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Nigeria: Economic and Human Health
Lending Institutions, Healthcare, and Human Capital
Nigeria is the largest country in Africa and is home to 47% of the continent's population (World Bank, 2013). Nigeria is the largest oil exporter and holds the most natural gas reserves of any African country. According to the World Bank, these human and natural resources gives Nigeria the necessary ingredients for becoming one of the more prosperous nations in Africa and globally. Fueled primarily by oil exports, the Nigerian economy seems to be meeting this expectation by growing an average of 7.6% between 2003 and 2010; however, a recent softening of the oil market, which represents 75% of state revenues, has restricted the ability of the government to stabilize economic growth. Yet, foreign debt represents only 3% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP).
Despite the apparent success of Nigeria's economy the levels of poverty and unemployment remain…
Adegbite, Esther O., Ayadi, Folorunso S., and Ayadi, O. Felix. (2008). The impact of Nigeria's external debt on economic development. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 3(3), 285-301.
Amaefule, Everest. (2013, Jul. 22). Nigeria's debt rises to N7.93tn. Punch. Retrieved 3 Nov. 2013 from http://www.punchng.com/news/nigerias-debt-rises-to-n7-93tn/ .
Edo, Samson E. (2002). The external debt problem in Africa: A comparative study of Nigeria and Morocco. African Development Review, 14(2), 221-236.
Kim, Il-Ho, Muntaner, Carles, Chung, Haejoo, Benach, Joan, and EMCONET Network. (2010). Case studies on employment-related health inequalities in countries representing different types of labor markets. International Journal of Health Services, 40(2), 255-267.
automated age, human capital is very important in any company. In corporate organization, the significance of recruitment and the retention of human capital (HC) is critical in order to create the ongoing innovation required for a firm to be successful. Given the crisis that is evident in so many companies, it is necessary to deeply analyze key human capital trends relative to business as it has developed in recent years. The events in the last ten years have seriously affected human perceptions of the market and this makes an understanding of human capital more important than ever.
Certainly HC is an issue. Frequently, in the opinion of this author, humans are always at the center of business. After all, machines and rocks do not buy commodities. People do. oyal and O'Donnel theorize that commoditization has made it necessary to better analyze market intangibles such as HC. This type…
Behrenson, A. (2001). Enron's Collapse: the Rating Agencies; Debt Rankings
Finally Fizzle, but the Deal Fizzled First. Available:
ttp://www.nytimes.com/2001/11/29/business/enron-s-collapse-rating-gencies-debt-rankings-finally-fizzle-but-deal-fizzled.html. Last accessed
20th Sept 2011.
A Strategy to Manage Human Capital in a MNE
Multinational enterprises may face many challenges, one important issue is the way in which human capital is managed and leveraged in order to create value. Most large organizations will have a variety in their employee base in terms of cultural background, native languages, religion and educational backgrounds. As the firm expand internationally the variety of employee differences is likely to increase. Most organizations have strategies that they believe will be fair to the employees, these are often based on the concept of equality. It is argued that if all employees are treated in the same way, there is no difference that could lead to discrimination or bias. This approach to managing employees is based in the requirements of anti-discrimination legislation, where the optimal approach was deemed to be that which would reduce any potential feeling of unfairness as well as…
Konrad, A.M.; Prasad, P; Pringle, J. M, (2005), Handbook of Workplace Diversity, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage
Loker, J; Franz, J, (2011), The Toyota Way to Continuous Improvement, McGraw-Hill
Monga Manjit, (2008), HRM practices to manage multicultural workforce: do the recommended best practices work for small business? A case study, European Journal of Management 8(2), 168-179
Thomas David A; Ely Robin J, (2006), "Making Diversity Matter; A New Paradigm for Managing Diversity," in Fullan, Michael (eds) (2006), Educational Leadership, John Wiley & Sons
It has been well established that economic success is often related to the skills, knowledge, and abilities that individuals possess. (Keeley, 2007, p.3) The greater the ability and education a person has, the more success they can expect in their professional careers. This knowledge, training, and ability is referred to as "Human Capital" because a person's abilities often translate into economic success in the workplace. However, the concept of Human Capital is not only dependent upon a person's individual skills, but also access to training and education opportunities. Because these opportunities are often linked to a person's inherent economic and social standing, Human Capital resources are not always accessible to the people with the greatest skills. Therefore, those who do have access to Human Capital resources are not always the most skilled people, but the people with the best personal resources. In this way, the theory of Human…
Becker, Gary Stanley. (1993). Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis…."
USA: University of Chicago Press. Print.
Becker, Gary Stanley. (n.d.). "Human Capital." The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics.
Retrieved from http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/HumanCapital.html
The second phase would include using these metrics in order to gather the appropriate results. Finally, the third phase implies interpreting those results and using them to gain a competitive strategic advantage on the market.
The phase dealing with the development of qualitative and quantitative metrics brings about some of the usual challenges in terms of measuring things: what metrics best reflect the performance of a certain activity? In the case of human capital, quantitative metrics can sometimes be a simple as sales growth per employee or changes in financial performance and productivity.
There are several problems, however, with this type of approach. The direct link between the changes in financial performance and human capital results is difficult to prove and, quite often, a negative change in financial performance is not necessarily caused by negative performances of human capital. For example, external factors, such as the current economic crisis, could…
1. Armstrong, Michael (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice (10th ed.). London: Kogan Page
2. Fitz-enz, Jac. February 2009. The ROI of Human Capital: Measuring the Economic Value of Employee Performance. AMACOM; Second Edition.
3. GAO 2004. A Guide For Assessing Strategic Training and Development Efforts in the Federal Government. On the Internet at http://books.google.com/books?id=MvBOBDmbOrYC&pg=PA1&dq=human+capital+management#v=onepage&q=human%20capital%20management&f=false . Last retrieved on August 1, 2009
4. Ingham, Jon. 2006. Strategic Human Capital Management: Creating Value Through People. Butterworth-Heinemann; 1 edition
According to statistics, it has been noted that the current workforce is growing more and more disloyal and dissatisfied. The companies that do not respond to the current trends will end up paying a high price later. This is because, with the improvement in the job market, these companies will end up losing key employees to their competitors, which leads to reduced employee productivity. Companies need to establish a well-designed employee compensation and benefits package in order to retain its top talent and attract others. There are numerous companies that desire to attract, retain, and motivate their employees in order to meet the company's strategic objectives. Currently, employees are considered to be part of the company's assets because they have to be effectively and efficiently managed. There are numerous instruments that companies can use to attract, retain, and motivate employees. Compensation and benefits are some of the tools that companies…
human capital development United States human capital development countries a 2-page, double-spaced paper. Support observations conclusions properly formatted text citations references assigned readings academic sources.
Human capital development
Within the contemporaneous business community, the employee enjoys a favorable position. Protected by laws and legislations, trained and motivated, the employee of the modern day society is as developed as has ever been. Or at least this is what the textbooks say. To assess the reality, it is important to look at the status of human capital development in three different states -- the United States of America, Turkey and China.
Within the United States, the employees are well treated and rewarded. They are continually presented with opportunities of personal and professional developments and the corporations in the U.S. are a symbol of the American culture. This can be best observed relative to the corporations that have expanded outside the U.S., such…
Hickman, C.R., 2005, Management malpractice: how to cure unhealthy management practices that disable your organization, Adams Media
2011, The world factbook -- GPD per capita, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2004rank.html?countryName=China&countryCode=ch®ionCode=eas&rank=126#ch last accessed on July 13, 2011
Gender inequality index, United Nations Development Programme, http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2010_EN_Table4_reprint.pdf last accessed on July 13, 2011
Intangible Assets: Human Capital -- Its Management and elevance to Organizations
In essence, intangible assets, according to Kaplan and Norton (2013) can be categorized into three; human capital, information capital, and organization capital. It is important to note that intangible assets are great relevance to any business. Often, however, their monetary value outside the formal or perceived boundaries of a business is diminished. In my opinion, the most important intangible asset an organization, including mine, could have is human capital. This particular intangible asset also comes across as being the most difficult to manage.
