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Politically speaking, the Cold War was at its peak, where as the cultural events were most often undervalued due to the conflict in Vietnam. However the manifestations against it gave rise to a new trend in thought and fashion. Young women and men would sit in for hours in the front of the White House pleading the president to stop the war in Vietnam. It is clear that the most affected were the soldiers but also their families they leave behind. The effects of the Vietnam war but most importantly of the manifestations taken place with this occasion pointed out that the American society developed to such an extent as to maintain the values and principles set forth in the Constitution.
The 1980s can be considered as a rather peaceful period of time. The most important event of the decade can be from the political world as well, more precisely…
Bolick, Clint. (1995) "Bad Fences: To Preserve American Democracy, We Must Return to the Original Aims of the Voting Rights Act." National Review. Volume: 47. Issue: 6.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Kissinger, Henry. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
To the Geneva Summit. Perestroika and the Transformation of U.S.-Soviet Relations. (2005) National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 172. Accessed 25 January 2008, at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB172/index.htm
S. Supreme Court's rendering of its decision in Brown v. Board of Education (Brown v. Board of Education, 1954) that overturned the separate but equal standard that had been the law in the United States. In Brown, the Supreme Court recognized that the separate but equal standard was unreasonable and that blacks must be afforded equal access to the nation's schools in order to be afforded true equal treatment.
Beyond Brown the civil rights movement stalled until the early 60s, when President Johnson's Great Society, pushed through a number of significant civil rights bill including the 1964 Civil ights Bill that brought major changes to the civil rights movement in the United States (Hall, 2005). The 1964 Civil ights Bill began the process toward ending discrimination and segregation in the private sector in the areas of public accommodation, employment, housing, and a variety of other areas. Again, the Civil ights…
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (U.S. Supreme Court 1954).
Dye, T.R. (2011). Understanding Public Policy (13th Edition). Lebanon, in: Pearson .
Hall, J.D. (2005). The Long Civil Rights Movement and the Political Uses of the Past. The Journal of American History, 1233-1263.
The History of the United States
Discuss America's place in the world just before and then a change after WWII. Explain how and why America got into WWII? What shaped American foreign policy after that and what were the effects of the Truman Doctrine on the beginnings of the Cold War in the late 1940's? How did a policy of containment work at home and abroad? What did former CIA agent John Stockwell mean by "third world war" when addressing U.S. foreign affairs after WWII? What evidence supports such a claim? What conflicts/wars resulted and what was their outcome? Was this policy successful? Why and/or why not? What patterns of mistakes were repeated tracing from Vietnam to Iraq? Do these undermine or further American Hegemony? Explain. Are these wars of the past ongoing under a new title, "the war on terrorism?" Support all statements and be specific. (3…
Powell was followed by the Court's decision in Brown v. Mississippi which threw out the coerced confession of a defendant in a state criminal case and was a harbinger of what would occur in the early 1960's by the Supreme Court led by Chief Justice Earl Warren (Brown v. Mississippi, 1936).
The Warren Court began to exercise its influence on the area of Constitutional Law in the late 50's as they began applying what became known as the doctrine of "selective incorporation." Under this doctrine, the Court began to apply the rights contained in the Bill of ights to the states on a case by case basis until nearly all such rights were applied to the states on the same basis as they applied to the federal government.
The breakthrough case for this approach came in the case of Mapp v. Ohio (Mapp v. Ohio, 1961). In Mapp, the majority…
Barron v. Mayor of Baltimore, 32 U.S. 243 (U.S. Supreme Court February 16, 1833).
Brown v. Mississippi, 297 U.S. 278 (U.S. Supreme Court February 17, 1936).
Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335 (U.S. Supreme Court March 18, 1963).
Hurtado v California, 110 U.S. 516 (U.S. Supreme Court March 3, 1884).
While the authors' claims are true since the backlash between the two communities or groups are incomparable, Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans have experienced a fair share of backlash after the 9/11 attack.
The group has continued to experience severe backlash after these attacks since many Americans consider Middle Easterners and Muslims as the major threat to national security. The backlash has been fueled by the treatment of the attack as terrorism by the United States government. While it's still debatable whether the 9/11 incident was an act of terrorism, the ush Administration effectively treated it as such. Therefore, the Administration instituted war on terror in attempts to fight global terrorism and enhance homeland security. The war on terror is not only conducted internationally but also domestically (akalian & ozorgmehr, 2009, p.33).
The war on terror can be considered as the major reason for the backlash that Middle Easterners and…
Bakalian, Anny, & Bozorgmehr, Mehdi. Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans
Respond. Berkeley, Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2009.
Hagopian, Elaine. "Modern History and Politics." Middle East Journal. 63, no.3 (2009): 516
Jalalzai, Farida. "A Review of "Backlash 9/11: Middle Eastern and Muslim Americans
histories of the United States address the matter from a secular point-of-view. The government, the society, the economy and other such matters have been examined and discussed thoroughly but religion and its history has been largely ignored. Religion played an important role in the formation of the American government and played an even more important role in the development of American society, yet, studies related to how these roles developed are minimal (Eidsmoe). The purpose of this research is to examine how religious philosophy impacted on the formation of the American society and how religious philosophy developed as the young nation evolved and how religious philosophy has continued to impact American society .It is my belief that religion played a far more significant role in the formation of the United States than current history books presently represent and that, through proper and thorough research the importance of religious philosophy in…
Butler, Jon. Religion in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
This book described the development of the various organized religions that existed in America from the period of 1500 to the present. The book attempts to dispel the idea that the Puritans were the only religion that influenced the development of early American political thought and that other religious philosophies played a significant role as well. The book explores the role that other religions such as Roman Catholics, Judaism, and other Protestant denominations played. The failure of the Puritans to achieve their goal of instituting their religious philosophy throughout the Colonies is examined as is their influence on how the doctrine of the separation of Church and state was ultimately adopted.
Clarke, P.H. "Adam Smith, Stoicism and religion in the 18th Century." History of the Human Services (2000): 49-72.
This article examines how Adam Smith was affected by the influence of Stoicism and religion but through an examination of their effect on Smith their influences, by extension, are measured on other political philosophers of the time. Religious philosophy of the time was in a period of transition. The Enlightenment had emerged and reason had become the guiding principle and religious philosophers were rushing to combine the orthodox ideology of traditional religion with the ideas of the Enlightenment. In this book, this process is explained and how it affected philosophers in the 18th century.
Since the days of the Old West, domestic terrorism has dug its roots into the United States. From Timothy McVeigh, whose motivations for the Oklahoma City bombing ranged from his complaints over the governments' dealing with certain political situations to his anger over the violence he witnessed during his stint in the military, to eco-terrorists and animal-rights activists who use violence in order to win others to their cause, the scope of terrorism is the United States is both large and diverse. While FBI agents search large cities for Al Qaeda terrorists in the United States, small town police arrest protestors who threaten to set fire to abortion clinics and make threats to far left and right wing organizations. Because a great deal of domestic terrorism centers around political ideas and activism, targeting domestic terrorism has become a rather controversial subject. Some argue that the demonstrations that often…
Baggett, Jay. (2007). Law Would Make Minutemen Guilty of 'Domestic Terrorism.'
Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=53857 .
Bergen, Peter and Swati Pandey. (2005). The Madrassa Myth. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.nytimes.com /2005/06/14/opinion/14bergen.html.
Cooke, Jeremy. (2001). School trains suicide bombers. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/1446003.stm .
United States Foreign Policy
United States has enjoyed an important position in the international political scene, since its rise to power. The U.S. government has actively participated in international political issues, primarily for the sake of country's own interest. After the Second World War, United States emerged as one of the largest economies of the world and soon acquired the position of the "only super power." The history of the United States is evident that these were the foreign policies adopted by the country's administration that led the nation to advancement, greater power and wealth in a way that no other power has ever achieved.
