1000 results for “Historical Development”.
Historical Development Of Nursing Science
Timeline: History of nursing
Florence Nightingale publishes her Notes on Nursing, which includes her thirteen canons of nursing. This book was the first book to establish nursing as a unique profession that required specific skills and attributes. Nightingale drew upon her experiences as a nurse during the Crimean War and called for more intensive education of future nurses (Theory of Florence Nightingale, 2012, Nursing Theories).
The American Civil War was a bloody, prolonged conflict. Nurses such as Walt Whitman, Louisa May Alcott, Clara Barton, and Dorothea Dix distinguished themselves serving on the battlefield. As a result of the Battle of Bull un, Barton and Dix created a nursing corps to deal with the need to treat the fallen in a systematized fashion. There were few hospitals in existence at the time. Also, at the time the profession was largely made up of men (Stein…
Betty Neuman. (2012). Theories of Nursing. Retrieved:
Development of nursing theories. (2012). Nursing Theories. Retrieved:
Historic development of professional associations
Historical development of professional associations:
National Association of Social Workers
Why the association was formed
In the postwar era, the need for social workers increased, with the rise of industrialization and the return of veterans to the home front. Counseling, adjusting to a new way of life, and the demands of a rapidly-changing society all necessitated the construction of social work as a viable profession. The National Association of Social Workers was established in 1955. It was created to consolidate seven organizations in the field, including the American Association of Social Workers (AASW), the American Association of Psychiatric Social Workers (AAPSW), the American Association of Group Workers (AAGW), the Association for the Study of Community Organization (ASCO), the American Association of Medical Social Workers (AAMSW), the National Association of School Social Workers (NASSW), and the Social Work esearch Group (SWG). It is one of…
Clark, Elizabeth. (2010). A broader vision for the social work profession. NASW (National
Association of Social Workers). Retrieved October 27, 2011 at http://www.naswdc.org/nasw/VisionSpeech0809.pdf
Code of ethics. (2008). NASW (National Association of Social Workers).
Retrieved October 27, 2011 at http://socialworkers.org/pubs/code/default.asp
In addition, stratification contributes to cultural determinism, which again, alludes to when a person's position or class within a stratified society determines their culture, what kind of labor they will have the opportunity to have, what quality of education they may have access to, and other aspects (or limitations) of a particular culture.
When social stratification becomes too extreme and tensions within a culture rise too high, there is a distinct possibility for cultural differentiation. This occurs in societies where the tensions and imbalances are apparent and transparent. In many countries, such as the United States, the media helps to minimize class imbalances. The media is often used as an institution that will communicate and distribute the dominant ideology and specific hegemony. Hegemony is a form of social control and ideology is the greater societal structure of which hegemony is a tool or strategy. Hegemony may is often skewed or…
Understanding Race and Ethnic Relations, 4th Edition. Chapter 3 -- Understanding Race and Culture. Print. Provided.
Timeline: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Nurse Science Timeline
Timeline 1850-2010: Historical Development of Nursing Science
Florence Nightingale begins her nursing training in Alexandria, Egypt at the Institute of St. Paul.
Florence Nightingale, in Paris, visits the Daughters of Charity in their Motherhouse in Paris to learn their methods.
Florence Nightingale goes to Turkey with 38 volunteer nurses to assist in caring for the injured of the Crimean War. (October21)
Mary Seacole leaves London to establish a "British Hotel" at Balaklava in the Crimea. (January 31)
Biddy Mason is granted her freedom and moves to Los Angeles. She works as a nurse and midwife and becomes a successful businesswoman.
1857 -- Ellen anyard creates the first group of paid social workers in England and pioneers the first district nursing program in London.
1860 -- Florence Nightingale, Notes on Nursing: What it is and What it is Not…
"History and famous nursing theories." (2011). NursingAvenue.com Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.nursingavenue.com/Nursing-Theories.html
Kendall, C. (2010, Apri 15). The history of nursing. Helium Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.helium.com/items/1805546-nursing-history-theory-and-timeline
"Notable nurse timeline." (2011). timetoast Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.timetoast.com/timelines/8652
"Nursing theory development bullets." (2011). Scribd, inc Retrieved August 23, 2011, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/14083218/Nursing-Theory-Development-bullets
Evolution of Health Care Marketing
Understanding the historical development of the hospitals of different states provides opportunities for postulating the future and factors that might influence their performance. Historical analysis takes into consideration the significant milestones that shaped the current state of the hospitals of the state alongside the projected future of these health care organizations (Berkowitz, 2011). As such, this essay analyzes the historical development of the hospitals of the United and India. The historical analysis provides opportunities for the comparison of the countries that have experienced significant transformation to provide effective health care to patients.
Historical development of hospitals in the United States
The U.S. hospitals emerged from institutions such as nursing homes that gave health care services to the poor patients, retirees, and leprosy patients. Charities ran these institutions and provided them with the necessary resources required for ensuring the provision of the desired heath care. The…
Berkowitz, E.N. (2011). Essentials of health care marketing. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Shi, L., & Singh, D.A. (2010). Essentials of the U.S. health care system. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Speziale, F. (2012). Hospitals in Iran and India, 1500-1950s. Leiden [etc.: Brill.
Feng Shui's Course In Hong Kong
Hong Kong goes its own ways. Not entirely, of course, and obviously much less so since 1997, but it retains a certainly cultural autonomy. One way in which Hong Kong has continued traditional beliefs and practices that have faded on the mainland is the degree of dedication to the practices of feng shui. There are several reasons why Hong Kong has maintained such traditions. Some of these arise from the fact that islands tend to be both conservative and independent, holding to traditions as a strength.
Mainland Chinese officials see their current and future strength as arising from their economic modernization, as essentially arising from their flight from tradition. Hong Kong, while certainly attached to economic prosperity and legally a part of China, has because of its geography also maintained an attachment to its past.
Hong Kong, no matter how many legal times it…
Carroll, Robert. Feng Shui: The Skeptics Dictionary. www.skepdic.com/fengshui.html. 2010.
Chua-Eoan, H., StonerT. & Wong, B. (1987). How to keep the dragons happy. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,964725,00.html#ixzz1apwioL5e
Disneyland Hong Kong Feng Shui, http://www.disneyland-hong-kong.com/disneylandhongkongfengshui.htm.
History Of Penitentiaries
With nearly 10% of its population incarcerated, it is important for Americans to understand the purpose and history of penitentiaries in this country. To this end, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide a history of punishment, the history of prison development, and a comparison of the Pennsylvania system and the Auburn systems. Finally, an analysis of the impact and involvement of prison labor over time is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the purpose and history of penitentiaries in the conclusion.
History of punishment
Although humans have used various punishments for different purposes such as infractions of social, religious or legal codes such as the Code of Hammurabi for millennia (Voglis, 2002), the term has assumed a formalized modern meaning that includes a legal process. For instance, according to the definition provided by Black's Law Dictionary (1990), punishment is "any…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company.
