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Homicides in Chicago Statistical Analysis
Homicides in Chicago: a statistical analysis
The city of Chicago in Illinois has the highest per capita homicides in the United States, ahead of Los Angeles and New York City. The Chicago Police Department and other law enforcement agencies have a challenge especially on how to manage the situation. However, it is noteworthy that the number of homicides in Chicago in 2011 is less than half the number in 1991 (CPD, 2012). The homicides figure in 2011 was a 30-year low for the city. One more homicide is still one too many a life lost.
Homicide and murder are two terms that people use interchangeably in daily conversation. However, legal definitions differentiate the two terms (CPD, 2006). In this case, I will use the two terms interchangeably as is the case in the Chicago Police Department website. The website lists several motives for murder as…
Chicago Police Department. (2012). Murder Analysis Report 2011, portal.chicagopolice.org, Chicago.
Eric Monkkonen. The American Historical Review, Vol. 111, No. 1 (February 2006), pp. 76-94
Published by: Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Historical Association
Article DOI: 10.1086/ahr.111.1.76 Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/ahr.111.1.76
In any society, it is of utmost importance that its citizens feel safe and secure so that it can continue to work properly and without any disruptions. This is ensured by devising laws and regulation to safeguard the lives and properties of its citizens.
Under the Constitution of United States, Homicide is a crime that is defined as the "killing of one human being by another human being" (Homicide, n.d.). It is then further categorized into Murder -- 1st and 2nd degree, and then Manslaughter, although the law categorically expels suicide as a murder from its clause.
Murder, to be categorized as 1st degree needs to be committed with a motive and with a predetermined frame of mind, or in "cold blood" or by "lying in wait" (Stevens, 2003). The crime must have taken place while the accused is committing a felony crime, which include among other, sexual abuse,…
Foundation, D. (n.d.). Related Accidents and Injuried: Vehicular Homicide. Retrieved September 21st, 2011, from DUI Foundation: http://www.duifoundation.org/drunkdriving/accidents/vehicularhomocide/
Homicide. (n.d.). Retrieved September 21st, 2011, from Free online Law Dictionary: http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/homicide
Hornsby, R. (n.d.). Second degree murder in Florida. Retrieved September 21st, 2011, from Richard Hornsby, Orlando Criminal Defense Attorny: http://www.richardhornsby.com/crimes/homicide/second-degree-murder.html
Stevens, M. (2003, June 19th). The Law of Homicide. Retrieved Sept 21st, 2011, from North Carolina Wesleyan College: http://faculty.ncwc.edu/mstevens/293/293lect07.htm
Homicide -- is it ever justifiable?
In order to understand any kind of criminal behavior, it is often important to consider the social, psychological and biological perspectives. Homicide, which refers to the killing of one human being by another, has its own perspectives. According to legal terms, homicide is the unnatural ending of the life of a person by an act or omission of another person or persons knowingly or otherwise. When a person commits such an act, his motives and purpose determines the criminal nature of the act. A homicide becomes a criminal act if it is done with an intention to harm or with disregard for the safety of the others. However, there are instances when homicide is justifiable. Justifiable homicide depends on the various reasons for such an act to have happened. Before concluding such a statement, it is necessary to find out the various types of…
1. Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2010). Criminal Behavior: A psychological approach. Prentice Hall, 8th ed.
2. Brookman, F. (2005). Understanding homicide. Sage publications.
3. Cassel, E. & Bernstein, D.A. (2007). Criminal behavior. Routledge 4. Danto, B. L, & Bruhns, J. & Kutcher, A.H.(1982) The human side of homicide.Columbia University press.
5. Hollin, C.R. (1989). Psychology and crime: An introduction to criminological psychology. Routledge.
The majority of these homicides are committed by persons known to the victim, an estimated one in three homicides of females is committed by current or former spouses or boyfriends, while among male homicide victims, five percent are killed by intimate partners (Paulozzi pp).
According to a recent study of Cook County published in the June 01, 2005 issue of "Pediatrics," more than 90% of deaths among delinquent youth were homicides (Mileusnic pp). Moreover, more than 90% of deaths were from gunshot wounds, either homicidal, accidental or self-inflicted (Mileusnic pp). Researchers found that 12.9 deaths per 100,000 youth were homicide (Mileusnic pp). Even among the general population in the United States, homicides are not uncommon among youth, and although homicide rates have decreased since the early 1990's, homicides still represent 15.8% of all deaths among youth (Mileusnic pp). More than one third of homicide deaths in 2002 involved persons 25…
Asaro, M. Regina. "Working with adult homicide survivors, part II: helping family members cope with murder." Perspectives in Psychiatric Care. 10/1/2001. Retrieved July 07, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Fox, Alan; Zawitz W. "Homicide Trends in the United States: 2000 Update." U.S.
Department of Justice. Retrieved July 07, 2005 from:
http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:HKXaltTyeOAJ:www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/pdf/htus00.pdf+homicide+in+united+states& ; hl=en
Homicide in America
The imagination of death in a violent manner causes both fear and fascination in most people, and this is the reason why both homicide and suicide are the subjects of voluminous commentary. At the same time, most of this commentary is not facts, but a lot of emotions, and the backing is through a lot of items mentioned as facts. These facts have been repeated so often that now many people believe that they are facts.
There are a lot of reasons why homicides and suicides take place, and these reasons cannot be clearly understood.
The statements about homicides are often mentioned in different manners. These can be violence has reached 'epidemic proportions'; America is in the grip of an unprecedented wave of violence, or with the highest homicide rate in the world, or with the highest rate of homicide in the industrial world. These are also…
Hallinam, Joe. California leads in justifiable killings. 30 July 1993. Retrieved from http://www.trosch.org/tro/mpr-7g30.htm Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Heide, K.M. Juvenile homicide in America: how can we stop the killing? Behavior Science Law.