While discussing the policy issues, policy makers argue that it is the national interest that guides them to define foreign policies of the country. Throughout history the national interest of the country has been influenced by the events and political issues of other nations. United…
Donald E. Abelson: American Think Tanks and Their Role in U.S. Foreign Policy: Palgrave Macmillan: 1996
David Ryan: U.S. Foreign Policy in World History: Rutledge: 2000
John Dumbrell & David M. Barrett: The Making of U.S. Foreign Policy: Manchester University Press: 1998.
urrently the United States consumes more than 19.6 million barrels of oil per day, which is more than 25% of the world's total oil consumption. Through its isolationist policy agenda, the U.S. government has been able to leverage its military and economic might to control most of oil production in South America. Instead of attempting to restructure the financial infrastructure of South American oil producers such as Panama, Ecuador and Peru, the United States has promoted a policy of singular reliance on U.S. aid. As a result, the United States receives the majority of advantages conferred by these country's vast oil supplies. Similarly, the United States has used its military might to create strong unilateral connections with OPE nations as well. Subtly, the United States has reached secret agreements with the Saud family of Saudi Arabia to maintain their current royal hierarchy with U.S. military protection as long as they…
Cole, Wayne S. (1981). "Gerald P. Nye and Agrarian Bases for the Rise and Fall of American Isolationism." In John N. Schacht (Ed.), Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis (pp. 1-10). Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Schacht, John N. (Ed.). (1981). Three Faces of Midwestern Isolationism: Gerald P. Nye, Robert P. Wood, John L. Lewis. Iowa City: The Center for the Study of the Recent History of the United States.
Hanks, Richard K. "Hamilton Fish and the American Isolationism, 1920-1944." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Riverside, 1971.
Therefore, in order to achieve equality in right as well, the society must be more educated in the spirit of equality and non-differentiation.
3.State and describe at least three major challenges facing the Latino cultures' ability to prosper in the U.S.A. today?
The Latino population represents one of the most consistent group of immigrants in the United States. Most often, they come from Latin America in search for a better life and democratic environment, given the volatile situation and political conditions that have characterized Latin America in the last decades. However, most of the times, Latin Americans are often faced with the single possibility of undergoing unqualified labor, lack of education, and precarious living conditions.
One of the most important problems facing the Latin American immigrants is represented by the constant growth of the Latin population in the United States. (NPR News, 2011). This is largely due to the fact…
Cristian Links.com. (n.d). Native Americans. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.crystalinks.com/nativeamericans.html
Harvard University. (2011). The Pluralism Project. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from Struggling against stereotypes: http://pluralism.org/ocg/CDROM_files/islam/struggling.php
News Batch. (2008). Race and Ethnic policy issues . Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.newsbatch.com/race.htm
NPR News. (2011). Michael Martin from Tell Me more News. Retrieved October 15, 2011, from http://www.npr.org/2011/04/01/135042269/population-growth-poses-challenges-for-hispanics
The Supreme Court is the most powerful body of men in the United States, contrary to what many people believe.
The powers of the three branches of government are enumerated in the three charters of freedom: The Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of ights. Together, these documents enumerate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the United States, inherent by virtue of their citizenship; and they enumerate and limit the powers of the three branches of government in such a way as to create a system of checks and balances that cause the actions to be scrutinized by the other branches, and, if the office of the President, or the president, does not agree with legislation crated by the House of epresentatives, sent to the United States Senate for approval, the president can veto the bill containing the legislation. Likewise, the president's veto…
U.S. Federal Government, located online, found at http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml , retrieved 1 February 2008.
he Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. heodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. his had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. his public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin…
The years between the Civil War and the New Deal were marked with major changes in policy, government structure, and the world at large. Though race policy was largely regressive following the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments, other reform movements pushing for institutional change gained steam during this period. The struggle for women's suffrage and other rights was truly galvanized in 1848, but was put on hold during the Civil War and completely ignored by the Constitutional amendments following the war. By 1920, women's suffrage was finally established nationally.
The other major reform movements of this period were the Populist and Progressive movements. The Populists grew out of various labor and farm movements. Labor unions began to be discussed and formed during this period, though they would not gain a strong foothold until around the 1920s, following the same timeline as women's suffrage. Some elements of the Populist ideal were government or collective ownership of railroads and communication systems and an income tax somewhat similar to what we have today. The Progressive Movement in the early twentieth century had a somewhat similar though less socialist-leaning agenda; regulation of business and the environment were major policies of Progressives. Theodore Roosevelt was the leading figure of the movement, along with Democrat William Jennings Bryant.
In 1896, Bryant ran for President against McKinley in one of the most intense elections in United States history. Multiple parties and factions backed each candidate, and McKinley's coalitions of businessmen, large-scale farmers, and skilled workers beat Bryant and his more populist movement. This had a dramatic effect on the country, taking the government in one direction and leaving a sizeable majority of the public feeling unrepresented by their government. This public pull and the tension it created with the federal government continued to shape policy through World War I and into the Great Depression, when many of the Populist and Progressive reforms were finally introduced by Franklin Delano Roosevelt's New Deal programs.
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism is the extended terminology that refers to the U.S.A. Patriot Act which, following the events of 9/11 was passed by the Senate immediately and almost unanimously. When the Pentagon and the World Trade Center were attacked in 2001, concerns over national security and America's susceptibility to terrorist threats emerged more so as the country remained baffled at what had just happened. Governmental figures needed to address people's concerns and overall, the issue of law enforcement being able to prevent such attacks from ever happening again. With Assistant Attorney General Viet Dinh having authored the act shortly after the events and upon reviewing existing practices and methodologies, Jim Sensenbrenner, member of the epublican Party, presented it to Congress. It should be noted that, generally, the Patriot Act is embedded in America's history of electronic surveillance that emerged…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Reclaiming patriotism: A call to reconsider the Patriot Act. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/safefree/patriot_report_20090310.pdf
Democratic Policy Committee. (2011). H.R. 514, Patriot Act extension. Legislative Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/docs/lb-112-1-14.pdf
Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot's Act impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52, 179-209. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1168&context=dlj
Roundy, M.D. (2006). The Wiretap Act -- Reconcilable differences: A framework for determining the "interception" of electronic communications following United States v. Councilman's rejection of the storage/transit dichotomy. Western New England Law Review, 28, 403-438. Retrieved from http://assets.wne.edu/164/19_note_Wiretap_.pdf
History of Direct to Consumer Advertising of Prescription Drugs in the U.S.
Imagine this: you are at home watching television one evening after work. As you casually flip through the channels searching for something interesting to watch, you notice a multitude of advertisements for prescription drug products. This form of advertisement is known as direct-to-consumer advertising, and is now well-known to practically all American households. One needs only to watch virtually any commercial television program or to browse through any consumer-directed magazine to view advertisements for a variety of prescription drugs. In regard to broadcast media, this is a relatively new phenomenon because, for many years, pharmaceutical manufacturers had to follow certain requirements. These requirements consisted of the inclusion of a substantial amount of material about the drug product's side effects, contraindications, and effectiveness.
Recent changes in 1999 under the guidance of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) altered the…
Jackson, Charles O. (1970). "Food and Drug Legislation in the New Deal." Princeton University
Palumbo, Francis B. "The Development of Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising
Regulation." Food and Drug Law Journal 57.3 (2002). 423-443.
Furthermore, those people who did not speak Greek were referred to as barbar, the root of our word barbarian."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid] [5: Ibid]
There are many aspects of Greek culture and artistic traditions that have left their mark on civilization. These contributions included, their architecture, theatre and athletic competition.
Each one of these aspects requires a student of history to investigate and understand how these ideas have impacted human development.
