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Human Computer Interaction
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is the study, planning and design of the way human beings and modern computing devices interact. It is a renaissance discipline, newer and more necessary now that a significant portion of the population use a computer on a regular basis. The term was actually coined in a book that maintains that unlike other tools that have been developed throughout human civilization, and computer has so many uses that were not even part of its design. Also the idea is that HCI is such a large topic of study because it includes psychology, behavior, computer science, medicine (especially kinesiology), pedagogy, and numerous other adaptive behaviors and studies (Card, et.al., 1986).
HCI and IBM- International Business Machines, IBM, has moved from working with its own PC brand to primarily the design, reinvention, and reinterpretation of research and development on computing issues. Its Center for Social Software,…
Blankson, J. & Kyei-Blankson, L. (2008). Nontraditional students' perceptions of a blended course: integrating synchronous online discussion and face-to-face instruction. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19(3), 421-438.
Card, S., et.al., (1998). The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Mahwah, NJ:
Cheung, W., et.ak., (2008). Toward an understanding of why students contribute in asynchronous online discussions. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 38(1), 29-50.
Sunrise Alsprits, the software system used in the workplace currently include increased efficiency compared to the manual system, increased access to several records, and ability to use real-time data. The disadvantages of the system include a long response time, some difficult to use features, and down-time of the system (during system upgrades), which decreases the level of satisfaction. Sunrise Alsprits system has a major shortcoming in that it allows for short-cuts around the system. Certain recommendations to improve the system to increase efficiency and effectiveness level are discussed. The observations and recommendations mentioned herein apply equally to similar systems meant for healthcare organizations elsewhere. It is recommended that suitable defaults be incorporated to save time and to facilitate fast switching between patient records; such measures would conform to the way the nurses work. Another recommendation is make provision for independent access, thus allowing for entries by administrative personnel. This enhancement…
Smelcer, J. B., Miller-Jacobs, H., & Kantrovich, L. (2009). Usability of electronic medical records. Journal of usability studies, 4(2), 70-84.
Su, K. & Liu, C. (2010). A Mobile Nursing Information System Based on Human-Computer Interaction Design for Improving Quality of Nursing. Journal of Medical Systems,36, 1129-1153.
Zaphiris, P., Ang, C. S., Henderson, J., & Tosheff, L. (2008). Human Computer Interaction: Concepts, Methodologies, Tools and Applications. In Phd Thesis by M. Al-Masarweh Brunel University APPENDIX 1: LIST OF PUBLICATIONS Journal.
Frigstad, S. A., Nost, T. H., & Andre, B. (2015). Implementation of Free Text Format Nursing Diagnoses at a University Hospital's Medical Department. Exploring Nurses' and Nursing Students' Experiences on Use and Usefulness. A Qualitative Study. Nursing research and practice, 2015.
Core affect (CA) on the other hand refers to a neurophysiological state which is accessible consciously as very simple and yet nonreflective feeling which forms an integral part of hedonistic as well as arousing values. The hedonistic values are responsible for the feeling of pleasure and displeasure while the arousal feelings are activated by sleep. In the study of affect, it became clear that its core characteristics are many. Some of the characteristics are valence which is the extent, to which an individual feels bad. Arousal, which is the sleep-activated value denoting to the extent to which one feels energized. Affects exists in each and every person without the need of any form of stimulus. Affects is a primitive aspect of every being and is noted to be university as well as ubiquitous. Affect is the center of all human laden events and called in various names as pointed out…
Zhang, P (2011a).Organizational & Business Context
Zhang, P (2011b).Interactive Technologies
Zhang, P (2011c).Physical Engineering
Zhang, P (2011d).Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Engineering
As many of the world's industries are faced with increasing competitive pressure and the need to continually improve their performance, employers look to new employees with computer fluency skills as an indicator that the person also has initiative to tackle difficult learning projects and master them. Initiative is very valuable in today's labor market. When combined with computer fluency and literacy, a prospective employee can add in knowledge of a specific industry and gain a greater competitive advantage in getting a new position. This combination of factors together is what serves as the catalyst for anyone seeking a career where computer fluency is a necessary requirement.
The level of computer literacy and their level of fluency with PCs, applications, the Internet and its many applications and research tools will have a direct correlation to what they will earn over their lifetimes; this point is clear from the studies citied.…
Francis Green, Alan Felstead, Duncan Gallie, Ying Zhou. "COMPUTERS and PAY." National Institute Economic Review no. 201 (July 1, 2007): 63-75. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed April 30, 2008).
Copacino, William C "Skills development -- the best defense against downsizing." Logistics Management, January 1, 1997, 42.
A www.proquest.com (Accessed April 30, 2008).
Thus "we become accustomed to demanding rather than requesting, and we unlearn the skill of making someone feel good about doing what we need" (Coffee, 2002, p. 302). The experience of continuous demands from the computer runs counter to what is required for interaction with people. The inanimate object is there to satisfy all the cyber desires at the press of a key. A person will not function in the same manner. Interacting with flesh and blood requires a different attitude, which is not engaged when the computer is interfaced with regularly. The net result of that practice is diminished civility and a boorishness that impresses demands on others. To get services from people requires politeness and at times social grace; these are not involved in the digital interaction with the computer.
Perhaps the most damning element of excessive computer usage occurs when the virtual confuses the real, and this…
Staples, B. (2004). What adolescents miss when we let them grow up in cyber space. New York
Coffee, P. (2002). There's a bad example on every desk. eWeek
Goldsborough, R. For the love of the P.C.
Since its advent in the 20th century, Internet technology has become a platform for social, political, and economic interactions and transactions. Currently, cultures and societies are exploring new ways of optimizing Internet technology, from making social interactions easier, more expansive, and more frequent to minute concerns such as transferring money from one person to another via wireless Internet technology. Indeed, from its current uses and applications to human society, computer-mediated communication has become a way of life, and is no longer a new phenomenon. In fact, apprehension about the usage of the above-mentioned applications of computer-mediated communication has disappeared as the benefits outweighed its perceived risks and challenges. Only those who absolutely have no experience with computer and Internet technologies cannot see the usefulness / benefits of computer-mediated communication.
Indeed, the thesis posited demonstrates how, over time, literature and research studies about computer-mediated communication (CMC) have been conducted…
Baumer, M. And H. Van Resburg. (2011). "Cross-cultural pragmatic failure in computer-mediated communication." Coolabah, No. 5.
Ess, C. And F. Sudweeks. (2005). "Culture and computer-mediated communication: toward new understandings." Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 11, No. 1.
Romiszowski, A. And R. Mason. (2010). Computer Mediated Communication. NY: Prentice Hall.
Wrench, J. And N. Carter. (2007). "The relationship between computer-mediated communication competence, apprehension, self-efficacy, perceived confidence, and social presence." Southern Communication Journal, Vol. 72, No. 4.
My significant other and I met in a traditional manner, at a nightclub.
Furthermore, most of our early relationship was spent in a conventional manner; we dated and spent time with each other, using CMC, such as texts and IMs as a way of relaying information about how we would spend our face time, rather than using it as a way to replace face-time. Then, life intervened, as it so often does, and an internship opportunity across the country separated us. Both of us being relatively poor students, we are unable to fly to visit each other frequently. Furthermore, while cell phones and unlimited calling plans have made it possible for us to talk a lot of the time, we have conflicting schedules, which can make it difficult for us to arrange times for any type of lengthy conversation. However, we can spend time e-mailing each other, devoting time to…
Some nanorobots are being designed as "spray-on computers the size of a grain of sand." Edinburgh University has been working on nanorobots that can be sprayed onto patients as monitoring devices. They may be released for medical use in four years.
Quantum computers, based on principles like quantum entanglement and superposition, use the properties of particles. Quantum bits, called qubits, can process information faster than any existing computer technologies. A quantum computer can process many equations simultaneously. In a smaller space, using less energy, a quantum computer becomes more powerful than any commercial PC. In fact, Hertzog implies that quantum computers will mainly be used in fields demanding rapid data processing like the sciences or in cryptography.
