Human Ecology Essays (Examples)

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Human Resource Management & 8226 Evaluate Selection Practices

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64290636

Human esource Management • evaluate selection practices procedures organisations comparing ' practice' • compare structured process recruitment organisations evaluate methods media •

Human esources Management

Selection processes and practices are vast theoretical concepts, which can be implemented using a wide series of theoretical models. While the availability of scholarly resources cannot be denied, the practical implementation of selection processes and practices within firms is often undisclosed to the public. It is subjected to internal regulations and not communicated to the public. At the Prairie View A&M University for instance (a member of the Texas A&M university system), selection is simply stated to be conducted "by an ad hoc committee made up of faculty within the department of Agriculture, Nutrition and Human Ecology" (Website of Prairie View A&M University). As a comparison to the best practices, a statement can be made in the meaning that the selection process would have to…… [Read More]


Armstrong, M., Baron, A., 2002, Strategic HRM: the key to improved business performance, CIPD Publishing

2003, Recruitment and retention key to Wal-Mart's future, Retail Merchandiser, last accessed on December 15, 2010

2005, Google's approach to employee selection, The Rain Maker Group, last accessed on December 15, 2010

2010, The role of front line managers in HR, CIPD, last accessed on December 15, 2010
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Human Impact on Climate in

Words: 1706 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4476204

These restoration efforts affect natural wetlands that have been destroyed by mankind and then proposed to become urbanized.


Although the impact on the climate by humans has had several negative impacts, such impacts have the potential to be stopped and even reversed. Research clearly indicates that recent technological advances can be used in these cases as a valuable tool in determining whether natural processes can be restored, or whether other options, such as urbanization, are ideal. Finally, future studies and advancements in technology will pave the way for a brighter future in restoring and repairing our injured climate.


AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at

Carter & urgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & urgess Quarterly, vol

University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at

U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic…… [Read More]


AGU. (2003). Human Impacts on Climate. Retrieved November 5, 2007, at

Carter & Burgess Quarterly. (2001). Getting the Lay of the Land. Carter & Burgess Quarterly, vol

University of Georgia. (2006). SREL Research: Remediation & Restoration. Retrieved November 2, 2007 at

U.S. Department of Commerce. (2007). National Geodetic Survey. Retrieved November 1, 2007, at
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Human Response to Physical Structure Environmental Psychology

Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99517516

Human esponse to Physical Structure:

Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.

Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:

According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to…… [Read More]


Goode, J.P. (n.d.). 'The Human Response to the Physical Environment.' The Elementary School

Teacher, 4(5), pp. 271-282. Retrieved from

"Importance of Sustainable Architecture in 21st Century." (2010, June 21). Architecture Student

Chronicles. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from
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Humans as a Diverse Species

Words: 3179 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99987217

It is not startling that some remarkable variation exists between the great apes as well as humans with regard to mental capabilities. Humans possess a lot higher intricate types of verbal communications compared to any other primates. Humans are the sole animal to make and apply symbols as a way to communicate with each other. Humans also have diverse as well as complex forms of social organizations compared to that of the other nonhuman primates. The most unique characteristic of humans lies in human mental capability to build novel ideas as well as intricate technologies. This has been considered to be important in the fight for endurance. (O'Neil 2007)

Further, the relatively negligible structural variations among humans and apes are generally an outcome of regular bipedalism observed in human beings. Quite a number of alterations in human bodies were linked to the growth of this type of locomotion. As opposed…… [Read More]


Berg, Kate; Bonham, Vence; Boyer, Joy; Brody, Larry; Brooks, Lisa; Collins, Francis;

Guttmacher, Alan; McEwen, Jean; Muenke, Max; Olson, Steve; Wang, Vivian Ota; Rodriguez, Laura Lyman; Vydelingum, Nadarajen; Warshauer-Baker, Esther. 2005, 'The Use of Racial, Ethnic, and Ancestral Categories in Human Genetics Research', American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 77, no. 4, pp: 519-532.

Bethesda, MD. 2006, 'Present-Day Non-Human Primates May Be Linchpin in Evolution of Language' Terra Daily. 25 Jul., p. 4

British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, 2007, the Zero option, Available at
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Human Biological Variation Is Human

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55012786

Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…… [Read More]

Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database,

Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;

Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database,
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Human Effects on Coral Reef Ecosystems

Words: 1973 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4860366

Human Effects on Coral Reefs

Coral reefs are one of the oldest ecosystems in the world, existing for more than 450 million years.

A coral reef is a type of biotic reef that develops in tropical waters. Coral reefs are found in all oceans of the world, generally between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn because the reef-building corals are living in this waters. A water temperature of 20 to 28°C is needed for growth of the coral reef. Massive reef structures are built over thousands of years by tiny coral polyps aided by minute algae called zooxanthellae that live in their tissues, calcifying algae, and other organisms that secrete calcium carbonate and adhesives. The process of reef formation is heavily dependent upon photosynthesis by reef-building organisms. Once formed, the complex, rock-like reef framework provides food and shelter for the multitudes of organisms that inhabit the reef.…… [Read More]

"U.S. Coral Reef Task Force." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"EPA Activities in Coral Conservation." U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available: (Accessed 25, Jan. 2005).

"Things You Can Do to Help Save Coral Reefs." National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Available: (Accessed 25 Jan. 2005).
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Human Influences on the Environment

Words: 1486 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32190946

Human Behavior and the Environment

Environmental psychology makes an attempt to discover and understand the manner in which human behavior influences the environment both positively and negatively (De Young, 2013). The purpose of this paper will be to gain insight on how the environment is affected by human behavior. The focus will be to elucidate the manner in which environmental cues influence behavior, as well as to assess the manner in which behavior can be transformed to nurture sustainability, and how this can ultimately decrease adverse effects on the environment. The paper will also discuss the manner in which social norms have an impact on behavior and beliefs about the environment. Thereafter a number of solutions that could positively alter behavior and practices so as to decrease adverse environmental impact will be provided.

Environmental Cues and how they shape Human Behavior

In accordance with Steg (2013), environmental cues can be…… [Read More]


De Young, R. (2013). Environmental psychology overview. In S.R. Klein and A.H. Huffman (Eds.) Green Organizations: Driving Change with IO Psychology.

EPA (n.d.). Sustainability.

Hecter, M., Opp, K. (2001). Social Norms. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Kinzig et al. (2013). Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy. BioScience, 63(3):164-175.
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Communal Property Human Behavior With Respect to

Words: 1065 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41275998

Communal Property

Human behavior with respect to communal property is a critical issue of our time. The individual profit-maximizing activities of each individual all contribute to the erosion of critical common resources. There are a number of perspectives that help to explain why this occurs.