Chain gangs. (2017). Public Broadcasting System. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/tpt/ slavery-by-another-name/themes/chain-gangs/.
Derrick, F. W. & Scott, C. E. (2004, Fall). Prison labor effects on the unskilled labor market. American Economist, 48(2), 74-77.
Ford, A. (2014, May 2). Florida sheriff reintroduces chain gangs. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/05/02/brevard-county-sheriff-chain-gang/2130335/ .
The Beginning: Nightingale
Although nursing care has been around since the first cave man got a cut, the formal, organized discipline of nursing can be traced to the work of Florence Nightingale. Around the time Nightingale began her research and studies in earnest, a number of medical breakthroughs were being made that impacted the history of nursing. One was the advancement of anesthetics, which greatly enhanced the ability of nurses and doctors to care for their patients and perform surgeries. Anesthesia became especially critical on the battlefield.
US Civil War to WWII
Wartime became a primary arena for nurses to carry out their practice, as the numbers of wounded required attention. Florence Nightingale was a nurse during the Crimean War. Like Nightingale, Dorethea Lynde Dix was one of the profession's first nurse leaders and managers. Dix led teams of nurses during the Civil War in the United States. Along…
Penn Nursing Science (2012). History of nursing timeline. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.upenn.edu/nhhc/Pages/timeline_1700-1869.aspx?slider1=1#chrome
Loretta Ford was a revolutionary in her time. She took a chaotic period of social and political unrest and used it in order to spearhead new directions for modern nursing. She helped recreate the role of the NP in a much more clinical context. The clinical emphasis of the clinical field was opened up for a new generation of nurses to expand their roles and become much more powerful within the operation of the health care system. The 1960s also saw some uniquely difficult challenges in the health care industry. During the time, the needs of the system were changing. There were more people in greater need. Physician shortage in an era that was demanding greater levels of care and opening up the "opportunity to advance nursing through education and an expanded role in healthcare" (American Academy of NPs, 2005). This increase in clinical emphasis helped empower the modern…
American Academy of NPs. (2005). Celebrating 40 years of NPs. Youtube. Web. http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&v=YNMki0i88xA&feature=endscreen
Institute of Medicine. (2010). The future of nursing. Report Brief. Web. http://www.iom.edu/~/media/Files/Report%20Files/2010/The-Future-of-Nursing/Nursing%20Scope%20of%20Practice%202010%20Brief.pdf
History Of Tooth Extraction From the 5th Century
a paper history tooth extraction Greeks ( 5th century) till .
The process if removing teeth from their dental sockets is referred to as tooth extraction (Vignoletti et al.). There are many reasons for extractions, but the most common reason is removal when teeth become unrestorable because of tooth decay, dental trauma, or periodontal disease. People result to tooth extraction when the mentioned conditions are accompanied with toothache. Tooth extraction might occur when teeth are crowded. This would create space for the rest of the teeth to grow or be straightened. Tooth was extraction was not only conducted when the person's tooth was painful, but it was also done as a pain reliever for other diseases. Currently, tooth extraction is straight forward, and is mostly done when a person is awake using only local anesthetic, which eliminates pain sensations. Tooth extractions are…
Clement, Milton A. "Dental Forceps." Google Patents, 2011. Print.
DiVito, E, OA Peters, and G. Olivi. "Effectiveness of the Erbium: Yag Laser and New Design Radial and Stripped Tips in Removing the Smear Layer after Root Canal Instrumentation." Lasers in medical science 27.2 (2012): 273-80. Print.
Klein, C, and CG Lorber. "[Historical Development of Surgical Wisdom Tooth Extraction]." Fortschritte der Kiefer-und Gesichts-Chirurgie 40 (1994): 113-16. Print.
Philippe, Julien. "Pierre Fauchard the "Inventor" of Orthodontics." Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics 14.01 (2011): 104. Print.
trade also has contributed to the economic exploitation of women, as the
textile industry for example, which is predominantly women has seen jobs
lost and wages cut. Women are often forced to be teachers or work in day-
care centres, but not on equal footing with men. Women are victims as are
ethnic minorities, and they are forced into hourly jobs with low salaries,
high unemployment, and little unionization or official organization.
Furthermore, women are dependent on household duties, and through
mechanical technological improvements in household work, women have been
able to work more. This means that women are in fact tied to the family,
and that the family dictates that women's economic needs are of secondary
concern. As the household labourer, traditional duties are a priority, and
this notion of women contributing to the workforce as secondary to
household duties has contributed to women being treated as secondary…
sound technologies and sound design in Film
Sound in films
Experiments in Early Age
Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan
Unified sound in film production
Sound designers in Cinematography
Sound Recording Technologies
History of Sound Recording Technology
Film sound technology
Modern Digital Technology
History of sound in films
Sound Recording Technologies
The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…
Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.
Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.
Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.
Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
Evaluating theoretical framework also assists in determining whether the structure directs the research study. This process entails identification of constructs or concepts, assessment of definitions, relationships, variables, hypothesis, methodology and findings.
Discussion Question Two: Will there always be a theoretical framework that aligns with your chosen topic of study? Why or why not?
Theoretical framework entails the collection of combined concepts that are not essentially well established (Aparasu, 2011). Theoretical framework determines the things a researcher measures and the statistical link to look for. Through theoretical framework, researchers engage preconceived ideas. For instance, some people deem that human beings are untrustworthy and lazy. Such basic beliefs regarding human temperament influences how a researcher views things when conducting a research. In this regard, not understanding the actual framework is an enormous concern. Theoretical framework directs the researcher to what he/she views in his/her environment, and what he/she does not notice in…
Aparasu, R. (2011). Research methods for pharmaceutical practice and policy. New York:
Beck, C., & Faan, C. (2013). Routledge international handbook of qualitative nursing research.
New York: Routledge
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…
Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.
Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,
Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography
In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
TELEVISION'S ELATIIONSHIP TO SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Television's elationship to Science and Technology
Scientific knowledge has led to the development of machinery, and equipment among other provision of technology. Notably, computer technology is a product of scientific knowledge: the advancement of the science and the engineering knowledge has led to the increase in the practical application of knowledge. As a result, the technology has continued to advance leading innovation and modernization. Television is a product of scientific knowledge and thus led to the transmission of knowledge of science from one region to another. Television has had gradual improvement in different time. For example, in the ancient time, the transmission of news and entertainment was limited and only in the black and white. As seen in the modern society, television has advanced from black and white images to colored photographic images (Williams, 1974). The improvement in the mode of transmission of images…
Dick, P. K. (1982). Blade Runner. Random House LLC
Jonze, S., Kaufman, C., & Burwell, C. (1999). Being John Malkovich. Universal Studios.