Finally, one of the most promising future developments will be in the realm of artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence implies computers that can think critically and creatively, like human beings. The potential for artificial…
Hertzog, C. (2006). The future of computer technology. Tech Tips. Retrieved April 17, 2007 at http://www.geeks.com/techtips/2006/techtips-26nov06.htm
This transformation of the user experience is critical for the cognitive value of all these attributes together to make the contribution they are capable of (Mirel, Olsen, 1998).
Finally the contextual aspects of ergonomics and usability need to be addressed in any new product, software or website development. The contextual role of design puts information into a meaningful framework for the immediate and active use of those it was designed for (Massey, Khatri, Montoya-Weiss, 2007). Contextual ergonomics includes an awareness of the needs of those using the product, experiencing its information and seeking to make the most of it via a universal design structure. Attractiveness and the ability to define customization is critical, as is the need for ensuring transparency of how the elements are integrated together to deliver a consistent user experience.
Cappel, J.J., & Huang, Z. (2007). A usability analysis of company websites. The Journal of Computer…
Cappel, J.J., & Huang, Z. (2007). A usability analysis of company websites. The Journal of Computer Information Systems, 48(1), 117-123.
Georgievski, M., & Sharda, N. (2006). Re-engineering the usability-testing process for live multimedia systems. Journal of Enterprise Information Management, 19(1), 223-233.
Massey, a.P., Khatri, V., & Montoya-Weiss, M. (2007). Usability of online services: The role of technology readiness and context*. Decision Sciences, 38(2), 277-308.
Mirel, B., & Olsen, L.A. (1998). Social and cognitive effects of professional communication on software usability. Technical Communication Quarterly, 7(2),
" Then take the screen grab and find the image on "clipboard." We tried to do this but found no key with a box around it. Another remedy Web site said to do what the first one recommended -- and the image would appear on the clipboard. We looked at a blank clipboard and then at each other and I said, "Trade the dang thing in for a Mac!"
Seriously, we're not that technology savvy in the first place, but HP could do a better job making it possible (if not simple) to take a screen grab. Taking a screen grab can save time and make it simple to grab and print out a passage in a book or article rather than printing the whole page. Recommendation: emulate the Macintosh screen capture technology. It can't be that hard.
Reply to Student 1 -- iPad. I was considering getting an iPad…
Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration
HM technologies are essential towards reduction of the cost of operations as well as an increment in the level of consumer satisfaction hence effective management of the resources and available opportunities. Wal-Mart should focus on the quality and efficient automation of the processes and departments for the purposes of eliminating errors and overhead costs. This is essential through management of the HM technologies such as CM, FID, and EP with the aim of achieving maximum profit levels and revenues at the end of the fiscal year.
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an EP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The ole of Information Systems
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an ERP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The Role of Information Systems
Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes. Journal Of
The work environment, for example, could be conducive to this type of stress, as can the relationship with other employees and with supervisors.
This type of fatigue is vastly different from the mental or physical fatigue of direct work overburden, and is also more subtle than these types of fatigue. It should therefore be carefully monitored in terms of its nature and how it interacts with other types of fatigue, particularly when the workforce is diminished.
Because of the complexity of psychological loading factors, Dr. Bill should be careful to monitor, revise, and update company policy in terms of issues such as communication among employees as well as among employees and their supervisors. Communication can play a significant part in how employees perceive their work, as well as how they experience the burden of their work in a psychological sense.
Mental loading, on the other hand, is probably the most…
Advameg, Inc. (2012). Sprains and Strains. Retrieved from: http://www.faqs.org/sports-science/Sp-Tw/Sprains-and-Strains.html#b
City Office (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.yourcityoffice.com/articles/48/office-space_lighting.html
How Does Human Metabolism Work? (2012). Retrieved from: http://campus.bethlehem.edu/eclinic/eclinic_0013e.pdf
Overgaard, D., Gyntelberg, F. And Heitmann, B.L. (2004). Psychological workload and body weight: is there an association? A review of the literature. Occupational Medicine, no. 54. Retrieved from: http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/54/1/35.long
International Human esource Management
International Business H: Vital and Pivotal
During the 20th century, the human resources (H) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within a company. Human resources management has never been more vital to organizations than it is today as more and more businesses are going global. For globalizing companies, experienced, informed and effective Human esource people skills are becoming a strategic asset. In order to maximize the competitive potential of employees across global markets many multinational companies will need to revise their H policies and programs.
Table of Contents
Background and Significance
Discussion and Implications
During the 20th century, the human resources (H) function has become quite skilled at managing human capital which is frequently defined as the skills, knowledge and experience of individual workers within…
Adeleye, Ifedapo. (2011). Theorizing the diffusion of International Human Resource
Practices:Towards an Integrated Conceptual Approach. International Journal of Business andManagement, 6(12), 254-269.
Baughn, C. Christopher, Neupert, Kent E., Anh, Phan Thi Thuc, and Hang, Ngo Thi
Minh.(2011). Social capital and human resource management in international joint ventures inVietnam: a perspective from a transitional economy. The International
Human and Machine Intelligence
The similarities and differences between human and machine intelligence doesn't seem to be the most important issue. It seems clear that both have been shown to exist, though they have very fundamentally different characteristics. The issue now centers more on supremacy: Is one better, more authoritative than the other? And if so, does this influence whether a "superintelligence" (Bostrom, 2003) exists that takes us to the paradigm when words (Zadeh, 2009) and emotions are most important (Dennett, Chapter 16)?
The early writings about projects like the Turing test tried to explain intelligence as being some kind of understanding about knowledge and its function. They often used simple conceptualizations similar to the way computers use the characters of "1" and "0" as a mathematical language. Philosophers use this approach to speculate about how a logical person might be able to "see" one color by itself, independent of…
Block, N. (____). The mind as the software of the brain. Chapter 14.
Bostrom, N. (2003). Creating Superintelligence involves less risk than waiting. In S. Engdahl, Artificial Intelligence. Green Press: Detroit.
Can a Machine Think? Chapter 5.
Chatham, C. (2011). 10 important differences between brains and computers. Developing Intelligence [over time, across species, cross-platform]. Viewable at http://scienceblogs.com/developingintelligence/2007/03/why_the_brain_is_not_like_a_co.php .
Computer-mediated communication has "revolutionized social interaction," (Georgakopoulou, 2011, p. 93). On some days, I communicate with others more with digital devices than in person, such as days I am home studying. Instead of using the phone or talking in person, I will use messenger apps or email. Social media is also an important type of computer-mediated communication. It matters because of the ways technology transforms the nature of communication. The term "mediation" refers mainly to the means by which a message is transmitted (Thurlow, Lengel & Tomic, 2004, p. 18). When we are in person or even on the phone, our brains can pick up a slew of cues, such as tone of voice, pauses in the person's speech, pace of speaking, and other forms of non-verbal communication. We detect tone and emotion in body language, eyes, and timbre of voice. These cues are all absent in computer-mediated communication, with…
The instructor does sit with the student when he or she is training with the devices the FAA approves for the educational computer training. Sometimes a separate computer is used during this process, but the teacher is able to monitor and control the student's flight as well as plan out every detail for him or her at that particular time (United States Gernal Accounting Office, 1999).
For those that are educators, they too have noticed trends with computer-based training. The convenience of learning on the Web has stretched all the possible barriers that occur locally and globally. When it comes to distance learning, the Internet is used to deliver material to the learner, such as Word documents or PowerPoints. However, in other online environments, this is provided through hypertext, which allows the learner more opportunities to explore the information provided as well as to have much interactivity (Khalifa & Lam,…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, A.M., & Mehay, S. (2009). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Naval Postgraduate School, 119.
Information Design, Inc. (2004). Issues in web-based training. 5.
Khalifa, M., & Lam, R. (2002). Web-based learning: Effects on learning process and outcome. IEEE Transactions on Education, 7.
Kulik, C.-L. C., & Kulik, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based: An updated analysis. Computers in human behavior, 20.
