Homicide Essays (Examples)

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Roles of a Police Psychologist in an

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32674037

oles of a Police Psychologist in an Investigation

The following paper describes the roles played by a police psychologist in an investigation of a situation in which a former police officer has been killed. The police force constantly takes risks to save the lives and belongings of the people they serve. This force is known for its bravery and courage but when a situation involves the homicide of a former member of their own group, they are faced with extra trouble as their own safety becomes a concern for them. In addition to that, the pressure from media exacerbates the problem for the police force. In this case, the police force needs psychological support which is given to them by a police psychologist.


Police offers face severe stress in their day-to-day routine. They risk their lives and their families in order to fulfill the duty assigned to them. Their…… [Read More]


CR, V. (2010). Psychological Autopsy -- A Review. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 10 (2), 101 -- 103.

Mayhew, C. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Risks Faced by Police Officers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 1-2.  http://aic.gov.au/documents/E/D/9/%7BED946A67-E4C8-4C46-A294-9B982325EF4D%7Dti196.pdf  [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].

Mitchell, J. (n.d.). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. College Park: University of Maryland. pp. 1-3. www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mitchellCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].

Scrivner, E. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. pp. 1-10.  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/150063NCJRS.pdf  [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
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Departmental Project Strategic Plan Departmental

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72443639

The rationale for integrating this unit is based on the fact that crimes -- like most of all other social problems -- are easier to prevent than to deal with afterwards. Within this unit, emphasis is placed on watching people and businesses for any indication of criminal behavior, ensuring the safety of children (providing the names of offenders), providing tips for safety and crime prevention and so on (Bloomington MN Government Site).

Aside from the departments to be included, the discussion at this level should also focus on the departments that will not be included in the new effort to fight violent crime. These four departments that will not be included in the task force include the following: training, traffic investigation unit, personnel unit and the records keeping unit. Al these units have some connection with crime fighting, but can collaborate with the task force, without needing to be included…… [Read More]


Crime prevention unit. Creative solutions to deter crime. Bloomington MN Government Site. http://www.ci.bloomington.mn.us/cityhall/dept/police/specops/crime_prevention/crime_prevention.htm accessed on January 24, 2013

LAPD organizational chart. LAPD Online.  http://www.lapdonline.org/inside_the_lapd/content_basic_view/1063  accessed on January 24, 2013

Organizational chart. Town of Vestal New York. http://www.vestalny.com/DeptPage.aspx?pID=10 accessed on January 24, 2013

Structure of policing in London. Metropolitan Police. http://www.met.police.uk/about/organisation.htm accessed on January 24, 2013
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Violence Prevention Plan Problem Oriented

Words: 2104 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98696280

3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.

4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.

5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).

One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…… [Read More]


Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.

Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.

Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
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Fundamentals of Speech

Words: 842 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43330400

homicides would be prevented if offenders knew the death penalty would strongly be enforced in most cases.

In cases such as in Laden and Timothy McVay, the Oklahoma bomber, no one would even consider religious and moral activists pleas against capital punishment.

Taxpayers must financially support the killers who are serving a lifetime sentence, whom decided they had a right to take someone's life for no justified reason, so that these homicide offenders can exist.


I am in favor of capital punishment


Most people who oppose the death penalty do so because of religious or moral reasons.

Statement of Reason

Favoring the Death Penalty

Taxpayers must financially support the killers who are serving a lifetime sentence, whom decided they had a right to take someone's life for no justified reason, so that these homicide offenders can live. * "Capital punishment offenders are beyond the hope of rehabilitation. They…… [Read More]


Bernia, T., (no date)

Capital Punishment; The Ethical Debate

WWW.Umm.maine.edu/bex/students/tammy bernier/tb360.html

Overberg, K., (2002)
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Fallen Stop Sign Vandals Face

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89519195

But just because they had no intent to hurt anyone does not mean that their actions did not contribute to the hurting of another.

After looking at all of the facts that were presented in both of these cases a reasonable person sitting on any jury would have to conclude that the defendants were guilty of contributing to the deaths of the victims. Their deliberate actions led to both accidents and thus all deaths relating to those accidents. The defendants in both of these cases were all over the age of 18 and should have been aware that their actions could lead to serious harm or even death of another person. Just because they were out having fun and did not intentionally mean to hurt anyone should not excuse them from the fact that their actions did lead to deaths, and for these reasons they should be held accountable and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clary, Mike. "The Felled Stop Signs: Two Cases of Homicide." Name of Book. Publisher: City,

Year. 801-805.

"Revelry and Mischief in Utah." Name of Book. Publisher: City, Year. 805.

"The Law on Homicide." Name of Book. Publisher: City, Year. 809-811.
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Roles in an Investigation

Words: 2192 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62121472

Police Psychologist

oles in an Investigation

In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…… [Read More]


Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.

Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119

Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067

Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497
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Infanticide as a Charge and a Defense

Words: 4613 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77353952

Infanticide in Australia

Infanticide is the act or practice of killing newborns or infants. It has been committed or performed in every continent and in every level of culture from the poorest hunters and gatherers to the richest and most advanced classes of people and from the time of our ancestors to modern age (Milner 1998). The act or practice has been so rampant that there is enough evidence on record to show that it has been more the rule than an exception and this evidence reflects that parents themselves kill their infants under distressing and stressful situations. The practice or act was so frequent in England in the 19th century that both the medical and the private communities had to think of ways to control the crime (Milner) described by medical practitioners as savage in a contradiction to human progress.

But infanticide is not a modern creation. It was…… [Read More]


Burleigh, M. (1994). Return to the planet of the apes? - peter singer in Germany. History Today. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/m_mi1373/is_n10444/ai_15912728

Cooray, M. (2004). Human rights in australia. Youth Matrix. http://www.youthmatrix.com/art_philos_humanrights.htm

Hammoud, AAM. (2004). Status of women in islam. Australian Muslim Community. http://al-emaan.org/wrights1.htm

Knight, K. (2004). Australia. The Catholic Encyclopedia, volume II, online edition.  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02113b.htm
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Moral or Ethical Difference if

Words: 2029 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39412545

(2001, October 1) Self-esteem at work, Psychology Today, etrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/200310/self-esteem-work

6. Describe the needs present in Maslow's hierarchy. How can organizations attempt to meet these needs so that employees are motivated to produce more work? Discuss the answer in detail.

According to Abraham Maslow (1970), there is a hierarchy of needs that define human development. These are: Basic Needs (food, shelter, clothing), Safety, Love and Belonging, Skill Accomplishment and Self-Actualization. In Maslow's view, as each need becomes adequately satisfied, the next highest need becomes dominant. The first three are deficiency needs because they must be satisfied if the individual is to be healthy and secure. The last two are growth needs because they are related to the development and achievement of one's potential (Maslow, 1970). In Maslow's view, as long as we are motivated to satisfy our deficiency needs, then we are moving in a positive direction towards personal…… [Read More]


Maslow, a., (1970) Motivation and personality, 2nd ed., Harper & Row (orig. 1954)
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Criminal Justice Final Define the

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45567698

This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.

Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…… [Read More]

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Gun Control in the U S

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56355829

The idea that the easy availability of guns does not have anything to do with high homicide rates in the United States is a myth and a propaganda campaign of the National Rifle Association and others who support its ideology.

Let me illustrate the necessity of stricter licensing system by bringing an example from international affairs. There are a few nations that possess nuclear weapons but there is a general consensus among civilized nations, including most that do not possess nuclear weapons, that irresponsible nations must not be allowed to possess nuclear weapons. The reasoning behind this consensus is that a the availability of nuclear weapons will make it easy for a country like Iran to unleash attacks and kill lots of people. No one justifies Iran's right to possess nuclear weapons by saying that "nuclear weapons do not kill people, people kill people" although it is also a technically…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blodget, Henry. "Yes, 'Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People,' but Do We Really Want Guns for Sale at Walmart?" The Business Insider. 10 January 2011. Web. 25 April 2012

Erbe, Bonnie. "The NRA is Wrong: Guns Do Kill People, as the Pittsburg Shootings Show." USNews. 6 April 2009. Web. 25 April 2012

Hemenway, David. Private Guns, Public Health. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004. Print.

Henigan, Dennis. "Actually, Guns Do Kill People." HuffingtonPost. 27 July 2011. Web. 25 April 2012
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Crime Investigators Often Use a

Words: 779 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81518133

If any of the above are present, or if family members concur that the deceased was significantly depressed it is important to consider the death for evidence of final exit suicide instead of a homicide.

First Degree Murder

An investigator would rely on one question to determine whether to charge someone with first degree murder or with manslaughter. Did the killer decide to kill, and then act on that decision resulting in the victim's death?

If a person was in a club and someone bumped into him and he angrily hit the man in the head with his beer bottle and the man died, that would be manslaughter, because the man committing the act did not plan to kill anyone when he entered the club that night and he didn't think through the moment he reacted.

A difference scenario would be if the man found out his wife was having…… [Read More]

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Gun Control Legislation the Availability of and

Words: 1708 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7755433

Gun Control Legislation

The availability of and access to firearms which is enshrined in the U.S. Constitution by the Second Amendment has created a multitude of consequences for modern Americans. The impacts of a loosely regulated gun market include the highest per capita rate of gun-related deaths in the world, major metropolitan areas like Detroit and Chicago struggling with unprecedented murder rates, and toddlers routinely finding their parent's weapons and dying after accidental discharge. Several longitudinal studies have demonstrated that the U.S. is by far the world's leader in both gun ownership and gun-related fatalities, and in fact, America's rate of 10.2 gun-related deaths per 100,000 citizens is more than double the rate of any other developed nation. The Congress has historically been averse to the passage of restrictive gun control legislation, as a powerful firearm lobby led by the National ifle Association has successfully kept the advances of gun…… [Read More]


Boodman, S.G. (2006, May 16). Gifted and tormented academic stars often bullied -- and more likely to suffer emotionally as a result. The Washington Post, p. F1. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2006/05/15/AR2006051501103 .html

Cooper, A., & Smith, E.L.U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011).

Homicide trends in the United States, 1980-2008: Annual rates for 2009 and 2010 (NCJ-

236018). Retrieved from Government Printing Office website:
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Risk in Terms of Privacy Than Our

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82180043

risk in terms of privacy than our medical records...do you agree? Or, are your financial records more at risk, especially given events in the news lately. Which is greater in your mind (yes, you have to pick one)? Why?

Although keeping your medical records private is important, I believe that it is more important to keep your financial records private. Identity theft is one of the most prolific crimes of the modern era. As soon as someone has your information, they can hack into your bank account and take all your money or apply for credit cards in your name, leaving you broke. It is also very difficult to prove identity theft.

Drug testing in Sports; Drug testing in the construction industry; Drug testing for retail employees; Random drug testing for all employees; what principles can you pull about the pros and cons of drug testing from these different situations?…… [Read More]

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Criminal Defense Attorney Steen You

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47378389

The prosecutor allowed that the crime is third-degree battery and that the homicide occurred during the battery. The mitigating circumstance in Alex King's situation was the influence that Ricky Chavez exerted over Alex, who was 12 years old at the time of this crime. Alex asserted that Mr. Chavez and he were in love and that if Mr. King were alive, he would not let Alex live with him. Alex admitted that he asked Derek to kill his father and although the crime appeared to be premeditated, the judge was unwilling to allow for first or even second-degree murder, thereby eliminating a lengthy prison sentence.

The 8th amendment to the United States Constitution protects U.S. citizens from cruel and unusual punishment. Juveniles under the age of 16 are exempt from execution due to this amendment, but may still receive the sentence of life imprisonment, as Lionel Tate did. In terms…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Florida Boys Plead Guilty to Third-Degree Murder in Father's Slaying." Courttv.com. 2002. 6

August. 2005 http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/111402_cnn.html.

Handlin, Sam. "Fourteen-Year-old Lionel Tate Sentenced." Courttv.com. 2000. 6 August. 2005 http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/030901_sentence_ctv.html.

"Offenses Commonly Seen in the Juvenile Court or Crimes with which Juveniles can be Charged." Southern Juvenile Defender Center. 2003. 6 August. 2005
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Rose When Determining the Human Behavior Lead

Words: 819 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77559274

rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.

To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…… [Read More]


Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation

Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.

Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.
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Violent Crime Analysis One of

Words: 838 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85480991

An example of a spree killing could be July 22nd, 2011's incident in Norway when Anders Behring Breivik carried out a series of attacks. He first set off a bomb in central Oslo and several hours later went on a shooting rampage "at a youth camp at an island near the capital." ("Oslo Bombings and Utoya Attack") in all, nearly 80 people were killed in the two separate incidents, but since the time between the incidents was relatively short, this is considered a spree killing and not a serial killing. However, a serial killer usually takes their time and commits multiple killings over time with long periods in between individual murders. Gary Leon idgway, the Green iver Killer, is an example of a typical serial killer, and committed a number of murders over a period of time that lasted decades. (McMahon) There were even months and sometimes years between the…… [Read More]


McMahon, Patrick. 6 Nov. 2003. Sheriffs Hunt for Green River Killer was a Mission.

USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-11-06-green-usat_x.htm

"Northern Illinois University Shooting: Dekalb Illinois." U.S., Fire Administration

Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=GJIvRGUmKMkC&pg=PA9&dq=northern+illinois+university+massacre&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ZIU-T4faO-uE0QHC17nSBw&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA%20//%20v=onepage&q=northern%20illinois%20university%20massacre&f=false http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/norway/index.html
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Uniform Crime Report UCR Is

Words: 1926 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48132298


Figure 7 depicts 2006 Florida violent crime statistics; evolving from aggravated assault, robbery, forcible rape and murder.

Figure 7: 2006 Florida Violent Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).

The 2006 National violent crime rates included: Murder -- 1.2%; Forcible ape -- 6.5%; obbery -- 31.6%; Aggravated Assault -- 60.7% Compared to Florida's 2006 violent crime rates, the murder rate and robbery rates and forcible rates are lower; however the aggravated assault rate is higher (Uniform Crime eports, N.d.).

Figure 8 depicts 2006 Florida property crime rates; evolving from burglary, larceny theft and vehicular theft.

Figure 8: 2006 Florida Property Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).

The National 2006 property crime rates included: Burglary rate -- 21.9%; Larceny theft rate -- 66.2%; Vehicular theft rate -- 11.9%; Compared to Florida's 2006 property crime rates, the vehicular theft rate is lower; however the burglary rate and larceny…… [Read More]


Florida Department of Law Enforcement. (2008). Understanding Florida's UCR data. Retrieved July 11, 2009 from http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/685508 BC-ce34-4423


Hanley, Matt. (2009). Naperville's crime rate up, but still low. Naperville Sun, The (IL).

Retrieved July 13, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1N1128F26EE753542F8.html
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Identifications Empirical Question Asking an

Words: 2307 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81301510

57. The Deterrent Effects of Arrest for Domestic Assault (Lawrence . Sherman and Richard A. Berk)

Domestic violence

Types of data/methods: Sherman and Berk found that arresting batterers reduced by half the rate of subsequent offenses against the same victim within a 6-month followup period. However, in follow-up studies, sometimes offenders assigned to the arrest group had higher levels of (recidivism) while others showed a reduction in repeat cases.

Advantages/Disadvantages: Although the repeat nature of the offenses in a series of trials shows thoroughness, the inconsistent findings about whether mandatory arrest reduces domestic violence suggests more information about the different cases might be necessary to show if arrest helps in some cases but not in others.


Summarize the overall prevalence and incidence of the crime problem in the 1960s as portrayed by the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (pg.361) and by the National Commission on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crime Statistics." (2006) Bureau of Justice. Retrieved 11 Jun 2006 at http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/cvict.htm

Jacoby, Joseph E. (2004) Classics of Criminology. New York: Waveland Press.
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Prison Problem The Violence People

Words: 1336 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83053070

A major portion of an inmate's helplessness, deprivation, depression and self-loathing etc. arises due to physical and psychological victimization that he or she has to face. Physical victimization includes homicide, assault and rape. These arise due to poor staff supervision and keeping defenseless prisoners with the violent ones. On the other hand, psychological victimization involves verbal manipulation and harsh psychological attacks of personal nature.

The stronger inmates attempt to create their own subcultures that show their dominance, rule and assertion on all prisoners (Heilpern, 1998). To fulfill the maintenance of these subcultures, they resort to rape, riots or even homicide spreading mental illnesses like stress, phobias, enhanced criminal activity, shame, guilt, etc. among the weaker prisoners.

Imprisonment: Eliminating or aggravating crime?

It is not a hidden matter that jails, even after intensive care and security, are not free of brutality, stress and violence among the inmates. The safety of each…… [Read More]


Cragg, W. (2002). The practice of punishment: Towards a theory of restorative justice. Routledge.

Foucault, M. (2008). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison.

Gendreau, P., Cullen, F.T., & Goggin, C. (1999). The effects of prison sentences on recidivism. Ottawa: Solicitor General Canada.

Gudrais, E. (2013, March). The Prison Problem. Harvard Magazine.
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Fingerprinting Scenario the Writer of This Work

Words: 556 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4619329



The writer of this work assumes the position of Crime Scene Investigator who is responding to a homicide scene at a convenience store/gas station at 3:00 A.M. Upon first arriving the officer who first responded at the scene relates information that there was an additiaonl employee present during the incident in addition to a mother and her 15-year-old son who are both witnesses to the crime. There is a deceased victim with a gunshot wound in the chest. The responsibility fo the Crime Scene Invesetigator includes latent print work and other related tasks.

Upon arrival to the sceneit is noted that the scene was secured prior to the arrival of the Crime Scene Investigator. In additional all crime scene integrity precautions and procedures are in place and the crime scene photographer has taken all necessary on-scene photographs for you. All sketches and measurements have already been taken. Other…… [Read More]


Crime Scene Procedures (2012) National Forensic Science Technology Center. Retrieved from:  http://projects.nfstc.org/property_crimes/Crime_Scene_Procedures_III.pdf 

Crime-Scene Investigation and Evidence Collection (nd) Chapter 2. Retrieved from:  http://www.cengagesites.com/academic/assets/sites/4827/bertino_chapter2.pdf
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Case Information Police Report

Words: 1533 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14026874

Police eport

On the afternoon of February 8, 2007, I received a dispatch call on a potential homicide at 1100 SE Lynn Boulevard, Prineville, Oregon. This location is the local high school, named Crook County High School. The information given to me prior to my arrival at the scene is as follows:

Upon arrival to the scene, school security guard William Parkins and responding Officer Edward ichardson of Crook County Police department provided some information to me. Parkins provided to me the name of the victim, Marc Hollingsworth. Officer ichardson informed me that Hollingsworth's mother, Karen Lynn Griesel Hollingsworth, was already notified and currently en route to our location. Parkins then told me that student and girlfriend of the victim, Amber Johnson, had been the one to find Hollingsworth's body after seeing his red 2000 Ford F150 in the back row of the school parking lot. Soon before seeing him,…… [Read More]


Bend Bulletin. (2007, February 14). Marc Adam Hollingsworth. Retrieved January 19, 2011

from http://www.bendbulletin.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070214/NEWS05/702140312/1010

Fisher, B. (2004). Techniques of crime scene investigation. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Saferstein, R. (2004). Criminalistics: An introduction to forensic science. Upper Saddle River,
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Evidence Discuss the Problems for

Words: 1879 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1910455

"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (akefield & Underwager 20009).

Question 13

Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.

The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)

Question 14

The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.

Impeaching the testimony…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Exceptions to the hearsay rule. (2009). Everything2.com. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at  http://everything2.com/title/Exceptions%2520to%2520the%2520Hearsay%2520Rule 

ELMO evidence presentation. (2009). Middle District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 28, 2009

at http://www.pamd.uscourts.gov/docs/elmo.pdf

Evidence. (2009). eNotes. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/evidence-chain-custody
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Health of Native Americans the

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94179257

As to the availability of safe and clean water supplies, and safe waste disposal facilities, Native Peoples are again on the short end of the stick. About twelve percent of Native People do not have adequate supplies of fresh drinking water and dependable waste facilities while only one percent of the general American population do not have those needed facilities (Indian Health Services).

