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The Cloning of Human Beings
Cloning is the creation of an exact biological twin generated from the DNA of a donor. In effect, a person creates an exact copy, with the exact genetic sequence, from their own DNA. hile the cloning of human beings has been the realm of science fiction, the creation of sheep clones has pushed the idea of human cloning into the range of possibilities. At present, the idea of human cloning is almost universally repulsive, but over time that may no longer be the case. And with the coming reality of human cloning a number of ethical considerations must be addressed. Leon Kass, in his paper entitled "Cloning of Human Beings," presents a number of arguments against the idea of human cloning including (1) the ethical implications of experimenting on human beings, (2) concerns over the identity of the clone and its ability to…
Mappes, Thomas and David DeGrazia. Biomedical Ethics. Boston: McGraw Hill,
The subject of human cloning was once the stuff of science fiction novels and television programs. As technology and science improves, the creation of clones has become, potentially, a real likelihood in the impending future. For the follow, the definition of human cloning is that which has been designated by the American Medical Association:
The term "cloning" will refer to the production of genetically identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer. "Somatic cell nuclear transfer" refers to the process in which the nucleus of a somatic cell of an existing (or previously existing) organism is transferred into an oocyte from which the nucleus has been removed. "Human cloning" will refer to the application of somatic nuclear transfer technology to the creation of a human being that shares all its nuclear genes with the person donating the implanted nucleus (Ethics 1999).
Scientists are proceeding ahead with research into the…
"Cloning Fact Sheet." (2009). Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml
"The Ethics of Human Cloning." (1999). Reports of the Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs
of the American Medical Association.
"Human Cloning." (2007). Stem Cell Research. American Medical Association. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medical-science/genetics-molecular-medicine/related-policy-topics/stem-cell-research/human-cloning.page
It focuses on the controversy, and provides answers to the question of whether or not stem cell research is providing the benefits in the ways in which the public believes they will soon be benefiting from the research.
The authors contend that partisan responses to the public's concerns over stem cell research are delaying the benefits of much needed treatments and cures that can be derived from stem cell research because funding is being reduced and restricted by the government.
Kass, Leon. Human Cloning and Dignity: The Report of the President's Council on Bioethics. New York: Public Affairs, 2002. Print.
Kass' book is important to this research paper because it explains the government's definition of human cloning (1), which helps shed light on the policy that has been, and will be formulated around the evolving science and application of genetic engineering. Genetic engineering can only proceed to the extent that…
The debate over human cloning generally assumes it's possible to safely clone a completely normal human being, and ignores the multitude of problems that routinely plague the process of cloning animals. The current definition of 'successful cloning' is the generation of a viable adult organism (Gurdon and Melton, 1811), a definition used rather loosely given the prevalence of defects that occur. As discussed below, this definition has been traditionally applied to the cloning of domesticated animals and is not adequate for defining success should human cloning ever be attempted.
Somatic ell Nuclear Transfer
The number of mammals that have been successfully cloned from somatic cells has increased steadily since the first sheep, Dolly, was cloned in 1996 (reviewed by ampbell et al., 257). These include mouse, rat, cow, goat, pig, rabbit, cat, dog, mule, horse, and deer. The process of cloning involves the transfer of a unit of…
Campbell, Keith H.S., Alberio, Ramiro., Choi, Inchul., Fisher, Pat., Kelly, Richard D.W., Lee, Joon-Hee, Maalouf, W. "Cloning: Eight years after Dolly." Reproduction in Domestic Animals 40.4 (2005): 256-268. Web.
Gurdon, John. B. And Melton, Doug A. "Nuclear reprogramming in cells." Science 322.5909 (2008): 1811-1815. Web.
Palmieri, Chiara., Loi, Pasqualino., Ptak, Grazyna., Salda, Leanardo Della. "Review paper: A review of the pathology of abnormal placentae of somatic cell nuclear transfer clone pregnancies in cattle, sheep, and mice." Veterinary Pathology 45.6 (2008): 865-880. Web.
Human Cloning Debate
When Frankenstein was adapted for stage in 183 the production's title was Presumption; or, The Fate of Frankenstein. A Victorian audience was concerned with the theme of a man's ambition to replace God by creating a new species. Equal emphasis was placed on this aspect of the novel in the 1831 introduction of Frankenstein, "It is Mary Shelly's critique of where such highly abstracted creative powers can lead when put in a 'realizing' scientific context and then driven along by 'lofty ambition' and 'high destiny' (Shelley, 004, 04) that we see in the pages of Frankenstein" The novel was controversial in that it went against the traditional religious ideas of the time; Victorian morality held that God was the Almighty Creator. However, modern readers, with less restricted moral boundaries to those of the Victorians, likely see Victor's main crime within the novel more the perverse way in…
2. Will cloning lead to designer babies who are denied an open future? Certainly, there has been a great deal of speculation regarding the issue of "designer babies." If one can genetically opt out of obesity, heart disease, cancer, etc., then why not opt for clones that are of a "type" desired by parents (eye color, facial shape, etc.)? Is this a designer baby? In a sense, this is part of the entire eugenics debate, or the practice of improving the human species by discouraging reproduction from those with perceived undesirable traits. The moral issue is who decides what traits are most desirable? The temptation, assuredly, would be to opt for greater strength and intelligence, and as some science fiction authors have prophesized, a society of blond-haired, blue eyed "perfect" Aryan babies who grow to be adults and perpetuate this "ideal." However, in the real world, while the temptation might be there, it is far more likely that at first negatives (disease, decay, etc.) would be focused upon. As far as denying the child an open future; children now must typically deal with the genetics they are given, they have both an open and closed future. Some may be gifted in music, others in math; some may be savants, others lacking cognitive skills, but excelling in other areas (Fuller, 2009).
3. Does a human clone have the same rights and legal protections as a human being? This is both an ethical and political question since the framers of the Constitution (at least of the United States) did not have to worry about the issue at the time of writing. In essence, though, a cloned human is still a human based on the biological definition of humanity. Therefore, the individual's status could be nothing more than human since the clone is certainly not anything else, nor did it arise from anything else (e.g. As in an artificial intelligence machine, robot, etc.). (McGee, 2011).