The tragedy of the commons explains this phenomenon. Hardin (1968) notes that individuals seek to maximize their outcomes -- this could be wealth or it could be utility. In either case, such behavior is strictly oriented to one's own personal well-being. The concept of perfect rationality is applied only in a narcissistic context. This is true even in collectivist societies, because such societies seldom view the human race as the collective unit. Thus, nobody makes their decisions with the good of the entire species in mind. The tragedy is that the cost of things is not reflected in our decision-making. In economics, the concept is…… [Read More]


Durham, (1991). Neutrality and opposition: From cultural reason to cannibalism. In possession of the author.

Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B. & Acheson, J. (1990). The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-Two Years Later. Human Ecology. Vol. 18 (1) 1-19.

Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, Vol 162, 1243-1248/
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Domestic Violence as a Human Right Issue

Words: 871 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43011305

Domestic violence is popular as domestic abuse, intimate partner violence, spousal abuse, or family violence. The behavior involves brutality or another abuse by one person in a domestic behavioral context where people rise against others in marriages or similar unions. The intimate partner causes violence to their spouses making it domestic violence. Spouses and partners within intimate relationships are expected to live in harmony without elements of discomfort. Domestic violence takes place where heterosexual and same-sex relationships are involved (Edelson, 2011). The issue of domestic violence takes various forms such as physical, verbal, emotional, sexual, and economic abuse ranging from subtle to coercive forms of marital rape and violent physical abuse resulting in death or disfigurement (Tolman, 2010).

Domestic violence occurs where abusers believe that their actions are justified and acceptable. The implication is that there is production of intergenerational abuse cycles of condoning violence. Perception, awareness, documentation, and definition…… [Read More]


Breines, W., and L. Gorden. (2013). "The New Scholarship on Family Violence." Signs: AJ. Woman in Cultural and Society 8(3):490-531.

Edelson, J.L. (2011). Social Workers' intervention in women abuse: A study of case records from 1907 to 1945. Social Service Review, 65, 304-313.

Ehrensaft, M.K., and D. Vivian. (2009). "Is Partner Aggression Related to Appraisals of Coercive Control by a Partner?" Journal of Family Violence 14(3):251-266.

Garbarino, J., & Sherman, D. (2011). High-risk neighborhoods and high-risk families: The human ecology of child maltreatment. Child Development, 51, 188-198.
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Human Activity on the Environment

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50066375

Tehran's geography makes air pollution worse: the Alborz Mountains at its north side trap the increasing volume of pollutants and lead these to remain and hover over Tehran when the wind is not strong enough to blow them away. Furthermore, Tehran's high altitude makes fuel combustion inefficient and adds to the problem. Its altitude is between 3, 300 and 5,000 feet and it is in this space that the pollutants are trapped since the destruction of orchards and other vegetation especially in northern Tehran in the past decades by rapid development and human activity pressures. These natural and man-made factors together have made Tehran one of the most polluted cities in the world. Air pollution reached critical level in December 1999 when high levels of carbon monoxide and other pollutants filled Tehran for many weeks. Deaths, diseases and skin conditions are attributed to extreme air pollution. Records say that more…… [Read More]


Energy Information Administration. (2002). Iran: Environmental Issues.

2005). Iran. Country Analysis Briefs.

Marcoux, A. (1996). Population Change-Natural Resources-Environment Linkages in Central and South Asia. Sustainable Development Department: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Spooner, B. (1984). The Case of Iran. Ecology in Development: a Rationale for Three-Dimensional Policy. The United Nations University: the United Nations University Press.
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Humans Have Affected the Antarctic

Words: 900 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34764774

The plan would be the result of the scientific method, through which the impacts and causes of the current environmental problems would be addressed. Additionally, the scientific method would sit at the basis of the future actions to be taken. These would traditionally include:

The search for alternative sources of energy

The search for renewable sources of energy

The creation of an infrastructure which allowed the propagation and populous use of alternative energies

The education of the population to reduce their levels of consumerism to life necessities

The implementation of stricter regulations which punish economic agents who pollute waters or cut the forests in an unsustainable manner

eplant forests, clean waters and support the sustainable life of the endangered species.

At a smaller size and specific level, the alternative and immediate action to be taken is that of reducing the harvesting of krill by commercial fishermen. This would be achieved…… [Read More]


Leonard, A., The story of stuff, / last accessed on October 13, 2010

Naik, A., 2010, Ozone layer and global warming, Buzzle, last accessed on October 14, 2010

Antarctic krill conservation project statement of principles and core goals, Antarctic Krill Conservation Project, last accessed on October 14, 2010
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Human Encroachment on Animal Ecologies

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85813727

Ethiopian Wolf Endangered

The author of this report is to research and answer questions related to the Ethiopian Wolf. Indeed the Ethiopian Wolf, otherwise known as canine simensis, is currently in endangered status according to the IUCN. This paper will discuss the ecological factors, animal behavior factors and the overall current status of the Ethiopian Wolf. While the Ethiopian Wolf is not yet extinct, it is certainly endangered at this time.

Questions Answered

When it comes to the ecology and behavior relating to the Ethiopian Wolf, there are a few factors that were described by Tallents et al. (2012) treatise on the subject. The author gave a few points in her work. First, she notes that human encroachment on Ethiopian Wolf territory increases a rather large amount for each single human that enters it. Indeed, she notes that each person leads to 1.18 kilometers less room for the Ethiopian Wolf…… [Read More]


Atickem, A., A. Bekele, and S.D. Williams. 'Competition Between Domestic Dogs And

Ethiopian Wolf (Canis Simensis) In The Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia'.

African Journal of Ecology 48.2 (2009): 401-407. Web.

IUCN,. 'The IUCN Red List Of Threatened Species'. N.p., 2014. Web. 20
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Analyzing Green Human Resource Practices and Environmental Performance

Words: 2079 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72049734

Geen" Human Resouce Pactices And Envionmental Pefomance

A numbe of entepises have histoically adopted the appoach of compliance within thei envionmental initiatives, and by consequence, ules and legislations guiding thei envionmental appoaches. Howeve, ove the last many yeas, new consume needs, consume boycotts, global envionmental standads, dynamic pefeences, and othe envionmental factos have influenced coe values and the fundamental business stategies of copoations (Daily, Bishop and Steine, 2007). Oganizations ae pat of society, and it is impeative that they function like team playes; this is whee the concept of "geen" management becomes elevant. A key schema now is that a company's outcome is stongly impacted by envionmental concens (Taiq, Jan & Ahmad, 2016).

Envionmental and human esouce (HR) management's effect in the business context elates powefully to a moe compehensive association between oganizations' economic and envionmental pefomance. In this context, it is fequently agued that impoved envionmental pefomance esults in…… [Read More]

references for sustainability and their impact on supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43, 380 -- 406.

Benn, S., Teo, S. T., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492-510.

Boxall, P., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. (2009). Human resource management: Scope, analysis, and significance. In J. Storey, P. Wright, & D. Ulrich (Eds.), The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (pp. 1 -- 17). New York: Routledge.

Crotty, J., & Rodgers, P. (2012). Sustainable development in the Russia Federation: the limits of greening within industrial firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(3), 178-190.

Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95.
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China Water Political Ecology in

Words: 1864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80257996

Yeh (2009) argues that ecological projects in China must be examined form a political ecology perspective, in which certain state-sponsored projects are seen to be damaging to many of the citizens immediately affected by the ecological pursuits. While this author certainly has a political point to make, it is hardly an ecological one, and ultimately seems to argue for continuing ecological harm out of a sense of political fairness that would ultimately lead to much greater inequalities for the disadvantaged who will, out of sheer political reality, always reap the worst of any situation. That is, of the projects sponsored by the Chinese government were not allowed to go forth in order to provide short-term economic and political benefit to the populous, the resulting ecological damage would impact these people in far worse ways within a generation.


The political ecology perspective is a political perspective on ecological issues, and…… [Read More]


Ho, K.; Chow, Y. & Yau, J. (2003). "Chemical and microbiological qualities of the East River (Dongjiang) water, with particular reference to drinking water supply in Hong Kong." Chemosphere 52, pp. 1441-50.

Ma, C. (2010). "Who bears the environmental burden in China -- an analysis of the distribution of industrial pollution sources?" Ecological economics 69, pp. 1869-76.

Qin, B.; Zhu, G.; Gao, G.; Zhang, Y.; Li, W.; Pearl, H. & Carmichael, W. (2010). "A Drinking Water Crisis in Lake Taihu, China: Linkage to Climatic Variability and Lake Management." Environmental management 45, pp. 105-12.

Tilt, B. (2007). "The political ecology of pollution enforcement in China." China quarterly 192, pp. 915-32.
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Words: 3470 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19913828

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem

Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems

Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.

Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…… [Read More]


Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.

FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International

Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Words: 1007 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98603012

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Preservation of the existing ecosystems

Accumulating evidence suggest that sustainable agriculture should be promoted. The growth and development of agriculture will still be the driving force of the loss of ecosystems in the 21st century. In specified areas, the growth and development of agriculture poses a danger to ecosystems, establishment, evaluation, and technological diffusion. This could see the rise of the food production sustainably per unit area with the absence of trade-offs relating to excessive water consumption or nutrients and pesticides use, would lessen pressure significantly to ecosystems. For many cases, the required technologies are in place, and they could be implemented in a wider variety, but the nation is facing financial constraints and lacking intuitional capabilities to use and gain the stated technologies. In areas where technology is predominant of the landscape, maintenance of ecosystems within the landscape is a very significant constitute of…… [Read More]


Hayden, J. (2009). Introduction to health behavior theory. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.

O'Donnell, M.P. (2008). Health promotion in the workplace. Albany: Delmar Thomson Learning

Scutchfield, F.D., & Keck, C.W. (2009). Principles of public health practice. Clifton Park: Thomson/Delmar Learning

Stephens, C. (2008). Health promotion: A psychosocial approach. Maidenhead: Open University Press
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How Humans Affected the Antarctic Food Web

Words: 547 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79629152

Antarctic Impact

Human Effects on Antarctica

There are many unintended consequences of human activities that have had adverse effects on Antarctica. Global warming, which is all but certainly fueled at least in part by the human use of fossil fuels and the release of carbon and other molecules into the Earth's atmosphere, has had an impact on Antarctica despite the frozen continent's distance from anything resembling true modern industry (Ward 2001). The ice shelves surrounding the continent, which provide living habitats and feeding grounds for many land- and sea-dwelling Antarctic animals, have been melting and disintegrating at an increasing rate (Ward 2001). More direct impacts can be found resulting from commercial human activities, such as the harvesting of krill; though over-harvesting may be a problem in and of itself, this harvest also has the unintended consequence of limiting the food supply of seals and penguins, creating other disturbances throughout the…… [Read More]


Landcare Research. (2011). Accessed 11 July 2011.

Ward, P. (2011).. Accessed 11 July 2011.
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Information Age Human Resources Is Emerging Is

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39081621

information age, human resources is emerging is a critical strategic function, contributing substantially to the execution of strategy. Technology companies, for example, seek to hire the most creative, intelligent people they can find, because that is what gives them the competitive edge in an industry characterized by rapid innovation cycles and short product life cycles. This paper will explore the transition of human resources from administrative function to a key component of strategic management.

right and McMahan (2011) identify human capital as the link between practices and performance. hen companies set out their strategy and break that down into job descriptions, they still need to have the right people in the right roles to execute that strategy. They need human resources departments to define those roles, but also to ensure that the right people are attracted, retained and motivated -- all of which are tasks with which the modern human…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

De Wit, B. & Meyer, R. (2010). Strategy: Process, context, an international perspective. Cengage.

Leemans, C. & Duts, S. (2013). Human resources development as a strategic business lever. Move Learning. Retrieved April 25, 2013 from

Wright, P. & McMahan, G. (2011). Exploring human capital: Putting human back into strategy human resource management. Human Resource Management Journal. Vol. 21 (2) 93-104.
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Conservation and Unitary Human Beings

Words: 581 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72030452

Secondly, there is the Unitary Model. This theory is most attributed to Martha E. Rogers, practicing in the South and around the East Coast. The Science of Unitary Human Beings Theory is heavily influenced as her time spent as a public nurse, with the theory stemming from her experiences in rural practices.

The two theories share an emphasis on the importance of the environment, where resources play a huge role in facilitating greater and more effective nursing strategies in contemporary care. From this theoretical perspective, the energy of the human patients is intertwined with the energy of the environment in which the care is taking place. Harmonizing the energy in the environment would mean a greater positive change for the human energy as well within the patient. As such, it is clear that both theories present a way of utilizing the environment as a resource for balancing health. In this…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Life Humans Have a Distinguishing

Words: 1667 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56746652

Philosophy of Life

Humans have a distinguishing nature, which defines the way they think, act, and feel. The human nature has influenced the culture that humans have kept with each other. In my observation, humans have a distinct culture that defines their operations and activities. For many years, many studies have been carried out to establish the human nature, which defines all human beings. Various views on the nature of human beings have been developed to explain human behaviors and mannerisms. Aristotle and Plato argued that humans may be explained as conjugal animals because they couple when adults to build household. It is also argued that humans are political animals with the potential of developing complex communities besides being mimetic (Oruka, 1996).

ecent years have seen the development of modern views on the nature of humans, such as, a being with potency to think, develop, and replicate. This modern view…… [Read More]


Corning, P. (2003). The Fate of Humankind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Evernden, L. (1998). Humankind and Environment. New York: University of Toronto Press.

Evans, E. (2012). Philosophy for Life. New York: Ebury Publishing.

Oruka, O. (1996). Philosophy, Humanity and Ecology. London: DIANE Publishing.
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Comparing Two Authors as Commentators on the Human Condition

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58622419

Human Condition

oth The Great Work by Thomas erry and Sacred Energies by Daniel Maguire suggest ways in which human beings can change the destructive path they are on. The two works take a cosmological approach to the problem, the former focusing on the earth as sacred, while the latter uses religion as a possible remedy to the situation.

