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The Holocaust museum in kokie, Illinois carries the motto "Remember the past, transform the future." It does not talk about forgiveness. It talks about using the past to transfer the future into a more constructive and positive experience that uses the lessons of the past to do so.
This essay discusses the concept of 'forgiveness' and goes into when it should and should not be applied.
Nietzsche made a salient point that forgiveness is like nirvana. In fact, the whole concept of forgiveness reminds me of the Buddhist philosophy. Buddhists believe that life is inevitably one of frustration, disappointment, pain, and suffering. We have our disappointments and hankerings that turn out to be bloated and misplaced. Even desires, when met, turn out to be temporary. Life is one of unceasing travail and loss and many of us are sensitive to the hurt that life throws at us. Part…
Buddhanet.com The Discourse on Right View http://www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/r_view/r_view01.htm
Hitchens, C (2007) God is not great: how religion poisons everything New York: Twelve
Liszka, JJ (2002) Moral Competence Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall
However, seeing those bags of shaved prisoner hair, I came to understand how much of the impetus for the Holocaust was financial. Hitler may have had an irrational, psychotic hatred of Jews, but the Holocaust could not have occurred with the systemic dehumanization of a group of people. The Nazis harvested Jews for body parts. They used their bones for fertilizer and, as proven by the bags of hair, used their hair to upholster furniture. It was death for profit.
The fact that it was death for profit makes me concerned that genocide could occur in the United States. Right now, especially in border states, illegal immigrants are routinely exploited as a source of cheap labor, while people vehemently argue against offering them citizenship. There is a huge amount of racial animosity towards Mexicans and South Americans, especially in these border states. Furthermore, like post-orld ar I Germany, the United…
"Background." Nowhere to Turn: Plight of German Jews in Nazi Germany, 1933-1941.
Minnesota State University, 2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.
"Holocaust Denial." Jewish Virtual Library. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise,
2010. Web. 17 Mar. 2010.
poison used in the gas chambers, to the thousands of empty suitcases, clearly marked with names, which Nazi personnel emptied and appropriated after their owners were gassed to death. The Nazis not only took the lives of millions of Jews, they took everything that was a reminder of their lives. The world stood by while this occurred, and did nothing.
Why did the world stand by and allow millions of Jews to disappear into the death camps? Perhaps it was because most people could not comprehend anything so sinister and evil. Who could possibly believe that such evil could exist in the world? Who could believe that a race could incite so much hatred that another race would attempt to completely exterminate them? The very idea seems beyond imagination or possibility. Perhaps that is one reason the world stood by and watched as the Jewish ghettos emptied. They simply could…
Editors. "Then and Now." Remember.org. 2006. 9 June 2006. http://remember.org/then-and-now/tn03.html
Winfrey, Oprah. "Inside Auschwitz: The End of Times." Oprah.com. 2006. 9 June 2006. http://www.oprah.com/obc_classic/featbook/night/holo/holo_trip_350_101.jhtml
The museum I attended was the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which is located at 100 15th Street (Raoul Wallenberg Place) Southwest in Washington D.C. It is part of the National Mall. I was initially struck by the size of the museum itself, and the many labyrinth-like passages, rooms, and corridors it contained that were all related to some different aspect of the Holocaust. I had known that the museum existed and had heard stories about many of the horrors of this particular time period, but I was a little surprised at how much history was preserved and at the number of people who were present on what was just a routine day at the museum.
One of the pieces that I spent the most time looking at was the cover of The Secrets of the Wise Men of Zen, which was displayed in its original German language…
However, as the time in the ghettos grew longer, and Jews began to disappear in greater numbers, it became clear that something had to be done, and the resistance grew. Couriers risked their lives and carried messages to the outside, and armed rebellions began to be more common. What may be surprising is that so many acts of resistance actually occurred throughout Europe, this is something that is often overlooked in Jewish history.
When the Germans forced the Jews into labor, internment, concentration, and extermination camps, they realized what the Germans really had in store for them, and camp members forged resistance groups, as well, even though it was much harder to resist inside the concentration camps, because they were heavily guarded, the work was incredibly difficult, and food was almost non-existent. It was much more difficult to resist in these conditions. However, resistance did occur, even if the penalty…
Editors. "Resistance During the Holocaust. The United States Holocaust Museum. 2007. 26 Nov. 2007. http://www.ushmm.org/education/foreducators/resource/resistance.pdf
The picture shows a larger-than-life gigantic bearded and very hairy naked man wearing a kippah (Hebrew head-covering) with the Star of David on it. He has a large and crooked nose and a ferocious, rather frightening grin as he appears to be gleefully tearing up railroad tracks and wreaking destruction on a city. There is something round, perhaps a large city water-storage tank, which has railroad tracks wrapped around it. Many of the details of the poster are slightly obscured by the glare of the lights, so one cannot be quite sure of what one is looking at. The sketchy 'city' seems to be broken, obviously destroyed by the monster, and this is well-illustrated with broken lines intended to be railroad tracks bent and strewn at random all over the city. At the very bottom of the picture, people are shown running away as they look back fearfully.…
Holocaust affected Israeli society and culture and how Jews memorialize/emember it today
There exists no doubt regarding the massacre of the Jews during the phase of World War II and its impact on the lives of the Jewish people and the people who were near and dear to them. A dissention is required against those who assert that the tragedy never occurred, irrespective of whether they hold an opposite perspective to the Holocaust theory or just outright vehemence against Jews. The Holocaust stands for the lowest extreme of Jewish impotence. The affected Jews of the Holocaust were distraught due to it, both by direct means and indirectly, and as a continuance their kith and kin, near and dear ones, were separated by space. The holocaust has been termed rightly as a "Tragic legacy." It has also been looked upon as an unauthentic episode.