4. Is it ethical to create an embryo solely for research? This question has larger implications about ethics of research. Is it ethical to destroy thousands of animals in the pursuit of research to heal humans? Certainly, by the definition of the individual, if the clone is a fully sentient being, with cognition and self-awareness, then it is no more ethical to create an embryo for research than it is to experiment on other human
Weiler states that in relation to the offspring the following must be examined closely:
1) a single parent (genetically) of the offspring which is at the same time a genetic sibling. This issue parallels the non-zygotic fertilization;
2) Multiple twinship. Cloning a number of brothers or sisters from the same cell is similar to the case of twins only more extreme due to the intervention occurring in the process of creating this particular "twinship" if we regard human clones as siblings in every sense, should we forbid them sexual relations? Will it be necessary therefore to maintain a strict register of all clones?; and 3) the psychological and social identity of cloned offspring will not be like that of children born without cloning. (Weiler, 1998)
The work of Dixon (1998) entitled: "Reasons Against Cloning" relates the following disadvantages to cloning:
1) Health risks due to mutation of genes…
Morioka, Masahiro (1999) the Ethics of Human Cloning and the Sprout of Human Life - in Heiner, Roetz (ed), Cross-Cultural Issues in Bioethics: The Example of Human Cloning. Rodopi, Amsterdam, the Netherland, (2006), pp.1-16.
Weiler, Yael (1998) Israel Faces the Issue of Human Cloning: A Discussion of the Ethical and Social Implications Eubios Journal of Asian and International Bioethics 8 (1998), 10-12.
Dixon, Patrick (1998) Reasons against Cloning. Future. Online available at http://www.globalchange.com/noclones.htm
Human Cloning: Ethical Issues (2005) UNITED NATIONS EDUCATIONAL, SCIENTIFIC and CULTURAL ORGANIZATION (UNESCO)
Human Cloning: The Ethical Debate
Human cloning is best described as "the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing human or growing cloned tissue from that individual" (Wikipedia, 2004). The term usually refers to artificial human cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are typical and commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction.
"human clone" is a scientific replication of another person (Jones, 1998). A clone is not actually an exact replica of the original, but rather a younger identical twin. As with identical twins, the clone and the original person have different fingerprints. They are also likely to have different personalities.
Human somatic cell nuclear transfer, which is commonly referred to as creating an embryo by "cloning," involves the following (McGee, 2001):
The starvation and subsequent implantation of DNA from specialized, non-sexual cells of one organism (such as cells that make…
Caplan, Art. (December 14, 2003). Cloning ethics: Separating the science from the fiction. MSNBC.
Jones, A. (April 8, 1998). Human Cloning: The Religious and Ethical Debate. University of Virginia Press. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~jones/tmp352/projects98/group1/home.html.
McGee, Glenn. (February, 2001). Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning. Action Bioscience. American Institute of Biological Sciences.
Wikipedia. (2004). Human cloning. Retrieved from the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_cloning .
Legal costs might also haunt governments that allow cloning research. To prevent complications related to direct government investments in cloning research, legislation could open the door for privately-funded cloning research projects while at the same time banning federally- or state-funded research projects.
However, most opponents of cloning cite the ethical costs involved in cloning legislation. Opponents of stem cell research sometimes "argue that permitting nuclear transplantation would open the door to reproductive cloning, because a ban only on implantation would be difficult to enforce." (AAAS). Even groups who would welcome therapeutic cloning research fear legal ambiguities. Stem cells do not necessarily need to be harvested from cloned human embryos: they can be harvested from discarded embryos used for in vitro fertilization or from other sources like human placenta. At the same time, legislation can easily permit therapeutic cloning while still maintaining a ban on reproductive cloning.
The social benefits of…
American Association for the Advancement of Science. "Policy Brief: Human Cloning." Retrieved Nov 20, 2006 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
American Medical Association. "Human Cloning." April 6, 2006. Retrieved Nov 20, 2006 at http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/category/4560.html
Human Genome Project. "Cloning Fact Sheet." Retrieved Nov 20, 2006 at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml #policy' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
The debate about human cloning was carried out within the field of science fiction and fantasy, until recently. ith the victorious cloning of the sheep Dolly in 1997, it became obvious that earlier or later, scientists might be able to clone human beings too. There is both encouragement and disagreement for this likelihood. Though cloning has been explained by newspapers and magazines as an exhilarating step onward that allows genetic engineers to lessen the qualms of reproduction, they have also made available comments by religious figures, scientists, and others who view human cloning as an assault on human dignity. (Cloning: The science of Controversy)
In Greek the word clone means taking an intersection from a plant. To make a correct genetic copy of an available life form is cloning. In many plants and even a few animals cloning takes place by itself. Except for identical twins, this phenomenon does…
Bostrom, Nick. "Human Reproductive Cloning from the Perspective of the Future." Yale University. Chair, World Transhumanist Association. 27 December 2002. Retrieved at http://www.nickbostrom.com/views/cloning.html . Accessed on 02/26/2004
Hoon H, Tae. "Human Cloning is beneficial"
Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/tae.htm . Accessed on 02/26/2004
Human Cloning: Is making people wrong?"
This report aims to address various issues and concerns regarding human cloning. "On Sunday morning, 23 February 1997, the world awoke to a technological advance that shook the foundations of biology and philosophy. On that day, we were introduced to Dolly, a 6-month-old lamb that had been cloned directly from a single cell taken from the breast tissue of an adult donor." (Brannigan, 10) But that was a sheep and as of today, there have been no confirmed occurrences of any human beings having been cloned. However, the Dolly phenomenon has brought human cloning as an event into the realm of possibility. Although it is rarely thought about by the average person on the street, man as a species is still in a constant battle to survive and evolve within the confines of nature. Through science and technology, man is on and will continue to be on a…
Brannigan, Michael C. Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. New York, NY: Seven Bridges Press, LLC, 2000.
Five Years Later, Stem Cells Still Tantalize. Ed. University of Wisconsin. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Retrieved on 25 February 2005, from
Hughes, Kristina. "Stem Cell Issue Is 'Personal, Not Political' For Some." State News - MSU Independent Voice. (1996).
Human Cloning Headlines. Ed. Dr. Patrick Dixon. Retrieved on 25 February 2005, from
Human Cloning Should be Allowed to Continue
Human cloning is an issue involved in much debate, with the majority view being that cloning should not be allowed to continue. hile the argument against human cloning is persuasive, it is also an argument based on fear and misunderstanding rather than reality. The negative view of human cloning is based on a negative perception of it based almost entirely in speculation. A closer view of the argument against cloning will show the errors inherent in it. Rather than react to the issue based on negative perceptions of cloning, it is necessary that the reality of cloning be considered, with its real impact investigated rather than a speculative impact based on misunderstanding.
One author argues that the entire cloning debate is argued out of context, with the reality of cloning substituted for a science fiction view of the issue. As the author says,…
Brock, D.W. "Cloning Human Beings: An Assessment of the Ethical Issues Pro and Con." In Clones and Clones. Ed. Martha C. Nussbaum and Cass R. Sunstein. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998.