Williams, R. (1974). "The Technology and Society" from "Television: Technology and Cultural Form." New York: Schocken, pp. 35-50
Human Resources - Critically appraise the historical development and future direction of Human Resource Management in the Hospitality Industry
Personnel Management & Human Resource Management
Links of Corporate Strategy and Human Resource Management -- An Analysis
Trends in Hospitality Management
Human Resourcing strategies in Hospitality Industry
Personnel Management & Human Resource Management
The practices of people management have received additional importance due to the present emphasis on the renewed interest in human resources. Traditionally, there has always been a dividing line between operational managers and personnel managers who are now called human resource managers. In the United States the function of personnel management has been a recognized function since the National Cash Register Company had opened their personnel office in the 1890s. The American personnel managers have always closely identified themselves with the objectives of the organization and this may be considered as a unitary tradition.…
Rowland, K. And Summers, S. (1981). Human resource planning: A second look. Personnel Administrator, December, 73-80.
Lorange, P. And Murphy, D.C. (1984). Bring human resources into strategic planning: Systems design considerations. In: Fombrun, C., Tichy, N. And Devanna, M. (eds.), Strategic human resource management. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 275-296
Nkomo, S.M. (1984). Prescription vs. practice: the state of human resource planning in large U.S. organizations. Paper presented at the Southern Management Association meeting, 14-17, November, New Orleans, Louisiana.
Golden, K.A. And Ramanujam, V. (1985). Between a dream and a nightmare: On the integration of the human resource management and strategic business planning processes. Human Resource Management, vol. 24, no. 4, 429-452.
The historical review of supervision in schools starts in the colonial age when supervision of teaching methodology was done through the procedure of external scrutiny with local individuals appointed to review how the instructors had been teaching and how pupils had been learning. This particular format for assessment continues to be a benchmark in the process of supervision all through its evolution. Supervision only developed into a formal process within the governmental school systems during the 1830s wherein school administrations started using supervision due to population growth in key cities all over the U.S (Glanz and Sullivan, 2005; Tracy, 1995). This led to the development of urban school systems which ultimately had to be assessed by independent superintendents to make sure that the appropriate curriculum had been followed and pupils were effective at reciting the lessons.
Early years and the starting point of supervision
The term, “supervision” has its…
Germany West East
In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…
Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar
Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.
"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.
22 Mar 2012.
When most people think of the helicopter, they will often talk about commercial and military aircraft. As there is an emphasis on how the latest technology is changing the industry. A good example of this occurred, in May 2011 when the U.S. Navy Seals used a special rotor that could not be heard in surrounding area or seen on radar. This is illustrating the advancements in the helicopter technology over the last few years. To fully understand what is happening requires carefully examining its development. Once this takes place, is when the recent innovations will highlight a trend that has been occurring since the aircraft was first placed into active use during the Second World War. (Emspak, 2011) (Patillo, 2001, pp. 142 -- 148)
Early History of the Helicopter
The early history of the helicopter dates back to around 400 BC. This is when the Chinese theorized that some…
A History of Helicopter Flight. (2010). University of Maryland. Retrieved from:
Pioneers. (2012). Helis. Retrieved from: http://www.helis.com/pioneers/1900.php
Soviet and Russian Helicopter. (2012). U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved from:
Participatory Approaches to Development Communication
It was confirmed by Everett ogers in 1976 that the dominating paradigm towards development of communication had passed. He negated all those theories, which have been prevalent in field of communication ever since the 10950s. These theories have been diffusion-ism, and it was replaced by the new participatory approach. It was a very important and significant declaration, especially when it came from ogers, who was a seminal personality in the field of diffusion study. Not only did this new theory point out the shortcomings of the existing belief, it has highlighted and brought forth the advantages of theories related to participation of community, and that of socio-economic structures towards analysis of communication process.
It is very important to study and highlight the findings of ogers almost thirty years after their being discovered, due to their validity till date and the substantial academic application. It is…
Edwards, M. (1999). International development NGOs: Agents of foreign aid or vehicles for international cooperation? Nonpro't and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(1), 25A37.
Ellerman, D. (2006). Helping people help themselves: From the World Bank to an alternative philosophy of development assistance. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Gumucio-Dagron, A. And T. Tufte (2006), eds., Communication for Social Change Anthology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. New Jersey: Communication for Social Change Consortium.
Gumucio-Dragon, A. (2006). Knowledge, communication, development: A perspective from Latin America. Development in Practice, 16(6). Retrieved 20 April 2008 from http://www.development inpractice.org/apc_ae-v16n6x542370.html
Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology
Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:
The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the…
Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago
Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003. http://archaeology.about.com/library/glossary/bldef_culturalecology.htm
Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003. http://www.indiana.edu/~wanthro/eco.htm
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
discloses to the reader something of what happened during the era under discussion. But it also reveals at least as much about the era in which the history was written. What is considered significant enough to mention, what events are seen as causative rather than incidental, who are the true villains - all of these things may change from one generation's historical account to that of the next, and not because new facts have come to light.
The authors under consideration here ask us to reconsider the nature of history in general as well as to reexamine the particular places and times that they are writing about. They seek to use substitute key theoretical concepts for the traditional chronological structure of history, asking us to consider not what came after what but who had power over whom, and how these social relationships are the causative elements of (each) history.
Caulfield, S. (2000). In defense of honor: Sexual morality, modernity, and nation in early twentieth-century Brazil. Durham: Duke.
Gutierrez, R. (1991). When Jesus came, the corn mothers went away: Marriage, sexuality, and power in New Mexico, 1500-1846. Palo Alto: Stanford.
Guy, D. (1991). Sex & danger in Buenos Aires: Prostitution, family, and nation in Argentina. Omaha: University of Nebraska.
Scott, J.W. (1999). Gender and the politics of history. New York: Columbia.
Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion," by Stephen B. Oates. Specifically, it will analyze the historical value of the book, and analyze the author's assessment that "His [Nat Turner's] rebellion illustrates a profound truth" (Oates ix). This book is part novel, part biography, and part heartfelt narrative of a time and place that no longer exists. It is a compelling tale of what it was to be a slave in the South in the 1800s, and how it drove some blacks to violence and hatred. Oates has done a masterful job of introducing Turner as a man, a father, a lover, and a slave, who tried to gain his freedom the only way he knew how.
THE FIRES OF JUBILEE - REVIE
From the opening paragraph, historian and biographer Stephen B. Oates sets the stage for the slave rebellion that would shake Southampton County in Virginia on August 22,…
Oates, Stephen B. The Fires of Jubilee: Nat Turner's Fierce Rebellion. New York: Harper Perennial. 1990.
