminals around the country with state-of-the-art technologies.
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of transportation. Specifically it will discuss the different types of transportation modes the Union Pacific railroad is involved in throughout the country. Union Pacific is one of the country's most historic…
Arbona, J. (2005). Union Pacific railroad opens new $100 million international container facility to handle future growth. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Union Pacific Web site:
Berman, J. (2009). Norfolk Southern, Union Pacific launch intermodal reefer service. Retrieved 22 Feb. 2010 from the Logistics Management Web site:
Magnetic Levitation Propulsion Systems in North America and Around the World
How Magnetic Levitation Propulsion System Works?
Development of the Maglev Technology
Design Differences in the German and Japanese Maglev Technology
Advantages of Maglev
Other Applications and spin-offs
Potential Projects in the U.S.A.
Magnetic Levitation Propulsion Systems
With air travel and the highways becoming increasingly congested, the need for an efficient, fast and comfortable mode of alternative travel has been felt in many countries of the world. One of the possible solutions is the Magnetic Levitation Propulsion System or high-speed trains called the Maglev train (short for magnetic levitation). The recent question mark over the safety of air travel and the fear of flying created among the general public by the events of 9/11 has renewed interest in the Maglev technology. In this paper we will discuss how the Magnetic Levitation Propulsion System works and briefly overview…
Bonsor, Kevin. (2001). How Maglev Trains Will Work. Marshall Brain's "How Stuff Works" Web site. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.howstuffworks.com/maglev-train.htm
Jesdanun, Anick. (1999). "Seven Maglev Train Finalists." The Associated Press. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.abcnews.go.com/sections/tech/DailyNews/trains990525.html
Komarow, Steven. (n.d.). "Magnetic train vows super speed." Article in USA Today. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.newton.mec.edu/Brown/TE/Maglev/USA_TODAY/usa.html
Railway Technical Research Institute (RTRI) web-site. Last update 2000/09/08. [Available online]. Retrieved on April 28, 2002 at http://www.rtri.or.jp/rd/maglev/html/english/maglev_principle_E.html
financial funding system for Amtrak doesn't work and what can be done about it.
Review current materials on the issue.
Amtrak is doomed to failure, even with government subsidies if it does not improve service, become more efficient and find ways to increase revenue not just rider-ship.
Congress initially created Amtrak in 1970 as a for-profit organization, offering national rail service. It was signed into existence in 1971 and to date has never produced a profit. In 1997, Congress's Amtrak Reform and Accountability Act stipulated that the rail system had to achieve operational sufficiency by the end of 2002 and prohibits Amtrak from using any federal funds for operating expenses after fiscal 2002.
Rail travel has a lot of benefits to offer passengers who do not want to endure the hassles of flying or some of the negative effects of long flights. Rail travel is more comfortable and provides…
Amtrak Funding Brighter. www.UTENEWS/webpaper.com1999
The Amtrak Funding Scandal. www.davidmrowell.com/travelJune 28, 2002.
Joseph Vranich. Edward L. Hudgins. "Help Passenger Rail by Privatizing Amtrak." Policy Analysis. Nov. 2001.
200 Million in Supplemental Funding for Amtrak. http://www.bernie.house.com.June 2002.
An automated baggage handling system was essential in reducing turnaround times. Given Denver's physical size and flight volume, an ordinary system of baggage handling would have simply moved too slowly and would have involved unmanageable numbers of workers. But a fully automated system could, at least in theory, move bags quickly and efficiently enough to make the entire enterprise work. Indeed, United Airlines would not sign a lease to be the principal tenant at Denver until it was assured that the airport would have an effective automated baggage handling system. (de Neufville, pp. 2-4).
The designers of the system focused on speed as its signal characteristic. They promised to deliver a system at which the bags would be moved at speeds up to 24 miles per hour so that the bags from a narrowbody jet could be unloaded and sent to their destinations within twenty minutes. For larger, widebody jets,…
Ayres Jr., B.D. (1995). Finally, 16 Months Late, Denver Has a New Airport. New York Times. March 18. p. 12A.