Dawkins, R. "What's Wrong With Cloning?" In Clones and Clones. Ed. Martha C. Nussbaum and Cass R. Sunstein. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1998.
Dawson, K. "A scientific examination of some speculations about continuing human pre-embryo research." Ed. Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse, Stephen Buckle, Karen Dawson, & Pascal Kasimba. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.
Edwards, R. Life Before Birth: Reflections on the Embryo Debate. London: Hutchinson, 1989.
Another writer notes, "WHO considers the use of cloning for the replication of human individuals to be ethically unacceptable as it would violate some of the basic principles which govern medically assisted procreation. These include respect for the dignity of the human being..." (Harris, 2004, p. 34). Dignity is an important concept here, because the loss of human dignity goes against the concept of natural law and natural rights. It takes away the rights humans enjoy and depend on, and replaces them with unnatural reproductive procedures. It takes the natural joy, love, and family out of a loving conception, and replaces it with a test tube, something that is clearly not good, but evil and frightening. We enjoy the ability to reproduce not only for survival, but for love, and to take that away is to take away one of our basic human rights and privileges. Harris goes on to…
Brannigan, M.C. (Ed.). (2001). Ethical issues in human cloning: Cross-disciplinary perspectives. New York: Seven Bridges Press.
Harris, J. (2004). On cloning. New York: Routledge.
Walters, L. (2004). The United Nations and human cloning: A debate on hold. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 5+.
The topic discussed in this document is cloning. This topic is explored through the film entitled "Womb." Cloning is a popular scientific topic of interest for numerous reasons. There are a number of implications for the technology behind this phenomena, which has existed, at this point, for several years. The breadth of those implications span ethical concerns, religious ones, pragmatic necessities, and societal issues. Considering these factors, the topic is relevant today primarily because cloning represents the most successful efforts (to date), of the displacement of the reproductive process from humans to the realm of science. Typically, reproduction pertains to the realm of nature and biology -- the latter of which is essentially the science of the inner workings of organisms. Cloning is such a controversial topic and at the forefront of the aforementioned realms of life because it represents a man-made, scientific way to reproduce -- outside of…
Fiester, A. (2005). Ethical issues in animal cloning. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 48(2), 328-343. Retrieved fromhttp://repository.upenn.edu/bioethics_papers/35
Pimple, K. (1998). The ethics of human cloning and the fate of science in a democratic society. Valparaiso University Law Review. 32(2), 727-737.
Rauch, J. (2003). Will Frankenfood save the planet? The Atlantic. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2003/10/will-frankenfood-save-the-planet/302806/
Womb. (2010). Dir: B. Fliegauf. Perf: Green, E., Smith, M., Manville, L.
The cloning of human beings is both fascinating and highly controversial. It creates a copy of a human that is genetically identical to one that is already in existence (Russel; 27). hen people are born, they are all genetically different from one another, so cloning would produce a very different dynamic between one person and his or her identical clone. The exception to this difference is identical twins, who are basically clones of one another (de Grey & Rae, 44). However, human cloning does not refer to the natural process that produces identical twins, but rather to taking tissue and cells from a human being and using them to produce a genetically identical human being through artificial means. There are two types of artificial cloning that takes place: reproductive and therapeutic (de Grey & Rae, 51). The ethics of these issues differ, as do the perceived uses,…
Russel, Peter J. iGenetics: A Molecular Approach. San Francisco: Pearson Education. 2005. Print.
de Grey, Aubrey and Michael Rae. Ending Aging: The Rejuvenation Breakthroughs that Could Reverse Human Aging in Our Lifetime. New York: St. Martin's. 2007. Print.
Human cloning is not only morally repugnant; it is not scientifically viable at this stage. As a news source and a source of public opinion, the Monroe Evening News has a direct responsibility to take a stance on banning human cloning. My personal opinion reflects a broader fear in our society that permission granted to scientific institutes to practice human cloning will have detrimental consequences.
This fear is not, as some would believe, based solely on religious values, although it may be. Religious beliefs should not influence public policy, however. What should influence public policy is science. Many scientists oppose human cloning and do not espouse it just because it is possible. While there are some potential benefits to human cloning, such as organ harvesting, these "benefits" must be weighed and examined in light of their consequences. When a new human being is created in the laboratory, what rights does…
ioethics, which is the study of value judgments pertaining to human conduct in the area of biology and includes those related to the practice of medicine, has been an important aspect of all areas in the scientific field (ernstein, Maurice, M.D.). It is one of the factors that says whether or not certain scientific research can go on, and if it can, under which rules and regulations it must abide by. One of the most recent and controversial issues facing our society today is the idea of cloning. Dolly the sheep, was the first mammal clone, and was born in February 1997, in Edinburgh, Scotland. After considerable of news coverage, genetic engineering of DNA was in the spotlight. The world has had heatedly discussions over the issues surrounding cloning ever since.
In the past, people have been against the use of these experimental procedures because of the possibility of…
Bernstein, Maurice M.D. (1999, May 28). Cloning of Humans [WWW.document].URL http://www-hsc.usc.edu/~mbernste/
Whitman, Deborah B. "Generically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" April 2000. http://www.csa.com/hottopics/gmfood/oview.html
Human Cloning Foundation. "All the reasons to clone human beings." November 2001 http://www.humancloning.org/allthe.htm
Mario, C. (1997, March 5). A Spark of Science, a Storm of Controversy [WWW.document].URL http://www.princetoninfo.com/clone.html
Ethics of Human Cloning
Ever since Dolly the Sheep was initially cloned in the latter portion of the 20th century, there has been widespread debate over the ethical issues and the practicality of human cloning. Many points of these issues are elucidated within a pair of essays in which the respective authors argue for and against cloning. John Harris' article, "The Poverty of Objections to Human Reproductive Cloning" examines these points and deconstructs them to illustrate his belief that arguments against human cloning are not valid. Rifkin, however, examines many of the same issues from the perspective that opposition to human cloning is both ethical and pragmatic in lieu of the consequences of such a practice. After a careful analysis of each of the viewpoints of the aforementioned authors, it becomes readily apparent that human cloning should not be permitted largely due to ethical reasons.
Prior to demonstrating the validity…
Harris, John. "The Poverty of Objections to Human Reproductive Cloning." Contemporary Debates in Philosophy. New York: Blackwell Publishing. Print.
Rifkin, Jeremy. "Why I Oppose Human Cloning. Contemporary Debates in Philosophy. New York: Blackwell Publishing. Print.
Human Cloning Should Be Illegal?
Human cloning definitely brings negative effects to our society on value of life, economics natural resources and a multitude of other factors. Therefore, government should not legalize human cloning.