The three major themes upon which The Great Work is based, comprise the current situation of the human community, how this came to be, and the possible future of the human community. erry blames Western science and religion for the state of the world today. The reason for this is that science and religion have become separate in human consciousness, rather than integrative forces. Religion is therefore no longer seen as either a fundamental or concrete force on which to base life. In the same way humanity has become separate from…… [Read More]


Berry, Thomas. The Great Work: Our Way into the Future. Random House, 2000.

Maguire, Daniel C. Sacred Energies: When the World's Religions Sit Down to Talk about the Future Of Human Life and the Plight of This Planet. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000.
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Are There Keystone Species in Information Ecologies That Might Affect Knowledge Management Processes

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61951133

Keystone Species

In mid-1800's, telegraphy was invented. This invention was revolutionary because it decreased all the hurdles in communication of information. This type of invention or any innovations that connects two or more people and acts as a survival tool for a particular group i.e. ethnic or technological group is known as Keystone specie. Even though Specie is a term mostly used for living organisms, here in a larger context keystone specie is referred to as "a system of people, practices, values, and technologies" that is essential for the survival of anything. (Johnson, 2010)

The keystone species concept has been a mainstay of the ecological and conservation biology literature since its introduction by UW zoology professor Robert T. Paine in 1969. His seminal paper extended the conclusions of a field experiment published three years earlier. The research resulting in the keystone species concept was done on Makah Tribal lands on…… [Read More]


Johnson, S. (2010). Where Good Ideas Come From: The Natural History of Innovation. London: Penguins Books Ltd.

Keystone Species Hypothesis. (1996). Retrieved September 24, 2011, from

McNely, B. (2010) Exploring a Sustainable and Public Information Ecology, S.Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Nardi, B.A. And V.L. O'Day (2004) Information Ecologies. Chapter 4 in Information Ecologies: Using Technology with Heart. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press
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Regulation of Human Population in

Words: 2125 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68075094

The developed countries hence experience higher survivorship for most age groups resulting in a balanced and healthy reproductive structure. The age distribution needs to complement or mirror the high survivorship ratio as the extinction of even one age group is very much possible with a single unforeseen natural event (egon et al. 2006).

To illustrate the importance of a balanced age structure, consider this example. A huge carnival targeted for the age group 20-35 has been designed and thousands of tickets and invites have already been distributed and accepted. The carnival is showcasing some of the biggest icons in the world of music and education and hence attracts not only students, but educators as well, not just from the public and private sector, but due to the musical influence, it even attracts those in the age group who are not part of the education sector. Now imagine, a natural disaster…… [Read More]


Begon, M.; Townsend, C.R.; Harper, J.L. (2006). Ecology: From Individuals to Ecosystems (4th ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4051-1117-1.

Campbell, N.A., Reece, J.B. (2002). Chapter 52: Population Ecology. AP Biology Chapter 52 Population Ecology Outine.

Hanski, I.; Gaggiotti, O.E., eds (2004). Ecology, genetics and evolution of metapopulations. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Academic Press. Accessed on October 18, 2010 from:,+genetics,+and+evolution+of+metapopulations&dq=ecology,+genetics,+and+evolution+of+metapopulations&cd=1

Johnson, J.B.; Omland, K.S. (2004). "Model selection in ecology and evolution.." Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 (2): 101 -- 108. Accessed on October 18, 2010 from:
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Historical Particularism and Cultural Ecology

Words: 1302 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61289804

Particularism vs. Cultural Ecology

Franz oaz defined the concept in anthropology, which is known by the name of "Historical Particularism." oas was a champion of this theory, which, although it did not by any means totally ignore the greater theoretical framework that surrounded an event, focused directly on the event itself and attempted account for this event by tying it in some way to a theory that could explain the creation of the cultural variables in the event by tying it in with environmental and historical factors. oas gives his own account of this development:

The new historical view also comes into conflict with the generalizing method of science. It imposed upon the older view of nature in which the discovery of general laws was considered the ultimate aim of investigation. According to this view, laws may be exemplified by individual events, which, however, lose their specific interest once the…… [Read More]


Boaz, Franz. A Franz Boaz Reader. George W. Stocking Jr., ed. Chicago: U. Chicago

Press, 1974.

Cultural Ecology." Apr. 30, 2003.

Marquette, Catherine. "Some Notes on the Development of Cultural Ecology.' Apr. 30, 2003.
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Conflict Between Human and Non-Human

Words: 1792 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15280902

"The monkey's larynx, while quite distinct from that of the human being, is not as much so as that of parrots, which clearly can speak. As to their brains, the comparison with that of the latter banishes all doubts." As the narrator tries to teach the title ape to speak, he swears that Yzur takes on a more contemplative expression. The narrator compares the ape to "ancient men of the forest, who were forced into silence and submission" as well as the mentally deficient. But because the monkey is not fully human and does not speak like him, the man sees him as inferior and ultimately drives the monkey man.

The tendency to see 'the other' as inferior is manifest in prejudice against native people as well as animals. esnick's allegorical story shows how human violence and prejudice is an endless cycle. The relationship between humans and animals is more…… [Read More]


Lugones, Leopoldo. (2007). Yzur. ERBZine. 1869. Retrieved December 13, 2010 at

Naess, Arne & George Sessions. (2010). Deep Ecology Platform. Foundation for Deep Ecology.

Retrieved December 13, 2010 at

Resnick, Mike. (2001). The Elephants on Neptune. Asimov's Science Fiction.
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Fire Ecology in Ponderosa Pine

Words: 2773 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66029469

Prescribed Burns

There are several methods for achieving these conditions within the forest. The first is prescribed burning. The goal of prescribed burning is to reduce the amount and density of surface fuels in a controlled manner. Prescribed burns also scorch and kill the lower branches of trees, preventing laddering (Fitzgerald 2005). This technique lifts the canopy off the surface, lowering the ability of the fire to climb to the high-density crown. Prescribed burns are typically carried out in regular intervals, much like the natural low-intensity fires of the past.

One of the key difficulties in prescribed burns is that some preparation may be necessary in order to reduce the amount of fuels. Otherwise, the controlled burn could easily become an uncontrollable raging forest fire. Pruning and thinning of tree stands may be necessary in order to reduce the available fuel before the prescribed burn (Fitzgerald 2005). Mowing and grading…… [Read More]


1. Agee, J.K. 2002. Fire behavior and fire-resilient forests. In Fitzgerald, S.A., editor. Fire in Oregon's forests: risks, effects and treatment options. A synthesis of current issues and scientific literature. Special Report prepared for the Oregon Forest Resources Institute, Portland, or; 119-126. In Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available from:


2. Brown, Richard, Agee, James and Franklin, Jerry. 2004. Forest Restoration and Fire: Principles in the Context of Place. Conservation Biology. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; 18 (4): 903-912. Available at

3. Fitzgerald, Stephen. 2005. Fire Ecology of Ponderosa Pine and the Rebuilding of Fire-Resilient Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. USDA Forest Service Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-198. [Internet]. [Cited 2009 February 19]; Available at
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Biology Ecology the Global Ecological Problem

Words: 1289 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67740002

While imported species can be controlled to a degree by Governmental regulation, unintentional imports are a different matter. Garth mentions the example of the brown tree snake that stowed away on ships and military equipment during World War II. During this time, obviously, there was not as much awareness of the invasive species problem as there is today. Basically therefore the current era is faced with a problem unintentionally created decades ago.