Spring, 1997. Vol: 15; No: pp: 203-220. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=9309858& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Stolinsky, David C. Homicide and Suicide in America, 1900-1998. Retrieved from http://www.haciendapub.com/stolinsky1.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
homicide rate Canada increased dramatically 1966 late 1970s, Stabilized 1980s, declined early 1990s recent past. Explain, reference relevant readings.
Homicide rates in Canada during the last four decades
Homicide is a particularly delicate topic due to the controversies that can arise as a result of relating to it and it is essential for a person to first learn more about its background and present day conditions in order for him or her to be actively engaged in discussing it. In spite of the fact that the homicide rate in Canada is relatively small, it is interesting to look at its significant rise across the 1960s, its constancy during the 1970s and 1980s, and its drop during the 1990s and until the present. Although there are several theories concerning, it is probable that a decline in the number of individuals who were predisposed to commit homicide ("young males between the ages…
Ross, Jeffrey Ian, "Violence in Canada: Sociopolitical Perspectives," (Transaction Publishers, 1995)
Torrance, Judy, "Public Violence in Canada, 1867-1982," (McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP, 1988)
"Canadian Homicide Trends 1961-1994 "
"EXPLAINING CHANGES IN RATES OF HOMICIDE AND SERIOUS CRIME: THE CRIME DROP OF THE 1990s AND BEYOND "
The objective of this study is to answer the question of what is the public policy rationale for making it a separate crime to kill a fetus? This study will additionally answer as to how are fetal homicide laws reconciled with the definition of person-hood for the purpose of abortion laws. There are three standards used to determine whether a fetus is a person for purposes of homicide laws including the born-alive standard, the viability standard and the conceptions standard. Each standard will be explained and which standard should be used in modern statutes.
In the case of People v. Archerd, Supreme Court of California (1970) 3 Cal 3d 615, 91 Ca. Rptr, 397, 477 P.2d 421 it is reported that the Defendant married several women between 1947 and 1966 and following each woman taking out a life insurance policy she died after several hours in a coma.…
Gardner, TJ and Anderson, TM (2012) Homicide. Chapter 10. Cengage Learning, 2012.
Montaldo, C. (2014) Fetal Homicide: A Question of when do We Become Human. Crime Issues and Controversies. About.com. Retrieved from: http://crime.about.com/od/issues/a/fetalhomicide.htm
When is the Death of a Fetus Homicide? (nd) Center for Homicide Research Retrieved from: http://homicidecenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/When-is-the-Death-of-a-Fetus-a-Homicide.pdf
Homicide Law is invoked in cases where cause of wrongful death of a human being is being investigated. The accused or defendant is tried under the appropriate sections of the law according to the merits of the case. The death may have taken place as an outcome of inconsiderate, reckless action of the accused or may have been willful, premeditated, intentional planning by the defendant. These mental afflictions and the perceived intentions resulting in the death attract vastly different penalties under Homicide Laws. Deaths caused in accidents may be viewed leniently by the court, whereas intentional killing attracts punishment of life term or even death where still applicable. Homicide cases are serious legal proceedings where the help of able criminal lawyers should be availed immediately by the accused (Homicide Law).
Support for Homicide Law Today
Many states support Homicide Laws, for instance, death caused to fetus was included under Homicide…
1)HOMICIDE LAW, HG.org Legal Resources,
2)HOLLY RAMER, Senate Backs Including Fetus Death in Homicide Law, The Telegraph, (May, 18, 2012),
3) Crump David, Reconsidering the Felony Murder Rule in Light of Modern Criticisms: Doesn't the Conclusion Depend upon the Particular Rule at Issue?, Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, (2009),
4) Draker & Robinson, AN INTRODUCTION TO THE MODEL PENAL CODE,
maintain that the more common situations of child homicide arise not out of the intent to kill the child; rather it is the end result of harsh punishment. Based on this reasoning, such offenders should not be handled in criminal courts and the offenses should be criminal offenses, but rather the cases should be handled in juvenile and domestic relations courts. To determine the whether this reasoning is sound, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning child homicide and intent, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion about these issues.
The recent high-profile case of Minnesota Vikings football star Adrian Peterson concerning charges that he inadvertently injured his 4-year-old son while physically disciplining him drives home the points that anyone can make a terrible and irrevocable mistake in the heat of passion and, that compared to young children, adults are veritable super-giants that can…
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Pritchard, C. (2004). The child abusers: Research and controversy. Maidenhead, England: Open
Welcome to Homicide Case
"Welcome to Homicide"
"There's a theory that every time you leave an area, you always leave evidence behind, no matter what, no matter how careful you are; and that's why there's forensics" (Santy, 2007). Forensic science has seen a number of major developments over the years. Throughout its evolution, analytic techniques have become finer tuned and accurate, allowing for much greater law enforcement practices. Today, forensics relies of a plethora of techniques to help solve crimes, as seen in the case of "Welcome to Homicide."
Forensic science is not new, although it does look dramatically different that just a few decades ago. The research suggests that "forensic science resolves legal issues by applying scientific principles to them" (Hall, 1999, p 2). It is a technique used by law enforcement to help solve crimes through examining physical and biological indicators of who did what. As, such, the…
3rd Tech. (2002). DeltaSphere 3D digitizer demonstrated at forensic science conference. 3d Products for Law Enforcement Applications. Web. http://www.3rdtech.com/DeltaSphere_at_AAFS_Conf.htm
Hall, Dillon. (1999). A career in forensic. Occupational Outlook Quarterly. Web. http://www.bls.gov/opub/ooq/1999/fall/art01.pdf
Santy, C. (Director). (2007). Welcome to homicide [Television series episode]. In J. Brenkus & M. Stern (Executive producers], Crime 360. New York, NY: A&E Television Networks. Available from the Films On Demand database.