Human capital, in the words of Kaplan and Norton (2013) includes "employee skills, talent, and knowledge." In my opinion, when it comes to the implementation of the organizational strategy, the relevance of this particular asset cannot be overstated. For a business to be successful, we need people oriented capabilities. None of the other two kinds of…
Baron, A. (2007). Human Capital Management: Achieving Added Value through People. Philadelphia: Kogan Page Publishers.
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D.P. (2013). Strategy Maps: Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Outcomes. New York, NY: Harvard Business Press.
Income Inequality and Education
A Human Capital Inequality and the Composition of Education Expenditure
Hwang, Jinyoung. (2011). A cross-country analysis of human capital inequality and the composition of education expenditure. European Journal of Social Sciences, 24 (1):
According to Hwang (2011), it has been observed in previous literature that substantially inequitable societies in terms of income distribution tend to spend more on tertiary education (university-level education) than lower-level education. "Wealth distribution is a plausible explanation for the distributional bias of government expenditure on education, as long as the distribution of wealth determines the existence and number of organized group[s] in an economy" (Hwang 2011: 97). This discrepancy could be explained by the fact that the rich tend to send their children to private schools not subsidized by the state for lower-level education, or to better-funded, locally funded secondary institutions and thus only need substantial federal support for education at the…
As Pettito and Kovelman (2003) point out, conditions for becoming bilingual are youth, consistent exposure to both languages, and practice in a range of contexts. The ELL teacher cannot do much about the first condition -- but consistent exposure to the L2 and providing a range of contexts are two things the ELL teacher can do. Each of these practices can be achieved in the following five ways: 1) reading in a variety of formats, 2) speaking with a variety of individuals (making the ELL speak with peers, adults, strangers, etc.), 3) learning grammar and practicing grammar skills (diagramming exercises on the board are a good way to make this happen, 4) taking field trips so that the ELLs are exposed to new surroundings and giving them questionnaires that they must fill out by asking people questions on the field trip,…
Pettito, L. A., & Kovelman, I. (2003). The Bilingual Paradox: How signing-speaking bilingual children help us to resolve bilingual issues and teach us about the brain's mechanisms underlying all language acquisition. Learning Languages, 8(3), 5-18.
Additionally, as a result of the new program, the standard operating procedures of the company will need to be fundamentally altered. This cannot be done casually. A new employee handbook must be issued. The task of formal revision of company policies in writing will be accomplished by a committee headed by each department, which I will supervise. This must begin posthaste, as it will take an extensive period of time in terms of restructuring incentives, defining recruiting objectives, and putting into writing how the incentive structure will function. At some point, we may wish to consult with current employees for advice in fine-tuning the program, which will take time.
After these human capital policies and procedures are revised, I am confident that our company will be able to grow and thrive. Throughout the process I will solicit input from all department heads: this will be a truly collaborative endeavor.
Lending Institutions, Health Care, And Human Capital
Human Capital, its use and Gender Disparity
Gender plays crucial roles in decision-making and resource allocations ideal for economic growth. Mothers' human capital improves child education and health, determining the well-being of the next generations (Finlay, 2007). Women Empowerment tends to allow for allocation of resources to more productive means, serving as relevant measure for improving economic outturn in the long run (Baldacci, 2004). Despite of the rather concrete understanding and appreciation gender disparity in human capital and its uses, it remains a key policy issue in both developing and developed economies.
The ole Health Plays in Developing Economies
Finlay (2007) elucidates that health does play a role in economic development. He showed that health influences economic growth through education incentive effects. Finlay went further to say that, a healthy individual tend to live longer, and has the impetus to undertake investment in…
Baldacci, E.B. (2004). The impact of Poor Health on Total Factor Productivity. The Journal of Development Studies, 42(6), 918-938.
Bloom, D.E., & Canning, D. (2008). Health and Economic growth: "Reconciling the Micro andMacro Evidence." Cen ter on Democracy, Development, and The Rule of Law Working Paper No.42. Pp 2, 3. .
Bloom, D.E., Canning, D., & Sevilla, J. (2004). The Effect of Health on Economic Growth: AProduction Function Approach. World Development, 32(1), 1-13.
Finlay, J. (2007). The Role of Health In Economic Development. Program on the Global Demography of Aging. PGDA Working Paper No. 21
We need to create roadmaps that clearly outline what their positions entail, and what we expect from them. We do expect a lot from our new recruits, as we should. If we wish for our new recruits to rise to the occasion, then we will need an Induction Day program.
Induction Day will entail motivating the new employees, making them feel welcome and encouraged. They will be developed as members of our organization, expected to contribute and make suggestions. The new recruits will develop a sense of pride and identity working for our organization and representing us to our clients, as the recruits make the transition from door-to-door sales to more challenging and rewarding positions in the company. As the new entrants feel more at home in their working environment, their roles will be clarified too. They will know what is expected of them, and can generate the sales that…
Human capital is used for acquiring knowledge and skills which increase individuals' value and productivity. Such skills are experience, training, and education. These skills aids in providing resources to enhance economic growth, and produce new businesses and technologies.
Despite affording costs in the United States, college education has raised individual's income. More educated persons have higher IQs and well educated and rich parents. Similarly, above hundred other nations with diverse cultures and economic systems, educated people have the same standards.
From the viewpoint of individuals, the college education increases benefits and income, while from the viewpoint of society; it enhances desirable social norm and values, communication and democracy, and produces effective leaders. Its monetary benefits include lowering of the probability of unemployment. On the other hands, non-monetary benefits include psychological benefits i.e. social acceptance, ability to communicate better, and make wise decisions.
On the labor market experience, obtained…
Alan Nelson (1984). Some Issues Surrounding the Reduction of Macroeconomics to Microeconomics. Philosophy of Science 51 (4):573-594.
Don Ross (1995). Real Patterns and the Ontological Foundations of Microeconomics. Economics and Philosophy 11 (1):113.
Julianne Nelson (1992). The Market Ethic: Moral Dilemmas and Microeconomics. Journal of Business Ethics 11 (4):317 -- 320.
It also appeals to conservatives who are interested in charity-based social supports, and wish to see individuals and communities, rather than the state, providing solutions to persistent problems such as poverty or social exclusion. It also holds appeal for neo-liberal states that seek to bolster social engagement without addressing structural issues such as changes in employment forms and decreases in social service expenditure (Bezanson,2006)."
On the other hand, the versatility of the theory has been criticized. Some have asserted that the theory may become "all things to all people" and as such it will become a theory that is not viable in any format (Bezanson,2006). With all these factors taken into consideration it is also apparent that, the theory of social capital does single out the importance of informal caring relationships to the quality of life afforded to individuals and groups (Bezanson,2006).
Each of the three aforementioned types of social…
Bezanson, K. (2006). Gender and the Limits of Social Capital. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 43(4), 427+.
Dakhli, M. De Clercq, D. (2004). Human capital, social capital, and innovation: a multicountry Study. ENTREPRENEURSHIP & REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, 16, MARCH (2004), 107-128
More Social Capital, Less Global Poverty? The World Bank. http://www1.worldbank.org/devoutreach/summer00/article.asp?id=67
Lending Institutions, Health Care and Human Capital
Explore whether or not funding from international lending institutions like the World Bank and the IMF are helping or hindering the social, economic, or political development of the country that you have selected. Support your response with examples.