Just due to the fact they…
Anderson, Frank. "Holocaust Atrocity and Suffering." Vol.47. Middle East Studies, Vol.30, 1991, 164-177
Ben-Amos, Avner; Bet-El; Ilana. "Holocaust Day and Memorial Day in Israeli Schools: Ceremonies, Education and History" Israel Studies, Vol. 4, 1999, 258-284
Davison, Todd. "The Holocaust experience." International Journal of Middle East Studies, Vol, 24, 1994, 153-165
Najarian, James. "Experiences of Holocaust Survivors." Mid East Quarterly, Vol.56, 1993, 114-128
At an arly junctur in th txt, th author provids a usful point
of considration which dos st it apart from many othr works on th
subjct. Rathr than to simply appal to th radr's sns of pity, Wood
taks on th task of dmanding admiration of th Jwish popl quit simply
for thir prsistnc to surviv as a cultur and with an intact sns of
idntity, vn if that idntity is inxtricably now linkd to th vnts of
th Holocaust. As th txt rports on anothr pag distinguishd by
complling photographs to th cas of Jwish dtrmination, "dspit th
high walls of th ghttos and th military strngth of th Nazis, many
popl in th ghttos scaps or fought in thir harts and minds. For
most, rsistanc took th form of clinging to th lov of family and
frinds, holding on to traditions, and strngthning thir hop." (Wood,
effectively delivered in appropriate detail the realities and implications
of the Holocaust.
Publisher's Weekly (PW). (2007). Review: "Holocaust." Amazon.com.
Wood, A.G. (2007). Holocaust. DK Children.
Religious Views of the Holocaust
Most people realize that during World War II, the Nazi Party of Germany waged a relentless war against people they did not welcome in their country for one reason or another. We all know that over 6 million Jews died during the Holocaust, but many people don't realize that the Nazis targeted others as well, including Gypsies and some Christians who would not cooperate with the Nazi regime or who were caught aiding those who were supposed to be sent to concentration camps.
Given that the Holocaust was a multicultural and multi-religious event, it is interesting to consider how some major religions might view the events. Christianity teaches that all murder is against the law of God. However most Christian religions allow the execution of criminals by state governments. This is why we have individuals who protest executions but rarely hear entire denominations protest such…
Dworkin, Andrea. 1994. The Unremembered: Searching for Women at the Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ms. Magazine, V:3
Rittner, Carol, Smith, Stephen D., and Steinfeldt, Irena, editors.
The Holocaust and the Christian World: Reflections on the Past - Challenges for the Future. 1994. New York: Continuum.
My experience concerning the Core Exhibition about Jewish life prior to, throughout, and after the Holocaust expressed through individual accounts and possessions was phenomenal. I found that the incredible displays explored characteristics of historical events and a deep, developing heritage. I discovered that through the Jewish Museum, I have learned to appreciate public programs that celebrate the fruitfulness of Jewish traditions and beliefs.
I made my way through the uniquely winding security leading in to the museum where the multimedia presentation was at. Upon coming to the first hall, I heard a little music and from there followed it to the rotunda, where I saw images being projected on to walls all around the huge area. During the 9-minute multimedia presentation, there were three themes that were displayed. They were the following: "Remember, never to forget." The Ferdinand and Isabella letter of 1492 and "Jewish Renewal."…
Museum of Jewish Heritage -- A Living Memorial to the Holocaust. (2011). New York, NY.
The picture presents a monster tattooed with communist symbols. He is destroying a city that is equipped with electricity and other modern embellishments of civilizations. People are running for their life. On its face value, the picture can be taken as the criticism of communism. However, associating communism and Jewish origin with destructivity is not a naive gesture at all. It has an evil nature in itself showing hatred and intolerance for others in the society.
The descriptive text for the picture tells us that it is a propaganda poster depicting a stereotyped Jewish communist who is in the act of destroying Germany. Do we need to know more? This shows the hatred one cherishes against the Jew and the communists. This becomes crystal clear that the propaganda poster delineates the anti-Semitic as well as anti-communist mentality of the Nazis while this particular poster makes a caricature of…
In 1918 Iceland became independent but remained under the rule of the Danish king. At the end of the war a plebiscite showed a 75% pro-Danish majority and the North Slesvig was once again reunited with Denmark (Miller 224).
As World War I was coming close and Denmark remained neutral Jews started moving to the country. There are no exact statistics since many of these immigrants were wary of the authorities, but as many as twenty to thirty thousand Eastern European Jews may have entered Denmark during this period and approximately 3,000 stayed permanently, thus doubling the Jewish population (Hammerich in Kisch). More did not stay because the existing assimilated Jewish community wanted to pay their passage out; they believed their position in society was threatened and latent anti-Semitism would spread. The Jewish congregation even actively cooperated with authorities such as the police to expel unemployed or unwanted individuals from…
Buckser Andrew. After the Rescue. New York: MacMillan, 2003
Bauer, Yehuda. Rethinking the Holocaust. New Haven: Yale University, 2001
Fein, Helen. Accounting for Genocide. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1979
Kische, Conrad. The Jewish Community in Denmark: History and Present Status.
CONESED PUBLIC SPACE: MEMORIES & HISORY
Contested Public Space: Memories and History
Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas
he Memory Landscape.
Mary's is a large old-style brick church belonging to the council of the Hanseatic city of Lubeck. On the floor at the rear of the church, broken pieces of two large bells remain where they fell during an air raid in World War II. he third largest church in Germany, it took 100 years to construct St. Mary's but just one Palm Sunday night in March of 1942 to nearly destroy it. As with so many churches ruined by bombing during the war, parishioners debated about restoration. Citizens living on war-torn homeland are caught: here is a lingering desire to preserve physical destruction as a message or signal to subsequent generations, or as an effort to share the horror of war time experience. If the physical evidence of…
The Construction of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin.