Human Factors in Aviation
rief Historical ackground
The Airline Industry has a history that dates back to 1903 when the Wright brothers made their first successful flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Initially the public did not take the idea of the airplane travel favorably. ut this event marked the beginning of the Airline Industry as more and more inputs were given by people such as Charles Lindbergh who successfully completed a solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1927 and created massive interest in flying with the general public.
The concern for human factor involvement in aviation started as soon as the interest of general public was roused in it. The initial concern was for the safety of people daring to fly the aircraft as accidents were reported due to a flaw in the design or working of the plane. A pilot task was to juggle with the complexity…
Daniel J. Garland, V. David Hopkins, John A. Wise. (1999). Handbook of Aviation Human Factors. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Clint A. Bowers, C. Shawn Burke, Eduardo Salas, Katherine A. Wilson. (2001) Team Training in the Skies: Does Crew Resource Management (CRM) Training Work?, Vol. 43
Clint A. Bowers, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Randall L. Oser, Carolyn Prince, Eduardo Salas, Renee J. Stout. (1999) A Methodology for Enhancing Crew Resource Management Training, Vol. 41
Airlines in the industry. (N.d.) Retrieved on Sep 30, 2005 from:
Human esources Management - Maintaining a Competitive Edge in the Corporate Marketplace
Change continues to reshape the workplace. Today's H professional is called upon to help the organization retain its competitive edge in the marketplace. Along with representing the best interests of employees, H professionals assume the role of strategic partner, administrative expert, and change agent. H assumes a critical role in promoting the vision and shaping the focus of the company. H professionals must be skilled and knowledgeable business partners, able to wear many hats while demonstrating their own competencies in communication and decision-making skills. (Aghazadeh, 1999)
Today, H departments face many challenges. Some are conventional and continuing concerns.
Attract, retain and motivate employees;
Ensure legal and regulatory compliance;
Manage the human side of technological change.
Perhaps, most critically today however, progressive H departments are charged with adding value to the corporation as they seek to:
Aghazadeh, Seyed-Mahmoud (1999). Human Resource Management: Issues and challenges in the new millennium. Management Research News, 22(12) 19-32.
Ashbaugh, Sam and Rowan Miranda (2002). Technology for Human Resources Management: Seven Questions and Answers. Public Personnel Management, (31) 7.
Ball, Sarah (2002, Sept). How technology can make you look good. Employee Benefits, S9-11.
Barro, Tom. A Tangled Web of Partnerships. Retrieved Feb. 21, 2003 at http://www.astd.org/CMS/templates/index.html?template_id=1&articleid=23780
Modern business has now fully integrated computer technology and Internet connectivity within the professional business environment, but has been comparatively slow to adapt the new reality that many professional business functions are fully capable of being conducted from the home, for at least some significant portion of the typical office employee's work week.
Is it possible to increase employee motivation by providing increased employee input into factors that normally are not subject to employee preference in the professional business environment? Specifically:
To what extent would greater autonomy and individual choice of work shift hours and structure (length of shift, work hours, etc.) improve employee motivation while at work?
To what extent would the opportunity to work from home improve employee satisfaction and therefore, motivation at work?
To what extent is the prospect of improving employee motivation through implementation of greater autonomy in relation to work shift structure and…
Human Resources as Critical Investments
IN AN ORGANIZATION'S FUTURE
The purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not the human resources (HR) within an organization should be used as critical investments. To support this exploration, the terms "human capital," "human assets" and "intellectual capital" will be discussed, on the merits of each specific term as well as in relation to one another. Finally a conclusion will be drawn that determines if human resources should be viewed as any or all of the above terms, and if HR managers should utilize them as critical investments in an organization's future.
To begin, the overarching term "human resources management (HRM)" must be understood. HRM essentially is an all-encompassing term that refers to how an organization's human resources are used to achieve the organization's overall objectives or strategic directions. HRM includes a continuum of activities that can be compartmentalized into seven categories:…
Boone, Christophe, Arjen van Witteloostuijn. Industry Competition and Firm Human Capital. Small Business Economics. 1996. Vol. 8. Pp. 347-364.
Boudreau, John, Peter Ramstad. Measuring Intellectual Capital: Learning From Financial History. Human Resource Management. Fall, 1997. Vol. 36, No. 3. Pp. 343-356.
Bradley, Keith. Measuring Return on Human Assets in Companies. Feb., 1993. London School of Economics, Business Performance Group.
"(O'Callaghan and Smits, nd) it is stated that estimations of the Gartner Group is that the majority of the data in organizations (75-80%) is in this state of unstructured format and is generally not easily located when it is needed by the organization.
O'Callaghan and Smits (nd) state that organizations tend to "maintain and variety of systems and databases in a complex ad-hoc architecture that does not seem to fulfill the needs for company-wide unstructured information in business processes, business functions and the extended enterprise." (O'Callaghan and Smits, nd) it is stated that document management (DM) systems focus on the organization and accessibility of files and contain the following parts in the DM system:
a) File storage;
b) File categorization;
d) Collaboration services;
e) Workflow services;
f) Versioning services; and g) Access services. (O'Callaghan and Smits, nd)
2) Organizations should not fail in implementation of 'Enterprise Content Management'…
Human esource Management
Two Motivation Strategies
Motivating Minimum Wage Service Workers
The Importance of the Individual
Individual Work to Teamwork
Employers will usually want to maximize the productivity of their employees. Different employers may use different strategies to support and improve productivity. It has been demonstrated by a number of theorists, such as Mayo, Maslow, and Herzberg, that one of the most effective ways of improving employee performance is through the use of motivational strategies (Tohidi, 2011). The aim of this paper is to look at the development of a motivational plan, identify two potential motivational strategies and consider the way that a minimum wage worker may be motivated.
A good motivational plan may allow the employer to motivate employees by supporting high levels of jib satisfaction, which will support positive behavioral traits, including low turnover, high produced and high quality work. For employees…
Cook, Sarah, (2008), The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction, Kogan Page Publishers
Danish, Rizwan Qaiser; Usman, Ali, (2010), Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan, International Journal of Business & Management, 5(2), 159-167
Mone, E. M; London, M. (2010), Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers, New York, Routledge.
Tohidi, H, (2011), Teamwork productivity & effectiveness in an organization base on rewards, leadership, training, goals, wage, size, motivation, measurement and information technology, Procedia Computer Science, 3, 1137-1146
" Shin (2006) Shin also states that the CMC literature "illustrates shifts of focus to different layers of context." Early on, research relating to CMC in language learning and teaching looked at the linguistic content of CMC text to examine how language learners could improve certain communication functions and learn linguistic figures through CMC activities (lake, 2000; Chun, 1994; Kern, 1995; Ortega, 1997; Pellettieri, 2000; Smith 2000, Sotlillo, 2000; Toyoda & Harrison, 2002, Tudini, 2003; Warschauer, 1996) Recent studies of "tellecollaborative projects have examined how language learners jointly construct the contexts of their CMC activities, as part of their focus on tensions among intercultural communication partners. (elz, 2003, 2003; Kramsch & Thorn, 2002; O'Dowd, 2003; Ware 2000, War & Kramsch, 2005) IN the study of Shin (2006) which was "informed by Ware's (2005) examination of a tellecollaborative communication project between American college students and German students" Shin (2006) looks into…
Introduction to Computational Linguistics (2006) Computer-Assisted Language Learning http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/ballc/ling361/ling361_call.html .
Lusnia, Karen B. (1000) Teaching Teachers Long-Distance: A Paradigm-Shift for the Teacher-Planner in Mexico - Applied Linguistics. Paper presented at the International Conference on Language Teacher Education.
Bakhtin, M.M. (1981). Excerpts from discourse in the novel. In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M.M. Bakhtin. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Bateson, G. (2000). Steps to an ecology of mind: Collected essays in anthropology, psychiatry, evolution, and epistemology. Chicago, IL: University Of Chicago Press.