For a long time now, developing nations have been reliant on the aid provided by foreign entities and global lending institutions to foster the growth and development of their economies and improve the standard of living of their citizens. International lending institutions, for instance World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) play significant roles in the economic, social, and political development of developing nations through the provision of monetary help and support. Furthermore, these institutions provide essential support to developing nations, such as India, for their general development. India is one of the fast developing nations in the world and these lending institutions have played…
Human esource Management
HM (Human esource Management) is the advancement and management of workers of an organization. It includes recruitment processes, representation and classification of positions at work. For these to be accomplished, laws governing human capital should be followed, and appropriate strategies should be kept in place including paying attention to the employees. Good Management of human capital, determines the success of many organizations
Action training for supervisors
Disciplinary training is a case for supervisors with multiple employees, which requires laws; this will prevent employees from taking advantage of their positions or employers causing difficulties in the workplace. The law requires that the employer complies with labor laws, which include approval of agreement, between the employer, supervisor and employee while working together. They are required to identify various laws like how to handle employers, their complaints at the work place while providing safety at work. The law requires that…
Inc, B. a. (2010). 5 Tips for Holding HR Policies That Hold. New York: Bussines and Legal Reports In.
Lastroner, R.A. (2001). The Nonprofit Managers Resource Director. New York: John Willis and Sons.
Shannon, K. (2011). The Complete Guide to Successfill Planning Event. Atlanta: Atlantic Publishing Company.
International Human esource Management
International Business H: Vital and Pivotal
During the 20th century, the human resources (H) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within a company. Human resources management has never been more vital to organizations than it is today as more and more businesses are going global. For globalizing companies, experienced, informed and effective Human esource people skills are becoming a strategic asset. In order to maximize the competitive potential of employees across global markets many multinational companies will need to revise their H policies and programs.
Table of Contents
Background and Significance
Discussion and Implications
During the 20th century, the human resources (H) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within…
Adeleye, Ifedapo. (2011). Theorizing the diffusion of International Human Resource
Practices:Towards an Integrated Conceptual Approach. International Journal of Business andManagement, 6(12), 254-269.
Baughn, C. Christopher, Neupert, Kent E., Anh, Phan Thi Thuc, and Hang, Ngo Thi
Minh.(2011). Social capital and human resource management in international joint ventures inVietnam: a perspective from a transitional economy. The International
Human Resources as Critical Investments
IN AN ORGANIZATION'S FUTURE
The purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not the human resources (HR) within an organization should be used as critical investments. To support this exploration, the terms "human capital," "human assets" and "intellectual capital" will be discussed, on the merits of each specific term as well as in relation to one another. Finally a conclusion will be drawn that determines if human resources should be viewed as any or all of the above terms, and if HR managers should utilize them as critical investments in an organization's future.
To begin, the overarching term "human resources management (HRM)" must be understood. HRM essentially is an all-encompassing term that refers to how an organization's human resources are used to achieve the organization's overall objectives or strategic directions. HRM includes a continuum of activities that can be compartmentalized into seven categories:…
Boone, Christophe, Arjen van Witteloostuijn. Industry Competition and Firm Human Capital. Small Business Economics. 1996. Vol. 8. Pp. 347-364.
Boudreau, John, Peter Ramstad. Measuring Intellectual Capital: Learning From Financial History. Human Resource Management. Fall, 1997. Vol. 36, No. 3. Pp. 343-356.
Bradley, Keith. Measuring Return on Human Assets in Companies. Feb., 1993. London School of Economics, Business Performance Group.
esults and acceptability of the item for key stakeholders
Da Vinci is a lucrative product that has immense contributions to the delivery of health services in many health centres globally. The effectiveness of the product lies on its new entry into the modern market. Da Vinci production and use have enlightened the public and hospital fraternities on new approaches of managing surgery operations. The resultant effects that are going to be felt after using the product are more increasing and beneficial than using the old mechanisms. The innate objective of the tool will improve on delivery of surgery services in ways that are more safe, effective, and affordable to the public. Da Vinci was first introduced as a safe way of improving surgery operations in the hospitals. Moreover, the use of the product had not been made public. Now that the machine will be available in many health…
Athanasiou, T., Debas, H.T., & Darzi, A. (2009). Key topics in surgical research and methodology. Berlin: Springer.
Bahouth, M.N., Bahouth, M.N., Blum, K., & Simone, S. (2013). Transitioning into hospital-based practice: A guide for nurse practitioners and administrators. New York, NY:
Springer Pub. Co.
Gitman, L.J., & McDaniel, C.D. (2009). The future of business: The essentials. Mason, OH:
Portfolio theory is a venture advance that permits investors to approximate both the expected risks and returns, as calculated statistically, for their investment portfolios (Investment Portfolio Management and Portfolio Theory, 2011). This is a very good technique that those in the investment field use in order to get the most out of their investments. This technique can also be used in the human resources arena in order for a company to get the most return on their employees.
H professionals in today's business world act as a partners with line management in order to resolve vital issues and add optimistically to the organizations bottom line. This H-business unit partnership guarantees that H goals are in line with the companies' general plan. The position of the human part of the company and its strategic goals makes sure that the company sustains its competitive edge by dealing with key matters…
Frederickson, Valerie. (n.d.). Risk Management and the HR Executive. Retrieved from http://www.vfandco.com/resources/PDFs/Risk_Management.pdf
Investment Portfolio Management and Portfolio Theory. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.greekshares.com/index-6.php
Ropella, Patrick B. (2009). The competitive advantage.(Human Capital Management). Retreived
Human esource Management Practice
Certain combinations of human resource management practices lead to superior outcomes for organizations. The H combination department is at the heart of organizational performance, productivity, turnover, profits, and market value outcomes. Employees are considered a source of non-duplicable and sustainable competitive advantage. By using the combinations in capabilities, resources, relationships and decisions presented by employees, organizations strategically position themselves thus avoiding threats and maximizing opportunities. Organizations and H combinations managers aim to generate strategic capacity by ensuring that an organization acquires a skilled, committed and motivated workforce. Integration of H combinations issues, organization performance and H management systems in organizational strategic processes serve as a solution to business problems. The need to create and manage capabilities and skills and align such capabilities to organizational performance and future needs drives Human esource Management. As such, the H department plays a greater role in planning and implementing a…
Alipour, M., Salehi, M., & Shahnavaz, A. (2009). A study on-the-job training effectiveness: Empirical evidence of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management, 4 (11), 63-68.
Boxall, P., & Macky, K. (2009). Research and theory on high performance work systems: Progressing the high involvement stream. Human Resource Management Journal, 19, 3-23.
Harris, C.M., McMahan, C.G., & Wright, P.M. (2012). Talent and time together: the impact of human capital and overlapping tenure on unit performance. Personal Review, 41(4), 408-427.
Martin-Alcazar, F., Romero-Fernandez, P.M., & Gardey, G.S. (2005). Strategic human resource management: Integrating the universalistic, contingent, configutational and contextual perspectives. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15 (5), 633-659
Things run relatively smoothly overall, but they could be vastly improved if there were more communication channels and if more people in the company felt like HR personnel were more approachable and easier to talk to.
The Creation of Strategic Plans
So many things go into the creation of a strategic plan, that it is often very difficult to know where to even begin to make one, but this is one of the most important and helpful areas for anyone who is in HR, especially in a large company where planning is needed. The difficulty of it, though, is one reason why so many businesses do not have their own strategic plan. Some think they do not need one, especially if the business they are running is relatively small. Others find that the task is too daunting, and because they cannot see a good starting point, they assume the task…
Bartlett, C.A., & Ghoshal, S. (1995). Changing the Role of Top Management. Harvard Business Review: 132.
Bechtell, M. (1995). The management compass: Steering the corporation using Hoshin planning. New York, American Management Association.
Campbell, A., Goold, M., & Alexander, M. (1995). Corporate strategy: The quest for parenting advantage. Harvard Business Review, pp. 120-132.
Chuvala, B. (2002). Keeping up with change: human resource managers facing new challenges. Westchester County Business Journal.