A competition for the design of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin was held in April of 1994. Twelve artists were invited to submit a design and a stipend of 50, 000 German Marks was provided to each candidate. The proposals would be reviewed by a jury with representatives from architecture, urban design, art, history, administration, and politics. Interest in the project grew and at the end of the competitive period, 528 proposals had been submitted. Rounds of reviews commenced and 13 proposals were selected. But during the interim period between meetings, the jurors -- who ostensibly were then able to review the critiques of their fellow jurors -- asked that 11 proposals be put back in the running. Two proposals were finally recommended to the foundation for feasibility study. One proposal was designed by Simon Ungers architectural group from Hamburg, and one proposal was designed by Christine Jackob-Marks. Jackob-Marks' work included names of murdered Jews engraved in a large concrete plate, with empty spaces signifying Jews who could not be identified by name. Her proposal also included debris from Massada where the Jewish inhabitants avoided capture by invading Romans by killing themselves. Chancellor Helmut Kohl vetoed this proposal. It was considered too "German" and too similar to the Nazi death rosters. The controversy continued under many different guises.
In June of 1998, Peter Eisenman's design was chosen, but it was scaled down to 2,711 blocks, or stelae, after considerable controversy.[footnoteRef:22] Daniel Liebeskind, who was pupil of Eisenman's, claimed that Eisenman stole his design from the Berlin Jewish Museum's Garden of Exile. In July of 2001, billboards reflecting Holocaust denial sentiments appeared in Berlin triggering a funding controversy. [footnoteRef:23] In October of 2003, there was a major disruption to the project. Degesch, a subsidiary of the German company Degussa, was revealed by a Swiss newspaper to be the same firm that made Zyklon-B, the gas used in the gas chambers to murder Jews in the extermination camps. Degussa had been hired to coat the concrete slabs with an anti-graffiti substance. In fact, many stelae had already been coated and the anti-graffiti substance had been discounted as in-kind sponsorship of the memorial. Degussa had National-Socialist leanings during the war and this fact was ostensibly known to the construction management company and to Lea Rosh. Rosh declared that she had no prior knowledge of the connection, and she is reported to have said that, "Zylon-B is obviously the limit."[footnoteRef:24] Another subsidiary of Degussa had, but this time, already poured the concrete foundation for the stelae. Members of the Jewish community were outraged at Degussa's involvement and wanted them out of the project. Politicians on the Board of the foundation did not want to impose further expense on the project by stopping construction, or worse, destroying any construction that Degasse had already accomplished. The cost of this action was estimated at €2.34 million. One Board member, Wolfgang Thierse, was reported to say, "[T]he past intrudes into our society."[footnoteRef:25] The Zentrairat der Juden in Germany was outspoken about not continuing the work with Degrasse. Hezryk Broder emphasized that, "The Jews don't need this memorial, and they are not prepared to declare a pig sty kosher." [footnoteRef:26] Peter Eisenberg, perhaps in a bid to see his work finished, supported continuing the project with Degrasse. In November 2003, work restarted with Degrasse. In May of 2005, the Das Denkmal fur Die Ermordeten Juden Europas was completed. At the opening ceremony, Peter Eisenberg spoke about the significance of the Mahnmal, saying that, "It is clear that we won't have solved all the problems -- architecture is not a panacea for evil -- nor will we have satisfied all those present today, but this cannot have been our intention."[footnoteRef:27] [22: Historic Sites -- Berlin, Op. Cit. ] [23: Ibid. ] [24: Translated from "Die Grenze ist ganz klar Zyklon B." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294. ] [25: Translated from "Die Vergangenheit ragt in unsere Gesellschaft hinein." Claus Leggewie and Erik Meyer (2005) "Ein Ort, an den man gerne geht." Das Holocaust-Mahnmal und die deutsche Geschichtspolitik nach 1989. Munich, DE: Carl Hanser Verlag Publisher. Munich. p. 294.] [26: Translated from "Di Juden brauchen dieses Mahnmal nicht, und sind nicht beriet, eine Schweinerei als koscher zu erklaren." Leggewie / Meyer, 2005, p. 294] [27: Berstein, Richard. (2005, May 11) Holocaust Museum opens in Berlin, The New York Times. Retrieved http://www.nytimes.com/2005/0511/international/europe/11germany . ]
Undoubtedly, this association is partially explained by his postwar notoriety, but the ubiquitous image of Mengele at the ramp in so many survivors' accounts has also to do with the fact that Mengele often appeared "off-duty" in the selection area whenever trainloads of new prisoners arrived at Auschwitz, searching for twins."
Mengele's fascination with twins, and especially with experimentation on twins in order to find a way in which he could potentially double the size of the German race, led him to experiment on everything from eyesight, to pain tolerance, to tuberculosis. From witness accounts, Mengele would even inject the children with diseases, which often provoked vomiting and diarrhea, or would subject them to cuts while strapped to a table.
Because of his firsthand experimentation and selection of many prisoners, Mengele is responsible for countless numbers of deaths. Furthermore, due to his orders, others were either tortured, maimed, or killed…
Evans, Nick. "Nazi Angel of Death Josef Mengele 'created Twin Town in Brazil'" the Telegraph UK. 21 Jan. 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
"Holocaust History." Josef Mengele. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
"Holocaust History." Nazi Medical Experiments. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, 6 Jan. 2011. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
"Josef Mengele (German Physician)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 22 Apr. 2012. .