Instead, it is seen as an essential tool that can help a variety of organizations to be able to increase their revenues and productivity. (Singh, 2009, pp. 1 -- 10)
At the same time, the use of social software has meant that many corporations have been reaching out to employees. This is because they are seeing how this can help to: improve collaboration and communication. One of the biggest problems that a number of different organizations around the world have faced; is that coordinating their various departments can be challenging. The reason why, is due to the fact that globalization has meant that a number of companies must establish numerous offices around the world. In the past this was problematic, because many organizations had trouble communicating with other offices around the globe from: issues such as differences in the time zones. This made it more challenging to communicate and monitor…
Cook, N. (2008). Enterprise 2.0. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing.
Cross, R. (2004). Breaking the Mold. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Kennedy, M. (2009). Trust in Social Networking. Social Networking Communities and E-Dating Services (pp. 225 -- 238). Hershey, NY: Information Science Reference.
Kerno, S. (2008). Limitations of Communities and Practice. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 15 (1), 69 -- 78.
Through this, the owner of Ford Motors Corporation was able to increase production levels and to reduce costs. "Even then when the lean manufacturing concept was years away, Ford had a focus on reducing time and material waste, increasing quality, and lowering cycle times, in order to achieve a lower cost vehicle which was reflected in the price reduction of the model T. year on year. This focus allowed him to reduce costs, even though he payed his workers well, and provide a great value product to the customer" (Lean Manufacture Website, 2009).
The editors at the Lean Manufacturing Guide online implement an approach similar to the editors at the Lean Manufacture Website. From their standpoint, lean manufacturing is an organizational effort by which waste is being reduced with the purpose of creating more value to the final product. In their own words, lean manufacturing is a "systematic approach to…
Blacharski, D., 2010, What is lean manufacturing, Wise Geek, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-lean-manufacturing.htm last accessed on September 29, 2010
Deming, W.E., 2000, Out of the crisis, MIT Press, ISBN 0262541157
Hoobs, D.P., 2004, Lean manufacturing implementation: a complete execution manual for any size manufacturer, J. Ross Publishing, ISBN 1932159142
Nilson, K., 2010, Lean manufacturing: adapting as important as adopting, Six Sigma, http://www.isixsigma.com/index.php?option=com_k2&view=item&id=241:lean-manufacturing-adapting-as-important-as-adopting&Itemid=156 last accessed on September 29, 2010
Technological transformations have brought widespread use of machines and tools to the work setting. Owing to this, such concepts as human-machine/equipment interfaces have become increasingly prominent. In its simplest form, human-machine interface (HMI) refers to the point or extent of interaction between a machine and its operator; taken literally, it is the area of the machine and that of the human that interact during the execution of a task. As the use of machines at the workplace increases, the HMI concept becomes more relevant. This is particularly because machines and equipment keep getting rather complicated and advanced, and as users make more and more use of them, the risk of error increases. In this regard, manufactures are under pressure to continually develop tools and machines that align with human anatomy, limitations, and skills to make the user-machine interface safer for users (Flasporer, et al., 2002).
Human-Equipment Interfaces in…
FDA. (2015). White Paper: Infusion Pump Improvement Initiative. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 17 February 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/GeneralHospitalDevicesandSupplies/InfusionPumps/ucm205424.htm
Flaspoler, E., Hauke, A., Pappachan, P., Reinert, D., Bleyer, T., Henke, N.,…Beeck R. (2002). The Human-Machine Interface as an Emerging Risk. The European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. Retrieved 17 February 2015 from https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/literature_reviews/HMI_emerging_risk
Sawyer, D. (2014). Do it by Design: An Introduction to Human Factors in Medical Devices. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 18 February 2015 from http://www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/Guidances/ucm094957.htm
The basic reason they are able to do so is that they don't have to provide perks and privileges to their workers and have fewer minor or overhead expenditures to take care of. (Edstrom, 1998)
To obtain best results and smooth functioning of any business it is important to understand the business, its achievements and aspirations and let others do the rest. Microsoft Corporation should likewise continue to exploit the advantages of H outsourcing for many reasons that include; it helps in diverting a considerable amount of resources and attention of the management for more pressing and critical issues. (McDonald, 2005) the firm undertaking the outsourced work is usually streamlined and dedicated to the particular field and often has state of the art technology and equipment, which is at times difficult to procure and maintain. Outsourcing is beneficial to both the parties. It causes the circulation of capital from developed…
Jennifer Edstrom; Marlin Eller (1998). Barbarians Led by Bill Gates: Microsoft from inside. N.Y. Holt.
Microsoft Official website http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/inside_ms.mspx
McDonald, SM and Jacobs, TJ (2005) 'Brand Name 'India': The Rise of Outsourcing,' Int. J. Management Practice, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp.152-174.
Human-Computer Interaction Issues and Solutions
This paper focuses on socio-technical challenges and solutions in Human Computer Interfaces (HCI). The analysis identifies the shortcomings related to HCI in real-life industrial settings and areas that can be corrected. An essential component of progress is the productivity of diverse high-wage elements with dependence on levels of technological innovation. A decisive element relates the levels of human-technology interfaces coupled with the extent at which technology shows respect for cognitive, communicative and affective needs of humans (Sears & Jacko, 2009a). On the contrary, complexities of HCI designs call for trans-, inter- among other multidisciplinary approaches.
The complexity of HCI designs and interfaces has affected the potential cross-linking and combination of disciplinary knowledge within existing interdisciplinary methods in HCI-fields. The alternative blind spot concerns have been separated from usability and acceptance. The services or products are usable through completion of human-centered approaches. The consideration relates to…
Jacko, J.A. (2011). Human-Computer Interaction: Design and Development Approaches: 14th International Conference, HCI International 2011, Orlando, FL, USA, July 9-14, 2011, Proceedings. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Rogers, Y., Sharp, H., & Preece, J. (2011). Interaction Design: Beyond Human - Computer Interaction. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Sears, A., & Jacko, J.A. (2009a). Human-Computer Interaction Fundamentals. New York: CRC Press.
Sears, A., & Jacko, J.A. (2009b). Human-Computer Interaction: Design Issues, Solutions, and Applications. New York: CRC Press.
Computers are programmed to think
Thinking is defined as the ability to make sense, represent, model, or interpret the world a person experiences. Thinking also allows humans to make predictions in regards to their world. To an organism that has needs, desires, and objectives', thinking is helpful as it enables the organism to make plans in order to accomplish these goals. Using this definition we can see clearly that computers are not organism and, therefore cannot posses the ability to think. Computers have the capability to make predictions, but the predictions made by computers have been programmed by humans. Humans who required equipment that can assist in analyzing their thoughts and predictions developed programs to be used by computers. Without human intervention, the computers would not be able to model, represent, or interpret any information.
It is assumed by a majority of people that computers have the capability…
Flight Deck Human-Machine Interface - "What to Expect in the Future"
This paper will analyze the issues associated with the flight deck human-machine interface. The data for this research will be collected through a number of secondary sources. Quantitative analysis of the collected data will be performed on the basis of frequency and types of accidents and the causes of accidents that occurred after the introduction of this technology. Qualitative analysis of the collected data will be performed on the basis of previous researches that were conducted on the issue under consideration. On the basis of the results obtained from this analysis, various recommendations will be proposed so that this technology can be further enhanced and the issues associated with it can be eliminated. The paper will also analyze aviation safety legislation and propose the changes that should be made in the legislation to make this technology safer and more…
Boy, G., & Carlo Cacciabue, P. (1997). Optimization of automation in the civil flight deck, pp. 1-19. European Workshop to Develop Human Factors Guidelines for Flight Deck Certification.
Chialastri, A. (2012). Automation in Aviation, pp. 79-100. Croatia: InTech Europe. Retrieved from http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs-wm/37990.pdf
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University. (2014). College of Aeronautics: Undergraduate Capstone Policy Guide. Retrieved January 1, 2014 from https://erau.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/institution/Worldwide_Online/ASCI_490_C/Aeronautics_UG_Capstone_Policy_Guide.pdf.