Human esources Management - Maintaining a Competitive Edge in the Corporate Marketplace
Change continues to reshape the workplace. Today's H professional is called upon to help the organization retain its competitive edge in the marketplace. Along with representing the best interests of employees, H professionals assume the role of strategic partner, administrative expert, and change agent. H assumes a critical role in promoting the vision and shaping the focus of the company. H professionals must be skilled and knowledgeable business partners, able to wear many hats while demonstrating their own competencies in communication and decision-making skills. (Aghazadeh, 1999)
Today, H departments face many challenges. Some are conventional and continuing concerns.
Attract, retain and motivate employees;
Ensure legal and regulatory compliance;
Manage the human side of technological change.
Perhaps, most critically today however, progressive H departments are charged with adding value to the corporation as they seek to:
Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud (1999). Human Resource Management: Issues and challenges in the new millennium. Management Research News, 22(12) 19-32.
Ashbaugh, Sam and Rowan Miranda (2002). Technology for Human Resources Management: Seven Questions and Answers. Public Personnel Management, (31) 7.
Ball, Sarah (2002, Sept). How technology can make you look good. Employee Benefits, S9-11.
Barro, Tom. A Tangled Web of Partnerships. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2003 at http://www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=23780
In addition to supplying training so that workers can obtain and maintain entry-level jobs, training must be given that is based on national skills principles, assessments, and qualifications that will improve a participant's ability to compete successfully in the current global economy. This component will be the focus around which the other four HD training components will revolve. This training component will be broken down into five different categories: Job Training, Job-Looking Skills, Job-etention Skills, Lifetime Learning, and Life Abilities.
Job Looking Skills
Job etention Skills
1. Job Search 1. Personal esponsibilities 5. Job performance
2. Application/esume 2. Time Management 6. Interpersonal Skills
3. Interviewing 3. Economic Literacy 7. Learning Skills
4. Job Selection Process 4. Work Attitudes 8. Math Skills
Lifetime Learning Life Abilities
1. eflection 1. Consumer Buying 3. Preventative Health Care
2. Change Management 2. Parenting Skills 4. Community esources
1. Communication Styles 4. Observation…
Human Resources Development Program Evaluation Guide. (2010). Retrieved May 18, 2010,
from Web site:
"(O'Callaghan and Smits, nd) it is stated that estimations of the Gartner Group is that the majority of the data in organizations (75-80%) is in this state of unstructured format and is generally not easily located when it is needed by the organization.
O'Callaghan and Smits (nd) state that organizations tend to "maintain and variety of systems and databases in a complex ad-hoc architecture that does not seem to fulfill the needs for company-wide unstructured information in business processes, business functions and the extended enterprise." (O'Callaghan and Smits, nd) it is stated that document management (DM) systems focus on the organization and accessibility of files and contain the following parts in the DM system:
a) File storage;
b) File categorization;
d) Collaboration services;
e) Workflow services;
f) Versioning services; and g) Access services. (O'Callaghan and Smits, nd)
2) Organizations should not fail in implementation of 'Enterprise Content Management'…
To solve these emerging needs of the company to satisfy the demand in the market, it is necessary to invest into expanding of the services offered and shifting the existing concept of the club. Firstly, it is necessary to expand the space occupied by renting out additional premises and organizing Spa procedures there. This will require also investment into necessary human resources, such as hiring Spa administrative and consultants specialists offering services for both women and men, and for both facials and body treatment to maximize the services mix. Costs for occupying this space, purchasing necessary equipment and hiring adequate staff so can exceed the current costs by ?450,000, so this is the incremental expense from proceeding with this services expansion programs. Cost to organize the fitness and Spa cafe, which is proposed to call at EnerGi Box, will amount to another ?100,000 annually. The final improvement step is investment…
Brayley, R.E., McLean, D. (1999). Managing Financial Resources in Sport and Leisure Service Organizations, Sports Publishing.
Mitchell, D. Coles, C. (2004) Establishing a continuing business model innovation process, Journal of Business Strategy, 25 (3), pp. 39-49.
D. Mitchell, C. Coles, Establishing a continuing business model innovation process, Journal of Business Strategy, Volume 25, No. 3, 2004, pp. 39-49.
These practices include: selective hiring, employment security, self-managed team, extensive training, sharing information, diminution of status differences, and stipulation of high pay contingent on organizational performance.
Other authors analyzed by Chang and Huang sustain that SHM benefits company both directly and indirectly as it modifies passivity into initiative by clearly communicating organizational goals and encouraging the participation of line-managers. In addition, by generating structural cohesion, defined as "an employee-generated synergy that propels a company forward, enabling the firm to respond to its environment while still moving forward" (Chang and Huang, 2005), the SHM influences positively organizational performance.
Various other testimonials strengthen the idea that a good strategic orientation of human resources will mostly appear in high performance firms, as contrary to the cases of low performance firms, which tended to apply more conventional methods. (Jackson and Schuler, 1995)
Human esources Management (HM) and the Strategic Management Process (SMP)
Armstrong, M., "A Handbook of Human Resource Management," Kogan Page, 2000, 7th Edition, London
Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R.S., "Managing Human Resources: A partnership perspective," South-Western College, 2000, Cincinnati, OH
Milkovich, G.T., and Boudreau, J.W., "Human Resource Management," Times Mirror Higher Education Group, USA, 1997, p. 2-10
Human esource Strategy
Organizations exist in a rapidly changing environment due to factors such as technological advancements, regulatory shifts, workforce adjustments as well as industry and market changes. To thrive in the long-term, organizations must perceive and adapt to these changes effectively. Human resource management (HM) is one of the major areas affected by changes in the internal and external environments (Truss, Mankin & Kelliher, 2012). As businesses evolve and grow, there are often changes in workplace structures, systems, processes, demands and expectations. The HM function must ensure that the organization has the right pool of human capital to fulfill the organization's mission, vision and objectives against the backdrop of a constantly evolving environment (Mello, 2015). Accordingly, the notion of strategic HM has gained prominence in recent times. Strategic HM essentially entails planning and managing human resources with consideration to the organization's long-term goals and objectives (Chartered Institute of Personnel…
Chartered Institute of Personnel Development (CIPD) (2015). Strategic human resource management. Retrieved 13 October 2016 from: http://www.cipd.co.uk/hr - resources/factsheets/strategic-human-resource-management.aspx
Daly, J. (2012). Human resource management in the public sector: policies and practices. New York: M.E. Sharpe, Inc.
Falcon, P. (2002). The hiring and firing question and answer book. New York: AMACOM.
Mello, J. (2015). Strategic human resource management. 4th edition. Mason: Cengage Learning.
Frank and Taylor (2004) warn that motivating employees is highly dependent on their specific wants and needs. An accounting firm that mostly hires conservative, serious-minded employees who value efficiency above all else are not likely to be motivated by the offer of a life coach or a concierge. They would probably be much more motivated by a good 401k plan. However, that does not mean that all types of organizations cannot get creative with their benefits.
The key is to creating an effective and creative employee benefit strategy is talk to the employees and find out what they really want. According to Gajewski (2005) it is critically important to modify "the corporate culture to balance employee needs and desires with organizational objectives" (p. 4). Therefore, if companies can change the corporate culture in such as way that satisfies both management and employees, then they would be remiss not to do…
Alsop, R. (2008) The 'Trophy Kids' go to work. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122455219391652725.html
Are They Really Ready To Work? Employers Perspective On The Basic Knowledge And Applied Skills Of New Entrant To The 21st Century U.S. Workforce. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf
Avery, D.R., & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice: An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personnel Psychology, 59, 157-187.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
This type of planning can help manage companies' assets and keep it in line, providing more robust information for future planning on an executive or managerial level.
egardless of the type of business or company, a robust Human esources department is an absolute necessity. Such departments provide support, increased productivity, and future growth for any organization. Even in these tough times, the Human esources departments of the United States are still going strong and providing for both organization and employee.
Heathfield, Susan M. (2009). What is the definition of Human esources? Human esources. etrieved August 19, 2009 at http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/what_hr.htm.