Greek architecture stands out as a visual representation of how the Greeks preferred their living conditions. Greeks spent much time on the design of their buildings. Temples, a Greek staple, were adorned with many flourishes and exact proportions. Giant stone structures were placed in locations important to the region and as a source of pride. esides temples, theaters and gyms were developed to provide a unique sense of community.
Ancient Greek theater is a lasting contribution of this…
"Ancient Greek Philosophy." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://www.iep.utm.edu/greekphi / (accessed April 21, 2013).
"Culture and Society." Ancient Greece. http://www.ancientgreece.com/s/Culture / (accessed April 19, 2013).
Polopolus, Leonidas. "Athens, Greece: A City State That Grew From OPtimality in the Golden Era to Excessive Urbanization." University of Florida. http://web.clas.ufl.edu/users/kapparis/aoc/athens.htm (accessed April 19, 2013).
Sage, Michael. Warfare in Ancient Greece. London, New York: Routledge, 1996. (accessed April 19, 2013).
United States Congress:
The legislature of the United States was established in 1789 under the country's constitution and divided structurally from the judicial and executive arms of the government. This legislative arm in separated into two houses which are the Senate and the House of Representatives. hile the Senate requires that each state is represented by two senators regardless of its size, the House of Representatives consist of members who are elected on the basis of population. The Congress was created by the pioneers of the American Constitution on the basis that a huge portion of the powers of the government needs to be on the legislative branch. hereas the two Congressional chambers are separate and distinct, they tend to have an equal role in the enactment of legislation in most cases. Representation, lawmaking, oversight, service to constituents, conflict resolution and public education are the six basic functions of the…
"Chapter 11: The Congress." Faculty and Staff, Georgia Perimeter College. Georgia Perimeter College. Web. 24 May 2011. .
"Congress of the United States." History.com - History Made Every Day. A&E Television Networks, LLC. Web. 24 May 2011. .
The rule of the case involves the Commerce Department's power to impose antidumping duties under 19 U.S.C § 1673.
The Supreme Court review of the issues presented in the instant case was a case of first impression but it has far reaching affects across a variety of industries. The question addressed by the Court was when does an import transaction involve a sale of merchandise and not merely a sale of service? The Court in its decision closed a loophole that had been created by the lower courts which had limited the application of the antidumping law based on the intent of the parties to the import transactions. The importance of the Court's decision in this case is whether U.S. industries can compete with foreign goods produced through arrangements in which a customer provides the raw materials. The various utility companies involved had argued that the transactions involved…
However, this Court also recognizes that mental illness oftentimes differs from other immutable characteristics, such as mental retardation and age, in that a defendant oftentimes has the ability to control mental illness through medical interventions. hile there is tremendous evidence of Panetti's deteriorated mental state, there is very little evidence to support Panetti's assertions that he was insane at the time of the murders. Though there are serious questions regarding Panetti's competency to stand trial, much less his competency to represent himself in that trial, there simply does not appear to be any evidence that he was insane at the time of the murders. Panetti engaged in preparations that were rationally aimed at accomplishing the murder of his in-laws, but was able to refrain from killing his wife and child. In addition, he engaged in a stand-off with police that resulted in him escaping the stand-off without being killed and…
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 322 (1976).
Woodson v. North Carolina, 428 U.S. 280, 299 (1976).
Ford v. Wainwright, 477 U.S. 399, 409-10 (1986).
Discriminatory practices were encouraged, such as the Jim Crow laws that supported segregation. However, the push for segregation led to increased inequities borne by the Negroes. Many southern states encouraged segregation, as well. The original Civil ights Act of 1957 had a limited scope, which impinged upon the rights of others.
Pros & Cons
During this time, many discriminatory cases were in the spotlight, and this was no exception. The case heightened awareness, as well as the flaws of the law. Civil ights bills were evolving, as this case ruling was a milestone in history. Conversely, many Negroes lost their lives to the cause, thus paving the way for a more equitable justice system.
Although not as prevalent today, prejudice and discrimination is still experienced by many. Civil rights are no longer reserved for race, but it has extended to other protected classes, such as gender, religion,…
A&E Television Networks (2011). History of Alabama. Retrieved from http://www.history.com/topics/alabama
Dysart Schools. (n.d.). Theories of Prejudice and Discrimination. Retrieved from https://www.google.com/#q=prejudice+theories&hl=en&prmd=imvns&ei=8SrQTp2tIZP_sQLpxt3IDg&start=0&sa=N&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.,cf.osb&fp=5f6e1c9d40277296&biw=1078&bih=570
Findlaw. (2011). Supreme Court: United States v. Alabama, 362 U.S. 602 (1960)
362 U.S. 602. Retrieved from http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=us&vol=362&invol=602
History Of America
The governance systems in the American history
has a rich history that has seen three different types of governance systems rule the country with the American colonists under the British colonial governance system, revolutionaries under the confederation governance system and the citizens of new epublic under the constitution governance systems. Each of these had distinct characteristics and the positives and the negatives as will be discussed below.
The British colonial governance system was established through political and commercial interests as well as emigration movements into America. The British command of the seas saw the establishment of the control of America as an agricultural land and the government was controlled from Britain with the King and the parliament in Britain making the important decisions and passing them down to the governor who represented the King in America. It was a relationship that was quite exploitative since the minerals…
E&A Television Networks, (2015). Confederate States of America. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/confederate-states-of-america
The Library of Congress, (2015). Primary Documents in American History: United States Constitution. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Constitution.html
U.S Department of State, (2015). Milestones: 1776-1783. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from https://history.state.gov/milestones/1776-1783/declaration
Thus Koppatschek's testimony is reliable.
In light of David's blatant disregard of the stipulations of the contract with Monsanto, his attempts to cover up his infringement, his inconsistent testimony and his apparent disregard for the legal process, the Court finds that Monsanto v. David does fit the definition of an exceptional case.
Because David violated the Technology Agreement which he signed with Monsanto, there was no reason why Monsanto could not be awarded the attorney's fees stated in said agreement.
Court hold the decision of the lower court in part, holding that the district court did not err in determining that David planted saved seed. The Court held the damages awarded in the amount of $10,000 in enhanced damages, $164,608.03 in costs, and $323,140.05 in attorney fees. However, the Court finds that the alternate award of $30,542.99 duplicated the $164,608.03 damages, and therefore was erroneous and therefore reversed. The…
Montsano Co. v. David. United States Court of Appeals, Federal District. Recieved from: (please fill in source here).
This was not a compilation of current rules and regulations, but rather adjustments to the current laws. It contains over 6,500 words of detailed fine-tuning (Florida ar, 2004). While these changes may well have been necessary and important, it also highlights the complicated rules and procedures those dealing with juveniles must follow. Meanwhile, individual municipalities and states, such as St. Louis and Texas, grapple with the practicalities of making juvenile probation do its job of rehabilitating youth and protecting society. It seems likely that Texas will not find the funds necessary to provide the type of program offered in St. Louis, since St. Louis can only accommodate 28 youth at a time. In addition, their approach still does not reach 35% of participants, so it is not the entire answer. Perhaps good research can suggest a way to offer rehabilitative probation to youth in a way that is financially feasible…
Administrative Office of the United States Courts (AOUSC). 1997. "Federal juvenile corrections in South Dakota." Federal Probation, March.
Florida Bar. 2004. "Proposed juvenile procedure rules (Notice)." Florida Bar News, October.
Geraghty, Thomas F. 2002. "Securing Our Children's Future: New Approaches to Juvenile Justice and Youth Violence (Book Review)." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, January.
Lhotka, William C. 1998. "Special Probation Program Monitors Troubled Youths." St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 1.
hile most history textbooks tell stories from the perspective of the wealthy and powerful, Zinn shows how things happened from the perspective of the powerless. For example, in Chapter 3: "Persons of Mean and Vile Condition," the author focuses on poor whites, blacks, and Native Americans, and their "unfair treatment by the wealthier classes," (50). Zinn also demonstrates throughout a People's History of the United States how racism and bigotry became institutionalized and acceptable practices, and critiques colonial America as being definitively "feudal" in nature (48).