The birth of a cloned sheep, known as Dolly has generated a great sensation around the world, ever since March 1997. Irrespective of the fact that it was not the first time that the experimentation for the use of cloning became effective, the cause behind sensations of the world by Dolly was the fact that she was the first clone from a cell of an adult mammal, something thought to be impossible earlier. This implied that the probability of cloning human beings was enhanced. We should ban human cloning since it has a probability to reduce the value of our life, is unethical, generate permanent variations in the Gene Pool, leading to a threat of Eugenics,…
Cloning Fact Sheet: Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml Accessed on 24 May, 2005
Economic Analysis. Retrieved from http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html Accessed on 24 May, 2005
Green, Ronald. M. Human Reproductive Cloning. Retrieved from http://www.aaas.org/spp/yearbook/2003/ch16.pdf Accessed on 24 May, 2005
Human Cloning: An Argument Against. Retrieved from http://www.tsujiru.net/compass/compass_1998/reg/kimura_maki_1.htm Accessed on 24 May, 2005
Muslim scholars agree that Allah has created a diverse and distinct world (Cole-Turner, 2001). Human cloning revolves around the duplication of same genes and thus, this would have a negative impact on the diversity of creation. Furthermore, Muslim scholars question that if human cloning is allowed, then how the clone would be treated? What would be the ethical, social and moral value of the clone? Furthermore, human cloning is forbidden in Islam because it interferes with the pattern of creating things in pairs, as Allah said in His Qur'an "And of everything we have created pairs, that ye may receive instruction." (Az-Zariyat: 49)" (Kass, 2002).
In Islam, cloning is opposite of this principle as it is dependent on one gender only. However, it should be noted that Islam permits cloning of particular organ, which would be used for curative procedures only. For instance, a cloned kidney can be used for…
Bonnicksen, Andrea L. (2002). Crafting a Cloning Policy: From Dolly to Stem Cells. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
Brannigan, Michael C. (2001). Ethical Issues in Human Cloning: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives. New York: Chatham House.
Cohen, Daniel (1998). Cloning. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook.
Cole-Turner, Ronald (2001). Beyond Cloning: Religion and the Remaking of Humanity. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity.
Ethics of Human Cloning
Two Major Types of Cloning
In the 1980 epoch, numerous scientists initiated researching formulas of cloning the high order animals, particularly mammals (Kass 2002, p. 7). The heightening success of their research and experiments has resulted into pervasive discussion over the probability of human cloning. This discussion has elicited extensive disagreements within the scientific society and the entire public over whether the research of human cloning is right. The two major techniques of cloning animals of higher order are subject to widespread scientific study.
One method occurs naturally to some humans when a woman bears triplets or twins. This occurs when the zygote or fertilized egg, when in the initial development stages divides into detached units (McLaren, 2002 p. 25). These parts then grow into identical and genetically matching persons. Scientists stimulated such an artificial process in cattle. Researchers in Washington DC conducted trials on human…
Dudley, W. (2001) The Ethics of Human Cloning, San Diego: GREENHAVEN PressINC.
Kass, L. (2002) Human Cloning and Human Dignity: The Report of the President's Council on Bioethics, Jackson: Public Affairs Publishers.
MacKinnon, B. (2001) Human Cloning: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy, Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
McLaren, A. (2002) Cloning, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
Also, human cloning can be compared to slavery, for the clone is nothing more than a product, much like a slave under the control of its master.
In addition, human cloning will create an identity crisis within the cloned individual. For example, a child might be born with only one biological parent, due to the fact that the clone is an exact duplicate of the donor. Also, the clone could be the offspring of a complete stranger with no biological/hereditary ties to the clone. In essence, the clone will be its own parents which could lead to some extremely confusing events once the cloned individual is "born." In support of this, a scientist credited with the creation of "Dolly," the first cloned animal, stated that "the cloning of humans (is) appalling because it would result in a number of... deaths among newborns (and) could also change family dynamics in profound…
Hughes, J. "Embracing Change with All Four Arms: A Post-Humanist Defense of Genetic Engineering."
Internet. Accessed March 15, 2005. http://www.changesurfer.com/Hlth/Genetech.html .
Human Cloning: The Process." Internet. 1998. Accessed March 15, 2005. http://www.cs.virginia.edu/~Jones/tmp3521/projects98/group1/how.html.
McGee, Glenn. "Primer on Ethics and Human Cloning." American Institute of Biological Sciences. Internet. 2001. Accessed March 15, 2005. http://www.actionbioscience.org / biotech/mcgee.html.
controversy with regard to genetic engineering and the exact effects it has on the social order. Some people consider this domain to provide the world as a whole with a window for opportunity while others believe that it goes against everything that mankind stands for. The clinical benefits associated with such technology are downright impressive and it is very probable that it is going to have a particularly positive impact on the world of medicine in general. However, what most fail to consider are the ethical and social implications that genetic engineering is going to bring on.
Scientists have focused on human cloning and genetic engineering as means to help society experience faster progress and in order to successfully combat a series of medical problems that humanity has been dealing with for several millennia. Even with this, the fact that there are numerous groups who oppose such measures by bringing…
Brock, D.W. CLONING HUMAN BEINGS. Retrieved November 6, 2013, from http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf
Greco, K.E., Tinley, S., & Seibert, D. Essential Genetic and Genomic competencies for nurses with Graduate Degrees. ISBN-13: 978-1-55810-437-2, March 2012.
Jenkins, J. Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Information Ethics: Ethical Implications of Genetic Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, Vol. 6 No. 2, Available: www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/Columns/Ethics/EthicalImplicationsofGeneticInformation.aspx
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…
AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human
Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/
Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"
Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
This bill was sent to the U.S. Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of 2003 which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.(National Legislation Concerning Human and Reproductive Cloning, 2004; paraphrased) As of the date of the report on legislation eight U.S. states had passed laws that explicitly prohibited reproductive cloning using human embryos and another five U.S. states have placed a prohibition on cloning for any purpose whatsoever with 22 other U.S. states introducing bills outlawing the reproductive cloning of humans. (Ibid; paraphrased) Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to:
1) Identify novel genetic sequences;
2) Specify the sequence's product, 3) Specify how the product functions in nature --i.e. its…
O'Connor, Sean M. (nd) Intellectual Property Rights and Stem Cell Research: Who Owns the Medical Breakthroughs?
Kadereit, Suzanne & Hines, Pamela J. (nd) Overview of Stem Cell Research New England Law Journal 2005 Mar 28. Online available at http://www.nesl.edu/lawrev/vol39/3/13%20Kadereit%20Final.pdf .