The U.S. Commission on Civil rights reports that the rates Native Americans are dying resulting from diabetes, alcoholism, suicide, unintentional injuries and other health conditions is "shocking" (www.USCCR.gov). Going back to the arrival of the Europeans on the North American Continent, many diseases were brought to the Native Peoples which were "far more lethal than any weapon in the European arsenal" so anyone even preliminarily examining the health care history of Native Peoples can clearly see that this dilemma has been a plague for Indians (www.USCCR.gov). The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). Health of American Indian or Alaska Native Population. Retrieved April 14, 2009, from  http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/faststats/indfacts.htm .

Indian Health Services. (2006). Facts on Indian Health Disparities. Retrieved April 14,

2009, from http://www.americanindianhealth.nim.nih.gov.

United States Commission on Civil Rights. (2004). Broken Promises: Evaluating the Native American Health Care System. Retrieved April 15, 2009, from  http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nahealth/nabroken.pdf .
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Kansas City Gun Experiment and

Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98213657

4. Do some police departments still engage in the "aggressive preventative patrol" strategies that led to the urban riots of the 1960s and the publishing of the 1968 Kerner Commission eport? Are there any similarities or differences between those strategies and the strategies used in the Kansas City Gun Experiment?

One could argue that on other issues, any sting operation, such as those conducted on specified geographic locations for street prostitution or drug enforcement or even electronic crime stings is a model similar to this, as the officers are focusing specifically on one issue and are not required, during operations to answer traditional patrol calls. Though, this model is more a future deterrent model than a prevention model. iots occur as a result of whole groups of individuals feeling particularly targeted, rather than protected by police. Harassment is a highly interpretive concept and issues such as, racial profiling or random…… [Read More]


Brezina, T., & Wright, J.D. (2000). Going Armed in the School Zone. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, 15(4), 82.

Conforti, J.M. (1973). Newark: Ghetto or City?. In Ghetto Revolts, Rossi, P.H. (Ed.) (pp. 59-86). New Brunswick, NJ E.P. Dutton.

Louden, R.J. (2005). Policing Post-9/11. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 32(4), 757.

Schwabe, W., Davis, L.M., & Jackson, B.A. (2001). Challenges and Choices for Crime-Fighting Technology: Federal Support of State and Local Law Enforcement. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
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Crime the Purpose of This

Words: 2753 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71668087

Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.

Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]


Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352

Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from  http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime 

Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.

Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
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High Profile Murder Cases The

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83484004

He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.

He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.

Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.

In the case of…… [Read More]


Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) (http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html)

Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) (http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html)
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Euthanasia Is Illegal Euthanasia Otherwise Known as

Words: 1997 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38325739

Euthanasia Is Illegal

Euthanasia otherwise known as assisted suicide refers to the painless extermination of a patient suffering from terminal illnesses or painful or incurable disease. According to Cavan & Dolan, euthanasia is the practice or act of permitting the death of hopelessly injured or sick individuals in a painless means for the purpose of mercy (Cavan & Dolan 12). The techniques used in euthanasia induce numerous artifacts such as shifts in regional brain chemistry, liver metabolism and epinephrine levels causing death. Advocates of euthanasia trust that sparing a patient needless suffering or pain is a good thing. If an individual is hopelessly hurt or ill with no hope of ever getting well, if such a person is in an unending and unbearable pain and cannot experience the things that make life meaningful, the best option for such patients is euthanasia. Euthanasia raises questions on morals, legal and essence of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Baird, R. Caring for the Dying: critical issues at the edge of life. New York: Prometeus Books 2003, pp.117

Cavan, Seasmus, Dolan, Sean. Euthanasia: The Debate over the right to die. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Oct 1, 2000.

Cohen-Almagor, R. Euthanasia in the Netherlands: The policy and practice of mercy killing. Netherlands: Springer, Aug 3, 2004.

Devettere, Raymond. Practical decision making in health care ethics: Cases and concepts. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press, 2009.
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Criminal Justice Issue as a Police Detective

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61847527

Criminal Justice Issue

As a police detective, I handle the majority of homicide investigations with my partner, Officer X (X). We are investigating the brutal beating, rape and assault of a woman in our community who is now in a coma. Earlier that evening, officers responded to a complaint that a gang of young men were assaulting residents and two members of the gang, 14 years of age, were arrested. X interviewed both in separate rooms. We found that they had previous records for robbery and assault. X reports that both confessed and the case is closed. However, the case has reached national prominence due to the circumstances. A conviction will vindicate the police, but there are proprietary questions of Constitutional ights, Policy, and ethics that are bothering me and forcing an ethical decision.

Major Ethical and Legal Dilemmas:

The youths were 14, minors, and entitled to have parents or…… [Read More]


Deverette, R. (2002). Introduction to Virtue Ethics. Washington, DC: Georgetown

Sandel, C. (2010). Justice: What's the Right Thing to Do? New York: Farar, Straus and Giroux.

Sissler, D. (2001). The Needs of the Few Outweigh the Needs of the Many. Retrieved from Davidsissler.com website:  http://www.davidsisler.com/05-09-2001.htm
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DSM-IV-TR & Differential Diagnosis the Client Marie

Words: 684 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44784858

DSM-IV-TR & Differential Diagnosis)

The client, Marie is a single, 25-year-old white female who is employed in an emergency room in a large urban hospital. Marie came to treatment on her own because of an inability to sleep, feeling down, and problems functioning at work.

DSM-IV-TR Diagnosis

Major depressive disorder

Anxiety disorders

Eating disorder

Sleeping disorder

Adjustment disorder

Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention

Axis IV

Occupational Problems

Other psychosocial problems

Axis V

Rating Level of Symptoms

Transient, slight symptoms that are reasonable responses to stressful situations; more than a slight impartment I social, occupational, or school functioning.

Differential Diagnosis

A differential diagnosis in this case must take into consideration other factors that may be a focus of clinical attention including conditions or problems for which the client may seek or be referred for professional help including: (1) relational problems; (2) problems related to abuse or…… [Read More]

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David Berkowitz Known as Son

Words: 3683 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91413393

She notified police and the parking ticket (because Berkowitz had parked too close to a fire hydrant) was traced to Berkowitz. But the police were just thinking that Berkowitz might be a witness; however, when the Yonkers police searched that Galaxie belonging to Berkowitz, they found a rifle and a .44 caliber Bulldog pistol -- along with detailed maps of the crime scenes that Berkowitz had created with his lust for killing women.