People's History of America exposes the dark side of American politics throughout the history of the nation, not aggrandizing or idealizing typical heroes and founding fathers like most history books do. For example, Zinn shows how men like Alexander Hamilton were overtly concerned with preserving elitist privilege in American politics and went out of their ways to ignore dissenting voices. The elitist culture of…
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper, 1980.
merican history should remind us of the dangers of overzealous interest in foreign affairs. Especially when the United States has a vested financial concern with another country, it should practice an ethical, perhaps hands-off, foreign policy. The lessons of Guatemala, Chile, and Nicaragua (to name but a few) should apply to the current state of affairs in Iraq. When the United States acts with self-serving interests its regime changes usually fail with dramatic and fatal consequences. Mass disenfranchisement is the unfortunate result of forced regime changes, contrary to the government's propaganda. Central and South merica display prime examples of this unfortunate fact. Surely, when the United States has genuinely altruistic motives, interference may be deemed necessary. However, Iraq seems to be more a propaganda war than an actual war of necessity. ny supposed humanitarianism is overshadowed by the United State's oil interest in the region. Saddam Hussain serves as a…
An abuse of power would be the consequence should the United States enforce an Iraqi regime change. Not only would the U.S. acts a world bully; it would abuse the privilege of righteous use of American tax dollars. Too much money is already spent on the military-industrial complex. Perhaps our fair nation should devote these self-same dollars to the eradication of AIDS, to the elimination of poverty, or to the promotion of positive education. Money could be better spent on humanitarian causes instead of on contrived regime changes. A plethora of altruistic organizations need the funding that would be unnecessarily spent on fabricating another puppet world leader.
At the core of the problem with United States-backed and orchestrated regime changes is the illusory connection between the current "war on terrorism" and Saddam Hussain. Fear mongering is an effective tactic to spur the American public into supporting military action in Iraq. Ousting Saddam Hussain is appealing on many levels, especially following the disastrous events of September 11, 2001. The general public still recalls the horrors of that day and the media has done an effective job in promoting the idea that Iraq is involved. Perhaps the Iraqi government was and is connected with Al Qaeda. What then?
There certainly exists a real and present danger. Not only do terrorist groups like Al Qaeda pose a threat to the United States and sister nations, but also enemy regimes like that in Iraq may possess weapons of mass destruction. These weapons can potentially wipe out the entire human race; their presence threatens the globe. The United States does have the responsibility to take action against nuclear proliferation and the possession of biological weapons. But the United States also has the responsibility to act with caution and conscience, always keeping peace and human rights in the forefront. Democracy and peace can be encouraged without an aggressive and forced regime change. The United States should serve as an example to the world without falling into the arrogance trap.
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
Image chronicles the history of the United States and the Philippines over several hundred years of modern history. Karnow's main argument about the relationship between the new nation is that the United States had an empire over this far-off but ostensibly independent country that "dare not speak its name." Over the course of the book, Karnow paints a convincing portrait of a nation colonized. Karnow suggests that what was particularly damaging about the de facto (if not de jure) American empire in the Philippines was that America's self-image is that it is a democratic, non-empirical country. By engaging in the sort of relationship America had with the Philippines, America betrayed its most fundamental principles as a nation as well as engaged in exploitation. Because America did not perceive itself as a nation capable of exploiting other nations like its parent country England, it could not even acknowledge the abuses it…
Greenberger, Allen J. "Imperialism." World Book Online Americas Edition. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/ar?/na/ar/co/ar273460.htm. November 18, 2002.
Karnow, Stanley. In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines. New York: Random House, 1989.
Stanley Karnow, In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines, New York: Random House, 1989, "Introduction."
Ibid, Chapter 1.
The article concedes, however, that declining business confidence is an absolute danger that must be dealt with and the government not being an active partner with businesses and in favor of the recovery will just make things worse (Pollin, 2010).
A similar point is made in a different article that states that the role of fiscal policy in pushing an economy towards recovery cannot be over-estimated or over-analyzed because of the vital role fiscal policy plays in said recovery. The article notes that the impact (or lack thereof) of programs like Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF), Medicare, tax credits, Social Security, direct subsidies, unemployment insurance and such are often included in any analysis of fiscal policy but it also noted that many parties that look at this topic glaringly omit are transfer payments and other assistance paid directly to financial institutions (Tcherneva, 2012).
This perhaps became a much less…
2012 Forecast: Recovery…or Recession?. (2012). Financial Executive, 28(1), 21-23.
Auerbach, a., Gale, W., & Harris, B. (2010). Activist Fiscal Policy. Journal of Economic
Perspectives, 24(4), 141-164. doi:10.1257/jep.24.4.141
Baily, M., & Lawrence, R.Z. (2004). What Happened to the Great U.S. Job Machine?
The people of Puerto Rico have a unique history in the US immigration. Indeed, Puerto Rico has a special, if not distinct place in the civil society of the American nation. Puerto Rico has been owned by the US for over a century. However, it has not ever acquired a state status. Puerto Ricans have been part of the US population for over a century. Puerto Ricans do not have a vote in the US congress. Puerto Ricans can move freely throughout the US states. Such movement is regarded as internal migration. However, when Puerto Ricans move to the mainland, they leave a distinctive homeland and a culture. Such a movement comes with numerous cultural transition conflicts. Indeed, the movements come with similar conflicts that occur with actual immigration (History Team, 2017).
According to the census conducted in 2010, Puerto Ricans are some of the most densely populated communities in…
If any of them was found without a token he was either murdered or had his hands severed to die more slowly in front of his community to serve as a warning against defying Columbus's orders.
Perhaps the greatest irony in these atrocities is that the Spaniards (and the other European explorers) all sailed flying the flags of Christianity and that they referred to themselves as "civilized" and the native peoples as "savages." Meanwhile, it was the native "savages" who had lived in peace for thousands of years and it was the Spaniards whose homeland was, at the very time of their explorations, fully engaged in torturing and killing some of their own population in connection with the infamous Spanish Inquisition and the reign of the "civilized" religious authorities who oversaw it. The Arawak Indians, who had never heard of Christianity or of Christ's teachings, had developed a society in…
Economics in the United States
Macroeconomics in the United States
Macroeconomics deals with the general economic systems, which have a larger scope compared to individuals and markets. Essentially, microeconomics is mainly used in the determination and forecast of a country's national income. This is done by analyzing the factors of the economy that represent trends and patterns and in most cases influence each other. Economic factors affecting macroeconomics include the rates of employment and unemployment, positions of balance of payments, trends in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and inflation. Macroeconomics is controlled by the monetary and fiscal policies, which are implemented to control economic factors. Levels of investment and consumption of products and services is also determined by fiscal and monetary policies.
Microeconomic situation in the United States
Figure 1.1: Trends (in percentage) of Unemployment in the U.S. -- 2012
Changes from April to May
Markham, J.W. (2002). A Financial History of the United States M.E. Sharpe: New York.
Fernando, A.C. (2011). Business Environment. India: Pearson Education.
Newport, P. (2011). United States. United States Country Monitor, 2011, p. 2-7.