Bartholomew, D. (1994). Rocky Start for Airport, InformationWeek. March, 15.
Coupe, G. (2005). Air support. The Engineer. Vol. 293. no. 7684. pp.24-28.
Dempsey, P. (1994). Denver international airport: lessons learned. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
Lotus ental Car's CFO feasibility adding alternative fuel vehicles fleet
The problem of switching to a more fuel efficient car, especially ones that are considered non-polluting will arise for all tourist and individual car owners. The reason is the rising cost of fossil fuels and the actions of environmentalists and other powers that try and curb the use of fossil fuels and cars in many places. While the operators have some more breathing time, it can be predicted that in the near future there will be a forced shift to hybrid cars, electric vehicles and non-fuel-based vehicles in all sectors of the world. The automotive industry is itself gearing up for the change. One factor that has made the automobile producers take to producing hybrid vehicles and electric and other fuel vehicles is primarily the costs of fuel as is obtained now. The rising cost in fuel has made automobile…
Baker, Linda. (2006) "The Service Economy: Car Sharing Is the New Consumer Model." E
Magazine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp: 16-18.
Becker, Helmut. (2006) "High noon in the automotive industry"
As a result, demand for this type of aircraft seems to be stabilizing and we expect to return to higher production rates. In the meantime, rail transportation group, which is less vulnerable to economic woes, has continued growing. Since May 1 of this year, the company has received new orders totaling nearly 3 billion euros and spanning not only the European and American markets, but also, the Asia-Pacific market, namely, China and Australia. Moreover, the company has acquired an aircraft assembly plant and announced the development of a new intercontinental business aircraft, the Global 5000 (Swickard, 2004). The company is increasingly paying its attention on its core know-how; product and market diversification; and anticipation of emerging needs.
Putting in perspective, Bombardier is Canada's largest aerospace exporter and one of the largest exporters in the country overall. It accounted for more than half of the aerospace industry's total revenues in 2002…
Middleton, a. (2004). "Expanded Horizons," Marketing, 109, Iss. 29, pp. 8-9.
Swickard, James E. (2004) "Bombardier Global 5000 Set a Class Record," Business & Commercial Aviation, 95, Iss. 2, pp. 14-15
tfinal - tinitial = 32.4oC - 25.5oC = 6.9oC
q = mc-t
= 100 grams X 4.184 JX 6.9oC
The enthalpy in the vessel that has not expanded is higher.
As such, the vessel that has not expanded has a higher temperature.
951.9= kJ/mole Chapter 4
=1039.9 kJ/mole Chapter 4
The potential energy for both Chapter 3 and H. is actually higher than Chapter 4 because of the fact that atoms in a chemical bond are more stable than individually separated atoms. The fact that there is a need to use energy to separate the two atoms in the bond adds to the potential energy of the second choice, the Chapter 3 molecule and a H. atom formed. If that bond would be converted, that energy needed to break the bond could actually then be used to do work.
The one with more kinetic energy is the…
The lack of cultural sensitivity and focus led to EuroDisney only attaining 5% of their anticipated volume on opening day. If all of these problems with the marketing of the concept to the government, selection of leaders, definition of concessions and rides weren't enough, the pricing was outside the range of what many French families could afford. In the first years of its existence, Disney partnered with high-end rail service Eurostar to get families from England, which had a strong conversion rate with the British Pound, to visit. This further angered the French, and also made Disney appear elitist, which is a big problem in France, which prizes its egalitarianism. It has since cost Disney well over $1B to manage their way out of this problem (Curwen, 1995).
Microsoft Windows Vista
Introduced in January, 2007, Windows Vista is easily the worst operating system produced in the last ten years. It…
Curwen, Peter. (1995). EuroDisney: The mouse that roared (not]). European Business Review, 95(5), 15.