. History of the selected system, including developer/manufacturer, need it was built to fulfill, and unique characteristicsThe history of unmanned aerial systems has been heavily emphasized for centuries. Many countries around the world used UAS as a means to provide a competitive advantage during war times. Others uses these systems as a means to create a climate of surveillance and research. These findings have been used to create further commercial applications that are still in use today. The usage of UAS, from a historical perspective, dates back to China. Around 200 AD Chinese developers and manufacturer used paper balloons equipped with oil lamps to illuminate the night during war periods. Foreign enemies, who were not aware of the technology believe the lamps during the night were spirits or a divine being. Likewise, during the civil war, both Union and Confederate forces launched balloons laden with explosives and attempted to land…
References 1. Andrejevic, M. (2016). Theorizing drones and droning theory. In A. Zavrsnik (Ed.), Drones and Unmanned Aerial Systems: Legal and Social Implications for Security and Surveillance (pp. 21-43). New York: Springer.2. Asaro, P. M. (2013). The labor of surveillance and bureaucratized killing: New subjectivities of military drone operators. Social Semiotics,23(2), 196–224. doi:10.1080/10350330.2013.7775913. Daggett, C. (2015). Drone disorientations: How \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"unmanned\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" weapons queer the experience of killing in war. International Feminist Journal of Politics, 17(3), 361–379. doi: 10.1080/14616742.2015.10753174. Feigenbaum, A. (2015). From cyborg feminism to drone feminism: Remembering women\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s anti-nuclear activisms. Feminist Theory, 16(3), 265–288. doi: 10.1177/14647001156041325. Gusterson, Hugh. “Toward an Anthology of Drones: Remaking Space, Time, and Valor in Combat.” The American Way of Bombing: Changing Ethical and Legal Norms, from Flying Fortresses to Drones, edited by Matthew Evangelista and Henry Shue, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2014, pp.191-2066. Holmqvist, C. (2013). Undoing war: War ontologies and the materiality of drone warfare. Millenium: Journal of International Studies, 41(3), 535–552. doi: 10.1177/03058298134833507. Kindervater, K. H. (2016). The emergence of lethal surveillance: Watching and killing in the history of drone technology. Security Dialogue, 47, 223–2382
For the first part of this exercise, I will dwell on Lou Gehrig's speech. The speech in question has featured prominently in quite a number of speech collections as a truly historical speech, alongside those given by the likes of Martin Luther King and Winston Churchill. Commonly referred to as the Iron Horse due to both his commitment and durability as far as baseball is concerned, Gehrig was at the prime age of 36 when he was struck by what has now come to be referred to as Lou Gehrig's disease. The disease effectively ended his long and illustrious career in baseball. This speech, which I will rewrite to convey the opposite message, was delivered by Gehrig during a ceremony held in his honor by his friends and team mates. Given his circumstances at the time, one would have expected the speech to be self-defeating and perhaps full of…
American Rhetoric (2013). Lou Gehrig: Farewell to Baseball Address. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/lougehrigfarewelltobaseball.htm
Natural Resources Defense Council (2012). The Consequences of Global Warming on Weather Patterns. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/fcons/fcons1.asp
Union of Concerned Scientists (2011). Climate Hot Map: Global Warming Effects around the World -- Solutions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.climatehotmap.org/global-warming-solutions/
egional Economy within MECOSU and the European Union
The world has been changing very fast and is having no borders in terms of economies. This is helping people as development in one area is helping people in all areas. This is putting to an end to the belief prevalent in the 19th century that when the interests of individual states were looked after, then the entire society will progress. This is now expected to be covered through mutual cooperation. This quality of mutualism can be seen clearly when the state owned enterprises are being privatized, the streamlining of business is taking place and there being many mergers and acquisitions. The joining up of businesses makes it clear that competition is now a choice that the companies indulge in as and when they desire. The companies are not in a position purely on competition to set the prices that they would…
Diao, Xinshen; Roe, Terry; Somwaru, Agapi. (Spring, 1999) "Which Came First: Growth in Trade or Trade Arrangements?" Retrieved from http://www.extension.umn.edu/newsletters/ageconomist/components/ag237-696b.html Accessed on 7 June, 2005
'EU-Mercosur relations and negotiations" Retrieved from http://europa.eu.int/comm/trade/issues/bilateral/regions/mercosur/index_en.htm
Accessed on 7 June, 2005
"First Meeting of the EU-Mercosur biregional negotiations committee" (6-7 April 2000) Buenos
Origins of Behaviorism
Behaviorism, Its Historical origins, principles and contribution to the broader field of psychology
Darwin (1809-1882) is the main scientist credited with evolutionary theory, and he was highly influential. In 1859/1985 he published The Origin of Species. This text proposed that evolution is inevitable and mechanical. He discussed the organism-environment adaptation, a precursor to the stimulus- response of behaviourism. He felt that his studies on plants and animals could be translated into human study. The human could be observed through anatomy and behaviour. This idea set the tone for behaviourism, "Animal behaviour became of interest to psychology as a result of evolutionary theory" (Mackenzie, 1977).
Children were studied as earlier versions of the adult species. Darwin expanded Haeckel's recapitulation theory and in 1877 he published A Biographical Sketch of an Infant. This was 294 pages of observations on children. Francis Galton (1822-1911) was Darwin's cousin; he continued the…
Aach, J.D. (1987). Behaviourism and normativity: The prospect of a Skinnerian psychologism (Watson, Husserl, Carnap, Skinner). Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations. (AAT 8624046)
Mackenzie, B.D. (1977). Behaviourism and the limits of scientific method. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
Robinson, D.N. (1995). An intellectual history of psychology (3rd Ed.). Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Smith, L.D. (1986). Behaviourism and logical positivism; A reassessment of the alliance. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
French New Wave
French cinema, by the time the second world war ended, was faced with a crisis fittingly summarized by posters that advertised Mundus-Film (distributors for First National, Goldwyn, and Selig). These posters implied that the cannon operated by America's infantrymen launched film after film targeted at the French. La Cinematographie francaise (soon to become the leading French trade journal) claimed that every week 25,000 meters of film imported mainly from America were presented in France for each 5000 meters of local French films. French-made films often constituted as little as 10% of the films screened in Parisian cinemas. Henri Diamant-erger, publisher of French magazine 'Le Film', bluntly stated that France could be in jeopardy of turning into a 'cinematographic colony' of America (Nowell-Smith).
"French New Wave" is one of the film movements shaping the history of French cinema. Rejuvenating the prestigious French cinema, the New Wave that emerged…
Darke, Chris. "The French New Wave." n.d. Retrieved from: http://cw.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415582599/data/The%20French%20New%20Wave%20-%20Chris%20Darke%20(4th%20ed).pdf
Neupert, Richard. A History of the French New Wave Cinema. Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2007. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=OIp7bDHNDs8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=french+new+wave+cinema&hl=en&sa=X&ei=J8E8VZjvM9GxacHFgJgO&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=french%20new%20wave%20cinema&f=false
Nochimson, Martha P. World on Film: An Introduction. New York City: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com.pk/books?id=c3Kn7dsGGA0C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Nochimson,+Martha+P.,+World+on+Film&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X8k8VdTbBNXgar3RgMAD&ved=0CBsQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Nochimson%2C%20Martha%20P.%2C%20World%20on%20Film&f=false
Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey. The Oxford History of World Cinema. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Retrieved from: https://archive.org/details/The_Oxford_History_Of_World_Cinema.PDF
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…
Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).
Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.
Tourism in every country is considered as one of the largest industries, and research in this area has increased massively. Philadelphia is the fifth largest city of America and has a great collection of communities, arts, attractions, business, culture, history and architecture. eing the birthplace of America, the city never stops working and advancing. Passing the Liberty Mall and Independence Mall into the Old City, the tourists enjoy the latest fashions and great food in restaurants in Rittenhouse Square and Walnut Street. Furthermore, the en Franklin Parkway that stops into the Franklin Institute and Academy of Natural Sciences Museum and the Philadelphia Museum of Art brings out a historical experience. It is a vibrant location where everything happens (Tourism and Philadelphia, n.d.).
Community plays an important part in attracting tourism in the country through the use of latest technology and effective tourism strategies.
How does the community…
Allen, P.V. (2012, April 12). Tourism officials seeking to attract visitors on the cheap. Retrieved from Philadelphia Business Journal: http://www.bizjournals.com/philadelphia/stories/2010/04/12/story11.html?page=all
Attractions in Historic Philadelphia. (n.d.). Retrieved from www.visitphilly.com: http://www.visitphilly.com/historic-philadelphia/attractions-in-historic-philadelphia/
Pedersen, A. (2002). Managing Tourism at World Heritage Sites. Paris: UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
Stamatakis, M., & Levitz, M. (2012). The Art of Collaboration. Philadelphia: GPTMC.
Prejudice in Individuals:
Prejudice is the rigid irrational attitudes and opinions possessed by individuals or members of a specific group about another individual or group. onsequently, being prejudiced is defined as having preconceived beliefs regarding some people groups or cultural practices. In addition to being preconceived and difficult to change, prejudices can be positive or negative. While is possible to be prejudiced and fail to act upon the beliefs or attitudes, negative prejudices can result in discrimination. This negative form of prejudice is practiced in order to guard opportunities through denying access to groups of people. There is an urgent need to lessen prejudice because of the changing social structure, demographics, work place settings, and education settings. However, many efforts to reduce prejudices in these various settings have been legal and have failed to confront the dynamics of the disorder.
There are two prejudicial processes that operate differently…
Cole, J. (n.d.). Understanding Prejudice Behavior. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.beyondprejudice.com/under_stand.html
"Prejudice and Discrimination." (n.d.). Cliff Notes. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Prejudice-and-Discrimination.topicArticleId-26957,articleId-26886.html
Schamotta, J. (n.d.). The Development of Prejudice. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from http://www.ehow.com/info_8547880_development-prejudice.html
Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment
The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…
Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.
Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Origins and Development of Human esource Practice
HM appeared as an idea in its own right in the U.S.A. during 4 decades ago and early 1980's (Wilczek, 2008). Two popular books developing defined frameworks established the overstated claims of 'HM'. They released a new way to what had until then been the study of personnel management, "partly a file clerk's job, partially a house cleaning job, partially a social worker's job and partially fire-fighting to head off union issues.
Human resource management practice has many aims and objectives such as deciding employment needs, hiring, and coaching the workers, guaranteeing they are high performers and handling performance issues. Human resource management is based on the well-organized usage of workers in accomplishing two significant goals within a company. The first purpose is to use the abilities and talents of the workers effectively to get the functional goals that are the key plan…
Armstrong, M. (2007). A handbook of human resource management practice. London [u.a.: Kogan Page.
Sims, R.R. (2007). Human resource management: Contemporary issues, challenges and opportunities. Greenwich, Conn: Information Age Publ.
Sharma, S.K. (2009). Human resource management: A strategic approach to employment. New Delhi: Global India Pub.
Wilczek, T. (2008). The "Classical Model" for practicing Human Resource Management: ... Or is there a need for an integrated approach including specialized human resource strategies? Mu-nchen: GRIN Verlag.
Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only (Butler, 1998).
Taken together, the foregoing indicates that irrespective of the precise definition that is used, sustainable tourism development is based on three main principles, economic, environment and social which are described below:
1. Economic: This principle refers to something that affects to the majority number of people and enhance the economic situation which is related to sustainable management of economic in tourism sector. This can regarded as opportunities to educate and train employees, support local suppliers, trade, producers and so on (Chapman, 2007). This principle is consistent with the observation by King (2008) that, "tourism in Thailand, as with tourism in the Asian region more generally, is a highly diversified, complex, and changing phenomenon, the impact and consequences of which…
'Bung Kan Is Thailand's 77th Province.' 2011, March 23. Pattaya Daily News. [online]
Burton, S., & Steane, P. 2004. Surviving Your Thesis. New York: Routledge.
Cater, E. 1993. 'Ecotourism in the Third World: Problems for Sustainable Tourism
New Face of Development," onald Inglehart and Chrisitan Welzel's article, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know About Modernization," and Jack Goldstone's article, "The New Population Bomb: The Four Megatrends That Will Change the World." Essentially, each of these articles takes varying approaches in chronicling the history of development and the impact that it will have on the future. The overarching goal that is found in synthesizing each of these works is that the ultimate repercussion for development will involve a shifting of power from conventional Westernization to the emergence of developing nations leading the way in a host of vital areas such as population, workforce, and aspects of production including food and health care.
Lancaster's article alludes to this fact by examining the history of development since the close of World War II. One of the most vital factors during this nearly 70-year process is the Cold War,…
Goldstone, J. (2010). "The new population bomb: the four megatrends that will change the world." Foreign Affairs.
Inglehart, R., Welzel, C. (2009). "How development leads to democracy:what we know about modernization." Foreign Affairs.
Lancaster, C. (No date). "The new face of development."
Trani, E.P. (No date). "Dollar Diplomacy." Encyclopedia of the New Nation. http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/A-D/Dollar-Diplomacy.html#b
Mothering and Development
The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social and emotional foundation during a child's formative years can not only aid in preparing one's youngster for life in the outside world, it can also instill a beneficial groundwork in the basic concepts of the self (Cassidy, 1990). In order to achieve such noble maternal goals a good mother needs to possess a plethora of fostering characteristics. The most important of such qualities include love, responsiveness, consistency, an eye to encourage and the ability to provide the child with a sense of security. Successful implementation of the aforementioned traits will allow the child to develop a healthy attachment to the mother. This attachment is most often constructed in the stages of infancy. Through the informative and enlightening work of John owlby…
Caldji, C., Tannenbaum, B., Sharma, S., Francis, D., Plotsky, P.M., & Meaney, M.J. (1998, February 24). Maternal Care During Infancy Regulates the Development of Neural Systems Mediating the Expression of Fearfulness in the Rat. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20261/
Cassidy, J. (1990). Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Study of Attachment and the Self in Young Children. In M.T. Greenberg, D. Cicchetti, & E.M. Cummings, Attachment in the Preschool Years: Theory, Research and Intervention (pp. 87-119). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Cherry, K. (2011). Attachment Theory. Retrieved February 22, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Bretherton, I. (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28 (5), 759-775.