Funk, K., Niemczyk, M., Suroteguh, C., & Owen, G. (1999). Flight deck automation issues. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 9(2), 109 -- 123.
Once a month we have a company wide birthday celebration. It is where each department goes to the break room in that area and has cake and ice cream to celebrate all of the department birthdays that month. The company provides the cake and ice cream and the birthday employees are given a company sponsored gift certificate for a dinner for two at a local restaurant.
In addition to the birthday day each month we have a potluck each month. Many companies have annual potlucks or holiday parties only, but we believe more frequent affairs help to maintain the bond of friendship among the workers, thereby insuring a higher retention rate. Emplyees who are happy with co-workers and have friends on the job are less apt to seek other employment.
Each month, the first Friday of the month, each department has a department wide potluck. We allow a 90 minute…
Ferris, Gerald, Galang, Carmen (1993) Diversity in the workplace: the human resources management challenges. Human Resource Planning
Harris, Joanne L. (2004) Creativity, communication help employee retention.(News)(human resource management tips) Hotel & Motel Management.
Leinfuss, Emily (1993) Employees empowered by direct access HRMS. (human resource management system) (includes directory of human resource management systems)
Human Psychology Drives Economy
Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.
The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.
The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…
Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.
Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism
Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
Human esource Management (business work) Must answer 6 topics questions close outline (Siemens Ohio H. Doc.
Human esource Management at Siemens, Ohio
The practice of human resource management is becoming more and more important within the climate of modern day business agents. And this trend is generally associated with the realization that people are not just the individuals operating the machines, but they are valuable resources, possessing essential intellectual capital. As the business climate turns more and more to services in the detriment of industry and agriculture, the economic agents become forced to invest more in the management of their staffs.
Human resources management is a complex set of techniques and mechanisms by which the economic agents manage the relationship between the firm and its staff members. This relationship is vast and includes not only the collaboration between the parties, but even the periods before and after the employment contract…
Anderson, J.A., 2008, Driving change through diversity and globalization: transformative leadership in the academy, Stylus Publishing LLC
Beardwell, J., Claydon, T., 2007, Human resource management: a contemporary approach, 5th edition, Pearson Education
Clarke, J., White, A., A guide to employment practice in the community and voluntary sector, Combat Poverty Agency
Fisher, R., Ury, W., Patton, B., 1991, Getting to yes: negotiating agreement without giving in, 2nd edition, Houghton Mifflin Hardcourt
To define the safety objectives of the UAV, it is essential to evaluate the current level of safety necessary for the human-piloted aircrafts. While manned pilot aircrafts consider the safety of the pilots and the people on board to be important, however, the safety of the UAV is considered relatively to the hazard that that it will cost to the community. Thus, the intervention of human related aviation safety is still critical to enhance overall safety of the UAV. Although, the UAV accidents may lead to the zero loss of pilot's life, nevertheless, the financial investments that the governments or private organizations provide for the development of the UAV is huge, and the implementation of maximum safety to realize the objective of UAV is very essential. The human related aviation safety is still essential.
The thesis investigates selected human factors affecting safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The thesis…
Dixon, S. & Wickens, C.D.(2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois.
Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown.M. (2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1( 3): 327-362
Johnson, C.W. & Shea, C. (2007). The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow.
Rutley, M. (2010). On Target - Human Factors UAV's. Royal Air Canadian Force. Canada.
Table 5: Summary of the Findings of Survey Question 1, 2 and 3
% of Important
% Not important
% Not Sure
Graduate from Undergraduate Pilot Training (UPT
Pilot should be Under 40 years old
Having Minimum of 100 Flying Hours
Fig 5: Bar Chart Comparing esponses of Survey 1, 2 and 3
Based on the findings in the Fig 5, it is revealed that the second survey, which indicates that a Pilot should be under 40 years to demonstrate the effective aviation safety, supports the first null hypothesis and rejects the first alternative hypothesis. From the bar graph in Fig 5, 66.72% of the respondents agree that to be fewer than 40 is not important to demonstrate…
Alexander, P.J. (2007). The impact of computer technology in the clinical setting: a nursing perspective. [Thesis _PhD/Research).
Correa, M.A. Camargo, J.B. Gimenes, R.A.V. et al. (2007). Integrating UAV Into Control Airl Space Using Cooperative Multiagent Negotiation, Journal of the Brazilian air Transportation Research Safety.3(1): 24-36.
Dixon, S. & Wickens.C.D. (2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report. Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation.
Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown, M.(2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making.1(3): 327 -- 362.
Likewise, a similar study by Desai et al. (2000) that compared traditional lecture format training with CBT found that, "The CBT subjects' overall end-of-training and one-month-after-training performance was significantly better than [the traditional lecture method] subjects' performance" (p. 239).
By sharp contrast, the analysis of the effectiveness of CBT by Bowman et al. (2009) found that the effectiveness of this alternative can be adversely affected by a number of Navy-specific factors, including the pace of operations in some settings, an enormously diverse population that often requires more individualized instruction, and that self-paced formats can actually serve to increase student failure rates. Nevertheless, Dye (2004) emphasizes that the Navy has taken steps to integrate lessons learned and best practices into newly developed CBT curricular offerings, and notes that improvements in the support technologies continue to provide better ways of individualizing computer-based training opportunities in the future. In fact, one of the…
Bowman, W.R., Crawford, a.M. & Mehay, S. (2009, August 24). An assessment of the effectiveness of computer-based training for newly commissioned surface warfare division officers. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School.
Computer-based training. (2009, March). Navy Inspector General report to the Secretary of the Navy. NAVINSGEN computer-based training study.
Desai, M.S., Richards, T. & Eddy, J.P. (2000). A field experiment: Instructor-based training vs.
computer-based training. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 27(4), 239.
As one of ten children, my family structure reflects my unique cultural background. All ten of us were raised by my mother alone; we struggled financially but rarely emotionally because of the immense love and support given to us by my mother. Having a strong maternal influence in my life might also reflect the Hispanic and Christian culture in which I was raised. Both Christianity and Puerto Rican culture impacted my world growing up. For instance, my mother imparted her religious beliefs to her kids, beliefs that were strongly rooted in the Christian tradition. In addition to my mother, I had various role models who helped forge my identity and behaviors. Christianity also serves to link our otherwise oppressed minority community with the dominant culture in America. Although I grew up in an environment that supported bilingualism and respected Hispanic culture, I occasionally met with biases and prejudices in…
The salary ranges from $80,000 to $110,000 (Kalbach 45).
Rank advancement relates to the level of experience of the employee and the amount of years of services within the context of the business entity. For individuals or experts to command rank advancement within this field, they must develop large pool of experience and qualification to be able to serve in the higher ranks. The employee must also serve within the company for certain duration in order to merit promotion. This type of rank advancement or promotion depends on the performance and personal or character traits (honesty, loyalty, and obedience) of the employee. The company must be convinced on the performance levels of the user experience designer to guarantee or facilitate promotion to higher ranks with better remuneration or wages.
Companies that hire User Experience Designers
Some of companies hiring user experience designers include San Diego, Asana, Red Giant, Nerdery,…
Mader-Clark, M. The job description handbook. Berkeley, CA: Nolo. 2008. Print.
United States., & United States. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2009. New York: Skyhorse
Chandrasekharan, V.C. Network marketing: Is it for you?. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers. 2008.
A user model is created with the help of this information and this model is in turn used as a basis for establishing the user interface adaptation. Task models have also been used for designing adaptive hypermedia. Different types of computer users can be associated with different task models. Task models are used to depict the activities that are to be performed from the user's point-of-view. (Jacko; Sears, 518)
Adaptive navigation support for hypermedia systems has also been explored as a means of personalizing or adapting user interface. Several prototypes have also been developed to show the way different navigational possibilities can be presented on the basis of user models. In recent times, research has concentrated on the mechanism of abstractions of objects to produce "operationally reliable software infrastructures" that provide alternative physical realizations. Development of systems like JavaBeans by SunSoft and ActiveX by Microsoft representing componentized technology shows the…
Aykin, Nuray. Usability and Internationalization: Global and local user interfaces.