Chadwick, Ruth et al. (2004)HUGO Ethics Committee Statement of Stem Cells (2004) November
Legal Protection of Digital Information (2006) Chapter 5: Software-Based Inventions Online available at:. http://digital-law-online.info/lpdi1.0/treatise63.html
), Severino Antinori (a fertility expert from Italy enabled a 62-year-old woman have a baby) and Lee Silver (molecular biologist and professor of genetics at Princeton University) are some experts that are cloning's main proponents. With the debate on cloning, there is an air of inevitability: no matter what the debate, cloning will proceed. Also, the convictions of the people on different sides of the issues are so firmly rooted, that it would be extremely difficult to convince them otherwise. (McGee, 1998)
enagiano, G., & Primiero, F.M. (2002). Human reproductive cloning. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 79(3), 265-268.
Goodnough, D. (2003). The debate over human cloning, erkeley Heights, NJ, Enslow Pub.
McGee, G. (1998). The human cloning debate, erkeley, Calif., erkeley Hills ooks.
Tomasch, P. (2002, December 28, 2002). The sportswriter, the aliens, and a cult with 55,000 believers. The Guardian.
Wilmut, I., Schnieke, a.E., McWhir, J., Kind, a.J., &…
Benagiano, G., & Primiero, F.M. (2002). Human reproductive cloning. Int J. Gynaecol Obstet. 79(3), 265-268.
Goodnough, D. (2003). The debate over human cloning, Berkeley Heights, NJ, Enslow Pub.
McGee, G. (1998). The human cloning debate, Berkeley, Calif., Berkeley Hills Books.
Tomasch, P. (2002, December 28, 2002). The sportswriter, the aliens, and a cult with 55,000 believers. The Guardian.
On the other hand however, it gives rise to an exclusive attitude and a multiple layer style of development and economic evolution because there will always be countries that fail to keep up with innovative technology, high tech research and revolutionary concepts which stand at the basis of today's creative industries. This is why the population in least developed countries does not consider globalization as being benefic for the improvement in their standard of living.
All in all, it can be said that the success and nature of a process is totally dependent of the perspective which is under analysis. Concerning stem cell research, arguments coming from the medical point-of-view favor the continuing of the research while those embracing the religious and ethical perspective strongly disagree. Similarly, depending on the point-of-view, globalization can be seen as both an inclusive and an exclusive process.
Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie…
Holland, Suzanne, Karen Lebacqz, and Laurie Zoloth (Editor). The Human Embryonic Stem Cell Debate: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy (Basic Bioethics). Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
IMF. Globalization: Threat or Opportunity? 2000. 17 September 2006. http://www.imf.org/external/np/exr/ib/2000/041200.htm#II
National Academy of Sciences. Potential U.S. Patient Populations for Stem Cell-Based Therapies. 2000. 17 September 2006. http://www4.nationalacademies.org/onpi/webextra.nsf/44bf87db309563a0852566f2006d63bb/e5d8fdf14955556185256ac3000711c6?OpenDocument
Reaves, Jessica. "The Great Debate over Stem Cell Research." July 11, 2001. TIME. 2001. 17 September 2006. http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,167245,00.html
If it were his child or grandchild, he might have a different opinion - especially if that child was horrifically malformed or only lived a short time, dying of a painful debilitating disease.
atson is not the only one that seems to look at the debate with a lax attitude. Lori Andrews, a law professor at Chicago-Kent College of Law, believes that more caution should be taken when experimenting with life. She states, "It's like we've become deadened to the ethical dimensions of this... e're viewing biology as playing with Tinker Toys. There seems to be less resistance to the whole idea of tampering with life" (Andrews qtd. In Lyon). Richard Hayes also sees the lack of concern disconcerting. The executive director of the Exploratory Initiative on the New Human Genetic Technologies sees the lack of an outcry to be "chilling" (Hayes qtd. In Lyon). He states:
Many of these…
Andrews, Lori. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Hayes, Richard. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Lyon, Jeff. "Playing God: Has Science Gone Too Far?" Women's Day.
Pethokoukis, James. "Our Biotech Bodies, Ourselves."
science marches forward, reproductive cloning of humans will likely become a reality. It has already been accomplished with dogs, cats, cows and monkeys. This means that one day a person will be able to have a child with his/her own cells. hat do you think some of the family law issues will be as this form of alternative reproduction becomes a reality?
As soon as Dr. Ian ilmut made a breakthrough announcement that he, and his team, had successfully cloned an adult sheep in 1997, the salience of the controversy about cloning humans and genetic modifications in the human genome virtually erupted (Rose, 1999). It became clear at this point that it was feasibly possible to conduct a range of scientifically assisted reproduction such as human cloning for example. There could also be a mix of genetic information bestowed on a child. For example, family planning could resemble something along…
Aldrich, L. (2010). New York's One Judge-One Family Response to Family Violence. Juvenille Family Court, 77-86.
Berman, D., & Alfini, J. (2012). Lawyer Colonization of Family Mediation: Consequences and Implications. Marquette Law Review, 95-887.
Edwards, L. (2008). Child Protection Mediation: A 25-Year Perspective. Family Court Review, 69-80.
MacDowell, E. (2011). When Courts Collide: Integrated Domestic Violence Courts and Court Pluralism. Texas Journal of Women and the Law, 95.
against human cloning. The writer explores both sides of the issue and comes down against its use or possibility of its use. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Over the past few decades, medical advances have made life better than ever before. People are living longer, their health is better and their quality of life is above any previous standard. Today, people can be cured of illnesses that used to mean death while at the same time practicing preventative medicine that will provide them with a longer life. Advances in the medical field have provided many benefits to human life but the question becomes, how much is too much? The ability to clone humans and human parts is just on the horizon. Steps have been taken to push it through the FDA regulations and the public is being told the ability is just around the corner. Cloning,…
Bono steps into stem cell debate with anti-cloning bill
Gannett News Service; 4/28/2005; DOUG ABRAHMS
Gannett News Service
Cloning has been a hot issue in the news media in recent years. Many feel that it is a good idea and that there could be many benefits to mankind. However, there are those who feel that the issue is beyond our human capabilities and that we are playing with fire. There have been many surveys conducted on public opinion concerning the issue. Some of the studies have been formal, conducted by the research community, and others are informal, conducted by parties such as the news media. Many of these studies failed to separate answers according to gender, age and other demographic issues. Not knowing the demographics of the sample population and taking into account the number of members in each demographic group could essentially add sample bias to the answers.
It is a commonly accepted idea in the academic community that there are significant differences in opinions expressed by…
America's next ethical war." The Economist. Print Edition. April 12, 2001. Washington, D.C.