Stockham, Rex, Slavin, Dennis L., & Kift, William. (2004). Specialized use of human scent in criminal investigations. Forensic Science Communications, 6(3). Web. http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/july2004/research/2004_03_research03.htm
sexual homicides and the many things that can be related to them. Using two books, the author of this paper details the meaning of many terms including pyromania, necrophilia and paraphilia. Each of the terms is described and discussed in its relation to sex crimes, or lack of criteria for prosecution for sex crimes. Many people relate the term sexual deviancy to criminal behavior. This paper separates criminal behavior from simple deviant behavior and holds them against each other for comparisons.
DEVIANCE AND DEATH
Sexual homicides are one of the scariest things that we face in life. Every so often we hear the news that someone has committed sex crimes, or sex murders in our area, or the areas of our loved ones, and it sends shivers up our spines. We often wonder what causes someone to commit such violent acts of anger against another human being. Though we don't…
Holmes, Ronald. Sex Crimes. (Sage Publications, 1991)
Ressler, Robert, Burgess, Ann, Douglas, John, Heafner, Horace. Sexual Homicide: Patterns and Motives (Simon and Schuster 1995).
Solita Sarwono, (2000, April). When a daugther is raped family, friends share the pain, JAKARTA POST., The Jakarta Post
Do Executions Lower Homicide ates?
In the article Do executions lower homicide rates?: The views of leading criminologists (adelet & Lacock 2009) look at the issue of whether there is a deterrence effect with the death penalty. Over the years there has been extensive agreement among criminologists that the death penalty could not be warranted on deterrence grounds. In 1996 a study was conducted by adelet & Lacock that surveyed sixty-seven leading American criminologists regarding their opinion about the empirical research on deterrence and found that the vast majority of the experts agreed that the death penalty never has been and never will be superior to long-term prison sentences as a deterrent to criminal violence. The research in this article was designed to update the 1996 study and evaluate if any recent deterrence studies have modified the beliefs of the world's leading criminologists.
The question being looked at…
Radelet, M.L. & Lacock, T.L. (2009). Do executions lower homicide rates?: The views of leading criminologists. Retrieved from http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/ files/DeterrenceStudy2009.pdf
Criminal Defense Homicide Case
Fourth Amendment Searches and Seizures in Contemporary America
The conviction of a client charged with murder is threatened by evidence the prosecution holds. There are indications that this evidence was obtained unconstitutionally. Presumably, the exclusionary rule would be the primary vehicle for moving to have this evidence excluded. If the search and seizure was conducted without a warrant and not incident to an arrest, vehicle stop, or hot pursuit, then there is a good chance the evidence can be prevented from being presented to a jury. Any evidence obtained as a result of an illegal warrantless search would also be excluded under the "fruit of the poisonous tree" doctrine. If there was a problem with the probable cause determination or how the items searched for and seized were described in the warrant, then getting the evidence excluded will be much harder if the police can show…
Acker, James R. And Brody, David C. (2004). The law of search and seizure. In Criminal Procedure: A contemporary perspective, 2nd Edition (pp. 47-217). Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Boyd v. United States, 116 U.S. 616 (1886). Retrieved May 8, 2011 from http://supreme.justia.com/us/116/616/case.html
Chimel v. California, 395 U.S. 752 (1969). Retrieved May 8, 2011 from http://supreme.justia.com/us/395/752/case.html
Donald, Heather Mac and Dempsey, James X. (2005). Section 213. "Sneak and Peek" search warrants. In S.A. Baker (Ed.), Patriot debates: Experts debate the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act (pp. 101-112). Chicago: ABA Publishing.
133). In sum, low-income blacks and males continue to be responsible for a disproportionate number of juvenile homicidal acts, but juvenile homicide is not restricted to these age, ethnic or socioeconomic groups (Heckel & Shumaker, 2001).
Impact of Family Violence on Incidence of Juvenile Homicide in the U.S. And New York.
Around 14% of juvenile homicides involve family members as victims, compared to 55% that involve friends or acquaintances and 31% that involve strangers (Moeller, 2001). Therefore, approximately 66% of juvenile homicides involve an individual known by the juvenile, but not necessarily family members (Moeller, 2001). According to this author, "The large increase in murders by juveniles from 1984 to 1993 is accounted for primarily by an increase in the killings of strangers and acquaintances rather than family members" (Moeller, 2001, p. 236). Likewise, a meta-analysis of studies that examined the family background characteristics of 14 juvenile offenders condemned to…
Bender, L., & Curran, F.J. (1940). Children and adolescents who kill. Journal of Criminal Psychopathology, 1, 297-322.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Butterfield, F. (1996, August 9). After a decade, juvenile crime begins to drop. New York Times, 3-4.
Crespi, T.D., & Rigazio-Digilio, S.A. (1996). Adolescent homicide and family pathology: Implications for research and treatment with adolescents. Adolescence, 31(122), 353.
Homicide Rates Increased or Decreased in 10 Years?
Rates of murders and violent crimes have witnessed a downward trend for over twenty years. The rate of violent crimes in the nation has been lowest, for the year 2014, since 1970; moreover, the rate of homicides for 2014 was at its lowest point since the year 1960. Despite these rates showing an increase in the year 2015, the murder rate would only reach its post-1960 maxima of 10.2 homicides for every 100,000 individuals, if it increased by 5.7 murders for every 100,000 individuals. Meanwhile, the rate of violent crimes would only reach its post-1960 maxima of 758.2 violent crimes (year 1991) for every 100,000 individuals, if it increased by 392.7 crimes of violence for every 100,000 individuals (James, 2015). The above two growths indicate an over-two-fold rise in the 2014 rates of violent crimes and homicide. There are numerous short-term facets…
James, N. (2015). Is Violent Crime in the United States Increasing? Congressional Research Service, 2-10.