Hitler was a good leader who sacrificed his life for the German people.
Open answer: negative assessment only.
Open answer: not only a negative assessment.
Israeli and German Students' Reactions to a Dictatorial Regime
Support the dictatorial regime
Indifferent to the dictatorial regime
Resist the dictatorial regime
Israeli and German Students' Views on the Frequency of Discussions About the Holocaust
There are too many discussions.
There are sufficient discussions.
There are not enough discussions.
There is no/hardly any discussion.
Israeli and German Students' Views on the Possible Rise of Nazism in Germany
There is no chance that someone like Hitler
41% will rise to power again in Germany. The Germans have learned a lesson from their history.
I do not believe that someone like Hitler
41% will take power again in Germany; the Germans have learned from their history, but I cannot be…
Ezell, Elizabeth D., Martin Seeleib-Kaiser, and Edward a. Tiryakian. "National Identity Issues in the New German Elites: A Study of German University Students." International Journal of Comparative Sociology 44.4 (2003): 280+. Questia. 1 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006600449 .
Marzynski, Marian. A Jew Among Germans. Film documentary, 2005. PBS: online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/germans/view/,retrieved 1 Dec. 2008. www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008550817
Shamai, Shmuel, Eran Yardeni, and Benjamin Klages. "Multicultural Education: Israeli and German Adolescents' Knowledge and Views regarding the Holocaust." Adolescence 39.156 (2004): 765+. Questia. 1 Dec. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008550817 .
My attention was first drawn to Mrs. Goldstein when I overheard her telling her grandchildren that had she not been sheltered by a Christian family in the Netherlands, she would have suffered the exact same fate as all of the corpses in the display about the Anne Frank and the extermination of the rest of Jews in the Netherlands during the war. Mrs. Goldstein must have recognized the surprised look on my face because it almost seemed as though she had read my mind. She looked right at me and said, "Yes, it's true…I was there." She asked me whether I was surprised to learn that anybody who actually experienced the Holocaust was still alive and I admitted that I was surprised. She said that she was 80 years old and that she was only 14 when the Nazis began transporting all of the remaining Jews in the Netherlands to…
It was this same concept which began to impose harsh discriminatory
tactics against homosexuals. In fact, in a most ironic twist referent to
Nazi sadism, the treatment of homosexuals was often documented to exceed in
its abuse but also in its sexual manipulation, this group. Specially
recipient of abuse in the concentration camps, homosexuals were guilty of a
crime against Germany in their simple state of being, even as this
discrimination was not passed along to German SS guards and other Nazis
notoriously documented as having sodomized and sexually abused homosexual
inmates. In addition to their relegation to concentration and death camps,
homosexuals were subjected to the abuse of German's Nazified medical
community. To this end, "in 1935, a new law legalized the 'compulsory
sterilization (often in fact castration) of homosexuals.' A special
section of the Gestapo dealt with them.Along with epileptics,
schizophrenics and other 'degenerates', they were being eliminated."…
Laska, V. (1983). Women in the Resistance and in the Holocaust.
Speigel Online. (2007). New exhibition documents forced prostitution in
concentration camps. Speigel.de.
Traditional Values Coalition (TVC). (2005). Hitler targeted the
Jewish religion also known as Judaism -- is the religion of the Torah, which begins with the "Five Books of Moses and encompasses the Old Testament" (Neusner, 1992, 8). Judaism honors its beginnings as part of the creation of the whole world, Neusner explains. Jews believe that God created the world "…and for ten generations, from Adam to Noah, despaired of creation." Following those ten generations, from Noah to Abraham, God was waiting for humans to finally "…acknowledge the sovereignty of one God," who was authentically the unseen power that created heaven and earth (Neusner, 9).
Most historians explain that Judaism is a "monotheistic faith" (there is but one God) and Jews in turn often find this God "…beyond [humans'] ability to comprehend" and nevertheless Jews believe God is present in everyone's life every day (Pelala, 2013). Moreover Jews believe that each person was created "b'tzelem Elohim" (meaning "in the…
Kol Emeth. (2012). About Us. Retrieved April 15, 2013, from http://www.kolemethskokie.org .
Neusner, Jacob. (1992). A Short History of Judaism: Three Meals, Three Epochs. Minneapolis,
MN: Fortress Press.
Pelala, Ariela. (2013). What do Jews believe? Jewish Beliefs. About.com. Retrieved April 15,
It starts with 2 broad branches -- Psychopathic rapists and Non-psychopathic rapists. In this category, Homolka can be classified to be a Psychopathic rapist. The next classification under psychopathic rapists divides them into opportunistic, pervasively angry and sadistic rapists. Here, the behavior of Homolka can be thought to be sadistic in nature. Under sadistic, there are 2 categories of rapists who are the overt and the muted rapists. Here, Homolka is classified as a muted rapist since her actions were not well pronounced and they were hidden and secret. The acts of rape only came to be known when they came clean to their uncle under the fear that their separation would lead to the rapes being discovered. Therefore according to the MTC:3, Homolka can be thought to be a type 5 rapist.
Under the gross typology there are various categories of rapists. There is the power reassurance rapist who…
http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/nationworld/2009330156_holocaustshooting12.htmlEmery , T., & Robbins, L. (2009). Holocaust Museum shooter James von Brunn had history of hate Retrieved 21st January, 2012, from Goodwin, J. (2006). A Theory of Categorical Terrorism. Social Forces, 84(4), 2027-2046.
Kruttschnitt, C. (1989). A Sociological, Offender-Based, Study of Rape. The Sociological Quarterly, 30(2), 305-329.