Another case of unintentional transport that I found particularly interesting in the article is the movement from port to port of ballast water. Ships take on water for balancing purposes. The water is transported to the destination port and discarded. The cycle is repeated from port to port. The aquatic life in this ballast water is then also transported between the ports. As a solution to this, one of the suggestions mentioned in the article is that ships…… [Read More]


McGrath, Susan. (2005, March). "Attack of the Alien Invaders." National Geographic
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Landscape Ecology Introduction Ecology the Pressure for

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36837973

Landscape Ecology

Introduction ecology

The pressure for increased meat to feed the world's hungry population vs. its strain on natural resources

The trendiness of vegetarianism and veganism aside, throughout history there has been a consistent trend regarding meat consumption. The more affluent the society, the more meat it tends to consume. This has been true of the rapidly-expanding population of the developing world. Given that the developed world continues to consume large amounts of meat, this has resulted in a proliferation of factory farming and a depletion of the earth's resources to feed growing demand: "These assembly-line meat factories consume enormous amounts of energy, pollute water supplies, generate significant greenhouse gases and require ever-increasing amounts of corn, soy and other grains, a dependency that has led to the destruction of vast swaths of the world's tropical rain forests" (Bittman 2008). Worldwide, per capita meat consumption has doubled since 1961 (Bittman…… [Read More]


Bittman, Mark. (2008). Re-thinking the meat guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:

Is eating meat sustainable. (2012). Real Food University. Retrieved:
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Family Ecology the Family Is

Words: 2218 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95376770

It also varies with urban or rural residence. Urban households commonly earn more and enjoy a higher standard of living than rural households. The allocation for food spending corresponds to the biggest part of the family budget. However, as family income increases, the share in food in consumption expenses generally drops. This is most likely because of the popularity of "fast foods" nowadays.

Socialization Process

The process of socialization takes a lifetime whereby the individual acquires the established beliefs, values, sentiments, norms and behavior of his group and society. It is through socialization that the individual becomes a functioning member of his group. It is also through this process that values, customs and beliefs are passed on from one generation to the other.

Because of the significance of early experiences and primary relationships, the family remains to be the most important socializing agent in the child's life (Davidson and Moore,…… [Read More]


Bellah, R.N. (1970). Beyond Belief. New York: Harper & Row.

Berger, P.L. (1963). Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective. New York: Doubleday.

Berk, S.F. (1985). The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum.

Broom, DH, Broom, L. And Bonjean, C.M. (1990). Sociology: A Core Text with adapted readings. Belmont, California:Wadsworth Publishing Company.
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Goal of Ecology Depends Substantially

Words: 622 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61859160

Finally, the most extreme version of "so what" suggests that nothing on earth matters, whether before, during, or after the reign of human beings, because, ultimately, all life and all planets will die, and even the smallest particles of matter (i.e. protons) will eventually decay into complete nothingness in time (p.444).

Article Critique and Personal esponse

The description of various philosophical perspectives and the corresponding ethical conclusions provides an accurate account of the different possible points-of-view that one can take about ecology and relative value of preserving the planet. The author presents a conclusion that I support. Specifically, he suggests that the most appropriate application of the "so what?" perspective is that it does not really matter whether or not anything matters on earth. He suggests that instead of worrying so much about whether human life will exist forever or how long the planet or the universe will exist in…… [Read More]


Moral Ground: Ethical Action for a Planet in Peril Edited by Kathleen Dean Moore & Michael P. Nelson: 440 -- 444.
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Nature and Ecology

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40087831

nature is that opposites attract and there is much binary opposition in human-Nature relationships.

It is important to understand that the human species -- along with its culture -- is a part of the ecosystem. Therefore, ecology describes the material processes in ecosystems, such as the imbalances of carbon, nitrogen, or phosphorus cycles, the population problem and the rates of fishing and resource management.

Having sufficient ecological knowledge is not sufficient to solve many of the ecological problems because it is not able to solve the environmental issues of modern culture. Even though we know why the number of living species in the world is decreasing, the human population is growing, the mounting waste from the backyards and oceanic abyss reach the upper layers of the atmosphere. The solution to these problems requires knowledge of ecological processes, and human behavior too.

The relationship between humans and nature are connected very…… [Read More]


Laws of Nature [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, available at, accessed on: April 13, 2004

THE ECOLOGICAL CRISIS: Changing the paradigm, available at, accessed on: April 13, 2004
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Georgia's Environment the Ecologies and Environment From

Words: 803 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96262053

Georgia's Environment

The ecologies and environment: From the Atlantic Ocean to the Appalachian Plateau, Georgia is a very diverse state in terms of its ecology and geography. The state is the largest east of the Mississippi River, and its elevation ranges from sea level to more than 4,700 feet. The New Georgia Encyclopedia reports that there are five distinct "physiographic provinces" in Georgia: the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont, the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain. In the extreme northwestern part of the state, the Appalachian Plateau has historically been a region where mining has taken place. That Appalachian Plateau actually connects some parts of Georgia with Tennessee and eastern Alabama.

The cities in Georgia are located in the Piedmont region, which is highly industrialized, and includes the sprawling megalopolis of Atlanta. The "fall line" in Georgia is the place where the coastal plain meets the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baxter, Tom. (2012). Georgia becomes Ground Zero for energy, environmental issues. Atlanta Business Chronicle. Retrieved March 3, 2012, from .

Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Climate Change and Georgia. Retrieved March 4,

2012, from

Georgia Department of Natural Resources. (2009). Georgia's Natural Resources. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from .
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Urban Ecology on the Ground

Words: 2818 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48027290

Therefore, strong educational campaigns are absolutely essential in the successful execution of urban ecological advocacy programs. One of the most fundamental efforts that come from NOAA funding is that of educational campaigns. Along with sponsoring coastal cleanups, NOAA is a prime example of a government agency focusing on recycling education campaigns within Miami-Dade's most populated areas, like the area surrounding Brickell Ave. Educating the public in terms of recycling has been one of NOAA and it's affiliates' most powerful tools in implementing successful urban conservation programs. With such a large population so close to natural wonders, the Brickell Ave area needs effective educational campaigns to curb littering on beaches and in parks, as well as lightening the impact of the local trash supply in the city's landfills. NOAA allocates federal funds for this very purpose within a localized sphere, once again proving the synergetic collaboration between local advocacy groups and…… [Read More]


City of Miami. (2010). City of Miami tree master plan. Miami Green Commission. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from

Devuyst, Dimitri. (2001). Introduction to sustainability assessment at the local level: a human ecological perspective. How Green is the City? Sustainability Assessment and the Management of Urban Environments. New York: Columbia University Press. 1-36.