Chicago Crime Policy and Murder ates
Chicago Homicide ates
Chicago garnered the distinction of being the murder capital of America in 2012, with 506 of its citizens meeting a violent end (Connor, 2013). The murder rate for January 2013 seemed to predict another record year, but March figures brought a moment of respite for the beleaguered city. From a historical perspective however, the 2012 murder rate in Chicago was not too far from the 25-year low reached in 2004 (UC, 2010).
Simply quoting a murder rate can therefore be misleading. To determine whether the 2012 Chicago murder 'spree' represents an out-of-control situation demanding strong interventions that would likely threaten civil liberties or a minor year-to-year variation, the historical murder statistics for Chicago and other cities will be analyzed in detail. First, the historical data from several similarly sized U.S. cities will be compared using the data provided by the U.S.…
Chicago Police Department. (2012). Chicago Police News Desk: Murder Reports. CLEARpath, Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy, Chicago Police Department. Retrieved 25 Apr. 2013 from https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/News/Statistical%20Reports/Murder%20Reports.
Connor, Tracy. (2013, Apr. 1). Murders fall 42% in America's deadliest city: Chicago. NBCNews.com. Retrieved 25 Apr. 2013 from http://usnews.nbcnews.com/_news/2013/04/01/17554426-murders-fall-42-percent-in-americas-deadliest-city-chicago-lite .
UCR (Uniform Crime Reporting Statistics). (2010). Database-driven, customizable access to official UCR statistics. Crime reported by Chicago Police Department, Illinois. UCR, Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved 25 Apr. 2013 from http://bjs.gov/ucrdata/Search/Crime/Crime.cfm .
Legalization of drugs like marijuana has reached a milestone in countries like the United States. Although some who are against legalization of drugs have warned against the increased crime rate from adopting policies that legalize certain drugs, studies have shown the opposite have happened. The legalization of marijuana in the United States has decreased crime rates, arrests, and homicides. This can be attributed to the lack of drug dealing, and drug wars that are often fueled by illegal drug markets. hen drugs become legal, at least those that have been proven beneficial, like marijuana, it reduces the illegal activity that usually comes with the illegal drug. Mexican drug cartels have reduced in number thanks to the lack of marijuana smuggling to and from the United States. Legalization also improves selling conditions for the buyer and seller.
In a sixteen yearlong study, marijuana legalization proves reduction in crime rate vs. increase.…
Delmore, Erin. 'Study: Marijuana Legalization Doesn't Increase Crime'. MSNBC. N.p., 2015. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Drugpolicy.org,. 'Colombia To Decriminalize Small Amounts Of Cocaine And Marijuana For Personal Use | Drug Policy Alliance'. N.p., 2015. Web. 28 Mar. 2015.
Merino, Noe-l. Drug Legalization. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Greenhaven Press, 2011. Print.
Morris, Robert G. et al. 'The Effect Of Medical Marijuana Laws On Crime: Evidence From State Panel Data, 1990-2006'. PLoS ONE 9.3 (2014): 1. Web. 22 Mar. 2015.
Absence and Lack: The Thoughts and Feeling of Psychopathic Murders
Just as certain names like Abraham Lincoln, Frank Sinatra and Grace Kelly will forever stand out in popular consciousness in America with pride, certain other names like Ted Bundy, Charles Manson and Eric Harris will also stand out, but with fear, wonder and revulsion. Bundy, Manson and Harris are what clinical psychologists would call psychopathic murderers. Not every murderer is a psychopath and the exact definition of a psychopath has been widely debated. Constant strain runs along the high profile cases of murdering psychopaths, which is "A deeply disturbing inability to care about the pain and suffering inexperienced by others -- in short, a complete lack of empathy, the prerequisite for love" (Hare, 6). Trying to determine what psychopath thinks and feels when he kills is a fascinating question which abounds in psychology today.
Five years after the tragedy that…
Cullen, Dave. "The Depressive and the Psychopath." Slate Magazine. www.slate.com. 20 April 2004.
Ekman, Paul. Telling Lies: Clues to Deceit in the Marketplace, Politics, and Marriage. New York: Norton,
Hare, Robert. Without conscience: the disturbing world of the psychopaths among us. New York:
Is homicide truly justifiable?
Wang and Schiller’s article, “Texas justifiable homicides rise with ‘Castle Doctrine” is notable for many reasons. The most glaring of these is that the number of justifiable homicides in Texas rose sharply in the approximate five year period in which the ‘Castle Doctrine’ was expanded to sanction killing. There are greater losses of life in this state as a result of this legislation. People are getting murdered for reasons which are more and more petty. Similarly, people are not getting punished for murder in these instances as well. When one considers these factors and some of the more pressing matters presented in this article, it becomes clear that Texas should discontinue the expanded Castle Doctrine.
The main concern in this article is that the value of life is decreasing because of this expanded legislation. The article notes that one young man was murdered for little more…
Wang, Y. Schiller, D. (2012). Texas justifiable homicides rise with ‘Castle Doctrine’. http://www.chron.com/ Retrieved from http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Texas-justifiable-homicides-rise-with-Castle-3676412.php
Training programs for traffic homicide investigators usually include the following areas: speed estimates from kinetic energy, skid marks, scuffmarks and airborne situations, vehicle dynamics and motion, time, distance and motion equations, conservation of momentum calculations, diagramming vehicle damage, vehicle damage analysis explaining thrust, center of mass, overlap and collapse, vehicle lamp examination, tire damage evaluation, advanced photography and video techniques and vector sum analysis (Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation, n.d.).
All of these areas are important in order for an investigator to be successful in traffic homicide investigations.