Rosen, Deborah E., Jonathan E. Schroeder, Elizabeth F. Purinton. (1998). Marketing High Tech Products: Lessons in Customer Focus From the Marketplace. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 1998, 1.
Aaron Weiss. (2006). Who needs Windows Vista? NetWorker, 10(4), 18-26.
On March 11, 2004, an explosion ripped through Madrid's commuter train system. The attack occurred just three days before a general election that was very close. Originally, the government blamed Basque separatists for the incident. However, within a few hours a militant group linked to Al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the attack. The reason why is because of Spain's support for the Iraq War. (Shemella, 2011, pp. 156 -- 209) (Bennett, 2007, pp. 43 -- 44)
After the bombing, is when the police stepped up their surveillance and realized that a secondary attack was about to take place. This happened on the morning of April 2nd when the same terrorist cell failed to set off a device on a high speed train called AVE. The evidence that was collected from the scene allowed law enforcement to identify an apartment that the group was using as their headquarters. After raiding…
Bennett, B. (2007). Understanding, Assessing and Responding to Terrorism. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Shemella, P . (2011). Fighting Back. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
South Coast Railway is evaluating a proposal for a five-year franchise from the UK government. This proposal would be to operate a high speed commuter rail service from 2018 to 2022. The following report will examine the financials relating to this decision, and the decision-making heuristic.
The decision at hand is essentially a capital budgeting decision. There are a few different ways to evaluate a capital budgeting decision. The most common is the net present value (NPV) technique. This relies on discounted future cash flows to make the decision. The principle behind the use of discounted cash flows is that money earned today can be reinvested, and because of that, a pound earned in the future is inherently worth less than a pound earned today. The value of future money decreases over time. The NPV method discounts those future cash flows back to present value, and compares then…
Risks From International Business
What are some risks of international business that may not exist for local business?
There are many risks inherent in competing on a global or internal level compared to being a local business. As the chapter suggests, there is a much greater level of economic and socio-political pressure on governments to work together for the common good of the global economy. Despite these best intentions, global macroeconomic factors often cause nations to restrict or unnecessarily increase the cost of transactions and trade based on fear over the trading partner's economies. Such is the case for American companies attempting to gain sales within China, whose government holds nearly $1.1 trillion in U.S.-based debt. China and the United States are two of the more powerful economic forces in the global economy, and as their economies go, so goes the world. What this means for international businesses is that…
(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)
Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.
Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.
There are countless examples of the alterations…
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.
Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.
Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
Posche Case Analysis
The intent of this case analysis is to evaluate the buye decision pocess the typical Posche custome undetakes when seaching fo a new high-pefomance spots ca. The Posche spots ca enthusiasts' decision pocess is significantly diffeent than that of the Cayenne and Panamea customes, and these diffeences will be discussed. The factos that contibuted to Posche selling significantly moe lowe-piced models in the 1970s and 1980s is also analyzed. An explanation of the positive and negative attitudes towads bands like Posche is povided, in addition to the ole the Posche band plays in the self-concept of buyes.
Analyzing the Decision Pocess of the Posche Custome
The coe custome base of Posche has a self-concept of being exceptional in evey aea of thei lives, fom thei ability to set and supass vey challenging objectives, to thei ability to ean above-aveage incomes and have exceptional lifestyles as a esult.…
references. JMR, Journal of Marketing Research, 33(3), 293.
U.S. Car Buyers In Germany Enjoy Personal Touch and Speedy Highways. (2008). German Business Review,3,8.
James H. Gilmore, & B. Joseph Pine Ii. (2002). Customer experience places: The new offering frontier. Strategy & Leadership, 30(4), 4-11.
Gumpert, David E.. (1986, March). Porsche on Nichemanship. Harvard Business Review, 64(2), 98.
Lesser, J., & Hughes, M.. (1986). The Generalizability of Psychographic Market Segments across Geographic Locations. Journal of Marketing, 50(1), 18-27.