Bailey, M. (1994, April). "Women and support for the animal rights movement, 1948-1985."
Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago,
Morality of Cloning
In her book "Discovering Right and Wrong," Louis Pojman consistently makes the same point throughout her chapters: beyond all the debate and lack of consensus, and beyond all the confusion of relative morality, there should exist a true objective standard which a rational being can discover. In all her writing she seems to challenge the readers to look for objective evidence of truth, a plea which often has much in common with a more conservative position on politics and morality. When it comes to the issue of cloning, however, it seems that the search for rational objective evidence is frequently put aside in favor of often illogical "gut reactions." It is high time that a truly reasonable approach to cloning was attempted. In order to best approach this from an objectivist standpoint, it seems reasonable to backtrack to one of the founding fathers of modern objectivism, Immanual…
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 129.
Christopher bard quoted in: Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 126.
Bailey, Ronald. (1998) "The Standard Objections to Cloning Won't Bear Examination." Cloning: For and Against. New York: Open Court Publishing. 127
Genetics & the Media
Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.
Human genetics is a modern issue that moves from the forefront to the background of our global culture. It is not only a scientific endeavor, but it is also an activity laden with political implications, as well as a business opportunity for the media. Human genetics and human cloning become more accessible issues because the practice influences the average citizen more so than before, with or without the average citizen's knowledge. What the average person knows about human genetics and human cloning has been increased and influenced by media representations. The paper will focus on an article that questions the interest of genetic research in the mind of the general public as well as considers why human genetics and human cloning are media-worthy at all.
Article eview: Genetics & the Media
Bubela, T.M. & Caufield, T.A. (2004) Do the print media "hype" genetic research? A comparison of newspaper stories and peer-reviewed research papers. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 170(9), 1399 -- 1407.
bioethical concerns regarding the use of human stem cells involve their source and their research implications. Ethical issues surrounding the source of human embryonic stem cells used in research has historically evoked the most intense debates and other ethical issues have surfaced concerning the origin of other human embryonic stem cell -- like cells that have the capability to differentiate into all different types of human tissue.
From the time human embryonic stem cells were first isolated and cultured in 1998 human embryonic stem cell research has been generated vast controversy (Cohen, 2007). Much of the controversy is related to the historical public suspicion concerning the potential negative impact of scientific progress and research centered around genetic cloning. Human embryonic stem cell research has become equated with fears about human cloning, the modification of human biological material, and myths of regenerative immortality in wealthy people. All of these vague fears…
Byrne J.A., Pedersen, D., Clepper, D., Nelson, M.., Sanger, W., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. & Mitalipov, S. (2007). Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature, 450 (7169), 497 -- 502.
Chung, L., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J. et al. (2006). Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature, 439(7073), 216 -- 219.
Cohen, C.B. (2007). Renewing the stuff of life: Stem cells, ethics, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Hyun, I. & Jung, K.W. (2006). Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts. Hastings Center Report, 36(5), 34 -- 41.
advances in technology, be they in biology, agriculture, education, or nearly any other discipline or aspect of life. It appears technology is directly or indirectly linked to all recent progress. Certainly, many of the daily activities in which humans engage (reading a newspaper, making coffee, commuting to work, etc.) require technological devices. With the apparently increased reliance on and development of technology, it seems prudent to consider the consequences inherent in the use and evolution of it. More specifically, one must examine the extent to which humans -- the creators of technology, will become redundant in a society in which machines and the tasks they perform are incapable of being extracted from daily routines.
As with nearly all issues, the development of technology is advocated by many while it is strongly opposed by others. egarding the former, one must not search far for arguments favoring technological progress. Proponents, particularly those…
Ihde, Don. Image Technologies and Traditional Cutlure.
Rifin, Jeremy. The End of Work.
Joy, Bill. Why the Future Doesn't Need Us.
TSC: What Is eality?
We pursue virtual reality not because we seek to embrace reality, but because we seek to escape it. The availability of virtual reality technology enables us to create a controllable world which 'feels' real, but without any of the actual consequences of inhabiting reality. In virtually real games, we can act violently; become sports stars; take on entirely different personas in a consequence-free universe. One of the definitions of technology is that it technology involves the use of various created implements to make our lives seem 'easier.' To some extent, this is true of virtual reality technology, given that virtually real universes do not hold within them the risks of actually fighting, pursuing death-defying sports, or confronting supernatural beings in strange realms. However, the risks of virtual reality are great, namely that we will enter into the 'real' world after 'playtime' with a less secure grasp…
Kass, L (2001). TNR Online (The New Republic Online). Retrieved:
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
agree with President Bush's ethical opposition to all human cloning? Should cloning only be used for therapeutic purposes or not at all? Does every person have the right to reproduction, even lesbians or gay men through the use of cloning? The paper will be in the first person narrative.
The successful cloning of Dolly, an adult sheep in the recent past, can be seen as one of the biggest advancements in science today. And even more dramatic is the news of the world's first cloned baby Eve, as announced by Brigitte Boisselier (of Clonaid) led by a bunch of UFO worshippers who call themselves the Raelians. However, the dramatic achievement of human cloning has simultaneously raised many issues. Is it ethical to clone a human being? Is it religiously correct? Is it morally viable? Is it legally acceptable? Somehow, human cloning has become a major public issue with…
Study Limitations. There is no doubt that the issue of stem cell research and cloning carries with it scientific obligations, moral concerns, and future possibilities (obertson, 2000). However, authors such as osenthal and Lanza have managed to put the issue squarely where it belong at this juncture, namely, controlled empirical investigative research. The authors, although, thorough in their presentation, did little to encourage the on-going process of stem cell research for regenerative medicine. The limitations of their research presentation include the following:
No direct relationship was established between animal stem cell research and human stem cell research.
Mention was not made with respect to the costs of current stem cell research efforts and possible future costs.
Emphasis was not place on the overall need for advanced biotechnology.
Documentation between government regulations and current stem cell research efforts was not addressed.
The authors did little to address the potential stem cell…
Andrews, Lori B. (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
Meilaender, Gilbertm (1999). Remarks on human embryonic stem- cell research. Paper presented to the National Bioethics Advisory Commission.