Germans and Jews After I
Germans and Jews After orld ar I
In orld ar I, more than 12,000 Jews lost their lives fighting for Germany (Flannery, 43). They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to. However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war. Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…
Anti-Semitism in History: World War 1. United States Holocaust Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 2014. Print. http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007166
While Anti-Semitism is nothing new in society, this article spells out clearly what was taking place in Germany after WWI and how that shaped the beliefs of the Germany people when it came to their feelings about Jews in their country.
Elon, Amos. The Pity of It All: A History of Jews in Germany, 1743 -- 1933. New York, 2002. Print.
The Jewish people in Germany never really had much of a chance to be a part of the country, at least not on a proper level. They were marginalized from the very beginning, and that only got worse after WWI, finally culminating in the atrocities of WWII.
The Aryan Nations Web site describes edfearin as "an individual of cunning mind, violent tendencies and radical outlook who aided in the evolution of the Aryan Nations worldview as the organization moved into a future which was very different than that perhaps originally envisioned by the Aryan activists of past generations."
Aryan Nations as a Terrorist Organization
Setbacks since the 1990s has largely left the Aryan Nations a "shadow of its former self," (Hoffman 2006, 110). However small its membership might be relative to the population as a whole, the Aryan Nations remains a formidable force. The organization's Web site indicates a slight ideological change, towards more radical and violent approaches to creating a constant state of "revolution" to dismantle the current social and political order (Aryan Nations). The Aryan Nations remains committed to racial purification but "it is prerequisite and indeed necessary that 'the System' be disrupted and broken…
Al-Khattar, Aref M. 2003. Religion and Terrorism; An Interfaith Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Aryan Nations. http://www.aryan-nations.org / (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
Borgeson, Kevin, and Valeri, Robin. 2009. Terrorism in America. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Aryan Nation." http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/anation.htm (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
" There is a more calm feeling to his description. This is not to say that the author was portraying war as being a patriotic act, but the author was not as graphical in his describing what the soldiers were seeing and going through. The reader is more connected to the actions of the poem and not the fact that someone is dying. He ends his poem by referencing "hell" and the reader is left wondering whether the hell that he is referring to the war that is being left behind, or to dying itself.
3) Rites of Passage Activity
In speaking to my grandmother, I was able to find out what it was that she took when she first left her home. At the age of sixteen, she was married to my grandfather and was getting ready to start her knew life as a wife and very soon, as…
atrocities happening in recent modern history of civilization. The two orld ars in the first part of the 20th century have demonstrated the human capacity to inflict harm and destruction on its peers. Perhaps one of the most significant event in the history of the Second orld ar is that of the genocide that took place on the Jewish community. During the war and immediately afterwards more than six million Jews are reported to have been massacred by the Nazi forces
However, despite the fact that the holocaust that took place during this time is mostly attributed to the Nazi forces and Adolf Hitler's plan to exterminate the Jewish population, there are numerous accounts of historians that point out the fact that the SS German troops would have been unable to achieve this great atrocity without the assistance of the local populations such as the Polish or the French. One…
Dallaire, Romeo. Shake Hands With The Devil: The Failure Of Humanity In Rwanda. Carroll & Graf/Avalon, 2005
Gross, Jan T. Neighbours: The Destruction of the Jewish Community at Jewabne, Poland.Princeton University Press, 2002 .
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995
Steiner, George. "Poland's willing executioners." The Guardian. April 08, 2001. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/apr/08/historybooks.features (accessed April 23, 2013).
Hitler is an easy enemy; Saddam was an apt nemesis. Drawing attention away from slavery allows Americans to feel smugly superior. Nothing like that could happen in the land of the free, home of the brave. Americans are deluded into thinking that nothing evil has happened on our time. A slavery museum will force Americans to take responsibility for a slave trade it perpetuated and for a plantation economy it profited from. Remembering slavery is therefore a frightening and controversial prospect for many Americans. It is easier to point the fingers where others went wrong than it is to face the darkness within our own past.
The memory museum reminds visitors that slavery was not limited to the plantation; it was a way of thinking that in many ways persists till this day. For instance, exploiting human beings for economic expediency appears to be a capitalistic norm in our country.…
Franklin Delaney oosevelt's attitude towards the Jewish problem during the War. I have read and heard such contradictory accounts spanning from Jews who congratulate for his involvement to some scholars and others who criticize him for an alleged anti-Semitism. Being that this is a famous personality that we are talking about and a prominent President of the U.S.A.; I felt that enlightenment on the subject was important. I wanted to go to the source, and therefore I accessed original documents from the collections of the Franklin D. oosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. These, compounded with other sources, are the results that I found.
By the 1940s, news had already reached the U.S.A. about the concentration camps which Edward . Murrow described (December, 13, 1942),as "A horror beyond what imagination can grasp . . . there are no longer 'concentration camps' -- we must speak now only of 'extermination camps.'" (FD…
Beschloss, M. The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.
FDR AND THE HOLOCAUST
Feingold, HL The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945 New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1970.
Archaeological artifacts repatriation: should the artifacts go back to their homeland?
The word repatriation came from a Latin transformation of patria which means fatherland. (William, 2008). epatriation of cultural objects involves mainly returning historical artifacts to their original culture that obtained and owned by museums and institutions that collect culture materials. This term repatriation was originally created for the Native Americans who wished to restore their cultural object from modern museums. This term was later broadened to a wider range that fits the global repatriation actions. (William, 2008) It is generally known that great museums collect great treasures of foreign arts, and cultural objects. I have been to the largest four museums. The deepest impression on my first visit to the British Museum was that how a museum could keep so many artifacts that does not in fact found in their country. I still remember they have half of the…
Barkan, Elazar 2002. Amending Historical Injustices: The Restitution of Cultural Property - An Overview. In E. Barkan & R. Bush (eds.) Claiming the Stones. Naming the Bones. Cultural Property and the Negotiation of National and Ethnic Identity. Los Angeles: Getty Publications, pp. 16-46.