The differences in the level of development in the world regions emanates from the regional disparities in the individual country economies. This result in regional inequality within that country; therefore, regional inequality with respect to a country is the eminent disparity between the living standards that apply in that country. It is a hard task to quantify the level of development, prosperity or poverty in a country or region. However, some indicators show the level of development. Across the world, every nation has a challenge in achieving regional development equality, the difference coming in through the degrees of underdevelopment. The most affected nations by the inequality balance rank are the developing third world nations, Nigeria being among them. Nigeria has a rich endowment of natural resources, minerals and able population. However, the country faces a challenge in establishing itself as an economic superpower in Africa and the world…
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages
Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages
Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at different stages by the Romans, Anglo Saxons, Danish and, of course, Great Britain, Leicester shows the combined contributions, primarily of the Romans, Anglo Saxons and British in its development. Realizing the importance of these contributions, the University of Leicester has undertaken various archaeological projects to continually learn about the city's Medieval development and the Leicester City Council has undertaken a considerable preservation project, particularly of the marketplace area. Both the University and the City Council intend to uncover and preserve Leicester's rich history.
Backdrop: British to Roman to Anglo Saxon to Danish to British
Leicester is a city located at 52°38"06"N 1°08"06" in modern-day East Midlands, Great Britain (Google, Inc., 2006). However, it did not become an organized settlement until it…
Artsin Leicester/shire. (n.d.). Historic buildings and monuments, from Roman times to 1800. Retrieved from Artsin Leicestershire Web site: http://www.artsinleicestershire.co.uk/architecture/historic_buildings.htm
Chaucer, G. (2007). Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Retrieved from Electronic Lierature Foundation Web site: http://www.canterburytales.org/
Geolocation. (n.d.). The Free Grammar School in Leicester, England. Retrieved from Geolocation.ws Web site: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0b/Leicester_Free_Grammar_School_west_side.jpg
Google, Inc. (2006, July 2). Leicester, UK. Google Earth (Version 5.1.3533.1731) [Software]. Mountain View, CA, USA: Google, Inc. Retrieved from Google Earth Web site.
This lesson would itself actually consist of several smaller lessons in order to incorporate all tasks and provide proper room for learning and absorption. This extended time period will also assist learners in making greater strides with the multimedia technology they have available, which as a dynamic setting and experiential means of expression and communication requires time to allow for repositioning and reanalysis (Gonzalez et al., 2000). By progressing in segments, leaners will come full circle form an examination of how alien history can be to how similar the technologies of the period in question are to certain technologies of today, despite the substantial and unquestionable differences. Lesson objectives include an improved understanding of communication technology and its importance in all times, societies, and civilizations; an ability to make connections between historic technologies and capabilities and those that exist today, the ability to work effectively in groups, the ability to…
Brophy, J., & VanSledright, B. (1997). Teaching and learning history in elementary schools. New York: Teacher's College Press.
Castek, J.M. (2008). How do 4th and 5th grade students acquire the new literacies of online reading comprehension? Exploring the contexts that facilitate learning. ProQuest.
Cunningham, P.M., Hall, D.P., & Cunningham, J.W. (2011). Comprehension During Guided, Shared, and Independent Reading, Grades K-6. Carson Dellosa Publishing Company.
Curby, T.W., Stuhlman, M., Grimm, K., Mashburn, A., Chomat-Mooney, L., Downer, J., ... & Pianta, R.C. (2011). Within-day variability in the quality of classroom interactions during third and fifth grade. The Elementary School Journal, 112(1), 16-37.
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.
The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)
The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…
Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley
Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.
Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia
Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
Assemble Historical Data
Over the last several years, the role of the federal government in the housing market has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of the implosion in prices and support that was provided by ashington to address these issues. However, since the 1930s the U.S. government has been directly providing support to the housing market (through the FHA). This was in response to the impact of private mortgages on the economy during the Great Depression.
As time went by, this role was expanded with ashington providing direct and indirect assistance through: Fannie Mae, Freddie Mac along with the Veterans Administration (VA). The combination of these factors allowed the federal government to help with the financing and purchasing of homes. As a result, the numbers of Americans who own properties have increased exponentially since the 1940's. Evidence of this can be seen in the below chart…
Carliner, Michael. "Development of Federal Homeownership Policies." Fannie Mae Foundation vol. 9 no. 2 (1998): 299 -- 322.
Chambers, Matthew. "Did Housing Policies Cause the Post War Boom." Townson University (2011): 1 -- 28.
Collins, Michael. "Towards a Strategic Federal Policy." Federal Homeownership Policy (2003): 1- 20.
Collins, Michael. "Perusing the American Dream." Millennial Housing Commission (2002): 3 -- 51.
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
There are many historical mysteries which have fascinated human and encouraged investigation. Among the most often examined and theorized over are the potential reasons for why the Mayan civilization suddenly disappeared from the face of the Earth. Scholars, conspiracy theorists, and all manner of investigators have looked into the culture, the people, and the environment in the vain effort to finally determine exactly what happened to this large population. Once one of the largest groups Central and South America, by 900 AD, the Mayans were in a steady rate of decline which led to their eradication by the year 1200 (Ancient 2000). Over the course of three hundred years, an entire civilization of human beings had completely fallen off of the face of the earth and no one was or is yet able to say for certain why this happened. Of course with so much time having passed,…
Science and Religion: Conflict
Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion
There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number of well-known figures deny any logical conflict between science and religion. For example, Langdon Gilkey says the following:
[T]o say that evolution' excludes God' is [. . .] merely to say that it is a theory within natural science. It is not to say that this theory is essentially atheistic or represents atheism. It is because science is limited to a certain level of explanation that scientific and religious theories can exist side by side without excluding one another, that one person can hold both to the scientific accounts of origins and to a religious account, to the creation of all things by God [. . .].
Ian Barbour believes that science and religion are "complementary languages," complementary ways of analyzing…
Gould, Stephen Jay. Rocks of Ages: Science and Religion in the Fullness of Life (NY: Ballantine Books) 1999.
Holtzmann, Seth. Science and Relgion: The Categorial Conflct. International Journal For Philosophy of Religion. 2003, 54:77-99.