Gonzalez, George a. (2005). Urban sprawl, global warming and the limits of ecological modernization. Environmental Politics. 14(3):344-362.

Hold the Line. (2010). Supporters. UBD Line. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from
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Animal Conservation Importance to Human Society to

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41135544

Animal conservation [...] importance to human society to conserve endangered animals, and will include some examples of organizations that help in animal conservation.

The conservation of endangered animals is extremely important to our society in many ways. The ecology of the Earth has worked for millions of years, but as our planet loses many types of animals and other life, we are slowly changing the ecological balance, and because of this, we could slowly be destroying the planet. Humans have destroyed many species, including the dodo bird, the passenger pigeon, and we nearly destroyed the California condor. Each of these species plays a specific role in their ecological niche, and when we destroy one, it creates a chain reaction that can eventually destroy any animal that depends on another for its survival. For example, in Hawaii there is a very special type of lily that depends on a certain kind…… [Read More]

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Biology Ecology Afghanistan Canada 2008 Pop

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79255703

However, the cost of construction in areas without adequate roads would be astronomical. This being said, it is not without precedent that a nuclear power facility, under the strict guidelines of the United Nations, might be set up to provide power to the major cities. Public attitudes towards nuclear power remain ambivalent, and issues with Chernobyl, etc. still sting, but the simple fact is that the technology is there (Dittmar, 2010).

What does Afghanistan have in abundance, though? Not really enough sunlight to make solar profitable in all seasons, but certainly that could work in major cities and for certain applications. Based on the Copenhagen Climate Conference, there are four major ways to finance new energy options in countries like Afghanistan that actually benefit global climate initiatives (Brown, Bird, and Schalatek, 2010). Afghanistan, like much of Central Asia, is ideal for the development and robust exploitation of wind power technology.…… [Read More]


Brown, J., Bird, N. And Schalatek, L. (July 2010). Climate Finance Additionality: Emerging Definitions and Their Implications. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from:

Dittmar, M. (August 18, 2010). Taking Stock of Nuclear Renaissance that Never Was. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from:

Elliott, D. (2005). Wind Resource Assessment and Mapping for Afghanistan and Pakistan. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from:
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Political Ecology

Words: 599 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12581981

Gender and Environment" the authors argue that women are becoming an important part of the ecology movement. The authors suggest that there is a "new conceptual framework" being recognized by feminists as to ecology and the environment. In the recent past, scholars have viewed political ecology as a challenge that deals with quality of life and access to resources -- and much of this movement has revolved around "the domain of men" (Rocheleau, p. 6).

But another approach is emerging; the point of this essay is that gender should also play an important role in the goal of a safe and healthy environment. In fact women in North America and Europe have been active in conservation and environmental movements -- taking to task the "the prevailing paradigm of professional science" -- albeit their work has not caught the attention of the media (and the male power structure) in many cases,…… [Read More]

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LGBT Youth Social Ecology and Homeless

Words: 1291 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20374705

Social Ecology and Homeless LGBT Youth
The ecosystem is a basic well-structured and organized unit that facilitates the bringing together of the physical environment and the living organisms in a single framework. As a result, this makes it possible to study the interrelations between biotic and abiotic constituents. Social ecology takes into account the application of manifold levels and techniques of analysis and theoretical standpoints of social problems, acknowledging the dynamic and active nature of human-environment interrelations and the social, cultural, historical and institutional contexts of people’s lives. One of the fundamental principles of ecology is to identify a phenomenon as a social problem (Stokols, 2018). In this regard, the phenomenon in consideration is the increasing number of homelessness amongst LGBT youth. LGBT homeless youth are especially a susceptible population as they account for approximately 20 percent to 40 percent of all homeless youth (McCandless, 2017). The inference of this…… [Read More]

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Plastics the Ecology Center 2011

Words: 636 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30530141

Polycarbonate with Bisphenol a (#7) is found in water bottles and scientists have linked very low doses of it to cancers, early onset of puberty, obesity, diabetes, hyperactivity, impaired immune function, among a myriad of other problems (2011).

Some of the recommendations that are offered by the Ecology Center (2011) are to buy one's food in glass or metal containers as opposed to plastic ones. Avoiding polycarbonate drinking bottles that contain Bisphenol a is also recommended. One should not heat food in plastic containers or store any kinds of fatty foods in plastic containers or in plastic wrap (2011). As well as avoiding the plastic containers or wrap for food, the Ecology Center recommends staying away from giving young children plastic toys that they may put in their mouth or plastic teethers (2011). One other recommendation is to avoid all PVC and Styrene products (2011).

Because of the health risks…… [Read More]


Ecology Center. (2011). "Adverse health effects of plastics." Ecology Center. Accessed on January 18, 2011:
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Social Ecology Model Social Ecology Requires That

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16841716

Social Ecology Model

Social ecology requires that people see that nature and society are intertwined by progress into one environment that is made up of two differences. The first difference being biotic nature and the second being human nature. Human nature and biotic nature split an evolutionary prospective for better prejudice and elasticity. Nature is the manner in which people are flexible, extremely intellectual primates that occupy the natural world. In other words, individuals generate an atmosphere that is most appropriate for their manner of survival. In this case, human nature is no different from the atmosphere that each animal, contingent upon its aptitudes, generates as well as acclimates to, the biophysical conditions or eco community in which it lives. On this extremely basic level, people are, in fact, doing nothing that varies from the endurance actions of nonhumans (Bookchin, 2001).

The SEM is made up of several levels wrapped…… [Read More]


Bookchin, Murray. (2001). What Is Social Ecology? Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site: 

Innovative Pediatric Nursing Role: Public Health Nurses in Child Welfare: Theoretical Framework for Health Case Management Role. (2006). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from:

Social Ecological Model. (n.d.). Retrieved December 11, 2010, from Web site:
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Nature and Human

Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93958258

landscape studies pioneer, John rinckerhoff Jackson, studied the contemporary landscape - common, everyday places where we live, work and play - for the clues it provides to American culture.

In 1964, the American Congress passed the Wilderness Act, thereby protecting over 100 million acres of public land from development. Wilderness was "recognized as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain." Wilderness must remain "in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape." Finally, Wilderness is "an untamed natural realm,"..."that's ideally"..."unpeopled.."

People should stay back, as if in front of a picture, admire and enjoy it but they are not allowed to trespass it. The landscape has to remain untouched. As I was reading the above mentioned fragments from the Wilderness Act, a question popped up: "Why?"