"hat took you so long?" Berkowitz is reported to have asked as the officers arrested him. In time during questioning, Berkowitz either played like he was mentally unbalanced -- which he of course was -- or was just rambling because he claimed that the dog he had killed was possessed by some kind of demon, and that the dog was demanding that Berkowitz go and do the killing. Other claims by Berkowitz included that he was a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Breslin, Jimmy. (1993). 25th Anniversary. New York Magazine, 26(16), 153-154.

Brogaard, Berit. (2012). The Making of a Serial Killer / the Superhuman Mind. Psychology Today. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://www.psychologytoday.com.

Caputi, Jane. (1987). The Age of Sex Crime. Madison, WI: Popular Press.

Crossman, Ashley. (2013). Labeling Theory. About.com. Retrieved March 15, 2013, from http://sociology.about.com.
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Truth vs Justice

Words: 2374 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38028870

Domestic Homicide in South Carolina

The law, in its majestic equality, forbids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under bridges, to beg in the streets, and to steal bread," wrote French intellectual and social critic Anatole France in The Red Lily in 1894 and in doing so he summarized the often great distance that exists between laws and people's concepts of justice and truth. Justice is a slippery concept and the truth even more so - and this is perhaps nowhere more evident than in the practices of the "truth commissions" established in a number of countries newly accustoming themselves to democracy. The Orwellian sound of "truth commission" is not inappropriate, for the connection between the actions of these commissions - in places like Argentina, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala and South Africa - and the truth of experience or any sense of absolute justice was both tenuous…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice - Gender and

Words: 3438 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98457029

In that regard, Agnew's version of strain theory no longer explains the marked difference in male and female homicide rates, simply because it downplays the importance of the types of strains described by Merton. Whereas Merton's strains were associated more with the types of failures more likely to be experienced by males, Agnew's strains included many types of strains that, at least arguably, could be said to plague females even more than males.

Merton conceived of the source of strain as predominantly a function of identity roles and social success as defined in the cultural environment; Agnew added the many other sources of potential strain that relate to expectations of the individual rather than necessarily of society (Macionis 2003). More specifically, Agnew (1992) suggested that individuals vary substantially from one another and form many elements of their ideal "role model" more autonomously: whereas some individuals (of either gender) may value…… [Read More]


Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a General Strain Theory. Criminology, Vol. 30, No.1, pp. 47-87.

Broidy, L. (2001). Test of General Strain Theory; Criminology, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 9-35

Dugan, L., Nagin, D., Rosenfeld, R. (1999). Explaining the Decline in Intimate Partner Homicide: The Effects of Changing Domesticity, Women's Status, and Domestic Violence Resources; Homicide Studies, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 187-214. Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life 17th Edition.

Boston: Allyn & Bacon
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Temporal Monthly Distribution of Death

Words: 1847 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52329987

In the first instance there were no control groups or references to studies that showed possible alternative results from the same sample group. The argument can therefore be criticized for being far too spurious and general with little clear definition of terms.

Furthermore it must be mentioned that the argument itself is not always clear and well expressed and there is very little effort to show consistency between some of the findings. For example the connection between geophysical aspects and both homicide and suicide is based on a very little reference to other studies or to any factual and consistent evidence.

Summary and Conclusion

The above article has both positive and negative aspects. From a positive point-of-view the investigation of a rather unorthodox theory about extreme human behavior is to be applauded. There is some proof and evidence that geophysical aspects can and do have an influence on human behavior.…… [Read More]


Stouple et al. (2005) Suicide-Homicide Temporal Interrelationship, Links with Other Fatalities, and Environmental Physical Activity. Crisis. Vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 85-89.

O'Shea R, (2002) Writing for Psychology: An Introductory Guide for Students. Harcourt Brace: Sydney.

Burton, L.J. (2002) an interactive approach to writing essays and research reports in psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Milton, QLD
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Deterrent Effect if One Exists

Words: 4915 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71249720

It is the premeditated and cold-blooded killing of a human being by the state. This cruel, inhuman and degrading punishment is done in the name of justice. It violates the right to life as proclaimed in the Universal Declaration of Human ights. Amnesty International opposes the death penalty in all cases without exception regardless of the nature of the crime, the characteristics of the offender, or the method used by the state to kill the prisoner. (Abolish the death penalty, 2008, p. 2).

Despite these increasingly vocal protestations from at home and abroad, a majority of the states in America continue to retain the death penalty as a lawful punishment for capital offenses today. While the trend toward abolishing capital punishment was apparent in recent years, it would seem reasonable to assert that the death penalty will continue to be practiced in the United States for the foreseeable future and…… [Read More]


Abolish the death penalty. (2008). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.amnesty.org/en/death-penalty.

Bird, D.G. (2003). Life on the line: Pondering the fate of a substantive due process challenge to the death penalty. American Criminal Law Review, 40(3), 1329.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Burke, A.S. (2006). Improving prosecutorial decision making: Some lessons of cognitive science. William and Mary Law Review, 47(5), 1587-1588.
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Blackstone With Washington Criminal Code the American

Words: 659 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34858755

lackstone with Washington Criminal Code

The American legal system derives almost entirely from the ritish common law system. That is why, in America, if there is no precedent for a particular set of facts at trial, the court will look to common law from centuries before America even existed as a nation.

The similarities are even more noticeable in criminal law than they are in civil law. The homicide passages in lackstone's descriptions of the law, for instance, are strikingly similar in many ways to the homicide paragraphs in the Washington Criminal Code.

lackstone divides homicide into three separate branches: justifiable homicide, excusable homicide and felonious homicide. All three are the "killing of any human creature," but there are significant differences between the three, according to lackstone. (lackstone, 71)

Justifiable homicide can be due to necessity (a public official putting a felon to death as prescribed by the law, for…… [Read More]


Blackstone, Williams. "Commentaries on the Laws of England, Volume IV, 1796."

Washington Criminal Code, Section 9A.32
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Criminal Justice Stand Your Ground Law

Words: 2875 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 394378

Of even more significance is that twelve states go ahead to extend litigation costs and attorney fees "to a shooter who prevails in a civil lawsuit, creating a strong disincentive for a shooting victim to pursue justice in the civil system" (Mayors against Illegal Guns 6)

The Reach of Stand Your Ground Law

Although the Stand Your Ground Law is largely and extensively linked to Martin's case, a 2012 investigation by Tampa Bay Times revealed that "the Martin incident is far from the only example of the law's reach" (Lee). The relevance of this law as a major factor in judges' decisions, acquittals, and prosecutors' decisions, some of which involved cases that did not result in the victim's death, cannot be overstated (Lee).

In 2012, a Louisiana court acquitted Byron Thomas of all charges relating to an incident in which the 21-year-old, after a marijuana transaction turned sour, opened fire,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gardner, Thomas and Anderson Terry. Criminal Law. Stamford: CT: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.