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
Other techniques for improving the yields of agriculture included rudimentary means of employing pesticides to keep crops from being destroyed by insects and other such parasites. The development of improved tools for farming would also play a significant role in the increase of production.
As a direct role of changing from a hunter-gatherer society to an agriculturally-based society, there would be a number of specific changes to the way that particular group of people functioned. In many ways, agricultural societies are responsible for capitalism, or at least responsible for the need for capitalism. Once crops are produced at a level in which there can be a surplus created from their yields, there then becomes two forms of goods with which existence in such a society is based upon. The first would be consumptive goods, which are materials than can be consumed and which are, in the example of an agricultural…
Citizens in the region's poorest countries, Paraguay and Honduras, make just above $4,000 per year, while those in the wealthiest countries, Chile and Mexico, make almost $15,000. The institutional legacy in the region is one clouded by inequality and corruption. In its brief on the region, the World Bank emphasizes the role of institutional development to alleviate poverty among vulnerable groups, a result in part of the lasting legacy of inequality due to colonial influences.
Asia. This region ranges widely from very poor nations such as Nepal (GDPpc of $1,100) to very wealthy nations like ingapore ($51,600). Because colonial dominance of this region was carried out by a relatively few European settlers, it was ultimately incomplete, leaving many of the region's own institutions intact or enhanced. The World Bank's comments on how governments across the region are reacting to the recent economic turndown are in line with an expectation that…
Sources of Economic Growth in China, 1952-1998. Issues in Political Economy, Vol 17.
World Bank. (2009). Regional Briefs. www.WorldBank.org. December 13, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.worldbank.org/ .
Relation Between IPRI and GDP Per Capita by Region
Source: International Property Rights Index, 2009. (http://internationalpropertyrightsindex.org/UserFiles/File/ex4_9relationbtwniprigdpbyreg.pdf).
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the degree of literacy was greater than in other parts of the country because there was a comprehensive access to education.
By comparison, the South was different in this area. The southern society had a particular system of private tutoring which allowed children to have access to education. However, for ordinary people, this was not an option and they most often appealed to the assistance of the minister. Still, the quality of education received in this way was limited and in many situations the young generation remained illiterate. It can be said therefore that the poor level of education was in part due to the lack of financial support and in part to the economic practices existing in the South which did…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
McAllister, J. "Colonial America, 1607-1776." The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 42, No. 2. (May, 1989), pp. 245-259.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002.
Wright, Louis B. The Atlantic Frontier: Colonial American Civilization, 1607-1763. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1947.
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell. It was expected of the African-Americans to meet the demands of two ideas, both of which met the needs of the rich white Americans. Thus, where slaves had a disguise to serve their masters and please them, they were just not being honest to themselves in the least bit, and they were living according to the wishes of their masters to escape the beating or to avoid being scrutinized any further. Having said that, just because they had no choice but to live up to the two ideals, it did not mean that there were not any rightfully revengeful and rebellious slaves that went against the books and refused to accept being a cookie cutter cut-out. It is assumed that the…
Bensimon, Moshe, Dorit Amir and Yuval Wolf. "Drumming through trauma: Music therapy with post-traumatic soldiers." The Arts in Psychotherapy, 35. 1 (2008): 34 -- 48. Print.
Cohn, Lawrence. Nothing but the blues. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993. Print.
Floyd, Samuel a. The power of Black music. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Print.
Gussow, Adam. Seems like murder here. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002. Print.
Ancient Culture Development (AC)
Ancient Culture Development
As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.
There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.
During the upper Paleolithic…
Anne Pyburn, (2003). The First People and Culture. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html
Anne Pyburn, (2004). Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010a). The 'Neolitic Revolution'. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/foundations/origins-of-civilization/essay/essay-02.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010b). Life in Mesopotamia: Law and Governance. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/mesopotamialife/article.php?theme=Law%20and%20Government
As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of the body. Extreme agility and presence of mind are required to every hoplite in the exhausting close combat.
The defeated phalanx has only two choices to survive: The first option would be is to drop their weapons and flee hastily without being pursued by the victorious opponent which is normal in Greek Warfare. The second option is to retreat in the same formation in an orderly manner. However, this situation based on historical events often happens. After which, 5. victory was enforced by ransoming the fallen back to the defeated, called the "custom of the Greeks"(Wikipedia Encyclopedia, 2005).
History: Development and Downfall
As the economy of Ancient Greece developed, city states have focused their attention in developing a much reliable armies…
Athenian Daily Life; Roger Dunkle, Brooklyn College (2005) Extracted September 25, 2006: Website:
The Development of the Greek World 800-500 BC; Jeffery Lumb; HSC Online (2006) Extracted September 25, 2006 Website:
Two of the world’s most important and magnificent religions share little in common on the surface. Yet as the Dalai Lama’s recent interfaith dialogues have shown, locating points of intersection between Christianity and Buddhism can be a more fruitful endeavor than focusing only on differences. Buddhism is older than Christianity, but only by about 500 years. From their points of origin, Buddhism and Christianity spread far and wide geographically: Buddhism to East Asia and Christianity to Europe. One of the things Christianity and Buddhism share in common most is that their respective faiths are not as entrenched in their places of origin as they are in the places that adopted these religions later. For instance, Christianity is more popular in the Americas, Africa, and Europe than in the Middle East, and Buddhism is more popular in the rest of Asia outside of India than in India, where the Gautama Buddha…
The results of the index composition reflect that by analyzing only the elements mentioned above, both India and China rank higher than in the general HDI. In this sense, India is ranked 17 and China 18, as opposed to 119 and 89 respectively.
There are several aspects for this change. On the one hand, positive indexes were taken into account for both countries. For instance, the income in China is constantly improving, as China has a 76 ranking as opposed to 89 the general index. By comparison, this is also applicable to India, with a positive index of 87 as opposed to its general 119.
In terms of inequality China is relatively low as its ranking is 72 compared with the general one of 89. Therefore there is little difference largely because despite the constant developments in the economy the results of this development are not evenly spread and therefore…
Human Development Index. The Human development concept. Human Development Reports. 2010. Available at http://hdr.undp.org/en/humandev/
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.
In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…
Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7
Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.
Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf
New companies have the advantage of taking more risks and investing more in the research and development process, being interested in addressing less developed industries.
It is difficult for large cities like New York to attract such companies. The main reason for this situation is represented by the high costs of doing business in these areas. Even so, the city can counteract this problem by providing strong productivity opportunities that are determined by high human capital and relative wages.
The most important economic sector of New York is represented by the financial services sector, including finance, insurance, and real estate business sectors. The importance of this sector is reflected in its influence on jobs evolution and of the city's earnings. Therefore, the authorities have recognized the potential of this source of jobs and of earnings, and their interest in this sector must be translated in a series of incentive intended…
1. Redlich, W. (2010). Economic Development Questions. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://wredlich.com/ny/2010/09/economic-development-questions/ .