Isn't it…… [Read More]


1. John Brinckerhoff Jackson Obituary, available on the

2. Thoreau, Henry David, Walden Contents - next Section of Chapter One available on the

3. McDonough, William, Design, Ecology, Ethics and the Making of Things, available on the

4. Luke, W. Timothy, Generating Green Governmentality: A Cultural Critique of Environmental Studies as a Power/Knowledge Formation, available on the
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Political Ecology of the World Food System

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77989485

Political Ecology

One of the biggest challenges facing the world is controlling the natural resources of the planet. This is because population growth has been leading to increases in demand on available land (in an effort to produce food). The problem is that the world is using more of these resources at an alarming rate and global warming has been impacting weather patterns. In many cases, there are different nitrogen and ammonia substitutes that are designed to reduce this effect. This was utilized as an alternative source in fertilizing the soil and controlling pests.

However, after embracing this strategy for several years, it is obvious that some kind of changes need to take place in dealing with these challenges. As a result, new reforms must be introduced that will transform how the government is working with farmers to control agricultural resources. The best way that this can be achieved is…… [Read More]


Jackson, W. (n.d.). Tackling the Oldest Environmental Problem.

Litfin, K. (2009). Principles of Gaian Governance.
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Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Words: 2664 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8454350

Social Ecology of Health Promotion

Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.

The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).

There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]


Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.

Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.

Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.

Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
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Political Ecology of the World Food System

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42188343

Political Ecology of the World Food System

In the readings examined for this paper, the one central theme is the way politics affects how the environment is treated and how that treatment of the environment then correlates to the food and clean water supply of people all over the world. Nitrogen in fertilizer is one of the big problems, because it does more than just get into the crops which it is designed to assist. Fertilizer, according to Little (2009), is "yet another by-product of fossil fuels" (p. 148). Those fossils fuels are affecting the environment in a very negative way, but fertilizer is important to the growth of crops that people need in order to have enough to eat. It becomes a conundrum when there is a "bad" product that many people do not want used, but that product is basically required to create what is needed to sustain…… [Read More]


Holt-Gimenetz, E. (2007). The great biofuel hoax. Indypendent. Global Policy Forum.

Little, A. (2005). Cooking Oil. Power Trip, Chapter Five, p. 147-177.

Vidal, J. (2010). How food and water are driving a 21st century land grab. The Observer. Global Policy Forum.
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Political Ecology of the World Food System

Words: 673 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19574358

Food Policy

Political Ecology of the World Food System

"While warning about fat, U.S. pushes cheese sales" by Michael Moss

According to Michael Moss' article "While warning about fat, U.S. pushes cheese sales" from the New York Times, the U.S. government is sending profoundly mixed messages about the consumption of cheese to the American public. Dietary advice is confusing when it is solicited even from objective research studies, but the government has further complicated the public's ability to comprehend how to eat right by simultaneously trying to promote better public heath while bolstering the economic interests of dairy producers. The article notes how an organization called Dairy Management, a creation of the United States Department of Agriculture, actually encouraged the fast food corporation Domino's to create a new pizza with extra cheese, to bolster the pizza chain's flagging sales. While the public gobbled up the new offering, the new pizza…… [Read More]


Moss, Michael. (2010). While warning about fat, U.S. pushes cheese sales. New York Times.

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Culture and the Evolutionary Process of Human Beings

Words: 3353 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67181596



Undestanding the evolution of humanity has been one of the most citical quests fo most individuals in the cuent society. The intesection between envionmental influences and cultue ceates an aea of social inteest with a focus on human evolution. Empiical eseach shows that the society plays a significant ole in shaping the evolution of human beings as evidenced by psychological analysis of human evolution. The extaodinay coopeative natue of human beings aises moe questions on the peceived changes of human behavio and inteaction ove time (Hawkes, Paine, & School, 2006). Among the factos that dive human beings to stive to undestand thei evolution, include paleoanthopology esults that povide unique infomation that povides significant evidence to the aspects of human evolution postulated to have occued millions of yeas ago. Results fom fossil studies such as inceasing bain size and…… [Read More]

references: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(01), 1 -- 14.

Croll, E., & Parkin, D. (2002). Bush Base, Forest Farm: Culture, Environment, and Development. Routledge.

Darlington, P.J. (1978). Altruism: Its characteristics and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 75(1), 385 -- 389.

Eagly, A.H., & Wood, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior: Evolved dispositions vs. social roles. American Psychologist, 54(6), 408 -- 423.

Foley, R. (1995). The adaptive legacy of human evolution: A search for the environment of evolutionary adaptedness. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 4(6), 194 -- 203
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butterfly article and ecology information

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25754177

Gitig, D. (2017). A farewell to kings? New ideas on the vanishing monarch butterflies. Ars Technica. April 30, 2017. etrieved online:

In this article, Gitig (2017) provides an overview of recent research on monarch butterflies, focusing on the causes of their diminishing populations. Monarch butterflies feed almost exclusively on a plant called milkweed. Milkweed is disappearing rapidly due to urban development and other human activities. Therefore, the monarch butterflies have less to eat and this may be the direct cause for their dwindling numbers. In fact, adult monarch butterflies do not just feed on milkweed but also lay the next generation of eggs on the plant. The milkweed plant actually perceives the monarch as a parasite and emits latex to trap and kill the monarch caterpillars. Only about 10% of monarch eggs make it to become fully formed butterflies, according to the author. The most remarkable aspect of the…… [Read More]


Doyle, A. (2017). Milkweed plantings lure monarch butterflies to county. Ventura County Star, April 30, 2017. Retrieved online:

Gitig, D. (2017). A farewell to kings? New ideas on the vanishing monarch butterflies. Ars Technica. April 30, 2017. Retrieved online:
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Sociobiology Offers an Evolutionary Approach to Human

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37866232

Sociobiology offers an evolutionary approach to human behavior and psychology. The fundamental tenet of sociobiology is that psychological traits have adaptive functions and are often embedded in DNA. Psychological traits, like physical features, are passed down through the generations. Some traits will manifest with greater likelihood than others, and thus, traits evolve in a process of natural selection. The intellectual roots of sociobiology stem from the theory of evolution in biology, as well as from sociology and anthropology. The study of sociobiology originated with Wilson, who also refers to the field as behavioral ecology (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000). Methodologies include biological and genetics research, as well as the methods of data collection employed in the social sciences such as observation. To avoid complications with longitudinal studies and long-range data collection, sociobiologists use frequency models including those resembling game theory (Driscoll, 2013; Wilson, 2000).

Sociobiology is concerned more with how and…… [Read More]


Driscoll, C. (2013). Sociobiology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:

Wilson, E.O. (2000). Sociobiology. Belknap.
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Biology Ecology

Words: 712 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33633051

Everglades and the Problem of Water Management

The Everglades is a unique ecosystem and there is no other like it in the world. The Everglades are the source and security of the fresh water that enables people to live and do business in South Florida. It is the source of drinking water for the area's five million people, and sustains a productive agricultural industry. Over the past century, the Everglades have been severely harmed by the growth in human population.