McNamara, Carter. (2008). Human resources management. Field Guide to Leadership and Supervision. Free Management Library. etrieved August 19, 2009 at http://managementhelp.org/hr_mgmnt/hr_mgmnt.htm.
Tortorici, Frank. (2009). Strategic workforce planning enables smarter H decisions. The Human esources Portal. etrieved August 19, 2009 at http://www.hr.com/SITEFOUM?t=/contentManager/onStory&e=UTF-8&i=1116423256281&l=0&active=no&ParentID=1119278052473&StoryID=1249486709481.
UC egents. 2007). Guide to Managing Human esources. University…
Resources, training, and labor relations managers and specialists. Occupational Outlook Handbook. 2008-09 ed. Retrieved August 19, 2009 at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm #nature' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07; paraphrased) Individuals within the HR department that conduct the programs related to positions within the organization, often referred to as 'job analysts' or 'position classifiers' perform the duties of collection and examination of data and information related to duties of each job in the hospital in order to classify and prepare job descriptions. These descriptions state the "...duties, training and skills" (ureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07) required for each work position. When a new position is formed in the hospital or when jobs that already exist are under review, this individual within the hospital HR is called upon due to their expert knowledge.
IV. HR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
The work of Khalili (2003) entitled: "Getting Acquainted with the Hospital Administration Programs" states of hospital information technology that: "Programming is the collection of activities which can identify…
Benimadhu, Prem (2005) Unleashing Human Capital Potential 1 Dec 2005 Toronto. Online available at http://www.conferenceboard.ca/education/symposium/workplace2005/presentations/1st%20Plenary-Prem%20Benimadhu-Unleashing%20Human%20Capital%20Potential.pdf
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2006-07 Edition, Human Resources, Training, and Labor Relations Managers and Specialists, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm
Department: Human Resources (2003) Hospital Accreditation Standards. Guidelines: 11 Standards. Lebanon 2003. Online available at http://www.public-health.gov.lb/HR.pdf
Fronston, Paul (2003) Tiered Networks for Hospital and Physician Health Care Services. 1 August 2003. Online available at http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/employee-benefits/1007593-1.html
Human esource Management Models
Being the regional human resource director of the company, I have recently been informed that there is a restructuring taking place within the organization. This includes the retirement of the company president and his decision to relocate the current headquarters from Northeast to Texas. This will encompass the redeployment of approximately 1,000 personnel. Taking all these aspects into consideration, I have several concerns.
First, I am concerned that employees will not be receptive to the news that they will have to relocate to a new expanse after working there for several years. A major worry is that there will be a decline in employee performance, which will hamper the overall performance and productivity of the organization. Another problem is that the retention level of employees might significantly deteriorate. With turnover comes the need to hand out employee benefits. With respect to indirect as well as…
Daniels, A. (2014). Semper Fidelis! A Recipe for Leading Others. Supervision, Vol. 75 Issue 9, p6
Johnson, R. (2016). 5 Different Types of Leadership Styles. Chron. Retrieved from: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/5-different-types-leadership-styles-17584.html
Ramlall, S. (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), 52-63.
Webb, K. (2007). Motivating peak performance: Leadership behaviors that stimulate employee motivation and performance. Christian Higher Education, 6(1), 53-71.
Collaboration between HR and operational departments is essential to establish the right criteria for knowledge, skills, and abilities, previous performance, and other desirable objective traits in successful candidates.
Collaboration between HR and operational managers must include the final candidate selection process.
Managers are hiring according to apparent nationality and cultural biases.
The consequences of accusations or claims of discrimination could be damaging to the organization both financially and in terms of reputation.
All testing, interviewing, and selection processes must focus on objective criteria to avoid any possible accusations or claims of discrimination.
Recruitment and hiring practices and tools (i.e. forms, questionnaires, structured interview questions, and tests) must be designed by HR and operational management in conjunction with legal review and final approval.
Conflicts of interest must be avoided in connection with recruiting or hiring family members of the organization or of its subsidiaries.
There is a profound and emotional stigma linked with outsourcing. For firms it gives hope and assurance for survival but for those relocated the topic is met with strong anger. Throughout the years of prosperity outsourcing was used to increase operating return-on-investment (ROI) and fill supply gaps that could not be provided domestically. Now that circumstances are different outsourcing is looked at as a means for continued existence. However outsourcing off shoring, near-shoring, on-shoring or retro sourcing persists to carry the social disgrace surrounding lost jobs, extensive relocation of operations, and even a sense of betrayal to the native country. There are also those that look at outsourcing as risky business. In spite of present unparalleled economic circumstances outsourcing is still looked at as far too risky an alternative to think about (Durant, 2009).
The straightforward finances of outsourcing are founded on rate for service. hile purchasing decisions are occasionally…
Durant, Jerry. "The New Economics of Global Outsourcing." The International Institute for Outsource Management. January 2009. Retrieved from http://www.outsourcing.com/pdf_files/04.10.2009/the%20NEW%20Economics%20of%20Outsourcing.pdf
Hunter, Ian, and Jane Saunders. "The Future of HR and the Need for Change: New Operating Models to Deliver Increased Value." Thorogood, 2004.
King, Rachael. "The New Economics of Outsourcing." Bloomberg Businessweek. 7 April 2008. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/apr2008/tc2008043_531737.htm
Lawler, Edward, John Boudreau, and Susan Albers Mohrman. "Achieving Strategic Excellence: An Assessment of Human Resource Organizations." Stanford University Press, 2006.
Human Capital Management
The modern world is intensely competitive and the proper management of the human capital plays a pivotal role in the success of an organization. Over time, we have seen drastic changes in all aspects of the human capital and have become the most critical and dominant key success factor in succeeding in the highly competitive environment.
Human capital management (HCM) is a sub-field of the HR function that focuses on the recognition, anticipation and anticipating human needs within an organization. Baron & Armstrong (2007) define HCM as the process of managing employees for them to make significant contributions to the organization's overall productivity. In accordance, this process involves the acquisition, managing, training, and retraining workers to enable them to contribute effectively to the organization's processes. In other words, it is the process of enhancing both the performance of employees and organization alike. This concept takes into consideration…
When it comes to stability and growth, challenges encountered by small and medium enterprises include but they are not limited to hiring of skilled manpower, etc. (Cooper and Burke 2011, 17). In my opinion, all these are challenges can be handled effectively by a human resource management department.
Yet another critical or important role that human resource management plays has got to do with employee training and development. In the opinion of Bohlander and Snell (2007, 143), training needs can easily be identified by observing the "discrepancies between the knowledge, skills, and abilities...demonstrated by the jobholder and the requirement contained in the description and specification for the job." Most small business owners regard employee training and development as a preserve of larger businesses. Worse still, some small businesses choose to allocate this important role to other unskilled individuals within the business. Employee training and development is critical to the success…
Human Resources departments contracting out some essential services to outside organizations?
The nature of business today is much more competitive than ever before. An increasing number of companies are investigating outsourcing HR functions. There are many commonly mentioned advantages of contracting out some or all of your HR functions. These include: increases in efficiency, reducing corporate costs, and, if you are only outsourcing a few functions, giving time to your in-house employees to focus on your core HR mission and values rather than being constantly bogged down in paperwork, etc. Companies choose to outsource for both financial and non-financial reasons. Outsourcing can enable the company to gain access to world-class technologies and capabilities they cannot afford on their own. It can also allow the company to, by saying money in-house, get access to an infusion of cash or free up other resources, improve company-wide focus, and reduce risk. In an…
Human esource Management (HM) in today's culture is very prominent and important. The most important resource with any organization is the human component and it is of extreme importance to manage and develop this crucial asset in a way that is in alignment with the strategic outlook of that organization.
The purpose of this reflective essay is to explain and contextualize the major areas of scholarly discussion of Human esources Management. This essay will examine how the following areas impact the organizational performance of an organization by interjecting specific examples of its practices in my own career occupation within the Veterans Administration Call Center. These examples will be used to highlight my own subjective interpretation of the material presented in this course and serve as the criteria to weigh the effectiveness of each area.