U.S Department of Labor (2012, June 1). The Employment Situation. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/empsit.pdf
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…
Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Department of Homeland Security. Counterterrorism. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/files/counterterrorism.shtm
Department of Labor. On the Recovery Act. 2009. Accessed from http://www.dol.gov/recovery/
Department of Defense. Travels with Gates. 2010. Accessed from
.....police brutality against people of color has a long history in the United States, the Rodney King incident and the media attention it received promised to alter policy and public discourse. Yet police brutality continues to be a problem and threatens to undermine civil rights in America. Police brutality against visible minorities also erodes public trust in the institution of the law and the system of law enforcement. Those effects are palpable not only at the community level but also at the individual level of perceptions of police, as one study shows a substantial number of Americans have evolved contempt for law enforcement, suspicion of law enforcement, or "perceive law enforcement as agents of brutality," (Chaney and Robertson 480). Community policing models cannot take root or hope to mitigate or reverse the effects of these results unless there is a nationwide policy change to law enforcement organizational culture and training.…
aragher v. City of Boca Raton
Argued March 25, 1998
Decided June 26, 1998
Beth Ann aragher: petitioner; City of Boca Raton:
Beth Ann aragher worked part-time and during summers between 1990 and 1995 as a life-guard for the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of Boca Raton, lorida. Her immediate superiors during this period were Bill Terry, David Silverman and Robert Gordon.
After resigning as a lifeguard, aragher brought an action against Terry, Silverman and the City under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 for nominal damages and other relief, alleging, among other things, that the supervisors had created a "sexually hostile atmosphere" at work by repeatedly subjecting aragher and other female lifeguards to uninvited and offensive touching, by making lewd remarks, and by speaking of women in offensive terms. Asserting that Terry and Silverman were agents of the City, and that…
Faragher v. The City of Boca Raton (1998) is considered to be landmark decision of the U.S. Supreme Court in the area of sexual harassment in the workplace. This is mainly because until Faragher, the Appeal Courts in the U.S. had typically considered sexual harassment by employees in the workplace as "frolics or detours from the course of employment" which was "acting beyond the scope of their employment." As such, sexual harassment by employees (including supervisors) was deemed to fall beyond the scope of Restatement 219 (1) and absolved the employer of any vicarious liability.
Faragher constitutes an important departure from such a benign interpretation of sexual harassment by the courts and set more strict standards of judgment in future cases. It also forced the employers and supervisors to view sexual harassment more seriously and to implement policies of prevention in the workplace.
The Case, in fact, reflects the changing social attitudes towards sexual harassment in the American society. There was a time, when crass behavior by male employees in the workplace could go unchallenged or was ignored by women. Following the success of the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s, movements for the rights of other minorities had gained ground. By the 1990s, previous Court rulings in sexual harassment cases had become out of tune with the changed social standards. Faragher defined the parameters of sexual harassment more clearly and also broadened the scope of vicarious liability in general.
United States, at te beginning of 1855, seemed to be te strongest it ad ever been wit Western expansion, a flourising economic outlook, and tousands of new immigrants bringing teir ard work to America's newest factories and fields. However, te tension was mounting politically, tension tat would lead to an inevitable, long-suffering war tat killed tousands of Americans, and canged te landscape of our nation forever. Te climax came wen Abraam Lincoln was elected President in 1860, and te Civil War became unavoidable from tat moment on.
Before te election of 1860, many tumultuous appenings caused panic, depression, and conflicts between Americans. For example, 1855 saw wat was later pegged te "Bleeding at Kansas," during wic pro- and anti-slavery citizens clased (p. 428). Te figt tat ensued over Kansas in Congress as well as territorially brougt fort te notion tat slavery tensions would not be easily controlled.
1857 saw an…
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.battle.html. American Passages Website.
The News of Lincoln's Election," The Charleston Mercury, November 8, 1860. Online Version:
http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/chapter13/13.4.mercury.html. American Passages Website.
United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
Why did the United States of America initially adopted an isolationist stance After the American War for Independence in 1781.
In 1775 the thirteen British colonies in North America rose up against their parent country Great Britain. The war was known as the American evolution and was seen by the British Crown as an affront to its rule, as a result it increased its strangle hold upon the colonists (Anonymous, 2002).
From this attempt to rule by an iron hand forced the colonists to officially declare war upon the British and form a new government with their own Constitution. The war ended in 1781 and America was recognized as an independent nation by the British Government in 1783 (Anonymous, 2002).
However, in 1778, before the end of the war America had already signed…
Anonymous (2002) The American Revolution[online] accessed at http://ragz-international.com/american_revolution.htm
Cole W.S. (1991) My History is America's History [online] accessed at http://www.myhistory.org/historytopics/articles/isolationism.html (Cole, 1991)
During hearing of the Appeal, the 9th Circuit Court, while acknowledging that the 1963 contract was entered into with the farmer's interests in mind, found that the contract language was not clear enough to support an "intended third-party beneficiary" who could sue for a breach of contract. it, therefore, affirmed (Ibid.)
In their rulings, the District as well as the Appeals Court relied on the 9th Circuit decision in Klamath (1999) in which the Court had denied "third party" status to the appellants. hile affirming, the 9th Circuit also recognized that it "may be at odds" with the Allen (1984) decision.
The Supreme Court, in its unamanous decision, held that the relevant part (390uu) of the Act merely permitted parties to join the United States in an action between other parties when the action required interpretation of a contract; it does not permit a plaintiff to sue…
ORFF et al. v. UNITED STATES et al. Find Law for Legal Professionals. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/cgi-bin/getcase.pl?court=U.S.&navby=case&vol=000&invol=03-1566
Seigle, Max. Orff, Francis, et al. v. U.S., et al. Medill News Service. 2005. February 20, 2008. http://docket.medill.northwestern.edu/archives/001853.php
Klamath (1999) was a case in which a power company and the Reclamation Bureau had re-negotiated a contract and the irrigators, who were serviced by the dam, but were not privy to the modification and sued for breach of contract based on their "third-party beneficiary" status.
United States Deficit, Surplus, and Debt Have an Effect on the United State's Financial Reputation on an International Level
The objective of this study is to examine how and why the United States deficit, surplus and debt have an effect on the United States' financial reputation on an international level.
The United States has been historically viewed as a country that is financially sound. In 2011, as the United States government appeared it was going to default on its debt it is reported that there was a great deal of "bitterness, division and dysfunction that resounded around the world." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) It is reported that the United States is experiencing a diminishing of its "aura as the world's economic haven and the sole country with the power to lead the rest of the world out of financial crisis and recession." (Sanger, 2011, p.1) Additionally, the United States debt levels…
Levit, MR et al. (2011) Reaching the Debt Limit: Background and Potential Effects on Government Operations. Congressional Research Service. 11 Feb 2011. Retrieved from: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/157101.pdf
Sanger, DE (2011) In World's Eyes, Much Damage Is Already Done. 31 Jul 2011. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com /2011/08/01/us/politics/01capital.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
hen the old Manchu dynasty failed to come up with ways to thwart the invading foreigners, a new nationalism was born in China. The old pastimes and rituals (p. 214) had allowed China to become soft. This awakening nationalism - partly a rejection of "foot binding, servant-girl bondage, prostitution, gambling," and opium smoking - was stoked not just by the colonial aggression, but by a spreading literacy (educational institutions were being built, the telegraph, newspapers, magazines and railway travel) and emerging awareness of their endangered culture. The last Manchu Emperor was put out of office on February 12, 1912, and hence a political system that had endured for 2,133 years, was out of commission.
Fairbank takes great pains to cover myriad events in China that led the country from ancient dynasties to new ideas and new leadership. The new order - the Kuomintang political party - came into power in…
Fairbank, John King. The United States and China. Cambridge, MASS: Harvard University Press, 1983.
Therefore, any war waged on a terrorist group then becomes a war to protect the personal liberties of those who can not do so themselves.