Water management is one of the most severe environmental issues facing the Everglades today. The Everglades' watershed starts in the Kissimmee River basin north of Lake Okeechobee.

In the summertime, thunderstorms would flood this area, the large lake, and extensive areas of everglades marsh, creating created a shallow, wide river that flowed slowly south through the everglades to the Gulf of Mexico. The summer rains would then subside to a…… [Read More]


The Florida Everglades: A Model of Destruction. Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability (FICUS), University of South Florida. 1999.

Alden, P., Cech, R., & Leventer, A. National Audubon Society Field Guide to Florida. National Audubon Society, 1998.

Douglass, M. The Everglades: River of Grass. Pineapple Press, 1988.
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Political Ecology of the World Food System

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75204983

Food System

Unintended Consequences of Pursuing Cheap Food

We have become accustomed to pursuing cheap food. On surface, it is a rational choice. The cheaper the food we buy to eat and drink the better, as the assumption goes. Coupled with this understandable human desire is the ubiquitous corporate advertising of cheap food and business attempts to convince the consumers that the cheap food offers much greater variety of choices than otherwise would be possible. Most consumers fall for these marketing strategies. But there are at least two unintended consequences of pursuing cheap food. Cheap food -- more precisely, what we buy as "cheap food" -- is unhealthy, which we are choosing consciously. And cheap may be not as "cheap" as we assume. There are evidences showing that pursuing cheap food may lead to food crisis and hunger.

In our culture, we are fascinated by the word "choice." We always…… [Read More]

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Ecological Approaches Provide a Strong

Words: 2215 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88550917

According to Fitzpatrick & Keegan (2010), "This use of historical ecology to study "the complex, historical interactions between human populations and the ecosystems they have inhabited" (Kirch 1997a, p.2; see also Crumley (ed.) 1994), has been applied in other parts of the world to observe anthropogenic changes through time. Archaeologists, influenced by a wide array of scientific fields, have taken a keen interest in understanding how humans adapted, influenced, modified, and impacted their environment. This is a difficult endeavor, however, because "environments change and the magnitude of change are never constant" (O'Brien 2001, pp. 29-30). (Fitzpatrick, Keegan, pg. 30, 2007)

Fitzpatrick & Keegan point to the uses of historical ecology to investigate the interrelationships between humans and the biosphere. The importance of noting environmental changes as separate from human involvement may be erroneous. Environmental changes are hinted by proponents of historical ecology to have been initiated by humans through their…… [Read More]


Anderson, a. 2009, Epilogue: Changing Archaeological Perspectives upon Historical Ecology in the Pacific Islands1, University Press of Hawaii.

Balee W. (1998), Historical Ecology: Premises and Postulates -- Chapter 1.

Bird DW., Richardson JL., Veth PM., Barham AJ. (2002) Explaining Shellfish Variability in Middens on the Meriam Islands, Torres Strait, Australia. Journal of Archaeological Science, 29, 457-469

Erlandson, Rick (2010) Archaeology Meets Marine Ecology: The Antiquity of Maritime Cultures and Human Impacts on Marine Fisheries and Ecosystems.
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Monterey Bay the Environment Has

Words: 4298 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93293655

This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.

A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.

The California Ground Squirrel is a…… [Read More]


Burde, John H. And George a. Feldhamer. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Environmental Impact Analysis." San Benito County 2005 RTP EIR (2005).

Castillo, Edward D. A Short Overview of California Indian History (1998).

Cato, Paisley. "Spermophilus beecheyi." San Diego Natural History Museum (2007),
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American Home Economics Association the

Words: 4849 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54680930

One article in a past issue of the Kappa Omicron NU publication Forum explored the real-world teaching of service learning as a tool for involving students in their community. The study had the established goal of making clear the practical applicability of the academic learning in family and consumer sciences, and the necessity of community involvement for students in these programs and other human science specializations, as well as for families who put family and consumer sciences to use every day (Leach 1998). As my specialization is family studies, much of the research and findings of this study are directly applicable to my own planned career in family and consumer sciences.

The article provides background by detailing the connection between family and community, which is "the family's more immediate external environment" and, if properly engaged, a solid source of support both materially and emotionally for the home economist (Leach 1998).…… [Read More]


AAFCS. (2003). American association of family and consumer sciences official website. Accessed 31 August 2009.

Bois, D. (1997). "Ellen Henrietta Swallow Richards." Distinguished women of past and present. Accessed 31 August 2009. 

Carland-Adams, B. (2009). "When Mom dates, Dad stops visiting his kids." journal of marriage and family, August. Accessed 31 August 2009.

Cornell. (2009). "The land grant college." Cornell university college of agriculture and life sciences. Accessed 31 August 2009.
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History of Landscape Patterns

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80446079

History Of Landscape Patterns

Although historical ecology remains a relatively recent conceptualization, it provides a useful framework in which to understand the relationship between the historic uses to which terrain has been placed and its modern applications (Balee, 1999). The research to date in this area has focused in part on the history of landscape patterns. For instance, Balee reports that, "The concept of landscape, above all, seems paramount in historical ecology. These usages, when comprehended technically, facilitate a more holistic (and therefore more accurate and empirically sound) analysis of human ecology" (1999, p. 1). This point is also made by Swetnam, Allen, and Betancourt (1999) who discuss historical ecology and the importance of knowing the history of a landscape when making contemporary management decisions concerning new applications. In this regard, Swetnam and his associates note that, "Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of…… [Read More]


Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.

Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.

In Mendeley. Retrieved from

Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1189 -- 1206.
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Determinism And Probabilism Environmental Determinism

Words: 1601 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15430546

Therefore, probabilism is more about making an informed and educated choice based on the realm of probabilities available. Probabilism brings with it the theory of prediction, and also positivism, with which it is closely associated. However, probabilism is always referred to as being the half way point between determinism and possibilism. ("Infrastructure Possibilism and Probabilism," 2006)

To conclude, it must be said that while environmental probabilism states that almost all or any behaviors may be probable within one or in any environment, while determinism states that it is the physical environment, and not social conditions, that would shape a person's character and behaviors. Herein lies the basic difference between the two theories. There can be no doubt that several more theories related to these theories will emerge soon, and perhaps these would explain human behavior in a more succinct and terse manner.


Banning, Carolyn S; Banning, James H. (1994)…… [Read More]


Banning, Carolyn S; Banning, James H. (1994) "Use of Nonverbal Cues of the Physical

Environment in Campus Consultation" Campus Ecologist, vol. 12, no. 4, pp: 36-38.

Blair, Alasdair; Hitchcock, David. (2001) "Environment and business"

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Law Help Protect the Environment and What

Words: 2725 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96804056

law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?

Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.

It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…… [Read More]


Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)

British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd., [2004] 2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38

Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute

DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2