The following areas of HM will be included in this discussion:
EEO and Affirmative Action,
Duggan, T. (nd). Develop & Training Human Resources in Organizations. Chron, Viewed 5 Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/developing-training-human - resources-organizations-697.html
Hunt, M. (2012). Use Compensation to Inspire Innovation. SHRM, 26 Dec 2012. Retrieved from http://www.shrm.org/hrdisciplines/compensation/Articles/Pages/UseCompensationtoInsp ireInnovation.aspx
Kinsley, M. (2012). A Harvard Man's Critique of Affirmative Action. Bloomberg, 31 Oct 2012. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-10-31/a-harvard-man-s-critique - of-affirmative-action.html
Ryan, L. (2013). Getting HR Back into the People Business. Bloomberg Businessweek, 13 June 2013. Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-06-13/getting-hr - back-into-the-people-business
ole of Human esources in Organization
ealization of Importance of Human esource
Vision for using Human esources for Organizational Success
ole of H Manager in Workplace Environment Creation and Motivation
Importance of Merritt-based Promotions
ealization of Importance of Human esource
Companies and organizations can gain market leverage and achieve competitive advantages through effective management of its human resource. Thus, it plays a critical role in an organization or a company. Given the cut-throat competition in the global and the local markets as well as the declining importance of the impact of outside forces on stability, organizational effectiveness and development become critically dependent on management of human resources (Mondy, Noe & Gowan, 2005).
Most of the companies in the modern business require to function and develop in a relatively constant volatile environment and market condition. It is important that companies improve continuously for the purpose of creation of a sustainable competitive…
Ang, S. (2006). Personality Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275267
Armstrong, M., & Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.
Camps, J., & Luna-Arocas, R. (2009). High involvement work practices and firm performance. The International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 20(5), 1056-1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585190902850273
Edwards, M. (2009). HR, perceived organisational support and organisational identification: an analysis after organisational formation. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(1), 91-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2008.00083.x
Human resources play an integral role in any organization. The allocation of human capital is critical to the overall success of the organization. Depending on the particular industry, talent and its subsequent retention is directly correlated to the overall profitability of the firm. In many instances, as is the case in our current economic cycle, improper human resource activity can have a profound effect on our overall society. By employing and retaining the correct individuals for the corresponding position, both the business and society benefit. For example, the most creative individuals will be placed in the positions that utilize their talent most effectively. This talent will thus be cultivated in the position allowing the individual to grow and develop. This development allows the individual to create products or solutions that another individual with less talent may overlook. This is primarily how Microsoft, Google, Intel, and IBM continue to generate new…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
Over the last several years, the issue of human trafficking has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the industry is considered to be a major source of income for organized criminal gangs and other groups with it accounting for $31.6 billion in profits worldwide. Depending the region, these returns will vary with some having greater rewards from: socially acceptable practices, a lack of regulation and the ability of criminal groups to move with impunity in certain regions. The below table is showing, those areas with the highest returns and levels of human trafficking. ("An Introduction to Human Trafficking," 2008) ("Human Trafficking," 2013)
The Profit Margins and Amounts of Human Trafficking
Number of People
49% ($15.1 billion)
% ($9.7 billion)
Latin America and the Caribbean
4.1% ($1.3 billion)
Middle East and North Africa
4.7% ($1.5 billion)
An Introduction to Human Trafficking. (2008). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/An_Introduction_to_Human_Trafficking_-_Background_Paper.pdf
Human Trafficking. (2012). IOM. Retrieved from: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/microsites/IDM/workshops/ensuring_protection_070909/human_trafficking_new_directions_for_research.pdf
Human Trafficking. (2013). UN Global Compact. Retrieved from: http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/labour/Forced_labour/HUMAN_TRAFFICKING_-_THE_FACTS_-_final.pdf
Bales, K. (2007). What Predicts Human Trafficking? International Journal of Criminal Justice, 31( 2), pp. 269 -- 279.
In today's trend of merging and acquiring smaller or newer companies by the older and more established companies (mergers and acquisitions), lay-offs and downsizing are prevalent. Since employees, once merged by two or more companies, will have an abundant supply of human resource, there is a reduction in efficiency because of the redundancy in work functions. Lay-offs or downsizing are often imposed when human resource supply exceeds the demand in the company. However, workforce realignment is not an easy task: imposition of a lay-off or downsizing inevitably results to a change in (higher) employee turn-over and adversely affects the morale of its (remaining) employees.
While the company's goal of reducing human resource expenditures is remedied by imposing lay-offs or downsizing, there are also disadvantages that can endanger the employee performance, efficiency, and productivity. For those who were affected by the lay-off or downsizing measures of the company, there are feelings…
Human resources management processes: workforce planning; recruitment, attraction selection employees; training, development managers subordinates; personnel administration; compensation; payroll; employee benefits, performance appraisal, labor relations,
Competitive advantage: Four requirements
For a firm to thrive, it must offer a unique product so it can ensure that it can deliver a sustained competitive advantage that cannot easily be undercut by price or substituted by a similar product offered by a firm within the same industry. The following four criteria to establish a competitive advantage are as follows: "(a) the resource must add positive value to the firm, (b) the resource must be unique or rare among current and potential competitors, (c) the resource must be imperfectly imitable, and (d) the resource cannot be substituted with another resource by competing firms" (Wright & McMahan 1992). Finding a physical good or service that meets all of these criteria can be challenging, but Wright & McMahan…
Wright, P.M., & McMahan, G.C. (1992). Theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management. Journal of Management, 18(2), 295-320.
Public Human esources Management
Challenges facing human resource management
Human esource Management is the element of the organization that deals with the human aspect of the organization. The business world today, is very competitive. Every organization must align its resources to the organizational goals and objectives. According to Gill (2009), the employees of an organization are part of its assets just as capital and technology. Proper utilization of human resource can account for the success of an organization. This study will examine the challenges that the human resources management is facing in its commitment towards contributing to organizations' prosperity. It will further, explore how human resource management can overcome the challenges to remain relevant.
The role of human resource management
Human esource Management performs an imperative role in the organization. Its role involves giving job descriptions, assigning of salaries, establishing policies that govern the personnel and capacity building of the…
Ullah, M. (2010). A systematic approach of conducting employee selection interview.
International Journal of Business & Management, 5(6), 106-112
Arthur, J.B. (2011). 'Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover', Academy of Management Journal, 37(3), 670-687.
Jing, W. Huang, T. (2005). Relationship between Strategic Human Resources Management and Firm Performance, International Journal of Manpower, 26 (5),434-449.
Training and development is crucial to the growth and success of any organization. This paper analyses how training and development can be used as an effective tool to strengthen those skills that an employee needs to improve upon and better perform on the job. Although there is clear evidence that training is positively associated with better job performance, the relationship between performance and training is complex. Several key paradoxes of organizational and employee freedoms and needs are revealed and an evaluation of the specific training and development recommendations is performed.
One of a company's most valuable assets is its employees. The value of human capital cannot be underestimated nor should it. Employees are the backbone of an organization. Ill-equipped and poorly trained employees can lead to organizational failure. Training and development is one of the several ways that organizations help ensure their workers have the requisite skills for today and…
Abdul, H. & Aamer, W. (2011). Employee Development and Its Affect on Employee Performance A Conceptual Framework. International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 2 No. 13 [Special Issue - July 2011] 224.
Davis, D. & Daley, B.J. (2008). The learning organization and its dimensions as key factors in firms ? performance." Human Resource Development International, Vol. 11 No. 1, pp. 51-66.
Groen, J.A. (2006). Occupation-specific human capital and local labor markets. Oxford Economic Papers, 58: 722-741.
Kaufman, B., & Hotchkiss, J. (2006).Economics of Labor Markets (7th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.