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). etrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety esource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. etrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety Resource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html
oles of a Police Psychologist in an Investigation
The following paper describes the roles played by a police psychologist in an investigation of a situation in which a former police officer has been killed. The police force constantly takes risks to save the lives and belongings of the people they serve. This force is known for its bravery and courage but when a situation involves the homicide of a former member of their own group, they are faced with extra trouble as their own safety becomes a concern for them. In addition to that, the pressure from media exacerbates the problem for the police force. In this case, the police force needs psychological support which is given to them by a police psychologist.
Police offers face severe stress in their day-to-day routine. They risk their lives and their families in order to fulfill the duty assigned to them. Their…
CR, V. (2010). Psychological Autopsy -- A Review. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 10 (2), 101 -- 103.
Mayhew, C. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Risks Faced by Police Officers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 1-2. http://aic.gov.au/documents/E/D/9/%7BED946A67-E4C8-4C46-A294-9B982325EF4D%7Dti196.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Mitchell, J. (n.d.). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. College Park: University of Maryland. pp. 1-3. www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mitchellCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Scrivner, E. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. pp. 1-10. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/150063NCJRS.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
The rationale for integrating this unit is based on the fact that crimes -- like most of all other social problems -- are easier to prevent than to deal with afterwards. Within this unit, emphasis is placed on watching people and businesses for any indication of criminal behavior, ensuring the safety of children (providing the names of offenders), providing tips for safety and crime prevention and so on (Bloomington MN Government Site).
Aside from the departments to be included, the discussion at this level should also focus on the departments that will not be included in the new effort to fight violent crime. These four departments that will not be included in the task force include the following: training, traffic investigation unit, personnel unit and the records keeping unit. Al these units have some connection with crime fighting, but can collaborate with the task force, without needing to be included…
Crime prevention unit. Creative solutions to deter crime. Bloomington MN Government Site. http://www.ci.bloomington.mn.us/cityhall/dept/police/specops/crime_prevention/crime_prevention.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
LAPD organizational chart. LAPD Online. http://www.lapdonline.org/inside_the_lapd/content_basic_view/1063 accessed on January 24, 2013
Organizational chart. Town of Vestal New York. http://www.vestalny.com/DeptPage.aspx?pID=10 accessed on January 24, 2013
Structure of policing in London. Metropolitan Police. http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
homicides would be prevented if offenders knew the death penalty would strongly be enforced in most cases.
In cases such as in Laden and Timothy McVay, the Oklahoma bomber, no one would even consider religious and moral activists pleas against capital punishment.
Taxpayers must financially support the killers who are serving a lifetime sentence, whom decided they had a right to take someone's life for no justified reason, so that these homicide offenders can exist.
I am in favor of capital punishment
Most people who oppose the death penalty do so because of religious or moral reasons.
Statement of Reason
Favoring the Death Penalty
Taxpayers must financially support the killers who are serving a lifetime sentence, whom decided they had a right to take someone's life for no justified reason, so that these homicide offenders can live. * "Capital punishment offenders are beyond the hope of rehabilitation. They…
Bernia, T., (no date)
Capital Punishment; The Ethical Debate
Overberg, K., (2002)
But just because they had no intent to hurt anyone does not mean that their actions did not contribute to the hurting of another.
After looking at all of the facts that were presented in both of these cases a reasonable person sitting on any jury would have to conclude that the defendants were guilty of contributing to the deaths of the victims. Their deliberate actions led to both accidents and thus all deaths relating to those accidents. The defendants in both of these cases were all over the age of 18 and should have been aware that their actions could lead to serious harm or even death of another person. Just because they were out having fun and did not intentionally mean to hurt anyone should not excuse them from the fact that their actions did lead to deaths, and for these reasons they should be held accountable and…
Clary, Mike. "The Felled Stop Signs: Two Cases of Homicide." Name of Book. Publisher: City,
"Revelry and Mischief in Utah." Name of Book. Publisher: City, Year. 805.
"The Law on Homicide." Name of Book. Publisher: City, Year. 809-811.
Conflict Theory-The Relationship between Sociology and Criminology
Theorists, on, social conflict propose that crime, in general, is triggered by conflict in the class system, as well as, laws that have been shaped by individuals and groups in power to safeguard their interests and rights. All acts of crime have political nuances, and Quinney refers to this as crime's social reality. Research attempts to confirm the conflict method; on the contrary, have not generated significant results (Seigel, 2000). Moreover, sociologists ponder over the social patterns that exist among social classes and the complications that arise from conflict between such social classes. They try to establish the relationship between deviant behavior and social class. These are some of the considerations and ponderings of sociologists when examining the Social conflict theory. The theory explores issues to do with inequality on societal settings. The theory states that the laws and norms adopted by society…
oles in an Investigation
In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…
Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.
Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119
Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067
Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497
Infanticide in Australia
Infanticide is the act or practice of killing newborns or infants. It has been committed or performed in every continent and in every level of culture from the poorest hunters and gatherers to the richest and most advanced classes of people and from the time of our ancestors to modern age (Milner 1998). The act or practice has been so rampant that there is enough evidence on record to show that it has been more the rule than an exception and this evidence reflects that parents themselves kill their infants under distressing and stressful situations. The practice or act was so frequent in England in the 19th century that both the medical and the private communities had to think of ways to control the crime (Milner) described by medical practitioners as savage in a contradiction to human progress.
But infanticide is not a modern creation. It was…
Burleigh, M. (1994). Return to the planet of the apes? - peter singer in Germany. History Today. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/m_mi1373/is_n10444/ai_15912728
Cooray, M. (2004). Human rights in australia. Youth Matrix. http://www.youthmatrix.com/art_philos_humanrights.htm
Hammoud, AAM. (2004). Status of women in islam. Australian Muslim Community. http://al-emaan.org/wrights1.htm
Knight, K. (2004). Australia. The Catholic Encyclopedia, volume II, online edition. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02113b.htm
(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work
6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.