In a report on recent research in this area, Hickman (2008) states that, "Although the public recycle newspapers and bottles, only one eighth of clothes are recycled through charity shops
About 70 per cent goes straight to landfill or incineration" (Hickman). This is telling example, of the way that Fast Fashion can affect the environment.
The fact that these fashions are relatively cheap means that they are more easily discarded that would be the case with more expensive garments. Furthermore, the finding that almost all discarded Fast Fashion is not ecologically processed in an environmentally friendly way is a central factor that will be explored in detail.
The same study by Hickman referred to above contributes to the overall picture of the potentially negative outcomes of Fast Fashion in countries like the United Kingdom. " aste volumes from the sector are high and growing in the UK with the advent…
ANALYSIS: Do consumer concerns threaten fast fashion? 2007. 9 Feb. 2008 http://www.just-style.com/article.aspx?ID=98337
Antonides, G. & van Raaij, W.F. Consumer Behaviour: A European Perspective, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. 1998
Betts K. Margareta van den Bosch. Style & Design, Vol. 170, 2007.
Cheap Fashion, Fast Fashion. 9 Feb. 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/blast/art/articles/cheap_fashion_fast_fashion.shtml
Fatigue has been recognized as a causal factor in accidents, injuries and death in a vast range of situations, which indicate that tired people have a lessened likelihood and probability to give sound performance of a safe action. The situational areas can include industries like transport such as road, air, rail and oceanic as well as occupational areas such as; hospitals, emergency operations, law enforcement etc. And the problem is more particular in the working hours that are irregular. Almost everyone is caught complaining of fatigue at some point of time, either on work or leisure time, and that ultimately causes accidents and injuries. Fatigue causes slow responses and failure to pay attention or inappropriate action which can be the primary causes leading to most of the accidents (Mitler et al., 1988).
In most of the countries, fatigue is understood to be the most prominent accident factor in the…
4. Define the design structure: The subjects will be given a pre-test, which will inform the researcher about their decision making habits. Thereafter, the subjects will be assigned in 2 groups based on their decision making habits. Thereafter they will be asked to fill out a survey, which will indicate their level of stress.
5. Data analysis: Data will be analyzed using a Chi square test.
We see that the great job demands and higher decision latitude in aviation all help in maintaining a superior mental health capacity and can be ascertained by the ability of the employee to adapt to his environment. It also said by Xie (1996) that prominent job demands and superior decision latitude contribute to better mental health and are interlinked with positive outcomes. Not to be forgotten, the above sentence also refers to the job framework and criteria. Along with the level of control and management the employee has over the requirement of work associated to fixed shifts, rotating shifts may hinder the employee's control. Providing a greater sense of control and grasping of the context on a consistent basis could possibly permit for the decision latitude to be put to enhanced use. Because of the unpredictable nature of the job framework in aviation, it is anticipated that employees who operate
To provide the number of constraints and variables, the paper provides the study of Amtrak rail system between Delaware, and New Jersey. The entire datasets held with the 99 trains are 42 tracks and 43 nodes. The datasets gives a problem of 220,000 variables and 380,000 constraints. ith available constraints and variables, the paper uses all possibilities to solve the problems using the algorithms.
To arrive at the solution to the problem, the study uses the new traffic management concepts and other potential solving methods.
3-Part: Structure of the Model;
The paper uses the Ilog Cplex tool to solve the problem. The linear programming as follows:
The algorithms check all constraints and simplify the problem as much as possible using the mathematical point-of-view. Using the system, the study attempts to find the first solution and refine it in order to find the best solution as being revealed in Fig 1.…
Gely, L. Dessagne, G. And Lerin, C. Train Re-scheduling Modeling with Operational Research and Optimization Techniques: Results and Applications at SNCF. SNCF Innovation and Research Department. 2008.
Semet, Y. Schoenauer, M. "An Efficient Memetic, Permutation-Based Evolutionary Algorithm for Real-World Train Timetabling," the Journal, Volume, pp. 110-120, (2005).