Accounting for Intangible Assets in the Transnational Manufacturing Industry
The international business world has worked to break down barriers that formerly existed to allow businesses to more easily expand their operations to new markets. Much of this trend has been fueled by globalization which has allowed for the increasing connectedness of markets and resources through technological developments in many areas including, but not limited to, information and communications technology, advances in shipping, and a political environment largely accepting of deregulation. However, as companies have acted to expand into new opportunities in foreign markets, many have found that there is a plethora of different challenges that present by the cultural and social factors, among others, that are present in these markets. The main functions of business include operations, marketing, and accounting and there are many aspects of these functions that must be adjusted to effectively carry out international expansions.…
Cagliano, A., Marco, A., & Rafele, C. (2013). The Impact of Near Sourcing on Global Dynamic Supply Chains: A Case Study. Dynamics in Logistics, 489-498.
Chung, C., Park, H., Lee, J., & Kim, K. (2015). Human capital in multinational enterprises: Does strategic alignment matter? Journal of International Business Studies, 806-829.
Hofstede Center. (N.d.). France . Retrieved from Hofstede Center: https://geert-hofstede.com/france.html
Jensen, M., & Barfield, C. (2012). Global Value Chains and the Continuing Case for Free Trade. American Enterprise Institute, 1(1), 1-15.
A company’s most valuable asset is its people. Human resources refer to the people who comprise the organization. The practice of human resource management includes employee recruitment, hiring practices, employee development and retention, discipline, motivation, and to a degree, organizational culture and socialization. Human resource management also involves job or role definitions and clarifying hierarchies and relationships within an organizational structure. Ethical codes and codes of behavior may also be covered under the rubric of human resources management. Human resources departments often operate independently but in conjunction with other departments to create a cohesive strategy for management and organizational structure. Training for human resources management can vary, and often little more than a Bachelor’s degree is required in terms of formal education. Human resources managers need interpersonal skills more than anything, but also benefit from strategic planning and general leadership skills. Job outlook and growth for the field looks…
HR professionals can play an important role in a firm by being able to have a good understanding of transformation and change. An institution that is able to better the form and introduction of initiatives and to lower cycle times in all activities performed by the organization is effectively dealing with change. HR professionals are active actors who have to detect strategies the company needs to employ in order to efficiently restructure its activities.
It is also essential for a HR professional to acknowledge the importance of comprehending the employee's needs. A HR professional acting as an employee advocate has to listen to employees in order to be able to satisfy their needs whenever it is essential for him or her to do so. hile many individuals are providing employees with little to no attention, listening to and responding to employees is a very important part of HR work and…
Armstrong, M. (2006). A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Holbeche, L. (2013). Aligning Human Resources and Business Strategy. Routledge.
Ulrich, D. (1997). Human Resource Champions: The Next Agenda for Adding Value and Delivering Results. Harvard Business Press.
Ulrich D. And Brockbank, W. (2005) The HR Value Proposition. Harvard Business Press.
Developing Human Potential
When an organization makes the decision to take an individual on as a part of staff, effectively they are making a human capital investment in that individual (Lepak & Snell, 1999). Where the organization pays for the training of, insuring of, and salary to that individual they in turn are expected to perform the tasks within their job description efficiently and accurately thus allowing the organization to function successfully and more importantly profitably. However, when a human element is involved, there is always a degree of risk present. In the case of developing the potential of employees to maximize their value within the company there are many factors which must be addressed in the overall assessment of their potential and potential value relative to the risk at which they place the company (Abowd, & Kramarz, 2003).
The factors influencing employee performance and there by the…
1. Patterson, M., West, M., Lawthom, R., & Nickell, S. 1997. Impact of people management practices on business performance. Institute of Personnel and Development, 1- 39.
2. Bretz, R., Read, W., & Milkovich, G. 1992. The current state of performance appraisal research and practice: Concerns, directions, and implications. Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies, 1- 59.
3. Holzer, H., Raphael, S., & Stoll, M. 2002. Percieved criminality, criminal background checks, and the racial hiring practices of employers. Institute for Research on Poverty, 1- 45.
4. Abowd, J., & Kramarz, F. 2003. The costs of hiring and separations. U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1- 45.
Domestic and International Human Resources
Adler (1990) emphasizes the importance of the international experience in the business world. The developing technologies between the time of Adler's presentation and 2004 has made this all the more prominent. When distinguishing between domestic and international human resources then, it is important to note that the one seldom goes before the other, while the domestic human resources paradigm has developed over a far longer time than international human resources. Adler (1990) explains that there has been an evolution in the business world from domestic human resources to international or global human resources. This has to be taken into account when business is conducted both on the local and international level.
When a company is domestically orientated, the product or service remains focused on the domestic market. Thus, research and development, as well as marketing occur on the domestic level. With a centralized…
Adler, Nancy J. (1990). "Globalization and Human Resource Management: Strategic International Human Resource Development" Faculty of Management Mcgill University, April 20. http://www.cic.sfu.ca/forum/adler.html
Baumann, M.A. (2003). "Training, rewards help convince workers to stay." Hotel & Motel Management, December 8. Internet Database: Findarticles.com
Bentley, Ross. (2002). "Barriers to flexible working." Computer Weekly, May 30. Internet Database: Findarticles.com.
Berta, Dina (2003). "Human resources: offering more to obtain, retain the best workers: Emphasis on leadership development, team building and diversity" Nation's Restaurant News, August 18. Internet Database: Findarticles.com
Human esources Management in Hotel Hospitality
Hotel Industry Human esources Management
Human esource Management in the Hotel Hospitality Industry
Authors Frank Go and Mary Monachello (1996) note, "effective management of human resources is required in all functions of hospitality in order to cultivate teamwork and sustain a competitive edge" (Go and Monachello, 1996, p.8). Because good management rests on both knowledge of human resource management and skill to implement effective human resource strategies, it is essential that those in the hotel hospitality industry fully understand and implement strategies for good management in order for their hotel to succeed to its highest capability. The purpose of such management is based on the need for high performance level and dedication of hotel employees. Despite the various resources and supplies that a company may require, human resources is actually the most important resource because without a labor force, no business can be done…
Addicott, R., McGivern, G. And Ferlie, E. (2006). Networks, organizational learning and knowledge management. Public Money and Management. 26(2), pp. 87-94. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Anthony, R. And Young. (1999). Management control systems. Chicago, IL: McGraw-
Boxwell, R. (1994) Benchmarking for competitive advantage. New York, NY: McGraw-
Creating and Driving Value
Now that we have determined which group of employees can have the greatest impact on patient outcomes, and thus represent key drivers of value within the organization, our next task is to decide what they can do to achieve their goals. In order to answer these questions, we must develop an understanding of what determines patient outcomes, and the overall impressions of the hospital. We must ask which elements of the patient's experience are likely to result in a return to the facility for future treatments and procedures, or which ones are likely to make them recommend the facility to others. These questions are at the heart of driving value for the organization.
There are several methods that could be used to determine the answers to these questions. One way would be to conduct a patient survey. Another way would be to examine records of complaints…
Al-Hussami, M. (2008). A Study of Nurses' Job Satisfaction: The Relationship to Organizational
Commitment, Perceived Organizational Support, Transactional Leadership,
Transformational Leadership and Level of Education. European Journal of Scientific
Research. 22 (2): 286-295. Retrieved January 31, 2010 from http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_22_2_14.pdf
Family assistance programs provide assistance for employees and families in need. These have the benefit of strengthening employee commitment and loyalty to the workplace by boosting employee morale. The work-to-family program, for example, helps employee scope with caring for children or aging parents by providing assistance as part of insurance benefits. There is also a family assistance program to address partner violence, which has a severe effect on employee productivity and well-being. A further assistance program is offered to families of military personnel deployed to combat environments. Such programs provide both financial and moral support to families who must cope with such separation in the long-term.