Havis, Devonya. Pursuing Trayvon Martin: Historical Contexts and Contemporary Manifestations of Racial Dynamics. Ed. Yancy George and Jones Yanine. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013. Print.

Lee, Suevon. "Five 'Stand Your Ground' Cases You Should Know About." Pro-Publica, 2012. Web. http://www.propublica.org/article/five-stand-your-ground-cases-you-should-know-about

Mayors against Illegal Guns. "Stand Your Ground Laws and Their Effect on Violent Crime and the Criminal Justice System." Mayors against Illegal Guns, 2013. Web. 8 May 2014  https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/images/ShootFirst_v4.pdf
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Impact of the Gun Control on the States

Words: 3770 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89925838

United States, in accordance with crime and violence, has been having highest rates of crime and violence in the world, and largely most of them violence are related to gun. U.S. Department of Justice has indicated that in the United States, violence related to guns consists of the largest violence rate. For example, back in year 1995.

Homicides who were involved in gun violence were about 68% out of which 60% were the cases related to handguns. Another example is that more than 34 thousand peopled died due to the gunfire in 1996 out of which 41% were outcomes of homicide in the United States (Shay et al., 1999).

The first law on gun control came about in 1911 in the State of New York. However, the most significant law on gun control was the rady bill which was passed in 1994. According to this law there is a restriction…… [Read More]


Box, G.E.P. And G.M. Jenkins. (1976). Time-series Analysis: Forecasting and Control. San Francisco: Holden-Day.

Campbell, R.E., Tour, O., Palmer, A.E., Steinbach, P.A., Baird, G.S., Zacharias, D.A. And Tsien, R.Y. (2002) A monomeric red fluorescent protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 99, 7877- 7882.

Cook, P.J. (1983). The Influence of Gun Availability on Violent Crime Patterns. In N. Morris and M. Tonry (Ed.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research, Vol. 4. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Cook, P.J. (1980) Reducing Injury and Death Rates in Robbery, Policy Analysis 6: 21-45
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A New Look at Implementation of the Brady Act

Words: 4939 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69641908

Corrections/Police -- Criminal Justice -- The Brady Act

Seven-Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis

The Seven Stage Checklist for Program/Policy Planning and Analysis was employed to examine The Brady Act. In Stage 1, Analyzing the Problem: the problem was found to be at least four serious gaps in the existing Brady Act. Those gaps include: the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online; the lack of strong federal law criminalizing gun trafficking; the ready availability of military-style weapons and high-capacity magazines with more than 10 rounds; and the Tiahrt Order passed by Congress and preventing the public from knowing the identities of gun traffickers and how they operate.

Though the Brady Act suffers from several gaps, the lack of required background checks for all gun sales, including private sales at gun shows and online was addressed. Stage 2: Setting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cornell University Law School. (1997). Printz v. United States (95-1478), 521 U.S. 898 (1997). Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/95-1478.ZS.html/

Cornell University Law School. (2008, June 26). District of Columbia v. Heller (No. 07-290), 478 F. 3d 370, affirmed. Retrieved from www.law.cornell.edu: https://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/07-290.ZS.html

Haberman, M. (2016, January 21). Gun control groups say Bernie Sanders is the wrong candidate to support. Retrieved from www.nytimes.com:  http://www.nytimes.com /politics/first-draft/2016/01/21/gun-control-groups-say-bernie-sanders-is-the-wrong-candidate-to-support/

Kessler, J., & Trumble, S. (2013, August 5). The virtual loophole: A survey of online gun sales. Retrieved from www.thirdway.org: http://www.thirdway.org/report/the-virtual-loophole-a-survey-of-online-gun-sales
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Death Penalty When it Comes

Words: 2809 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26777181

Justice Kennedy, writing for the majority, warned about broader problems with the capital punishment. "When the law punishes by death, it risks its own sudden descent into brutality, transgressing the constitutional commitment to decency and restraint." He took into account the many dangers of the death penalty and concluded it should be restricted to homicides (Death Penalty Information Center, 2008).

The main question regarding the research for or against capital punishment as a deterrent is whether to continue the death penalty because the findings are inconsistent or to stop it for the same reason. esearchers adelet and Borg (2000), in fact, say that the findings impact how Americans perceive the death penalty. They showed how the conclusions of the research over the past several decades have influenced the debate pro-or con capital punishment. Their literature review in relationship to historical events "suggests changes in the nature of death penalty debates…… [Read More]


Berk, R. (2005) New Claims about Execution and General Deterrence: Deja Vu All over Again? Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 2(2), 303-330

Death Penalty Information Center. Retrieved May 22, 2008.


Dezhbakhsh, H., Rubin, P. & Shepherd, J. (2003) Does capital punishment have a deterrent effect? American Law and Economics Review, 344.
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Anti-Gun Control Gun Control Is

Words: 4001 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39573647

Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).

The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Case for Gun Control. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at  http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~zj5j-gttl/guns.htm 

Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States, 1962-1994. Retrieved November 05 from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/firarmsu.htm

Firearm Injury and Death from Crime, 1993-97. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Statistics Web site. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/fidc9397.htm

Firearms and Crime Statistics. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S.
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Why Stand Your Ground Laws Are Bad for States

Words: 3460 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26547647

Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal



Stand Your Ground Laws: A Cry for epeal

Academic and Professional Writing for Graduate Students (LS526-01)

The "Stand Your Ground Law" is one of the most controversial laws in recent years and has gained notoriety due to its enactment in thirty-three states so far. Advocates of the law claim that it reduces the threat of violence in society, but the statistics prove otherwise as research shows that the law actually inflames race-based violence (Purdie-Vaughn, Williams, 2015). As such there are several states that have either taken a wary view of the law and have decided to steer clear of it, or have raised issue(s) with enactment of the law while considering it. It is because of this scrutiny the law has been misunderstood by some people, abused by others, and just…… [Read More]


Alabama Criminal Code, Section 13A-3-23. Retrieved from http://codes.lp.findlaw.com/alcode/13A/3/2/13A-3-23

Campbell, R. C. (2014). Unlawful/Criminal Activity: The Ill-Defined and Inadequate Provision

for a "Stand Your Ground" Defense. Barry Law Review, 20(1): 3-21.

Cook, R. (2012). The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. 'Stand Your Ground Law' in Effect in Georgia More Than 100 Years. Retrieved: http://www.ajc.com/news/news/local/stand-your-ground-law-in-effect-in-georgia-more-th/nQSgW/
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Training of the Metropolitan Police

Words: 12930 Length: 47 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50785881

Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.

These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.

esearch Questions

What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?

What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?

Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?

What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?

Significance of the Study

esearch Design…… [Read More]


Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.

About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view, a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.

Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.

Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
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Violent Juvenile Offenders the Innocent

Words: 2799 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69323110

Though these factors can be an influence on the juvenile's choice to commit a crime, the ultimate cause of the crime was the juvenile's own cost-benefit analysis, according to this model.