2. Orr, J. & Topa, G. (2006). Challenges Facing the New York Metropolitan Area Economy. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Retrieved December 2, 2010 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=886519&http://www.google.ro/search?q=new+york+economic+challenges&btnG=C%C4%83uta%C5%A3i&hl=ro&source=hp&aq=f&aqi=&aql=&oq=&gs_rfai= .
3. Parrott, J. (2010). New York City: Economic and Budget Challenges. Fiscal Policy Institute. Retrieved December 7, 2010 from http://www.fiscalpolicy.org/FPI_Presentation_NYC_BudgetEconomicChallenges_20100520.pdf .
" (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
Asgari and Silong states that there were two primary objectives of the study reported which were those of:
(1) assessing the impact of six dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors -- contribution and affect -- on citizenship behavior; and (2) to test the mediating impact of the LMX on the transformational leadership behaviors-citizenship relationship." (Asgari and Silong, 2008)
It is reported that the subjects of the study were full-time employees and managers working in the educational organization in the country of Iran. This survey included 220 respondents. Data is reported as having been collected "...on a structured questionnaire containing standard scales of transformational leadership behaviors, LMX, and organizational citizenship behaviors. After establishing the psychometric properties of the scales, hypotheses were tested through statistical analysis of the data." (Asgari and Silong, 2008) Results are stated to indicate that "...dimensions of transformational leadership behaviors are more likely to…
Asgari, Ali and Silong, Abu Daud (2008) The Relationship Between Transformational Leadership Behaviors, Leader-Member Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors. European Journal of Social Sciences. Vol. 6 No. 4 (2008).
Atwater, L.E., Roush, P., & Fischtal, A. (1995). The influence of upward feedback on self and follower ratings of leadership. Personnel Psychology, 48, 35-59.
Atwater, L.E., Waldman, D.A., Atwater, D., & Cartier, P. (2000). An upward feedback field experiment: supervisors' cynicism, reactions, and commitment to subordinates. Personnel Psychology, 53 (2), 275-298.
Avolio, B.J., & Howell, J.M. (1992). The impact of leadership behavior and leader-follower personality match on satisfaction and unit performance. In K.E. Clark, M.B. Clark & D.P. Campbell (Eds.), Impact of Leadership (pp. 223-235). Greensboro, North Carolina: Center for Creative Leadership
Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy
An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present
In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical emphasis that has been placed on agriculture as a money industry for export purposes has resulted in the term, "banana republic" (Nash & Jeffrey 1994). Following their independence, most Latin American countries continued to depend on the export of raw materials for their revenue, rather than investing in an economic infrastructure that would provide value-added services, which only further contributed to this pattern of dependence on foreign states. This is largely what has taken place in the Republic of Honduras as well, and the country continues to suffer from sporadic and inequitable foreign investment, much of which has illegally diverted into private hands rather than infrastructure development. This paper provides an overview of the Republic of Honduras, an assessment of the…
Bates, Stephen. (January 8, 1999). Good friends slip on a banana skin. New Statesman,
Befus, David R., Debbie L. Mescon, Timothy S. Mescon and George S. Vozikis. (1988).
International Investment of Expatriate Entrepreneurs: The Case of Honduras. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(3):40.
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Health - Nursing
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History - Asian
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Health - Nursing
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Health - Nursing
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Family and Marriage
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Business - Management
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Sports - Women
discloses to the reader something of what happened during the era under discussion. But it also reveals at least as much about the era in which the history was…Read Full Paper ❯
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Drama - World
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Successful sustainable development also requires an evaluation of major trends and problems in the tourism industry rather than focusing on minor new developments that may have localized impact only…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
New Face of Development," onald Inglehart and Chrisitan Welzel's article, "How Development Leads to Democracy: What We Know About Modernization," and Jack Goldstone's article, "The New Population Bomb: The…Read Full Paper ❯
Mothering and Development The presence of a sensitive mother throughout a child's developmental period is an essential determinant of healthy growth and maturation. The establishment of a solid social…Read Full Paper ❯
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Drama - World
Town/Village Development in the UK in the Medieval Ages Leicester Development in the Medieval Ages Leicester provides an excellent example of fort-settlement-town-city development through the Medieval Ages. Controlled at…Read Full Paper ❯
This lesson would itself actually consist of several smaller lessons in order to incorporate all tasks and provide proper room for learning and absorption. This extended time period will…Read Full Paper ❯
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing…Read Full Paper ❯
Assemble Historical Data Over the last several years, the role of the federal government in the housing market has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because of…Read Full Paper ❯
(Feldman and Slattery 201) In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Mayan People There are many historical mysteries which have fascinated human and encouraged investigation. Among the most often examined and theorized over are the potential reasons for why the…Read Full Paper ❯
Mythology - Religion
Science and Religion: Conflict Historical and Psychological Reasons for the Conflict Between Science and Religion There is obvious controversy on the tensions between science and religion. A growing number…Read Full Paper ❯
Ethnic Music Humanities a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural…Read Full Paper ❯
Other techniques for improving the yields of agriculture included rudimentary means of employing pesticides to keep crops from being destroyed by insects and other such parasites. The development of…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Citizens in the region's poorest countries, Paraguay and Honduras, make just above $4,000 per year, while those in the wealthiest countries, Chile and Mexico, make almost $15,000. The institutional…Read Full Paper ❯
More importantly, the puritans had considered essential for the future of economic success the access to education and therefore established elementary schools throughout the state (Wright, 1947). Therefore, the…Read Full Paper ❯
Out of about 40 million slaves that were transported from African to the United States, only 15 million of them could survive, however they ended up in pure hell.…Read Full Paper ❯
Drama - World
Ancient Culture Development (AC) Ancient Culture Development As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive…Read Full Paper ❯
As the formation collides with one another, spheres are aimed at the groin of each opponent. The sword swings an aim towards an enemies head and vital parts of…Read Full Paper ❯
Two of the world’s most important and magnificent religions share little in common on the surface. Yet as the Dalai Lama’s recent interfaith dialogues have shown, locating points of…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Asian
The results of the index composition reflect that by analyzing only the elements mentioned above, both India and China rank higher than in the general HDI. In this sense,…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - African
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis. In terms of the relations between Ghana and its…Read Full Paper ❯
New companies have the advantage of taking more risks and investing more in the research and development process, being interested in addressing less developed industries. It is difficult for…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Asgari and Silong, 2008) Asgari and Silong states that there were two primary objectives of the study reported which were those of: (1) assessing the impact of six…Read Full Paper ❯
Literature - Latin-American
Economic Development in Honduras: A Banana ar Legacy An Analysis of Economic Development in Honduras from 1820 to Present In many Latin American countries such as Honduras, the historical…Read Full Paper ❯
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1) Psychosocial Theory Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and…Read Full Paper ❯