However, the United States itself has not even been able to stand up to the standards of liberated individual rights. Within the context of the most recent foreign soil wars, American soldiers in a military base have proven that the nation itself is unable to live up to its high standards of personal liberty. In a prisoner of war camp located at a military base in Guantanamo Bay, American soldiers violated international prison code standard during a humiliating act of submission where prisoners were forced to perform unlawful acts and behaviors at the behest of the soldiers on duty, (Sullivan, 2008). The very rights which were being so violently being protected in the eyes of the American public were actually being violated in our backyard.…
National Security Council. (2008). The national security strategy of the United States of America. www.whitehouse.gov.17 May. 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/nsc/nss.pdf
Radelet, Steve. (2005). Think again: U.S. foreign aid. www.foriegnpolicy.com.18
May, 2008. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=2773
Shah, Anup. (2006). Criticisms of current forms of free trade. Free Trade and Globalization. 18 May. 2008. http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/FreeTrade/Criticisms.asp#ErodingWorkersRights
Instead of providing a democratic model that Chinese companies could follow, American companies and not only go to China for the advantage of paying a lot less for the same work. The fact that our government tolerates and encourages such practices must change.
After the 1989 massacre in Tiananmen Square, one of the sanctions imposed on China was to be denied any World ank loans. A year later, the sanction was reduced as China was supposed to improve its human rights practices in order to get World ank loans. This measure, as many others, was never applied, as China is now one of the main beneficiaries of World ank loans and has done little in changing its human rights practices. Despite the fact that U.S. could have used its influence in the World ank and impose strict sanctions on China, it preferred not to do so, most probably based on…
China (includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau)," Country Reports on Human Rights Practices - 2005, released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 8, 2006, available at http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2005/61605.htm ;
Christensen, Nick, a Standoff Between Giants: America's Policies Towards the Human Rights Record of China, December 9, 1998, available at http://www-personal.umich.edu/~rtanter/F98PS472PAPERS/CHRISTENSEN.NICK.CHINA.HTM ;
Kourous, George and Tom Barry, "U.S. China Policy: Trade, Aid, and Human Rights," Foreign Policy in Focus, Vol. 1, No. 5, November 1996.
What choice did they have? That was an entirely different time, and people were very strong and resourceful (Burrows & Wallace, 1972). They did not have all of the help and resources that they would have had today, and women had to learn how to do things for themselves even though it was not something that they were taught or that society had encouraged them to entertain (Brinkley, 2010). Because women boycotted so many British goods, they rekindled their cloth-making and weaving skills. In addition, legal divorces were granted to women if they were patriots but their husbands continued to support their King (Brinkley, 2010). That was, quite likely, the most significant issue that took place for women during the evolutionary War.
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American evolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National…
Brinkley, D. (2010). The sparck of rebellion. American Heritage Magazine, 59 (4).
Burrows, E.G. & Wallace, M. (1972). The American Revolution: The Ideology and Psychology of National Liberation. Perspectives in American History, 6: 167 -- 305.
Cohen, B.R. (2009). Modern environmental history of Virginia. Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/Modern_Environmental_History_of_Virginia
Kerber, L.K. (1990). "I have don…much to carrey on the warr." Women and the shaping of Republican ideology after the American Revolution. Journal of Women's History, 1(3): 231-243.
United States of America has a long driven history where two political parties ruled the territory and its people since it assumed independence. Several presidents with different political and moral beliefs/views have come into power, which largely influenced the policies and strategies that they employed to run the country. Liberalism is one of the prime political beliefs found in America's political system that promotes freedom. On the other hand, the opposite political idea that has long existed in America is termed as Conservatism (Lipsman, 2007).
Liberalism that is presently promoted as progressivism by its supporters believes that citizens can do nothing without the assistance of their ruler. It encourages a governing system that allows the leaders to control the lives of its entire populace. Moreover, it supports the idea of benefitting the country by granting social power and rights to its people (Lipsman, 2007).
On the other hand, Conservatism deems…
Brux, J.M. (2007). Economic Issues & Policy. Fourth Edition. Canada: Cengage Learning.
Deutsch, K. (2010). The Dilemmas of American Conservatism. USA: University Press of Kentucky.
Lipsman, R. (2007). Liberal Hearts and Conservative Brains: The Correlation Between Age and Political Philosophy. USA: Ron Lipsman.
Watts, D. (2006). Understanding American Government and Politics: Second Edition. Second Edition. Manchester University Press.
U.S. ole as 'Policemen of the World'
Thesis and Outline Draft
Introduction and Thesis
currently holds the most important and influential role in international politics and represents a decisive player in all recent international conflicts. This role takes the form of political and military interventions, international and bilateral engagements as well as multilateral brokerage of peace talks. The basic principles of such an approach are the fostering of peaceful, democratic, and secure international environment. At the same time though, it must be pointed out that the entire international community does not always support such actions and often it has been said that the United States acts as the "policeman of the world" (Kissinger, 1995). It must be stressed that the current approach the United States have on foreign policy has not changed since the end of the Civil War and has guided the U.S. In military and political interventions in…
Calvocoressi, P. (1987) World politics since 1945. New York: Longman.
Federal News Service (2013) "America is not the world's policeman: Text of Barack Obama's speech on Syria," Associated Press, available online at http://www.ndtv.com/article/world/america-is-not-the-world-s-policeman-text-of-barack-obama-s-speech-on-syria-417077
Kissinger, H. (1995) Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster.
Shahshahani, A. And Corina Mullin (2012) "The legacy of U.S. intervention and the Tunisian revolution: promises and challenges one year on," Interface: a journal for and about social movements, Volume 4 (1): 67 -- 101, available online at http://www.interfacejournal.net/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Interface-4-1-Shahshahani-and-Mullin.pdf
United States to Respond to a WMD Attack Within Our orders?
The objective of this study is to answer how prepared the United States is to respond to a WMD attack within its borders and to answer whether there is enough capability to effectively respond to such an attack. This study will further answer as to whether the response plan and command control structure clearly understandable and whether everyone has a role or if there are gaps or redundancies. Finally, this study will answer as to how intelligence supports this response with restrictions imposed upon intelligence operations within our borders.
The challenges to an effective response to a WMD attack within U.S. borders are diverse in nature. Some of the challenges are technology related while others relate to communication among agencies and operation teams. In addition, there is presently funding issues relating to effective management of homeland security initiatives making…
Joint Publication 2-38 (2007) Civil Support.
National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats (2009) National Security Council.
Steps Have Been Taken to Improve U.S. Northern Command's Coordination with States and the National Guard Bureau, but Gaps Remain (208) GAO report to congressional requesterse. USGAO. April 2008.
United States Northern Command (2007) DISAM Journal of International Security Assistance Management 29. A3 (Jul 2007): 1-2.
United States' task of setting policy with other countries is not always a difficult task. We have enjoyed productive and positive relations with Canada for nearly all of our country's history. While we started out our relationship with Mexico on hostile terms, both countries have worked hard to establish a positive relationship based on mutual interests and concerns. It isn't always as easy to identify the important issues when countries are farther away and when they are located in areas with long histories of turbulence and conflicting needs. Such is the situation we face with the Middle East, an area made up of several different countries, some of whom often war among themselves and where shifting allegiances have historically taken place. The Middle East has a particularly troubled past, and it is not possible for any one country to set policies that will be warmly accepted by all the Middle…
Barry, Tom, and Honey, Martha. 1999. "Turkey: Arms and Human Rights." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 4:16. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol5/v5n03isr.html
Le Gail, Michael, Ph.D. St. Olaf College, with Le Gail, Dina. 2000. Middle East. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.puhsd.k12.ca.us/chana/staffpages/eichman/Adult_School/us/spring/foreign_policy/3/middle_east.htm
Mark, Clyde R. 2002. U.S. Congressional Research Service, Clyde R. Mark Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division, Updated Nov. 14, 2002. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02. http://www.uspolicy.be/Issues/MiddleEast/middleeast.htm
Zunes, 2000. Stephen. "The U.S. And the Israeli-Syrian Peace Process." Foreign Policy in Focus: A Think Tank Without Walls, 5:3. Accessed via the Internet 12/9/02.
German immigration to the United States prior to 1877. Specifically, it will discuss to what extent and how did they influence life in the U.S.A. German immigrants to the United States influenced thought and culture in a variety of ways, but they have nearly always managed to hold on to their own culture while adapting to their surroundings.