It is vital for employers to provide employees with these kinds of assistance, since they cultivate both loyalty and well-being among employees. Both these factors tend to increase the ability of employees to deliver good service.
Department of Health and Human Services…
Department of Health and Human Services (2012). Summary of the HIPAA Privacy Rule. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/privacy/hipaa/understanding/summary/index.html
Frugal Trader (2011). Defined Benefit Pension vs. Defined Contribution Pension. Million Dollar Journey. Retrieved from: www.milliondollarjourney.com/defined-benefit-pension-vs.-defined-contribution-pension.htm
Hall, D. (2011, Jun 14). Employee and Family Assistance Program. Retrieved from: www.livestrong.com/article/300731-employee-family-assistance-program/
Jennifer, K. (2012). Government Regulations on Discretionary Benefits in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/list_7385963_government-discretionary-benefits-united-states.html
Managers from three different HR departments (from three separate companies) were interviewed concerning the management, job duties and focus of their respective HR departments. A summary of each of their responses is included below.
All three companies look to hire experienced HR personnel and then require them to attend training courses. In addition to outside courses, both the second and the third companies required their HR personnel to attend conferences and in-house sessions as well.
The first company's ROI is determined by calculating the average length of employment and the company turnover rate. The average cost per hire is not calculated by the first or the second company and although the third company does not specifically calculate the average cost per hire they do have a focus on retention due to the cost of hiring new employees.
Each company presented different answers in regards to trends effecting their…
According to the AMA, capital budgeting is "the decision-making process used by companies to evaluate long-term investments in large capital assets" (Hampton, 2011). Zeit (2013) makes the point that construction projects are included in the category of capital investment decisions, and that designers and architects are often involved. eiter et al. (2000) argue that because of their size and critical strategic nature, "capital investment decisions are among the most important decisions made by firms."
What this means is that capital projects tend to be large-scale projects that have several key characteristics. They require a lot of money, to the point where that money may need to be acquired through financing. So construction projects in particular like new buildings or new wings would qualify. There is some ambiguity in the research if a takeover or merger would qualify as a capital project when financed with cash, but a small-scale…
Cleverley, W., Song, P, & Cleverley, J. (2011). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishing.
FASB. (1985). Statement of financial accounting concepts No. 6. Financial Accounting Standards Board. Retrieved October 12, 2013 from http://www.fasb.org/cs/BlobServer?blobcol=urldata&blobtable=MungoBlobs&blobkey=id&blobwhere=1175822102897&blobheader=application%2Fpdf
Hampton, J. (2011). The AMA handbook of financial management. AMACOM. Chapter 10.
Reiter, K., Smith, D., Wheeler, J. & Rivenson, H. (2000). Capital investment strategies in health care systems. Journal of Health Care Finance. Vol. 26 (4) 31-41.
Another valuable lesson is pegged to the necessity to select and hire the most suitable staff members. Then, the equal employment rights stimulate the researcher to adopt a more open view of cultural diversity in the workplace. Additionally, as a future application, it would even be important to remember that people of different backgrounds have different skills and abilities. Instead of striving to standardize them, the players in the workplace community should try to capitalize more on the points of difference offered by culturally diverse staff members, such as their increased ability to communicate with culturally diverse customers.
5. Impact of the Study on Career and Personal Life
It is yet uncertain as to how the personal career of the researcher would be impacted by the findings of the study. What is however known with certainty is that the baggage of HM knowledge of the researcher has significantly increased. Within…
Heathfield, S.M., What is human resource development (HRD)? About, http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_development.htm last accessed on July 02, 2010
McNamara, C., Employee benefits and compensation, Management Help, http://managementhelp.org/pay_ben/pay_ben.htm last accessed on July 02, 2010
2007, Health and safety, HRM Guide, http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/employee_relations/health-and-safety.htm last accessed on July 02, 2010
Equal employment opportunities, Liverpool City Council, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/reports/hrm10.html last accessed on June 30, 2010
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior
Arab African International ank
Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro
The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of banks, more in particular the credit risk. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the relationship between capital requirements and the risk behavior of banks in Egypt
more in particular the Arab African International ank, which is the case study for this research. Secondly, the research will seek to investigate the impact of capital regulation on the banking behaviors and particularly on the levels of credit risk of banks operating in Egypt
The findings of the research show that there is negative relationship between capital requirement and banks' risk behavior; the findings also show there is empirical evidence to prove that capital regulations have a negative impact on credit risk of banks levels of credit risk of banks…
Aggarwal, R. And K. Jacques, (1998), a Simultaneous Equation Estimation of the Impact of Prompt Corrective Action on Bank Capital and Risk, New York, 12-23
Avery, R.B. And A.B. Berger, (1991), Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 847-874
Berger, A.N., Herring R.J. And Szego, G.P. (1995), the Role of Capital in Financial
Institutions, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 19, 393-430.
The aim of hospitals is to measure and improve the quality of health care service for the patients. Patient satisfaction is the foremost concern. However, to run a hospital, there are a lot of other factors are also involved; e.g. managing cost, budgeting, optimizing operations and increase patient satisfaction level. In order to achieve the desired level of performance, the hospital needs to be up-to-date with the latest technology.
In this era of technological advancements, every company has to maintain all their records on computer because it saves time and needs less effort than manual work. Our hospital has digitalized their data but every department has its own data base. In order to optimize the operations, hospital requires having a central data base system.
As Schuhmann (2009) stated in his article that the recent economic crisis has made it difficult for hospitals finance their capital expenditures. The capital…
Bailey, C. (2012). The Cost Reduction Imperative. Becker's Hospital Review.
Cleverly, W.O., Cleverly, J.O., & Song, P.H. (2010). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Devraj, S., & Kohli, R. (2000). Information Technology Payoff in the Heath-care Industry: A Longitudinal Study. Journal of Management Information Systems, 41-67.
Finkler, S.A., Kovner, C.T., & Jones, C.B. (2007). Financial Management for Nurse Managers and Executives W.B. Saunders Company.
Human Resources Management Practices in the Global Environment & Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS)
The objective of this study is the examine Human Resources Information Systems (HRIS) as it relates to Human Resources Management practices in the Global Environment. Toward this end, this work in writing will examine the literature in this area of study.
Globalization, in the work of Husain (2010), is reported as symbolizing "the structural making of the world characterized by the free flow of technology and human resources across national boundaries presenting an ever-changing and competitive business environment." (p.1) Husain defines globalization as "the ongoing economic, technological, social, and political integration of the world that begin after the Second World War." (2010, p.1) Husain argues that a large base of evidence indicates that "changes taking place in the global business environment are often not accompanied by complimentary changes in human resources management practices whereby the failure…
1. Mayfield, M.; Mayfield, J. And Lunce, S. (2003) Human Resource Information Systems: A Review and Model Development. Entrepreneur. 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.entrepreneur.com/tradejournals/article/110733614.html
Mayfield, Mayfield and Lunce (2003) present a HRIS model with the primary goal of providing a comprehensive framework that supports HRIS research.
2. Foss, N.J. And Mahoney, J.T. reports that knowledge governance "is characterized as a distinctive research subject, the understanding of which cuts across diverse fields in management." These authors state that knowledge governance "represents an intersection of knowledge management, strategic management and theories of the firm."
3. Kourik, J.L. And Maher, P.E. (2008) Does Practice Reflect Theory? An Exploratory Study of a Successful Knowledge Management System. International journal of Human and Social Sciences. Vol. 3, Issue 4. Retrieved from: http://www.waset.org/journals/ijhss/v3/v3-4-35.pdf -Kourik and Maher (2008) investigate the link between theory and practice and state that a Knowledge Management System (KMS) that is successfully implemented is one that had as its design the capacity to manage curricular knowledge in a distributed university environment. Findings stated "indicate substantial correspondence between the successful KMS and the theory-based framework providing provisional confirmation for the framework while suggesting factors that contributed to the system's success." (Kourik and Maher, 2008, p. 1)