Benyon, David. Accommodating Individual Differences through an Adaptive User
The principles of good web design revolve around a number of central core factors. One important central criterion in the development of the principles of effective web design is to fully understand crucial characteristics of the medium. Another central aspect is to base your design message on aim and communication. The first factor -- understanding the medium of the Internet - is an essential and often neglected factor in web design as will become evident in the discussion of the various principles. Secondly, it should always be remembered that, within the context of the specific medium, being able to communicate quickly and effectively with the viewer or client is what makes a good Web site effective. The intended purpose of the web site is also another cardinal feature that influences the principles of design as it is in the creative presentation that is determines its ultimate level of…
Beebe, R.J., Trenta, L., Covrig, D., Cosiano, P., & Eastridge, H. (2002). Build It and They Will Not Necessarily Come: The Effectiveness of a Professional Development Web Site for Entry-Year Principals THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 29(11), 58+.
Bhat, S., Bevans, M., & Sengupta, S. (2002). Measuring Users' Web Activity to Evaluate and Enhance Advertising Effectiveness. Journal of Advertising, 31(3), 97+.
Boling, E., Beriswill, J.E., Xaver, R., Hebb, C., Kaufman, D., & Frick, T. (1998). Text Labels for Hypertext Navigation Buttons. International Journal of Instructional Media, 25(4), 407.
Dickson, T. (2000). Mass Media Education in Transition: Preparing for the 21st Century. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Professional eview of the Sigchi Website
ITM 433 This professional web site review assignments part session long project. For Module 3, assignment familiar professional organization website called
This is a website review for a premier international society called SIGCHI. The main purpose of the website is to bring together people from different locations who are interested in human-computer interaction. Human-computer interaction is mainly concerned in ensuring that computers and computer systems are accessible by people with disabilities. The website provides an avenue for members and non-members to get to know more about the society through the articles posted on its blog, community page and publications. It also provides an easy connection gateway via its email lists to other people who are involved in human-computer interaction around the world.
The website uses a consistent theme thus ensuring consistency in all the pages. With consistency the visitor will not be shocked and…
Hughes, R., Jr. (2001). A Process Evaluation of a Website for Family Life Educators. Family Relations, 50(2), 164-170.
Mankin, R.W. (2005). Entomological Website Usage Patterns. The Florida Entomologist, 88(3), 285-291.
The Web Accessibility Initiative (W3C) specifically concentrates on defining the intersection between usability for those who are handicapped, the elderly, and those that are faced with limitations in terms of being able to get online. The reliance on ISO Standard 9241-11 (Green, Pearson, 2006) defines the extent to which there are uniformity in the design of graphical interfaces and the use of consistently of navigational aids in the form of buttons, structure of menus, and accessibility of taxonomies including support for multiple entry points and roles-based access and use of the content on the website.
PAT B- Which of the above do you feel would be most usable and appropriate for an increasingly large population of older users. Why? Give your reasons.
Of all the techniques defined within Part a of this paper, the VAK-based methodology, with its support of multiple catalog types and structures of data through variation in…
D Applen. 2002. Tacit knowledge, knowledge management, and active user participation in website navigation. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication 45, no. 4 (December 1): 302-306 (accessed March 22, 2009).
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. (accessed March 21, 2009)
Shirley Ann Becker. 2004. A study of web usability for older adults seeking online health resources. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction 11, no. 4 (December 1): 387. (accessed March 24, 2009).
Nico Brooks, Harrison Magun. 2008. Navigational behaviour and sponsored search advertising. International Journal of Electronic Business 6, no. 2 (March 1): 132. (accessed March 20, 2009).
Chapter 3 stresses the importance both fundamentally and ethically of representing information truthfully and honestly through visual and experiential means that are meaningful to the learner and respect the fact that the individual mind is rather limited and therefore needs human centered externals to help it learn and retain information. Chapter 4 stresses the importance of individuality in the development of technologies that teach and interact with people. The overall work is important as it stresses the fact that technologies, as a creation of man must be developed and manipulated to reflect the humanity of their purpose. The fallibility of the mind is stressed as is its limitations and the possibility of the development of greater tools to impart knowledge is the most important factor in the development of learning tools.
Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. [chapters 1, 2, 3, 4]
In this work…
Wittrock, M.C. (1992). Generative learning processes of the brain. Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 531-541.
Wittrock present a functional model of learning that pays close attention to four processes of learning; attention, motivation, knowledge or preconceptions and generation. The author's point-of-view is clearly one of biological i.e. neurological brain function and develops a schema in which knowledge or learning takes place, as interactive and fluid in the mind. Understanding each of these four aspects can give the educational developer an idea of the need to bring learners all the way in to a learning environment through attention, motivation and base knowledge to elicit generative principles of cognition, i.e. The assimilation of novel material, that will add to their base knowledge of understanding. Wittrock's model in fact stresses that in creation of interactive or even static instruction if one key aspect is lacking, the whole of the system is resistant to learning. This is important in that it makes clear that development of technologies that instruct must produce attention and elicit motivation as well as build from some existing knowledge base to be effective for any user to generate a set of new knowledge. Even the most simple instructions often build on a set of base knowledge, that is frequently taken for granted and many instructional environments lack the sort of stimulation that garners attention and motivates the learner.
Total 17 papers including 3 books. I'll send you the articles in PDF files except three books Saffer, D. (2007). Designing for Interaction. Berkeley: New Riders. Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Norman, D. (1993). Things that make us smart. New York: Doubleday/Currency. I think you can find these easiliy in libraries.
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
Concept of Usability Evaluation
Issues in Usability Evaluation
Heuristic Evaluation Dimensions
Usability Problem Formats
Heuristic Evaluation Process
Inspection Phase 15
Identifying Usability Problems
Usability Problem Preparation Phase 16
Aggregation Phase 17
Procedure of Evaluation
The Static Web Interface
Observing and Quickly Visiting the Interface
Elaborating (Problems) and evisiting (Interface and Materials)
Navigating the Interface
Annotating the Interface
As part of the Web development process, Web developers are confronted with evaluating the usability of Web interfaces (i.e. Web sites and applications). Typically, a combination of manual methods and automatic tools are used for an effective Web site evaluation -- e.g. manual inspection is needed to supplement automatic validation tool results (owan 2000). However, Web projects are highly affected by their fast paced life cycles, leaving little room for full evaluations. Other major factors contributing to this situation are low budgeting…
Bailey, R.W., Allan, R.W., AND Raiello, P. (1992). Usability Testing vs. Heuristic Evaluation: A Head-to-Head Comparison. In Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting. Human Factors Society, Santa Monica, CA. 409-413.
Bevan, N., Barnum, C., Cockton, G., Nielsen, J., Spool, J., AND Wixon, D. (2003). The "Magic Number 5": Is it Enough for Web Testing? In the CHI'03 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Cockton, G., and Korhonen, P., Eds. ACM, New York, NY. 698 -- 699.
Brajnik, G. (2000). Automatic Web Usability Evaluation: What Needs to be Done? In Proceedings of the 6th Conference on Human Factors and the Web, Austin, Texas. http://www.tri.sbc.com/hfweb/brajnik/hfweb-brajnik.html.
Chaudhary, A. (2008).Video Annotation Tools. Master's thesis, Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
The reward for the effort of learning is access to a vocabulary that is shared by a very large population across all industries globally" (p. 214). Moreover, according to Bell, because UML is a language rather than a methodology, practitioners who are familiar with UML can join a project at any point from anywhere in the world and become productive right away. Therefore, Web applications that are built using UML provide a useful approach to helping professionals gain access to the information they need when they need it.