While America has always been a melting pot of different cultures blending to form a whole, Germans have always managed to blend into society while nevertheless retaining their own special culture and society. The Germans are one of the few races to hang on to their culture so powerfully, while still successfully merging with U.S. culture. One of the most important ways they held on to their culture was by continuing to speak German, especially in the homes, and raising their children to also speak the native language. They also tended to…
Editors. "Germans in America: Chronology." Library of Congress. 1 May 2001. 10 March 2003. http://lcweb.loc.gov/rr/european/imde/germchro.html
Hoyt, Dolores J. "19th Century German Immigration in Historical Context." Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis. 8 Oct. 1998. 10 March 2003. http://www-lib.iupui.edu/kade/nameword/context.html
Spencer, Aaron Fogleman. Hopeful Journeys: German Immigration, Settlement, and Political Culture in Colonial America, 1717-1775. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996.
Wittke, Carl. Refugees of Revolution: The German Forty-Eighters in America. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1952.
United States policy towards the Iran's nuclear program has been complicated by a variety of issues. Some of these issues include Iran's alleged sponsorship of terrorism, regional stability, hostility towards U.S. allies, and the complication of the peace process between Arabs and Israelis in the Middle East. The United States' approach in policy toward Iran's nuclear program has changed very little from the Bush administration to the current Obama Administration. A writer for time magazine cleverly stated, in regard to the United States' approach to Iran's nuclear program that Obama taking over the presidency "is more like taking over the controls of a train than getting behind the wheel of a car" (T. Karon). This analogy is appropriate because Obama's administration is following the foundation laid by the Bush Administration.
Both the Obama and Bush administrations recognized the potential global and regional danger that could surfaces as a result of…
Katzman, K. (2008). Iran: U.S. concerns and policy responses. New York: Nova Science Publishers.
Obama's Foreign Policy Similar to Bush's at End of 2009 - TIME. (n.d.). Breaking News, Analysis, Politics, Blogs, News Photos, Video, Tech Reviews - TIME.com. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1950827,00.html
Renshon, S.A. (2009). National Security in the Obama Administration: Reassessing the Bush doctrine.. Hoboken: Taylor & Francis.
Us Diplomacy With Iran - Clinton says U.S. diplomacy unlikely to end Iran nuclear program - Los Angeles Times. (n.d.). Featured Articles From The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 26, 2011, from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/03/world/fg-clinton3
As Maloney (2010) points out, the tight sanctions are not putting the U.S. In a good position to negotiate, so there must be some path to victory under realist philosophy that involves escalating a conflict position with Iran. There is also the possibility that the conflict is inevitable, and the United States is hoping to stall Iran long enough to find a way around conflict.
This paper will investigate the sanctions from the realist perspective. The hypothesis is that the sanctions do fulfill a realist path to success, but they are not capable to achieving this end on their own. The sanctions must, therefore, be working in concert with other elements of strategy. The topic is important because the situation in Iran is ongoing, and poses a risk to global security and stability. If the course of engagement that the U.S. is on with Iran is the wrong one, then…
Korab-Karpowicz, W. (2013). Political realism in international relations. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/realism-international-relations/
Maloney, S. (2012). Obama's counterproductive new Iran sanctions. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.relooney.info/0_New_12624.pdf
O'Sullivan, M. (2010). Iran and the great sanctions debate. Washington Quarterly. October 2010.
The Economist (2013). How Iranian companies manage to keep trading with foreigners. The Economist. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.economist.com/news/business/21574540-how-iranian-companies-manage-keep-trading-foreigners-around-block
The fundamentals of exchange theory are illustrated at Appendix a. This approach to analyzing the current situation in North Korea will help add to the existing body of knowledge by developing fresh insights into the possible motivating factors that have characterized North Korea's negotiations with the West in general and the United States in particular in the past and will help address the hypothesis to be tested which is stated below.
The likelihood that it will be possible to persuade North Korea to dismantle its nuclear capability will be increased if American military forces are removed from South Korea.
This hypothesis will be qualitatively tested based on a preponderance of the evidence that results from the critical review of the literature described above.
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea equires Long-Term Strategic elationship with the U.S."
Auton, G.P. (2007). "North Korea: Another Country." Korean Studies 31, 100-101.
Barry, M.P. 2007. "North Korea Requires Long-Term Strategic Relationship with the U.S."
International Journal on World Peace 24(1): 37-38.
Catchpole, B. 1998, November. "The Commonwealth in Korea." History Today, 33.
Jefferson asked Lewis to fully explain to the Indians that the white explorers were interested in trade, not in seizing their lands (Ambrose 154). This showed that Jefferson used a steady hand and smart policies regarding the estern frontier and that he understood diplomacy with the Native Americans, whom he respected very much.
The Civil ar: The fact is, most Americans probably believe that the only issue that precipitated the Civil ar was slavery, and though slavery was at the center of the north-south feud, it was not alone as a spotlighted issue. The bottom line issue that tore the country apart was state's rights; in other words, did states have a right to go against the will of the national government? Could a Southern state continue to keep slaves in bondage because their cotton crops (hence, their economic power to survive) depended on slave labor? The answer of course…
Ambrose, Stephen E. (1996). Undaunted Courage: Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson,
and the Opening of the American West. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Jones, Robert Francis. (2002). George Washington: ordinary man, extraordinary leader.
Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press.
This would have given Hitler an advantage in Africa, and he could have conceivably taken over much more territory and been much harder to control and subdue. In addition, on the Pacific front, the Japanese were attempting to take over as much territory as they could find, all the way to Australia and beyond, and the Americans defeated them many times during 1942, including at the Battles of Coral Sea and Midway, where countless Japanese soldiers died, and numerous Japanese ships were sunk. If America had not entered the war, Japan could have gotten a much bigger foothold in the Pacific, and might have been impossible, or much harder to stop.
In Europe, there might have been far more dire consequences if America had not entered the war until 1942. England was weakening, and it is very conceivable that the country could have fallen to the Nazis in 1942. This…
Globalization has stripped the U.S. Of its stranglehold over manufacturing and forced it to readjust itself into a service oriented industry. As a result, education, training and specialization are more crucial than ever for the attainment of high paying jobs. This leaves the majority of Americans who do not have high educational or vocational training to have fewer opportunities for employment. Competitions from third world nations have stripped away many industries and jobs that are traditionally strong employers such as the automotive and steel industries. The result is that employees have had to take lower-paying jobs because they cannot readjust themselves for more complex positions required within the changing dynamics of globalization. rom an economic perspective this is an inevitable process, and therefore the wealth gap grows because those with very strong education and specialization are able to take advantage of economic trends towards service oriented industries, while those who…
From a political perspective, economic change and the conservatism of the past two decades have changed the spirit of government assistance for the poor. Welfare no longer exists as it did in the 1970s, and more funding is being diverted away from providing for the poor. As a result of government policies to provide greater independence and breaks for the average citizen, more and more funds are being steered away from helping the poor. The combination of a dearth of government spending to aid the poor as well as an unfriendly job market for unskilled labor has contributed to the poor becoming poorer.
From a social perspective, the "hippy" culture of the earlier decades has been replaced with a growing demand for social gratification through money and influence. In a survey conducted of college students in 1990, 80% reported that making money was their first priority following graduation. As society becomes more influenced by materialistic culture, the perspective of helping the poor and solving social problems are de-emphasized. All three factors have contributed to the growing wealth inequality within the United States.
Nickel and Dimed" revealed to us the world of American poverty. The poorest sector of the United States live a life that few can imagine and many thought eradicated. The factors that have brought us to the circumstances that Ehrenreich depicts within her book are multifaceted. They involve inevitable economic changes, government policy as well as social perspectives. To rectify this problem will be extremely difficult. Changes will have to be made on many different levels that will involve a changing perspective on views of poverty and success. However, if this trend continues, the wealth gap will inevitably polarize the American public and lead to a major national crisis. Thus to preserve the democracy and health of the United States, steps must be taken to change the culture towards wealth disparity.