Bilefsky, D (September 30, 2012) Seeking Return of Art, Turkey Jolts Museums The NY Times http://www.nytimes.com/2012/10/01/arts/design/turkeys-efforts-to-repatriate-art-alarm-museums.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Halle, J. (2006) Exchanging the inalienable: The politics and practice of repatriating human remains from Museum and Maori tribal perspectives. Univ. Of Copenhagen
Post-Memory and Marianne Hirsch
Marianne Hirsch discusses an important concept in Holocaust/Memory studies, post-memory. What kind of experience/process does post-memory refer to? Why did Hirsch need to invent such a concept? What is the importance of memory, family, and photography in order to understand post-memory?
Marianne Hirsch introduces the concept of "post-memory" in her 1992 essay Family Pictures: Maus, Mourning, and Post-Memory. According to Hirsch, post-memory "is the relationship of children of survivors of cultural or collective trauma to the experiences of their parents, experiences that they 'remember' only as the stories and images with which they grew up, but that are so powerful, so monumental, as to constitute memories in their own right….secondary or second-generation memory…." (1992). Post-memory is based on the recollections of the storyteller rather than the lived experience of the listener (Tal, 1996). Hirsch came to this understanding as a result of her own childhood experiences…
Goertz, K. (1998). Transgenerational representations of the Holocaust: From memory to 'post-memory'. World Literature Today, 72(1), 33.
Hensley, T. (2012). On Listening to Holocaust Survivors: Beyond Testimony. Oral History Review, 39(1), 132-136.
Hirsch, M. (1992). "Family Pictures: Maus, Mourning, and Post-Memory." Discourse, 15(2):3-29.
Tal, Kali. Worlds of Hurt: Reading the Literatures of Trauma. (1996) Accessed Online, 8/12/2012. http://www.kalital.com/Text/Worlds/index.html .
Women's history month calls attention to the contributions of women to military life in the United States. Similarly, National Disability Employment Awareness reminds all personnel that a person's disability does not define them, any more than a person's gender or ethnicity does. Women's History month, African-American History Month, and National Disability Employment Awareness remind military personnel about how some members of society had been systematically excluded and discriminated against until fairly recently. The observances ensure that discrimination is no longer tolerated in any place of employment.
The ethnic observances create an attitude of inclusion and acceptance, which is important for organizational culture. Cohesion in the military is especially important, which is why observing ethnic, cultural, gender, and other differences is important for the Department of Defense.
The military's diverse personnel and their different methods of communication and social interaction make the ethnic observances crucial. Observances should not be superficial. Instead,…
Deputy Chief of Staff, Equal Opportunity Branch. "Ethnic Observances." http://www.armyg1.army.mil/eo/ethnic.asp (Accessed Nov 12, 2009).
US Army IMCOM. http://www.drum.army.mil/sites/installation/eo-ethnic.asp (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
Although the issue of women's liberation is a topic many nations, including estern nations, has faced, the topic, according to AbuKahlil, is even more controversial and sensitive in the Arab world. The two most problematic aspects of the subject revolve around the interpretations of Islam and the legacy of what
Leila Ahmed calls "colonial feminism."Colonial feminism, according to Ahmed, refers to the tendency of colonial officials in the region to raise the banner of women's liberation in the Arab/Muslim world while these same officials take misogynist stances in their own countries. It refers to the exploitation of the women's question by colonial administrators for purely political purposes. This exploitation left the region with a legacy that allowed misogynist thinkers and clerics to discredit feminism by associating women's liberation with colonialism, Zionism, and even Freemasonry.
Meir offered a combination of threats to this cultural norm, being both a woman and Jewish.…
Axelrod-Contrada, J. "Golda Meir Israeli Pioneer and Prime Minister." Women Who Led Nations (1999): 14-31. Print.
"Golda Meir." Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2011. Web. 17 Feb. 2011. .
Martin, Patricia. "Golda Meir." Golda Meir (2005): 1-3. Print.
Medzini, Meron. "Israel's Midwife: Golda Meir in the Closing Years of the British Mandate." Israel Affairs 14.3 (2008): 374-397. Print.
million Africans who were enslaved and transported to Europe and America between 15th and 19th which was part of the Atlantic trade. This trade was motivated by the plantations in America which had a strong demand for labor. The slave trade was eventually integrated into international trading system where North Americans and Europeans were exchanging merchandise for humans along Africa's western as well as the West Atlantic Oceans. There were various events that took place in the African slave trade between 1450 and 1850. This paper will look at these key events and show their importance.
Beginning of slave trade
The commencement of slave trade was seen to be when a ship that was sailing from Portugal came back with 12 Africans who were meant to be solved into slavery. This event marked the beginning of a very dark and brutal trade that would involve Africans being taken to do…
ABC News, (2013). Timeline of Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved March 27, 2013 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./story?id=96659&page=1
Clarke, J.H., (2009) .The African Holocaust -- the Slave Trade. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.nbufront.org/MastersMuseums/JHClarke/EdRealityAfricanWorld/EdWorldPart3.html
Understanding Slavery, (2011). Europe Before Transatlantic slavery. Retrieved march 27,2013 from http://www.understandingslavery.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=315&Itemid=145
The German suffering after the first world war and the humiliation of Germany with other nations gave the Nazis the opportunity to feed hatred of the Jews and at the same time promise that if the People gave in to the Nazi ideology, they would be in the land that would hold them a superior way of life. That the followers of Hitler followed the Ideals as true and that they also created in their own minds the need to eliminate groups of people who disagree like the communists and the Jews was the fundamental cause of the holocaust. Why did it come about? It was argued that while the political climate of the times did not show much promise, Hitler was able to deliver what he promised even if it was based on evil. This gave him ground support. One of the chief supporters of Hitler, and Aman who…
Abzug, Robert H. 1985. Inside the Vicious Heart: Americans and the Liberation of Nazi
Concentration Camps. Oxford University Press: New York.