Overview of the Study
This paper used a five-chapter format to achieve the above-stated research purpose. Chapter one of the study was used to introduce the topic under consideration, provide a statement of the problem, the purpose of the study and its importance of the study. Chapter two of the study provides a review of the related peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning…
Ontology Definition Metamodel (ODM)
Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The Development and Limitations of Expert Systems and Neural Networks
The human experience demands a constant series of decisions to survive in a hostile environment. The question of "fight or flight" and similar decisions has been translated into computer-based models by using the now-famous "if-then" programming command that has evolved into the promising field of artificial intelligence. In fact, in their groundbreaking work, Newell and Simon (1972) showed that much human problem solving could be expressed in terms of such "if-then" types of production rules. This discovery helped to launch the field of intelligent computer systems (Coovert & Doorsey 2003). Since that time, a number of expert and other intelligent systems have been used to model, capture, and support human decision making in an increasingly diverse range of disciplines; however, traditional rule-based systems are limited by several fundamental constraints, including the fact that human experts…
Bainbridge, William Sims, Edward E. Brent, Kathleen M. Carley et al. (1994). Artificial Social
Intelligence. Annual Review of Sociology, 20, 407.
Berry, Frances Stokes, William D. Berry and Stephen K. Foster. (1998). The Determinants of Success in Implementing an Expert System in State Government. Public Administration
Adobe Photoshop Software Analysis
Adobe Photoshop is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems Incorporated (ASI, 2007, p.3). The program allows for not only the storage of images, but the alteration or manipulation of these images within the program environment. Adobe Photoshop features a significantly flexible and easily read format which allows for the program to be widely-utilized in the field of graphics editing in a way that allows both computer novices and experts to enjoy the quality and features of the program. To date, Adobe Photoshop is likely the fullest featured and most highly respected commercial image-processing bitmap manipulation program in the PC and Macintosh worlds, and its wide distribution has meant that image data is often left in the PSD format and may persist in this form after the original image data is long gone (EGFF, 2011, p.1).
Approach to Human-Computer Interaction
Adobe Photoshop operates…
Adobe Systems, Incorporated. (2007). Adobe Photoshop CS2. Web. Retrieved from:
http://wwwimages.adobe.com/www.adobe.com/products/photoshop/photoshop/pdfs/photoshop_overview.pdf on 29 November 2011.
Clark, D. (2004). Usability in Adobe Photoshop. Web. Retrieved from:
Domestic and International Human Resources
Adler (1990) emphasizes the importance of the international experience in the business world. The developing technologies between the time of Adler's presentation and 2004 has made this all the more prominent. When distinguishing between domestic and international human resources then, it is important to note that the one seldom goes before the other, while the domestic human resources paradigm has developed over a far longer time than international human resources. Adler (1990) explains that there has been an evolution in the business world from domestic human resources to international or global human resources. This has to be taken into account when business is conducted both on the local and international level.
When a company is domestically orientated, the product or service remains focused on the domestic market. Thus, research and development, as well as marketing occur on the domestic level. With a centralized…
Adler, Nancy J. (1990). "Globalization and Human Resource Management: Strategic International Human Resource Development" Faculty of Management Mcgill University, April 20. http://www.cic.sfu.ca/forum/adler.html
Baumann, M.A. (2003). "Training, rewards help convince workers to stay." Hotel & Motel Management, December 8. Internet Database: Findarticles.com
Bentley, Ross. (2002). "Barriers to flexible working." Computer Weekly, May 30. Internet Database: Findarticles.com.
Berta, Dina (2003). "Human resources: offering more to obtain, retain the best workers: Emphasis on leadership development, team building and diversity" Nation's Restaurant News, August 18. Internet Database: Findarticles.com
Usability Testing and Implementation
The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the usability of these three websites, each of which have innate strengths and weaknesses in their design and navigation. The three websites are http://www.usability.gov /, http://www.useit.com/jakob / and http://www.transparencynow.com/index.html .
Using the foundation of a usability framework, each of the three websites have been evaluated both for use on traditional personal computers and also on mobile devices. Usability criterion for mobile devices forces the issues of accessibility, clarity, consistency, design and maintenance, and visual clarity and navigation (Lee, Yun, 2006). Beginning with Usability, org, the site's strengths include exceptionally strong accessibility even on an iPhone, consistency of navigation and an intuitive navigational design across the top ribbon of the website. The site is also easily used as a research hub as the links are logical and well-defined. There is a minimal amount of user interaction potential based on…
Hwang, W., & Salvendy, G. (2009). Integration of usability evaluation studies via a novel meta-analytic approach: What are significant attributes for effective evaluation? International Journal of Human - Computer Interaction, 25(4), 282.
Johnson, R.R., Salvo, M.J., & Zoetewey, M.W. (2007). User-centered technology in participatory culture: Two decades "beyond a narrow conception of usability testing." IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication, 50(4), 320.
Lee, C., & Yun, M.H. (2006). A usability checklist for the usability evaluation of mobile phone user interface. International Journal of Human - Computer Interaction, 20(3), 207-231.
Constraints to Email and Potential Solutions
Humankind has been communicating over increasingly lengthy distances over the millennia, beginning with drums and smoke signals, to relay runners and mounted messengers, to the telegraph and telephone and then, during the 1990s, the Internet and email. All of these communication media have their limitations, though, including the most popular written communication method today: email. Indeed, many observers believe that email will eventually spell the end of the United States Postal Service, and trillions of dollars worth of business is transacted using email each year. Nevertheless, like its predecessors mentioned above, it is reasonable to suggest that the time will come -- and it may come sooner than expected -- when email is obsolete, having been replaced by "the next big thing." This paper provides an introduction and overview to social informatics and examines three problems that are currently associated with email that may…
Aquino, J (2012, September). "Avoid the Spam Folder: How Marketers Can Save Outbound
Emails from the Dreaded Fate." CRM Magazine, Vol. 16, No. 9, pp. 24-29.
Baron, NS (2001). Alphabet to Email: How Written English Evolved and Where It's Heading.
'Little Skyscraper on the Prairie: A are Frank Lloyd Wright
Tower-One of His Most Bizarre Buildings Ever-ises High above the Oklahoma Plains.'
The Atlantic Monthly, vol. 302, p. 8.
Eger, J.M. 2006, March-April. 'Building Creative Communities: The ole of Art and Culture; a
Leading Authority on Information Technology Argues That Cities Must Nurture the Creative Potential and Community Engagement of Their Citizens.' The Futurist, vol. 40,
no. 2, pp. 18-20.
Jacko, J.A. & Sears, a. 2003. The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals,
Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Kim, Y-M. 2011, September. 'Factors Affecting University Library Website Design.' Information
Technology & Libraries; vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 99-100.
Lee, B.C. & Wicks, B. 2010. 'Tourism Technology Training for Destination Marketing
Organisations (Dmos): Need-based Content Development.' Journal of Hospitality,
Leisure, Sports and Tourism Education, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 39-40.
Mccabe, P.T. 2004. Contemporary Ergonomics 2004. Boca aton,…
Bingley, S., Burgess, S., Sellitto, C., Cox, C. & Buultjens, J. 2010. 'A Classification Scheme for Analysing Web 2.0 Tourism Websites.' Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, vol.
11, no. 4, pp. 281-282.
Cuddihy, E. & Spyridakis, J.H. 2012, July. 'The effect of visual design and placement of intra-
article navigation schemes on reading comprehension and website user perceptions.'
This is unlikely to change short of an amazing new technological innovation that takes "natural" language capability and programming to a new level. Let us now compare how COOL meets the needs of organizations working in various industries. The next section will help clarify why COOL is in such demand among commercial enterprises worldwide.
Chapter 3 - COOL and Organizational Goals
This section analyses how COOL supports organizational goals. COOL supports organizational goals in many ways. It is an adept and multi-faceted programming language that provides organizations the ability to manage data in many departments. It is useful for financial analysis, for shipping and inventory maintenance, for the creation of reports and data management systems and for linking various units within the organization. Each of these key features is described in more detail below.
Decision support systems such as that COOL can help facilitate are critical for supporting all levels…
ANSI. (2007). COBOL, Standards. American National Standards Institute. Accessed 29,
Columbia Encyclopedia. (2004). "Programming Language." The Columbia
Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press.