A practical exploration of this model can be done using Jacob Ind, one of the five Colorado teenagers sentenced to life in prison without parole in Frontline's documentary, "Kids Who Get Life" (Bikel 2007). Ind was convicted of killing his mother and stepfather after years of sexual abuse. Ind defended himself saying that he did not understand the permanency of murder and just wanted the abuse to end (Bikel 2007). While other models may suggest that the cause of Ind's violent offense was his abuse and his misunderstanding of the consequences of murder, ational Choice Theory would contend that the abuse and misunderstandings influenced his behavior, although they did not cause it. What caused his behavior, the theory would…… [Read More]


Boehnke, Klaus and Dagmar Bergs-Winkels. (2002). Juvenile Delinquency Under Conditions of Rapid Social Change. Sociological Forum. 17 (1), 57-79.

Bikel, Ofra. (2007). When Kids Get Life. [Frontline]. Boston: Washington

Educational Foundation.

Hemer, Karen. (1997). Socioeconomic Status, Subcultural Definitions, and Violent
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Criminology Clearance and Crime Rates

Words: 2911 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56316859

In fact, and quite surprisingly, one of the key findings of the Rand Report was that 50% of the nation's detectives could be eliminated without having a significant effect on clearance rates in the country (O'Connor). This conclusion flies in the face of conventional wisdom on police work, yet was fully supported by the exhaustive study. The study was funded by the National Institute of Justice and was designed to monitor the effectiveness of detectives in clearing cases in a variety of situations. Surveys were designed and then sent to local and county police departments throughout the country with at least 150 fulltime personnel or a municipal jurisdiction of more than 100,000 people. In total, three hundred agencies were solicited, of which 153 responded with answers to the survey. hile all of the data from those 153 agencies was used in the compilation of the study, twenty-five of the respondents…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Christianson, Scott. "Statistics Showing Falling Crime Rates Don't Tell Whole Story." Desert News (Salt Lake City). 22 Jan. 2006. 23 Nov. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20060122/ai_n16018257.

Livingston, Jay. "Crime and the Media: Myths and Reality." USA Today. May 1994. 23 Nov. 2007 http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1272/is_n2588_v122/ai_15282521/pg_3.

O'Connor, Tom. "Traffic, Patrol, and Detective Operations." 13 Oct. 2005. 23 Nov. 2007 http://faculty.ncwc.edu/toconnor/205/205lect08.htm.

Purpura, Philip P. Criminal Justice: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann, 1996.
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Business Law Justice at Bat the Story

Words: 3165 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58122676

Business Law

Justice at Bat

The Story of Three Strikes Legislation

It has been said that only two things are certain - death and taxes. Yet to these two inevitabilities, many Americans would add a third -- crime. The fear of becoming the victim of a crime - especially of a violent crime - haunts many otherwise rational individuals. Violence, it seems, is everywhere. One need only turn on the television to be assailed by images of murder, rape, and physical assault. And, it is not only Hollywood that is the villain. Both local and national newscasts revel in the depiction and discussion of violent acts: a child is kidnapped; a pregnant housewife disappears and is later found murdered; a ruthless killer stalks the streets of a large city. The media like to quote facts. Just yesterday, on April 27th, it was reported that the murder rate in California's most…… [Read More]

References http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000489537

Bellamy, Richard. "Crime and Punishment." History Review (1997): 24+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=27447744

Davey, Joseph Dillon. The New Social Contract: America's Journey from Welfare State to Police State. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1995.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=35252808
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Mothers Killing Their Babies First

Words: 2566 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3236577

Methods of Killing

The methods of committing neonaticide, infanticide, and filicide are as diverse as the women who commit the tragic crime. According to ouge-Maillart, Jousset, Gaudin, Bouju, and Penneau (2005), strangulation, head trauma, drowning, and suffocation were the four most frequent methods of filicide. However, in these researchers' study, some mothers used what they deem to be 'more active' methods. Five children died after being struck by their mothers' fists. Two women in the study used a firearm to shoot their children. Two died after being hit with a heavy object, by their mother -- one a monkey wrench the other a stone. One woman slit her 13-year-old's throat. In one case, a 3-year-old boy died by defenestration -- being thrown out of the window. Lastly, a 10-month-old died of starvation and dehydration, after being deprived of food and water for 10 days.

Krischer, Stone, Sevecke, and Steinmeyer's (2007)…… [Read More]


Atwood, T. (Feb 2008). Comment: National Council for Adoption's response to the Texas Safe Haven Study. Child Maltreatment, 13(1). pp. 96-97.

Craig, M. (Feb 2004). Perinatal risk factors for neonaticide and infant homicide. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 97. pp. 57-61.

Friedman, S., Horwitz, S., & Resnick, P. (2005) Child murder by mothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162. pp. 1578-1587.

Kauppi, A. Kumpulainen, K. Vanamo, T. Merikanto, J and Karkola K. (2008)Maternal depression and filicide. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 11. pp. 201-206.
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Death Penalty Act as a

Words: 2544 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92239087

However, the numbers used to report murder rates only tell us the number of crimes that have occurred. They tell us nothing about crimes that were never committed because of fear of the death penalty. The conundrum is that there is no realistic way to measure something that did not happen in the general population, at least in a way that would be credible from a scientific point-of-view.

Those that support the death penalty tend to place more emphasis on the credibility of econometric methods of analysis. They can find many studies to support their position among this group of analyses. They discredit comparative methods of study that do not support their position. Both proponents and their opposition have attempted to reduce the issue of whether the death penalty acts as a deterrent to murder to one of credibility of the research findings. However, this argument fails, as there are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Archer, D. And Gartner, R (1984). Homicide and the death penalty: A cross-national test of deterrence hypothesis. In Archer and Gartner, Violence and Crime in Cross-

National Perspective, New Haven: Yale University Press.

Dezhbaksh, H., Robin, P., and Shepherd, J. (2002). Does capital punishment have a Deterrent effect? New evidence from post-moratorium panel data. American Law and Economics Review 5(2): 344-376.Retrieved February 5, 2007, from: http://aler.oupjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/5/2/344.

Fagan, J. (2005). Deterrence and the Death Penalty: A Critical Review of New Evidence.
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Police Reform in Post Authoritarian Brazil

Words: 12011 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41646569

Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil

A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).

The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]


Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.

Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.

Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.

Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
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Ownership of Guns by the Public Has

Words: 1603 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80138628

ownership of guns by the public has been a topic of much needed debates for quite some time now. Various organizations and support groups have been in action for the pro-or anti-views on whether a citizen should be allowed to own and keep a gun at his person or his property. Many of the people who own guns do so for hunting, self-defense or for their collecting pleasure. But there have been innumerous cases in which the use the gun has resulted in death of another person. The issue of gun control pertains to those laws and regulations that would result in a limited number of people buying the guns and thus control the distribution of guns so that they do not fall into the wrong hands.