Aroneanu, Eugene; Whissen, Thomas. 1996. Inside the Concentration Camps:
Eyewitness Accounts of Life in Hitler's Death Camps. Praeger: Westport, CT.
In fact, Wiesel thought to himself: "Don't let me find him! If only I could get rid of this dead weight, so that I could use all my strength to struggle for my own survival, and only worry about myself. Immediately, Elie felt ashamed of himself. (Wiesel, 1972, p.106).
One of the guards tells Elie something he has witnessed and now felt first hand: "Here, there are no fathers, no brothers, no friends. Everyone lives and dies for himself alone." (Wiesel, 1972, p.93). These words came to life for Elie as well as for his fellow prisoners. Everyone lives and dies alone in the camps because of the dire conditions which strip away a person's ability to moralize and to rationalize and to think and to empathize. Instead, all energy is focused upon survival, upon getting the next piece of bread, upon putting your next foot forward; and, even these…
Aberbach, D. (1989). Creativity and the Survivor: The Struggle for Mastery. Int. R. Psycho-Anal., 16:273-286.
Bergman, PhD, J. (n.d.). Darwinism and the Nazi race Holocaust. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/2259552/posts
Borowski, T. (1976). On the Way to the Gas Chamber. New York, NY: Penguin Books.
Haas, a. (1995). Survivor guilt in Holocaust (Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Dominguez Hills) (pp. 163-184). CA: California State University.
Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art
How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art
One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…
Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf
Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.
Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
" (16) In other words, since God is not completely benevolent, one must protest against God for allowing that which is not just or that which is evil to exist.
In an illustration of this strategy, oth refers to the work of Elie Wiesel, who "shows that life in a post-Holocaust world can be more troublesome with God than without him" (9). In his works, Wiesel looks at different forms of theodicies and does not accept them for various reasons. Because of his experiences, he has put together his own personal theory of theodicy that allows him to accept God while still handle his violent experiences. In his book Night, Eliezer, who, despite his young age, has studied Jewish theology, at first wonders the suffering is due to committed sins, but then changes his mind and sees it instead as something to which someone must submit.
In Chapter 3 of…
Hick, John. Evil and the God of Love. New York: MacMillan, 1967.
Kushner, Harold. When Bad Things Happen to Good People. New York: Random House, 1981.
Peterson, Michael. The Problem of Evil. Notre Dame, IND: Notre Dame University, 1992
Roth, John. "Theodicy of Protest" Davis S.T. (Ed.), Encountering Evil: Live Options in Theodicy, Westminster: John Knox Press, 2001
Treatment of Prisoners in ussia During the 18th 19th and 20th Century
The treatment of prisoners, and in particular the political prisoners and the prisoners of war over the centuries has been a controversial issue with standards set for handling of such poisoners, yet still these prisoners have not had the best of the conditions required anywhere in the world. This was a contentious issue in the historical ussia, but still remains a concern even in the present day ussian prisons (Gessen M. 2013) and other parts of the world. The paper is inclined towards the 18th, 19th and 20th century prisoners in ussia and how they were treated. It will also divulge the major reasons why these prisoners were subjected to the ill treatment, the editions on the way to prison, the conditions within the prisons and what people said about these prisons through art and other forms of…
Boytinck P., (1995). What Happened to Stalin's German prisoner-of-war. Retrieved December 10, 2015 from http://www.fpp.co.uk/History/General/HnetPrisoners1.html
Committee of The Judiciary U.S. Senate, (1972). Communist Treatment of Prisoners of War: A Historical Survey. December 10, 2015 from https://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/Military_Law/pdf/comm_treat_POW.pdf
Gessen M. (2013). Life in A Russian Prison. December 10, 2015 from http://latitude.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/09/23/life-in-a-russian-prison/?_r=0
Mekler J., (2015). Vasily Vereshchagin: The Road of War Prisoners. Brooklyn Museum, 06.46, Oil on Canvas.
arsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 19-May 16, 1943) by a handful of Jews against the Nazis, although a futile effort against overwhelming odds that was brutally snuffed out by the SS in less than a month, was the largest Jewish uprising in German-Occupied Europe and was symbolically significant. In fact, the story of arsaw ghetto uprising is a microcosm of the Holocaust: reflecting Nazism's vicious anti-Semitism, the brutality of a totalitarian ideology, the plight of a relentlessly prosecuted people, and individual heroism as well as extreme selfishness in the midst of a life and death situation. This paper about the arsaw Ghetto uprising, traces the background of the incident, discusses why it happened, who were the people involved in the revolt, and what was the outcome and aftermath of the struggle.
arsaw at the Start of orld ar II:
Before the start of the Second orld ar in 1939, the…
Bell, J. Bowyer. Besieged: Seven Cities. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1966
Edelman, Marek. "The Ghetto Fights." Literature of the Holocaust. N.d. June 25, 2005.
Krakowski, Shmuel. War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944. New York: Holmes & Meier, 1984
"Warsaw." Holocaust Encyclopedia: U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. N.d. June 25, 2005.