National Institutes of Health. NIH guidelines for stem cell
Ian Wimut and Keith Campell could effectively clone two sheeps named Megan and Morag in July 1995 from the differentiated emryo cells. (History of Cloning)
Dolly originated on July 5, 1996 as the first organism ever to e cloned from adult cells. Following the announcements for creation of Dolly y Ian Wilmut, an extensive deate on human cloning ethics emerged and that led President Clinton to propose for a five-year moratorium on federal as well as privately invested human cloning research on March 4, 1997. Richard Seed, a Havard graduate could announce on Decemer 5, 1997 aout his ojective of cloning a human eing prior to an of the process y enactment of the federal laws. Following the successful cloning of Dolly, Ian Wilmut and Keith Campell generated Polly, after cloning of a Poll Dorset lam from skill cells grown on a la and with its alteration genetically to incorporate…
bibliography_pages/cloning.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning Fact Sheet" Human Genome Project Information. Retrieved at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Cloning: what's stopping us? Law" (22 October, 2004) Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Retrieved at http://www.genpol.org/news55.pdf . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Economic Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/cheburashinka/economic.html. Accessed on 11 March, 2005
Gabby. (17 May 1999) "Cloning for Medical Purposes" Retrieved at http://www.humancloning.org/gabby.htm . Accessed on 11 March, 2005
genetics research and ethics related to the topic of human cloning. Specifically, we review a publication co-authored by Kuppuswamy, Macer, Serbulea & Tobin (2007) entitled " Is Human eproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance." The central theme of this article is to distinguish two major types of cloning that are possible with contemporary genetic technology. The article outlines the issues and controversies surrounding each cloning type, and asserts a moral and ethical position which the authors consider to be a viable and necessary middle ground. The report was targeted to the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) as an assessment of the UN's response to the need for international governance of human cloning, particularly in the context of the UN's non-binding A/ES/59/280 Declaration on Cloning. The article is secondarily targeted for consumption by the general public as an informational resource.
The selected article by Kuppuswamy et. al.…
Kuppuswamy, C., Macer, D., Serbulea, M., & Tobin, B. (2007). Is Human Reproductive Cloning Inevitable: Future Options for UN Governance. UNU-IAS. Retrieved from http://www.ias.unu.edu/resource_centre/Cloning_9.20B.pdf
Since the war in Iraq, thousands of American soldiers have been injured, and some of them paralyzed by explosions that shattered their spinal columns.
Traumatic paralysis is often irreversible because the network of nerves in the human spinal cord cannot repair themselves when they are badly damaged.
Applications of cloning technology will allow us to grow new nerve tissue for implantation into damaged spinal cords to restore their functions (Sagan, 1997).
Seventh Point - Cloned Human Organs Can Save Thousands of Lives Every Year:
Medical applications of cloning technology already allows doctors to grow human skin for burn victims.
The exact same technology will allow us to make human organs by actually cloning the cells from the same person to make replacement organs (Soares, 2002).
This means an end to long waiting lists for donor organs and will make the difference between life and death for thousands of people every…
Krock, L. (2001) on Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)
Accessed November 1, 2007 at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html
Sagan, C. (1997) Billions and Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. Random House: New York
Soares, C. Why Human Clones Won't Work Yet. Discover (Jan/02)
Fear is an emotion that often paralyzes people and fear of the unknown often precipitates irrational thoughts and behavior. One hot topic that illustrates this point is cloning. Many opponents to the subject of cloning are basing their arguments on fear. This fear is irrational and totally unfounded and extremely damaging to the cause of science. As a society, we are on a path that is leading us to embark on nothing short of fantastic discoveries and allowing fear to hinder this growth would be a dreadful mistake. Cloning is not bad or wrong -- the fear that accompanies it is.
Alun Anderson brings to mind several reasons why human cloning could be beneficial. One example can be seen in the couple who carries a recessive gene for disease. In this scenario, one of the parents cloning him or herself would remove the risk of their child being born diseased.…
Anderson, Alun. "Cloning Can be an Ethical Form of Reproduction." Cloning. Winters,
Paul, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press. 1998.
Baum, Rudy. "Human Cloning is Inevitable." Cloning. Winters, Paul, ed. San Diego:
Greenhaven Press. 1998.
Chimpanzees and gorillas can be taught human sign language, and sign with one another even without humans present. (MMMC, 2002) They argue that to use intelligence and compassion as a sliding scale of the right to life would cause many humans to be justified out of existence.
However, even if one accepts that too many animals are experimented upon, and researchers should use other means, it is similarly hard to justify the elimination of all animal experimentation, altogether, as this would have meant the end of such recent drug developments in AIDS research, as well as more questionable animal tests, as for instance, the use of rabbits in cosmetic testing, for which there are acceptable substitutes that do not require animals.
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q &…
Bayliss, Francoise. (2004) "Our Cells/Ourselves: The Ethics of Embryonic Stem Cell Research." Stem Cell Network. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/research/projects/project04.php
BBC News. (Feb 12, 2004)"Q & A: Cloned Embryos." BBC Official Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3481159.stm
Bird, Gloria W. And Sporkowuski, Michael J. (1992) Taking Sides. The Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc. Guilford, CT.
CNN.com. (Feb 12, 2004)" Scientists 'cloned human embryos' CNN News Website. Retrieved 12 Jan 2004 at http://www.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/02/12/science.clone/
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
Life Science Current Event eport
Current Events on Cloning and Evolution
Topic and Date: The Ethics of Egg Manipulation (Evolution), August 27, 2009
The article "The Ethics of Egg Manipulation" published in Nature investigates the research challenges in reducing diseases that can be identified prior to egg fertilization. Scientists have questioned if it is necessary for humans to give birth to offspring that are at high risk for genetic diseases. Their hypothesis is: If we remove the bad parts of the DNA from one egg and replace it with good DNA from another egg and use the new egg for in vitro fertilization, can we reduce the number of babies born with disease (Anonymous, 2009)?
Current experiments have been performed on monkeys. The experiments have been successful and scientists believe the research is ready to move to humans, but many laws are in place to deter this type of…
Anonymous. (2009, August 27). The ethics of egg manipulation. Nature, 460(7259), 1057. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
Anonymous. (2008, November 13). Clones of the dead. Nature, 456(7219), 144. Retrieved from ProQuest Database.
3. Embryonic stem cells can be used to help human beings who suffer from debilitating diseases for which no other solution offers hope. For this reason alone, the research should be legal, considering that the embryos from which the stem cells are derived cannot be shown to possess any type of noticeable consciousness. There is no moral reason to favor the use of animals in medical research over the use of embryonic stem cells, considering that the former are fully developed creatures who clearly have the potential to feel pain, whereas the latter demonstrate little more than potentiality. Furthermore, most embryonic stem cells are culled from discarded tissues used for in vitro fertilization. If in vitro fertilization is legal then so too should be the proper use of the leftover cell mass.