Violence no matter where it occurs is usually a traumatic, tragic event, but when it happens in our schools to our children, it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Federal Bureau of Investigation, "Uniform Crime Rep" 1999.

A www.fbi.org (Accessed March 20, 2002)

Kleck, Gary. "Targeting Guns: Firearms and Their Control." New York, Walter de Gruyter, Inc., 1997

Kellermann, Arthur L, MD, "Suicide in the Home in Relation to Gun Ownership." The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 327, (1992): pages 34-36.
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Causes of Juvenile Delinquency Criminology Research Paper

Words: 438 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60879058

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Criminology esearch Paper

lack of social support in the home environment is the primary cause of juveniles' involvement in violent crime

Analysis on the eal Causes of Juvenile Homicide

juvenile delinquency remains a serious concern for state and federal administrators in the U.S. Despite taking a plunge from their peak level in 1994, the rates of juvenile involvement in crime are still relatively high. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, juveniles between the ages of 10 and 17 accounted for 8% of all homicides committed in the country in 2010, with an arrest rate of 225 for every 100,000 youth. These statistics have spurred researchers' interest in trying to find out exactly what causes juveniles to commit crime, particularly violent crime. Statistics from the Census Bureau indicate that most crimes perpetrated by juvenile offenders are committed between 3 p.m and 7 p.m. This can rightly be…… [Read More]


Crime Solutions. (n.d.). Juveniles. Crime Solutions. Retrieved 5 February 2015 from http://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=5

Heide, K. (1997). Juvenile Homicide in America: How can we Stop the Killing? Journal of Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 15(2), 203-220.
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Sweden's Current Justice System Overview

Words: 3924 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32355412

In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.

Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…… [Read More]


An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at  http://boreale.konto.itv.se/samieng.htm 

Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2138/a/14884

Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/8660/a/82943

Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
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Three Strikes Laws From the

Words: 4798 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9858190

herefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…… [Read More]

Trends: Crime, the Police, and Civil Liberties

Greg M. Shaw; Robert Y. Shapiro; Shmuel Lock; Lawrence R. Jacobs

1998 62:405-426. Public Opinion Quarterly
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Domectic Violence in the United States Domestic

Words: 2471 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54613415

Domectic Violence in the United States

Domestic Violence in the United States: A esearch Proposal

Domestic Violence in the United States:

Domestic violence is not a new phenomenon associated with modern times. It has been a common occurrence throughout history. From a social/cultural point-of-view, the woman was considered the property of the man and his duty was to discipline her and the children (and slaves/servants) with thorough beatings. Consistent with eighteenth-century English common law, the only concerns about this related to the thickness of the stick that the law allowed for the beatings. Although there were some earlier unenforced laws against spousal abuse, it was only as recently as the 1970s that the U.S. justice system began to view the problem with any seriousness and consideration of domestic violence as a crime. Until that time, social services for the victims of domestic violence were almost nonexistent (Bronfman, et al., 2005).…… [Read More]


Bronfman, Lois Martin, David Butzer, and Brian Stipak. (2005). The role of police in combating domestic violence in the United States: A case study of the Domestic Violence Reduction Unit, Portland police bureau.

Ellison, Louise. (2002). Prosecuting domestic violence without victim participation, Modern Law Review 65 834-858.

Karmen, Andrew. (2010) Crime victims: An introduction to Victimology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brook/Cole Publishing Co.

Rennison, Callie M. (2003) Intimate Partner Violence, 2000-2003. U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice. NCJ 197838.
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Fourth Amendment it Is a Traditional Belief

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16725417

Fourth Amendment

It is a traditional belief in America that a man's home is his castle, meaning that he is lord and master of his home and no one may enter, not even the government, without his permission. This was such an important issue among the American colonists that it was included into the Constitution when they broke away from Great Britain. In short, the fourth amendment states that no private property could be searched or seized without a proper warrant; and a warrant could not be issued without due cause. Over time belief in this absolute principle has gradually softened and a number of exceptions to this rule have come into place. Police and other authorities have been given exceptions to this rule in certain circumstances and it is not uncommon for evidence, that was gathered without a warrant, to be accepted in a trial. This is the situation…… [Read More]


"Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure." U.S. Government Printing Office.

Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-CONAN-2002/pdf/GPO-


Georgia v. Randolph, 278 G. 614,604 S.E. 2d 835. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/04-1067/#writing-ZS
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Query Results Online Database or

Words: 510 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14978830

Treatment does not simply mean taking care of the patient after a physical injury has occurred.

The CDC statistics confirm other studies which indicate that homicide rates for young, African-American males are rising. "The number of homicides involving black youths -- as victims and perpetrators -- surged by more than 30% from 2002 to 2007" according to a recent report by Northeastern University with guns being the most common method of death (Why are so many young black men being murdered, 2008, NP). The study also found that "426 black males ages 14-17 died in gun crimes -- 40% more than in 2000; nearly 1,000 young black males used guns to kill someone in 2007 -- 38% higher than in 2000" (Why are so many young black men being murdered, 2008, NP).

As well as helping patients on a personal level, providers can also take a role in attempting to…… [Read More]


Why are so many young black men being murdered? (2008). NPR. Retrieved:


WISQARS. (2013). Injury Mortality Report. Retrieved:

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Gang Intervention

Words: 726 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62894073

Gang Violence Interventions: Pulling Levers Programs

Gang Intervention

Over two decades of studies have shown partnerships between institutions and communities are required for effective and sustainable interventions to reduce gang violence, but the majority of intervention strategies have taken a reactionary approach, such as increasing policing efforts without addressing the underlying causes of gang violence (Gebo, Boyes-Watson, and Pinto-Wilson, 2010, p. 166). The lack of investment cognitive-behavioral interventions is evident by the prevalence of poorly designed studies investigating the effectiveness of such strategies, which makes drawing conclusions about their value difficult if not impossible (Fisher, Gardner, Montgomery, 2008).

A popular intervention strategy, at least among the law enforcement community, is the 'pulling levers' strategy (Braga, 2008). This strategy is essentially a problem-oriented approach to policing that involves choosing a crime problem, assembling an interagency working group, conducting research on the offender population, and coming up with a list of possible…… [Read More]


Braga, Anthony A. (2008). Pulling levers focused deterrence strategies and the prevention of gun homicide. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 332-343.

Fisher, Herrick, Gardner, Frances, Montgomery, Paul. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.

Gebo, Erika, Boyes-Watson, Carolyn, and Pinto-Wilson, Sayra. (2010). Reconceptualizing organizational change in the comprehensive gang model. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 166-173.