According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…
Maslow, a., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row (orig. 1954)
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
The idea that the easy availability of guns does not have anything to do with high homicide rates in the United States is a myth and a propaganda campaign of the National Rifle Association and others who support its ideology.
Let me illustrate the necessity of stricter licensing system by bringing an example from international affairs. There are a few nations that possess nuclear weapons but there is a general consensus among civilized nations, including most that do not possess nuclear weapons, that irresponsible nations must not be allowed to possess nuclear weapons. The reasoning behind this consensus is that a the availability of nuclear weapons will make it easy for a country like Iran to unleash attacks and kill lots of people. No one justifies Iran's right to possess nuclear weapons by saying that "nuclear weapons do not kill people, people kill people" although it is also a technically…
Blodget, Henry. "Yes, 'Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People,' but Do We Really Want Guns for Sale at Walmart?" The Business Insider. 10 January 2011. Web. 25 April 2012
Erbe, Bonnie. "The NRA is Wrong: Guns Do Kill People, as the Pittsburg Shootings Show." USNews. 6 April 2009. Web. 25 April 2012
Hemenway, David. Private Guns, Public Health. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004. Print.
Henigan, Dennis. "Actually, Guns Do Kill People." HuffingtonPost. 27 July 2011. Web. 25 April 2012
If any of the above are present, or if family members concur that the deceased was significantly depressed it is important to consider the death for evidence of final exit suicide instead of a homicide.
First Degree Murder
An investigator would rely on one question to determine whether to charge someone with first degree murder or with manslaughter. Did the killer decide to kill, and then act on that decision resulting in the victim's death?
If a person was in a club and someone bumped into him and he angrily hit the man in the head with his beer bottle and the man died, that would be manslaughter, because the man committing the act did not plan to kill anyone when he entered the club that night and he didn't think through the moment he reacted.
A difference scenario would be if the man found out his wife was having…
Gun Control Legislation
The availability of and access to firearms which is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution by the Second Amendment has created a multitude of consequences for modern Americans. The impacts of a loosely regulated gun market include the highest per capita rate of gun-related deaths in the world, major metropolitan areas like Detroit and Chicago struggling with unprecedented murder rates, and toddlers routinely finding their parent's weapons and dying after accidental discharge. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the U.S. is by far the world's leader in both gun ownership and gun-related fatalities, and in fact, America's rate of 10.2 gun-related deaths per 100,000 citizens is more than double the rate of any other developed nation. The Congress has historically been averse to the passage of restrictive gun control legislation, as a powerful firearm lobby led by the National ifle Association has successfully kept the advances of gun…
Boodman, S.G. (2006, May 16). Gifted and tormented academic stars often bullied -- and more likely to suffer emotionally as a result. The Washington Post, p. F1. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp - dyn/content/article/2006/05/15/AR2006051501103 .html
Cooper, A., & Smith, E.L.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011).
Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008: Annual rates for 2009 and 2010 (NCJ-
236018). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:
risk in terms of privacy than our medical records...do you agree? Or, are your financial records more at risk, especially given events in the news lately. Which is greater in your mind (yes, you have to pick one)? Why?
Although keeping your medical records private is important, I believe that it is more important to keep your financial records private. Identity theft is one of the most prolific crimes of the modern era. As soon as someone has your information, they can hack into your bank account and take all your money or apply for credit cards in your name, leaving you broke. It is also very difficult to prove identity theft.
Drug testing in Sports; Drug testing in the construction industry; Drug testing for retail employees; Random drug testing for all employees; what principles can you pull about the pros and cons of drug testing from these different situations?…
rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.
To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…
Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation
Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.
Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.
57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)
Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.
Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.
Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…
Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm
Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.
The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.
Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?
It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…
Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.
Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.
Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.
Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
The writer of this work assumes the position of Crime Scene Investigator who is responding to a homicide scene at a convenience store/gas station at 3:00 A.M. Upon first arriving the officer who first responded at the scene relates information that there was an additiaonl employee present during the incident in addition to a mother and her 15-year-old son who are both witnesses to the crime. There is a deceased victim with a gunshot wound in the chest. The responsibility fo the Crime Scene Invesetigator includes latent print work and other related tasks.
Upon arrival to the sceneit is noted that the scene was secured prior to the arrival of the Crime Scene Investigator. In additional all crime scene integrity precautions and procedures are in place and the crime scene photographer has taken all necessary on-scene photographs for you. All sketches and measurements have already been taken. Other…
Crime Scene Procedures (2012) National Forensic Science Technology Center. Retrieved from: http://projects.nfstc.org/property_crimes/Crime_Scene_Procedures_III.pdf
Crime-Scene Investigation and Evidence Collection (nd) Chapter 2. Retrieved from: http://www.cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/4827/bertino_chapter2.pdf
On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:
Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward ichardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer ichardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him,…
Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011
Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (akefield & Underwager 20009).
Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.
The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)
The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.
Impeaching the testimony…
Exceptions to the hearsay rule. (2009). Everything2.com. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://everything2.com/title/Exceptions%2520to%2520the%2520Hearsay%2520Rule
ELMO evidence presentation. (2009). Middle District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 28, 2009
Evidence. (2009). eNotes. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/evidence-chain-custody
As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).
The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm .
Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,
2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.
United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
4. Do some police departments still engage in the "aggressive preventative patrol" strategies that led to the urban riots of the 1960s and the publishing of the 1968 Kerner Commission eport? Are there any similarities or differences between those strategies and the strategies used in the Kansas City Gun Experiment?
One could argue that on other issues, any sting operation, such as those conducted on specified geographic locations for street prostitution or drug enforcement or even electronic crime stings is a model similar to this, as the officers are focusing specifically on one issue and are not required, during operations to answer traditional patrol calls. Though, this model is more a future deterrent model than a prevention model. iots occur as a result of whole groups of individuals feeling particularly targeted, rather than protected by police. Harassment is a highly interpretive concept and issues such as, racial profiling or random…
Brezina, T., & Wright, J.D. (2000). Going Armed in the School Zone. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 15(4), 82.