Mein Kompf was regarded as the "Bible" of the Hitlerjugend. On entering the Jungvolk at the age of 10, children took the following oath: In the presence of this blood-banner which represents our Fuehrer I swear to devote all my energies, and my strength to the Savior of our Country, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give up my life for him, so help me God. One People, one Reich, one Fuehrer." (Nazi Conspiracy & Aggression)
Nazi Youth formal agreement between the ehrmacht and the Hitlerjugend was published 11 August 1939. It recites that whereas 30,000 Hitlerjugend leaders had been trained annually in shooting and field exercises, the number would be doubled; that 60,000,000 shots had been fired in Hitler Youth training courses in 1938 and that a considerable increase in the figure was expected. The agreement recognized the close cooperation that existed between…
Works Cited continued
Simpson, Christopher. "Elisabeth Noelle-Neumann's "Spiral of Silence" and the Historical Context of Communication Theory." Journal of Communication Vol. 46 (1996).
Stein, Howard F. "Disposable Youth: The 1999 Columbine High School Massacre as American Metaphor." Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society Vol. 5 (2000).
The Adolf Hitler Historical Archives. 2003. 29 Apr. 2004 http://www.adolfhitler.ws/ .
Williamson, David. "Was Hitler a Weak Dictator? David Williamson Examines Two Seemingly Irreconcilable Schools of Thought." History Review. (2002).
Vebell was interested in art from a very early age and he attended the Harrison Art School at the age of 14 where he excelled at life drawings. When he graduated from high school, Vebell won three art scholarships and he attended all three schools -- moving from each throughout the day. He launched his professional illustration career in a busy Chicago agency and then enlisted in World War II. It was not long after this that he was recruited to create images for the Stars and Stripes, a military publication that had also featured Norman ockwell's drawings during World War I. In 1945, he participated in the Nuremberg War Crimes Trial as a courtroom artists, capturing the likenesses of Goering, Hess, Speer, and ibbentrop (now in the collections of the Museum of the Holocaust in Washington, D.C.). He created paintings and drawings for mass circulation magazines like eaders Digest,…
Arisman, Marshall. "Wilson McLean: 2010 Hall of Fame Inductee." Society of Illustrators. Accessed on November 17, 2010:
Fame/Current-Inductees/2010 -- Wilson-McLean.aspx
ArtNet. "Francis Livingston." 2010. Accessed on November 17, 2010:
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…
Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.
Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.
Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
However, I think we also share the common elements of having been very highly-trained as artists. oth of us studied art extensively, and did not limit ourselves to filmography or photography in our studies. Therefore, we share a very solid classical artistic background, and I think that comes through in the strength of our works, even though we approach our work with a very different style.
HENRI CARTIER-RESSON: Tacita is absolutely right about a shared cultural impact. World War II changed the face of Europe. However, it was not only Europe that was impacted by World War II, but literally the entire world. The Holocaust was not the first time something atrocious had occurred, but it was the first time there was a genuine threat that someone like Hitler could rule the world. It was also a moment of striking shame for so much of the world. So many countries…
Interview: "Henri Cartier-Bresson-Famous photographers tell how"(1958) in American Suburb
X, photography and culture, Retrieved February 12, 2011 from http://www.americansuburbx.com/2009/09/interview-henri-cartier-bresson-famous.html
Famous photographers of Urban Scenes, Henri Cartier Bresson in Urban Photography, Retrieved
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…
Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458
Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388
Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
world's nations and citizens was the Cold ar. Indeed, slave trade was important, and the formation of American colonies in the 17th century has had an enormous impact on the history of the planet. Also the Seven Years' ar and imperialism had enormous implications and impacts. But the years of the Cold ar stand out as more pivotal in terms of the history of the world. This paper will explain why the Cold ar was most important.
Slave Trade: The International Slavery Museum (ISM) explains that European slave traders "forcibly uprooted millions of people" from est African and est Central Africa between the years 1500 to 1900. In particular, the 16th century was a century in which millions of African peoples were forcibly shipped in cruelly over-crowded slave ships to the Americas. These individuals from Africa were "…farmers, merchants, priests, soldiers, goldsmiths and musicians" (ISM). hile crossing the oceans from…
Anderson, Fred. Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North
America, 1754-1766. New York: Knopf Publishing, 2007.
International Slavery Museum. "The trade triangle." Retrieved December 8, 2013, from http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk . 2008.
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
The Shabbat painting
Illustrated in a naive style devoid of perspective, with vibrant simplistic colors, Meyers seems to wish to convey the scene precisely as he viewed it when a child. The commentator notes that there is a symmetry to the room, and she may be right in that the shabbat table is centerpiece as though the whole atmosphere orbits around and reflects from the shabbat which indeed it does, Shabbos defining and transforming the entire day.
What is interesting is that the children are sitting around the table as though ready to eat while the mother seems to be blessing the candle. Most pictures of the era, and, indeed, customary in many contemporary homes is that the children stand by the side whilst the mother lights, and that this is done quite a while before actually eating the meal. This, at least, was the custom too in Apt…
I've never "seen" a million dollars, but that doesn't mean it doesn't exist.
A couple of the other physics concepts can be difficult to comprehend, as well. For example, one concept is that things can exist in more than one space at a time, but people do not choose to see them, and so, when they look at them they disappear. This section of the film might turn away a lot of viewers, because much of the discussion may be over their heads and the might find it boring. These ideas are some of the most "out there" of the film, and the hardest for the mathematicians to really get across. The talk of what is real and what a person sees vs. what they remember was understandable, but many of the other concepts may just be too odd for people to wrap their heads around. For example, the atom…
Arntz, W., Chasse, B. And Vicente, M. (Producers), & Arntz, W., Chasse, B. And Vicente, M. (Directors). (2004). What the bleep do we know! [Motion picture]. USA: Samuel Goldwyn Films.