For example, a medicine related website will be different from bookstore advertisement site. Customers are also different as well as managerial staff. But it is observed that same it project manager is working on both projects simultaneously.
In order to keep solve this versatility issue, an it professional will have to cover each and every knowledge in such a way that he can understand what are the requirements that user wants from me and how they should be managed. Second issue is not very important and this requires a bit of professional and specialized approach but first thing requires a lot of effort. That is why every coder who has a development related diploma cannot become an it professional (What Is Software Engineering, David Bolton). An it professional should have basic skills of almost every knowledge area so that he can understand basic requirements of the system and implement them…
Carr, Nicholas. "Does it Matter," 2004
Neonode Launches Force Pad -- a Touchscreen Platform for Mobile Internet and Computer Devices, Accessed online 26th march 2011 from http://www.neonode.com/neonode-launches-zforce-pad-a-touchscreen-platform-for-mobile-internet-and-computer-devices/
Bassellier, G. Information Technology Competence of Business Managers: A Definition and Research Model. Faculty of Commerce and Business Administration, University of British Columbia.
Cabot, J. And Wilson G.A Survey of Web-Based Software Project Management Tools. Accessed online 27th march 2011 < http://modeling-languages.com/content/survey-web-based-software-project-management-tools >
Skills must be honed that create a functional page that users will view and use as the client hopes them to.
Many new eb designers produce eb pages that seem to ignore fundamental principles of "good design": full of colored backgrounds, animated pictures, multiple colors and styles of text, and little to no navigation or eb-based structure. Even in courses devoted to eb design, students still produce pages that lack unity, coherence and emphasis: "though they [students] seem to understand (and can critique) others' efforts, they're stymied when it's time for production. Few have the skills or experience writing in this medium" (Yancey & ickliff, 2001, p. 180). Similarly, individuals working on their own or working from documentation struggle with being able to create eb pages due to the same lack of experience writing on the eb.
For this reason, relative examples, as explained in the previous subheading…
Chan, Henry, Raymond Lee, Tharam Dillon, and Elizabeth Chang. E-Commerce: Fundamentals and Applications. New York: Wiley, 2001.
Castro, Elizabeth HTML 4 for the World Wide Web Berkeley, CA Peachpit Press, 1998.
Dix, Alan. "3 Human-Computer Interaction and Web Design." Handbook of Human Factors in Web Design. Ed. Robert W. Proctor and Kim-Phuong L. Vu. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2005. 28-46.
Authors explain: "hen software is usable it is easy and efficient to use, easy to remember, has few errors and is subjectively pleasing" (Silius, Kailanto, and Tervakari 506).
Other categories are equally important. The added value assesses whether there is anything new or special for the user. Accessability is important because social media outlets are designed for individuals who contribute content in different contexts. Privacy and security deals with protecting the users, while the motivating factors looks at how rewarding the participation for the user is, whether it takes into account all users (beginners, advanced users, etc.), whether it provides personalization and maintaining of interest, and whether it makes it easy to follow the development in the media. The web tool evaluates information reliability by assessing "accuracy, authority, objectivity, currency, and coverage" (Silius, Kailanto, and Tervakari 506).
The approach presented by Silius, Kailanto, and Tervakari is a good example of…
Gayo-Avello, Daniel. "Don't Turn Social Media into another 'Literary Digest' Poll." Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM 54.10 (2011): 7. ProQuest Research Library. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
Silius, Kirsi, Meri Kailanto and Anne-Maritta Tervakari. "Evaluating the Quality of Social Media in an Educational Context." 2011 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference. 4 Apr. 2011. Web. 26 Nov. 2011
Pauline Howes, et al. "An Examination Of The Role Of Online Social Media In Journalists' Source Mix." Public Relations Review 35.3 (2009): 314-316. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Nov. 2011.
YORK, JILLIAN C. "The Revolutionary Force Of Facebook And Twitter." Nieman Reports 65.3 (2011): 49. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Abjection of the Body & Cyborg Jewelry Design
The examples of jewelry located and examined for the purposes of this paper align with the definitions and ideas of the authors that contextualize the conversation. (efinery 29, 2012) Notice how both of the models are positioned side by side, which immediately prompts the audience, viewer, or consumer to compare and contrast. Though their precise background are unknown, it is presumed that both models are Caucasian. Both models have short brown hair. The models do not closely resemble each other, yet there are similarities in the thickness of their lips, the subtlety of their cheek bones, and the composition of the product photos. Viewers are meant to draw more similarities between the models than highlight the differences.
Though we presume that one model is male and one model is female, their similarity highlights their androgyny, their lack of gender or the…
Creed, B. 1993. The Monstrous-Feminine: Film, feminism, psychoanalysis. Routledge, London.
Haraway, D. 1991. A Cyborg Manifesto. Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, Routledge, New York.
Mulvey, L. 1999. Cosmetics and Abjection -- Cindy Sherman, 1977 -- 1987. Shiach, M. (ed) Feminism and Cultural Studies, Oxford University Press, New York.
Refinery 29. 2012 Fashion -- Jewelry. Web, Available from: http://www.refinery29.com/fashion . 2012 August 27.
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…
Anderson, C.A., and K.E. Dill "Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings, and Behavior in the Laboratory and in Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2000, 78, 772-790.
Ask, A., Autoustinos, M., and A.H. Winefield, "To kill or not to kill: Competitive aggression in Australian adolescent males during videogame play." Children in the New Media Landscape. C. van Feilitzen and U. Carlsson (Eds.). Goteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen, 2000.
Bowman, R.P. And J.C. Rotter. "Computer games: Friend or foe?" Elementary School Guidance and Counselling, 1983, 18, 25 -- 34
Calvert, S.L., and S. Tan, (1994). "Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts." Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 1994, 15, 125-139.
Performance of the Company
Statements of corporate goals
SWOT analysis of United Health Group
9A PESTEL Analysis
In this paper, we present a systematic analysis of the United Health Group through a SWOT and PESTEL analysis. The analysis is aimed at the identification of an internal problem within the company's environment and then prescribing a suitable solution to it. The identified problem is poor Ergonomics. This is then explored and then recommendations provided.
The creation of a better health care system has been one of the key drivers of change in the American social, economic and political reform agenda. Quality health care to al citizens has been a piped dream for many. In this paper we presents an analysis of the effectiveness of United Healthcare in the provision of quality health care. Our focus is on its environmental analysis with the aim of isolating the genesis of the…
Amick, B., Robertson, M., Moore, A, DeRango, K and Mendez, CC .The Impact of Two Ergonomic Interventions on Health and Productivity: A Quasi-Experimental Field Study
Amick III, BC, Robertson M, DeRango K, et a (2003) Effect of office ergonomics intervention on reducing musculoskeletal symptoms. Spine 2003;28:2706-2711.
Amick., B., Roberson, M., DeRango, K ., Palacios, N., Rooney, T and Bazzani, L (2002).The Health Consequences of an Office Ergonomics Training Coupled with an Ergonomically Designed Chair: Preliminary Results.Proceedings of the Conference WWDU 2002 World Wide Work - May 22-25, 2002 - Berchtesgaden pg 371-373
Bergqvist U.(1995) Visual display terminal work -- a perspective on long -- term changes and discomforts. Int J. Ind Ergon.;16:201 -- 9.
There is much ado about artificial intelligence today and this is reflected in the article published in the Science Daily entitled "New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, oredom." The report states that the computer software is such that is senses the emotions of students and responds to the cognitive and emotional states of students including those of frustration and boredom. This computer program was developed by Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Notre Dame, Sidney D'Mello, along with Art Grae3sser from the University of Memphis and another colleague from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
A New Technology
Reported as a new technology "which matches the interaction of human tutors, not only offers tremendous learning possibilities for students, but also redefines human-computer interaction." (Science Daily, 2012) The software program is named "AutoTutor" and "Affective AutoTutor" and can be used to measure the level of knowledge of students…
New Computers Respond to Students' Emotions, Boredom (2012) Science Daily -- Science News. 2 Mar 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/03/120302132546.htm