Conforti, J.M. (1973). Newark: Ghetto or City?. In Ghetto Revolts, Rossi, P.H. (Ed.) (pp. 59-86). New Brunswick, NJ E.P. Dutton.
Louden, R.J. (2005). Policing Post-9/11. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 32(4), 757.
Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.
He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.
Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.
In the case of…
Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html )
Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html )
Euthanasia Is Illegal
Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…
Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117
Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.
Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.
Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.
"hat took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…
Breslin, Jimmy. (1993). 25th Anniversary. New York Magazine, 26(16), 153-154.
Brogaard, Berit. (2012). The Making of a Serial Killer / the Superhuman Mind. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.psychologytoday.com .
Caputi, Jane. (1987). The Age of Sex Crime. Madison, WI: Popular Press.
Crossman, Ashley. (2013). Labeling Theory. About.com. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com .
Domestic Homicide in South Carolina
The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread," wrote French intellectual and social critic Anatole France in The Red Lily in 1894 and in doing so he summarized the often great distance that exists between laws and people's concepts of justice and truth. Justice is a slippery concept and the truth even more so - and this is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the practices of the "truth commissions" established in a number of countries newly accustoming themselves to democracy. The Orwellian sound of "truth commission" is not inappropriate, for the connection between the actions of these commissions - in places like Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and South Africa - and the truth of experience or any sense of absolute justice was both tenuous…
In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.
Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…
Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.
Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35
Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
In the first instance there were no control groups or references to studies that showed possible alternative results from the same sample group. The argument can therefore be criticized for being far too spurious and general with little clear definition of terms.
Furthermore it must be mentioned that the argument itself is not always clear and well expressed and there is very little effort to show consistency between some of the findings. For example the connection between geophysical aspects and both homicide and suicide is based on a very little reference to other studies or to any factual and consistent evidence.
Summary and Conclusion
The above article has both positive and negative aspects. From a positive point-of-view the investigation of a rather unorthodox theory about extreme human behavior is to be applauded. There is some proof and evidence that geophysical aspects can and do have an influence on human behavior.…
Stouple et al. (2005) Suicide-Homicide Temporal Interrelationship, Links with Other Fatalities, and Environmental Physical Activity. Crisis. Vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 85-89.
O'Shea R, (2002) Writing for Psychology: An Introductory Guide for Students. Harcourt Brace: Sydney.
Burton, L.J. (2002) an interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, QLD
Firearms Legislation and Firearms-Related Violence in Europe
This paper examines the relationship between firearms legislation and gun-related violence across countries and regions in Europe. The focus of the paper is to identify possible sources of literature to help answer questions regarding whether legislation is an effective tool in reducing firearms-related violence. The paper focuses on variance of gun violence rates throughout Europe, gun legislation, and possible national strategies for addressing the issue of gun violence. It finds that there are many variables that impact regions and can effect greater or lesser rates of gun violence -- factors such as education, culture, economic stability, political instability, and so on. No two countries are the same in terms of people, customs, traditions, ideals, and execution of the law. It is therefore important to better understand how culture plays a role in determining the effects of firearms-related violence in throughout Europe. This information…
It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human ights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner. (Abolish the death penalty, 2008, p. 2).
Despite these increasingly vocal protestations from at home and abroad, a majority of the states in America continue to retain the death penalty as a lawful punishment for capital offenses today. While the trend toward abolishing capital punishment was apparent in recent years, it would seem reasonable to assert that the death penalty will continue to be practiced in the United States for the foreseeable future and…
Abolish the death penalty. (2008). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty .
Bird, D.G. (2003). Life on the line: Pondering the fate of a substantive due process challenge to the death penalty. American Criminal Law Review, 40(3), 1329.
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Burke, A.S. (2006). Improving prosecutorial decision making: Some lessons of cognitive science. William and Mary Law Review, 47(5), 1587-1588.
lackstone with Washington Criminal Code
The American legal system derives almost entirely from the ritish common law system. That is why, in America, if there is no precedent for a particular set of facts at trial, the court will look to common law from centuries before America even existed as a nation.
The similarities are even more noticeable in criminal law than they are in civil law. The homicide passages in lackstone's descriptions of the law, for instance, are strikingly similar in many ways to the homicide paragraphs in the Washington Criminal Code.
lackstone divides homicide into three separate branches: justifiable homicide, excusable homicide and felonious homicide. All three are the "killing of any human creature," but there are significant differences between the three, according to lackstone. (lackstone, 71)
Justifiable homicide can be due to necessity (a public official putting a felon to death as prescribed by the law, for…
Blackstone, Williams. "Commentaries on the Laws of England, Volume IV, 1796."
Washington Criminal Code, Section 9A.32
Of even more significance is that twelve states go ahead to extend litigation costs and attorney fees "to a shooter who prevails in a civil lawsuit, creating a strong disincentive for a shooting victim to pursue justice in the civil system" (Mayors against Illegal Guns 6)
The Reach of Stand Your Ground Law
Although the Stand Your Ground Law is largely and extensively linked to Martin's case, a 2012 investigation by Tampa Bay Times revealed that "the Martin incident is far from the only example of the law's reach" (Lee). The relevance of this law as a major factor in judges' decisions, acquittals, and prosecutors' decisions, some of which involved cases that did not result in the victim's death, cannot be overstated (Lee).
In 2012, a Louisiana court acquitted Byron Thomas of all charges relating to an incident in which the 21-year-old, after a marijuana transaction turned sour, opened fire,…
Gardner, Thomas and Anderson Terry. Criminal Law. Stamford: CT: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.
Havis, Devonya. Pursuing Trayvon Martin: Historical Contexts and Contemporary Manifestations of Racial Dynamics. Ed. Yancy George and Jones Yanine. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013. Print.