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology eb…
Human Reproduction and Development. (2004). Retrieved 22 Sept 2005, from the Ipui Department of Biology Web Site: http://www.biology.iupui.edu/biocourses/N100/2k4ch39repronotes.html
Irving, Dianne N. (2005). Framing the Debates on Human Cloning and Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Pluripotent vs. TOTIPOTENT. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/irv/irv_100debatecloning1.html
Kischer, C. Ward. (2004). Human Development and Reconsideration of Ensoulment. Retrieved 22 Sept 2005 at http://www.lifeissues.net/writers/kisc/kisc_10humandevelopment.html
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias." The word is of Greek origin, a play on the Greek word eutopos, meaning "good place." In the book, More describes a pagan and communist city-state in which the institutions and policies are governed entirely by reason. The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism (Maynard 41). The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
The society depicted in Never Let Me Go…
Ishiguro, Kazuo. Never Let Me Go. New York: Vintage Books, 2005.
Maynard, Theodore. Humanist as Hero: The Life of Sir Thomas More. New York: Macmillan, 1947.
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…
Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.
Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.
Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
A "New York Times" reporter notes, "But unlike some other patents on animal cloning, this one does not specifically exclude human from the definition of mammals; indeed, it specifically mentions the use of human eggs" (Pollack). Another writer notes that there are virtually no limits on what a patent can be issued for, and so, the patent office can potentially issue patents on any number of controversial or ethical procedures and creations. He writes, "Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on 'anything under the sun made by man'" (Bagley). Clearly, this policy can lead to muddy waters and questions of morality in the future. Most people agree that human cloning should not occur for any number of reasons, including the ability to create humans and even "perfect" humans to serve as workers or in effect "slaves." This is a moral and…
Bagley, Margo a. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.
Editors. "Can Living Things be Patented?" Bio.org. 2008. 15 Feb. 2008. http://www.bio.org/ip/primer/livingthings.asp
Kevles, Daniel J. "Of Mice & Money: The Story of the World's First Animal Patent." Daedalus 131.2 (2002): 78+.
Pollack, Andrew. "Debate on Human Cloning Turns to Patents." New York Times. 2002. 15 Feb. 2008.
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…
Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…
Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New
World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.
Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at http://www.literature.org/authors/descartes-rene/reason-discourse/
Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (2000). 29th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
Ethics and Morality: The ight to Live and Die
The Ethics of Human Cloning
The topic of human cloning came into the limelight in 1996, when Dolly the lamb was cloned by embryologist Ian Wilmut of oslin Institute, Scotland. The American Medical Association (AMA) defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" (Fornsworth, 2001). Essentially, it is the production of a baby with the same genes as its monozygotic parent, and which basically involves inserting the parent's DNA into a nucleated egg and then chemically stimulating the egg to undergo cell division and become an embryo that is a complete genetic copy of its parent / DNA donor (Fornsworth, 2001).
Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…
Farnsworth, J. (2000). To Clone or Not to Clone: The Ethical Question. Farnsworth.com. Retrieved 7 October 2014 from http://thefarnsworths.com/science/cloning.htm
Wordpress. (2013). Ethical Issues Surrounding Human Cloning. Wordpress. Retrieved 6 October 2014 from http://planetparadigm.wordpress.com/2009/02/11/ethical-issues-surrounding-human-cloning/
In his aticle, Deek Buke posits that "consumes' biggest concen is about isk, especially in light of the bovine spongifom encephalopathy epidemic: scientists, and the egulatoy pocesses, ae no longe tusted" (1998). This distust in the system, both on a scientific and govenmental level, is deep-ooted, in that food is pat of the human expeience which is pesonal and even intimate. People want to be able to tust thei food povides. Theefoe thee is fea that just because cloned beef appeas as edible as non-cloned beef does not guaantee that an animal with defects hamful fo human consumption might be cloned (and that clone cloned, and so on), unleashing geate ham ove a wide aay of people than even the BSE o Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.
The aguments against cloning have a lot to do with ou collective fea not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…
ith the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue." Taking a cell containing 98 per cent of the DNA, or its genetic blueprint, from the udder of a six-year-old adult sheep, they fused it to the egg of another sheep to produce a lamb that is virtually an exact copy." (Marsh, 1) Equally as groundbreaking as the creation of the world's first clone was the implication of its process, which indicated that there is a way to employ adult cells, already differentiated and specialized to their own organic functions, in order to fabricate new, un-differentiated genetic material. For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…
Albu, M. (2004). Bush's gay marriage ban is unjust. The Channels Online. Online at http://media.www.thechannelsonline.com/media/storage/paper669/news/2004/03/03/Opinion/Editorial.Bushs.Gay.Marriage.Ban.Is.Unjust-625066.shtml
Bazinet, K.R. (2009). President Obama Reverses Bush's Stem Cell Research Ban; Debate Rages Along Abortion Fault Lines. New York Daily News. Online at http://www.nydailynews.com/news/politics/2009/03/09/2009-03-09_president_obama_reverses_bushs_stem_cell.html
Campbell, D.E. (2007). A Matter of Faith: Religion in the 2004 Presidential Election. The Brookings Institute.
Chaddock, G.R. (2006). Veto Clash Looms for Stem Cell Bill.
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
It has "… taken on a life of its own independent of Mary Shelley's text, and indeed even independent of certain parts of her narrative." (Goodall 19) This has resulted in film and stage play versions of the novel.
The reason for this continuing popularity lies largely with the relevance of the themes; particularly with regard to the theme of man 'playing God' through his application of scientific knowledge and his need to manipulate and control nature. This then can be linked to many questions and issued of contemporary importance. One could, for example, take modern scientific attempts at cloning animals and the possibility of human cloning. The question arises whether science will create monsters in the future through scientific knowledge. As one critic notes; "The public debate on cloning continues to be littered with references to Frankenstein." (Goodall 19)
Furthermore, "Mary Shelley's story has been taken variously to illustrate…
Britton, Jeanne M. "Novelistic Sympathy in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Studies in Romanticism 48.1 (2009): 3+. Questia. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. ( http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/frankenstein/section1.rhtml )
Frankenstein: Introduction. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
( http://www.enotes.com/frankenstein )
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/
Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.
Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
The primary roles of adult stem cells in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found." (Info 2006)
Adult stem cells are replicators in such a way that they are able to duplicate a variety of different cells. "Stem cells have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body, serving as a sort of repair system...they can theoretically divide without limit to replenish other cell...each new cell has the potential to either remain a stem cell or become another type of cell with a more specialized function, such as a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell." (Info 2006).
Researchers tout the belief that a manipulation of stem cells can be beneficial in curing many diseases as well as helping in creating or developing new life, which could be part of the reason why such…
Info Center. (2006) In Stem Cell Information. National Institute for Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, www.stemcells.nih.gov/info.defaultpage, Accessed November 13, 2006