Multidivisional Organizational Structure
Organizational Structure of Large Corporations
Effective management of any organization is a function of keeping track of the details. hen the day was over, a profitable enterprise is one which can answer the questions of how much was produced, spent, sold, what kind of problems occurred along the way, and what the organization is doing to solve the problems in order to remain on the path toward profitability. hile this list may appear overly simplistic, everything that a business does can be mapped along a path begins by purchasing raw materials and ends at selling a finished product at a significantly higher price. hether the company sells paperclips, pomegranates, or purple SUV's, their purpose is to buy and sell at a profit while satisfying the needs of the consumer and working community which they serve.
During the last century, as businesses morphed from corner stores and family…
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Transportation and Sustainability in Los Angeles
Increase utilization of green technology for vehicles
The horrific traffic situation in Los Angeles is not only detrimental to society in the sense that its immense levels of congestion cost commuters millions of dollars in lost time daily, but also because it can cause physical harm. One study has identified several risk factors that are significantly increased by freeway pollution levels such as cardiovascular problems, respiratory disease, cancer, heart attacks and flat-out premature death (Cronan). It further finds that some brain cells in mice showed inflammation consistent with Alzheimer's disease when exposed to these pollutants.
It would be one thing if the levels of pollutants in the city were consistent with the levels found in other cities; however the levels of air pollution found in Los Angeles are among the highest in the country. In fact, Forbes…
The implications of security payloads and overheads on the performance of optimized XML networks (Choi, Wong, 2009) are inherent in the continual design of XML standards and protocols attempting to compress these elements and optimize their performance. The integration of security into Business Reporting Language (XBRL) is having a minimal impact on overall performance of XML networks overall, as the features in this standard are compressed (Piechocki, Felden, Graning, Debreceny, 2009). Compression is also specifically used with the XML key management specification to increase performance (Ekelhart, Fenz, Goluch, Steinkellner, Weippl, 2008). Compression algorithms are used for shrinking the contents of data containers, packets and messages so they are more compact, which increases transmission speed and accuracy. The development and continual support for XML within Web Services has transformed transactional workflows from being simplistic to be multifaceted, supporting the development of trading networks (Kangasharju, Lindholm, Tarkoma, 2008). As a result of…
Fans of science fiction are fond of recalling a remark by novelist Arthur C. Clarke, to the effect that any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic. I am currently typing these sentences onto a laptop, where I am also currently watching a grainy YouTube video of the legendary magician Harry Houdini, performing one of his legendary escapes -- from a straitjacket, in this case. Houdini is probably the most famous stage magician of the twentieth century, as witnessed by the fact that his name is familiar to my generation although he died almost a century ago. If Houdini were to suddenly reappear in front of me right now -- in the flesh, I mean, and not merely on YouTube -- how would I explain to him that the way in which all of this is taking place? To someone who has been dead for a century, the…
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One demand is to supply adequate fresh water. Insufficient fresh water for drinking, sewage treatment and sewage discharge are frequent issues that arise as the population increases. Augmented amounts of air pollution, water pollution, soil contamination and noise pollution are also issues faced by city governments. Another issue is that of high infant and child mortality rates. These rates are frequently caused by deficiency. There is also an augmented possibility of the appearance of new plagues and pandemics. For a lot of ecological and societal reasons, including congested living situations, undernourishment and insufficient, unreachable, or missing health care; the underprivileged are more likely to be exposed to communicable diseases (Devaney, 2010).
What steps did city governments take to help deal with new demand resulting from the influx in population?
In the late nineteenth century, municipal governments frequently failed to meet the needs of their constituents. Because of this urban planning…
Auch, Roger, Taylor, Janis and Acevedo, William. (2004). Urban Growth in American Cities.
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Devaney, Erik. (2010). The Effects of Population Density on Individuals. Retrieved March 8,