Lee, Suevon. "Five 'Stand Your Ground' Cases You Should Know About." Pro-Publica, 2012. Web. http://www.propublica.org/article/five-stand-your-ground-cases-you-should-know-about
Mayors against Illegal Guns. "Stand Your Ground Laws and Their Effect on Violent Crime and the Criminal Justice System." Mayors against Illegal Guns, 2013. Web. 8 May 2014 https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/images/ShootFirst_v4.pdf
United States, in accordance with crime and violence, has been having highest rates of crime and violence in the world, and largely most of them violence are related to gun. U.S. Department of Justice has indicated that in the United States, violence related to guns consists of the largest violence rate. For example, back in year 1995.
Homicides who were involved in gun violence were about 68% out of which 60% were the cases related to handguns. Another example is that more than 34 thousand peopled died due to the gunfire in 1996 out of which 41% were outcomes of homicide in the United States (Shay et al., 1999).
The first law on gun control came about in 1911 in the State of New York. However, the most significant law on gun control was the rady bill which was passed in 1994. According to this law there is a restriction…
Box, G.E.P. And G.M. Jenkins. (1976). Time-series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. San Francisco: Holden-Day.
Campbell, R.E., Tour, O., Palmer, A.E., Steinbach, P.A., Baird, G.S., Zacharias, D.A. And Tsien, R.Y. (2002) A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 7877- 7882.
Cook, P.J. (1983). The Influence of Gun Availability on Violent Crime Patterns. In N. Morris and M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, Vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cook, P.J. (1980) Reducing Injury and Death Rates in Robbery, Policy Analysis 6: 21-45
Corrections/Police -- Criminal Justice -- The Brady Act
Seven-Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis
The Seven Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis was employed to examine The Brady Act. In Stage 1, Analyzing the Problem: the problem was found to be at least four serious gaps in the existing Brady Act. Those gaps include: the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online; the lack of strong federal law criminalizing gun trafficking; the ready availability of military-style weapons and high-capacity magazines with more than 10 rounds; and the Tiahrt Order passed by Congress and preventing the public from knowing the identities of gun traffickers and how they operate.
Though the Brady Act suffers from several gaps, the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online was addressed. Stage 2: Setting…
Cornell University Law School. (1997). Printz v. United States (95-1478), 521 U.S. 898 (1997). Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/95-1478.ZS.html/
Cornell University Law School. (2008, June 26). District of Columbia v. Heller (No. 07-290), 478 F. 3d 370, affirmed. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/07-290.ZS.html
Haberman, M. (2016, January 21). Gun control groups say Bernie Sanders is the wrong candidate to support. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com: http://www.nytimes.com /politics/first-draft/2016/01/21/gun-control-groups-say-bernie-sanders-is-the-wrong-candidate-to-support/
Kessler, J., & Trumble, S. (2013, August 5). The virtual loophole: A survey of online gun sales. Retrieved from www.thirdway.org: http://www.thirdway.org/report/the-virtual-loophole-a-survey-of-online-gun-sales
Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, warned about broader problems with the capital punishment. "When the law punishes by death, it risks its own sudden descent into brutality, transgressing the constitutional commitment to decency and restraint." He took into account the many dangers of the death penalty and concluded it should be restricted to homicides (Death Penalty Information Center, 2008).
The main question regarding the research for or against capital punishment as a deterrent is whether to continue the death penalty because the findings are inconsistent or to stop it for the same reason. esearchers adelet and Borg (2000), in fact, say that the findings impact how Americans perceive the death penalty. They showed how the conclusions of the research over the past several decades have influenced the debate pro-or con capital punishment. Their literature review in relationship to historical events "suggests changes in the nature of death penalty debates…
Berk, R. (2005) New Claims about Execution and General Deterrence: Deja Vu All over Again? Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 2(2), 303-330
Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved May 22, 2008.
Dezhbakhsh, H., Rubin, P. & Shepherd, J. (2003) Does capital punishment have a deterrent effect? American Law and Economics Review, 344.
Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).
The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…
Case for Gun Control. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~zj5j-gttl/guns.htm
Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States, 1962-1994. Retrieved November 05 from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/firarmsu.htm
Firearm Injury and Death from Crime, 1993-97. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Statistics Web site. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/fidc9397.htm
Firearms and Crime Statistics. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S.
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
THE EFFECTS OF HYPOXIA
STAND YOU GOUND: A CY FO EPEAL
Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal
Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students (LS526-01)
The "Stand Your Ground Law" is one of the most controversial laws in recent years and has gained notoriety due to its enactment in thirty-three states so far. Advocates of the law claim that it reduces the threat of violence in society, but the statistics prove otherwise as research shows that the law actually inflames race-based violence (Purdie-Vaughn, Williams, 2015). As such there are several states that have either taken a wary view of the law and have decided to steer clear of it, or have raised issue(s) with enactment of the law while considering it. It is because of this scrutiny the law has been misunderstood by some people, abused by others, and just…
Alabama Criminal Code, Section 13A-3-23. Retrieved from http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/alcode/13A/3/2/13A-3-23
Campbell, R. C. (2014). Unlawful/Criminal Activity: The Ill-Defined and Inadequate Provision
for a "Stand Your Ground" Defense. Barry Law Review, 20(1): 3-21.
Cook, R. (2012). The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 'Stand Your Ground Law' in Effect in Georgia More Than 100 Years. Retrieved: http://www.ajc.com/news/news/local/stand-your-ground-law-in-effect-in-georgia-more-th/nQSgW/
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
Justice at Bat
The Story of Three Strikes Legislation
It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…
Bellamy, Richard. "Crime and Punishment." History Review (1997): 24+.
Davey, Joseph Dillon. The New Social Contract: America's Journey from Welfare State to Police State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.