Conservative American Presidents
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss the return to conservatism in the American presidency after the 1980s. It will compare the similarities to earlier periods in the 19th and 20th century, and discuss what relationship there is between this return to conservatism, and the continued struggle for U.S. military dominance and economic globalization.
THE RETURN TO CONSERVATISM IN AMERICAN POLITICS
The country emerged from orld ar II as the dominant world force and with a booming national economy.
It was able to construct a series of political, economic, and military alliances that tied most of the former great powers together against its only rival, the Soviet Union. This unique postwar situation could not last forever, and in the 1960s and 1970s the "American Century" began to unravel (Florig 153).
It was this unraveling that Americans were worried about, and so they turned to…
Anderson, Dennis M. "Ronald Reagan." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 563-578.
Dansker, Emil. "William Howard Taft." Popular Images of American Presidents. Ed. William C. Spragens. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. 211-234.
Editors. "Warren G. Harding." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/WH/WH_In_Brief.htm
Editors. "Ronald Reagan: Impact and Legacy." The American President. 2002. 13 August 2002. http://www.americanpresident.org/kotrain/courses/RR/RR_Impact_and_Legacy.htm
United States in decline -- again? The answer if one is looking at the question during the year that this article was published (2007) is yes, the U.S. was in decline in many ways -- and continues to be in decline. In Michael Cox's scholarly article clearly points out that following orld ar II, and the subsequent Cold ar years, the U.S. was considered hands down the strongest nation in the world. Communism was on the decline, which was a point in America's favor after those Cold ar years of outreach by both capitalism and communism to try and impose influence on nations all over the world.
Cox is correct when he says that Ronald Reagan has been "almost completely rehabilitated by a new generation of historians" who, when comparing Reagan to George . Bush, see Reagan in a different light altogether. Maybe it is the fact that "hindsight is…
Cox, Michael. "Is the United States in decline -- again?" Royal Institute of International
Affairs 83, no. 4 (2007): 643-653.
2005). Instead of economic and military interventionism, the new American leadership proposed relations based on commerce and, more importantly, diplomacy. The United States would therefore keep interventionism at a minimum.
Because it was based on a keen common sense and core values, FDR's vision came to be known as the "good neighbor" foreign policy. Together with his wife Eleanor, FDR drew up the blueprints for a system based on "common ideals and a community of interest, together with a spirit of cooperation." Rather than seeing other nations as means to promote American interests, FDR believed that American well-being depended heavily on the well-being of its satellite countries as well. This was a direct contrast to the paternalistic attitude that characterized interventionism.
As a result of these non-interventionist policies, FDR was able to build much more goodwill. Thus, by World War II, many Western nations threw their support behind the Allies.…
For example, the Chinese had no need for European foodstuffs but they did want European silver ("Early Global Commodities" 2010). Trade between China and Europe was not as robust as it was between the Arab world and Europe because of the lack of demand in China for European products other than silver. As a result, a diffusion of culture from China to Europe did not take place as did the diffusion of culture from Arabia and medieval Muslim societies to Europe.
Moreover, much European silver came from the territories conquered in the New World. In addition to plundering South America for silver, European societies also imported South American foods such as tomato, chili, chocolate, and sugar. These commodities eventually transformed the European diet ("Food, Demographics, and Culture" 2010). Thus, economic imperatives cause the development and diffusion of ancient South American societies. On the other hand, Yellow iver Valley culture in…
"Early Global Commodities," (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247550
"Food, Demographics, and Culture" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/247553
"Migrations of America" (2010). Retrieved online: http://history.webtexts.com/browse/tocs/296943/contents/260105
"River Valley Civilizations." (n.d.) Retrieved online: http://www.historyhaven.com/APWH/the%20River%20Valley.htm
History of Discrimination in the United States
The Europeanization of North America
Greater than 99% of the population of the United States originated from another country, having immigrated here between the time of Christopher Columbus' arrival and the present day (Spickard, 2007, p. 4). Despite estimates that suggest close to five million Native Americans were living on land that would eventually become the United States in 1492, diseases such as smallpox, typhoid, and cholera wiped out an estimated 95% of this demographic at a relatively rapid pace, thus helping to pave the way for European immigration into North America (Spickard, 2007, pp. 36-37).
The earliest permanent (successful) white settlements included the Spanish in the southwestern territories that would become Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California, and on the east coast in Florida (Spickard, 2007, pp. 37-40). The primary goal of the Spanish settlements was economic, but this was not…
Hagy, J.W. (1991). Mosquitoes, leeches and medicine in Charleston, South Carolina (1670-1861). Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, 2, 65-68.
Min, Pyong Gap. (2002). Mass migration to the United States: Classical and contemporary periods. New York: Altamira Press.
Spickard, Paul. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identiy. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Fancis Group
U.S. Census Bureau. (2011). National Population by Race, United States: 2010. Retrieved August 30, 2011 from http://2010.census.gov/2010census/data/.
United States Have a Non-Interventionist Foreign Policy? with Todd Myers
This lecture was part of Political Economy Week at Grossmont. The lecture started with a little history about the foreign policy of the United States, especially with regards to the theme of non-interventionism. The speaker referred to the way the United States used to be non-interventionist until the First and Second World Wars, how it was reluctantly entering the Second World War but after that, there was no more non-interventionism. Since then, the United States has been the opposite, fighting other people's fights for them under the guise of benevolence. The speaker questions whether this trajectory is healthy for the world and for the United States. Citing the failure of the recent interventions, but also contrasting that with non-intervention in Syria, the speaker did a good job of presenting both sides of the argument.
There was more I liked about…
Models of Media and Politics
A review of media / political models sheds some light on why the United States' cultural themes have been such a dominant dynamic in Europe, among other global venues. In describing the three models of media and politics, Daniel C. Hallin and Paolo Mancini report that the media in Southern Europe (the "Mediterranean" or "Polarized Pluralist Model") is "an institution of the political and literary worlds" more than it is market-driven (Hallin, et al., 2004 90). The North and Central European model is called the "Democratic Corporatist Model" -- and is certainly more market-driven and far less politically driven; and the third model is the "North Atlantic" or "Liberal model" of media and politics (Hallin 87).
The North Atlantic or Democratic Corporatist model, according to Mark a. aker II encompasses Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the "Low Countries" and Scandinavia, and can be broken down into three…
Arango, Tim, 2008, 'World Falls for American Media, Even as it Sours on America. The New York Times, Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://www.nytimes.com .
Artz, Lee, and Kamalipour, Yahya, 2007, the Media Globe: Trends in International Mass Media. Rowman & Littlefield: Landham, MD.
Baker, Mark a., 2010, 'Hallin & Mancini, the North / Central European or Democratic Corporatist Model by: Mark a. Baker II', Global Media. Retrieved Nov. 24, 2010, from http://globalmediastudies.blogspot.com .
Hallin, Daniel C., and Mancini, Paolo, 2004, Comparing Media Systems: Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge University Press: New York.
In fact, the UN's official policy attempts to limit the types of conditions that can be placed on debt forgiveness for third-world and developing nations. Despite this fact, it would be simplistic to state that G8 should not have the ability to make financial decisions independent of the UN and other international influence. As the countries that have provided the majority of financing for the world's poorest countries, it may be that the continued financial health of those countries depends upon them getting a financial benefit from such financial assistance. Therefore, the current world economy may actually depend on the ability of G8 to operate independently from the broader international community.
Q3: How does the Fisher effect impact the ability to forecast currency exchange rates? If the real interest rate is constant across borders, one would expect a constant currency exchange rate, but this does not occur. On the contrary,…