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One of the most important aspects of a child's psychological growth is the development of self-awareness. According to Thompson, the developmental pathway of the self incorporates several shadings such as the child's growing complexity and ongoing transformation of actual chronicles of self (Dacey, Travers & Lisa, 2009, p.260). He stated that these different aspects of the self continue to grow as social awareness and cognitive maturity result in a child's psychological development through self-concept and self-esteem. The psychological development of a child has been a subject of several studies that have focused on examining the development of humans across the lifespan.
Article eview One:
The first article under review was written by four authors i.e. Amanda Shallcross, Victoria Floerke, Brett Ford, and Iris Mauss and published by the American Psychological Association. This article was published in 2013 following research that was conducted in 2012 on getting better with…
Dacey, J., Travers, J. & Lisa, F. (2009). Human development across the lifespan (7th ed.). New
York, NY: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Riediger, M., Wzrus, C., Schmiedek, F., Wagner, G.G. & Lindenberger, U. (2011, May 2). Is
Seeking Bad Mood Cognitively Demanding? Contra-hedonic Orientation and Working-memory Capacity in Everyday Life. Emotion, 11(3), 656-665. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0022756
The satisfaction of completing a task that is outside of one's perceived role or ability reduces stress, as in this case stress is associated with feelings of helplessness, and allows the individual to perceive of the ability to possibly do even more complicated tasks in the future. ("Women Becoming More Involved," 2000, p. 6) Things get more complicated if the learning needed is social. In this case one might learn by observing how others interact. We can mirror another's social behavior as an aspect of learning and therefore resolve social anxiety by doing. The result may be collaborative as it gives the individual a clue that they can achieve the social role expected of them even when they do not feel confident. Speaking with others about such perceived confidence may elicit a result of the other telling him or her that they were also initially afraid of the social situation,…
Ashby, J.S., Rahotep, S.S., & Martin, J.L. (2005). Multidimensional Perfectionism and Rogerian Personality Constructs. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 44(1), 55.
Dembo, M.H. (2000). Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success a Self-Management Approach. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dibartolo, P.M., Albano, a.M., Barlow, DH, & Heimberg, R.G. (1998). Cross-Informant Agreement in the Assessment of Social Phobia in Youth. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(3), 213.
Ellwood, D.T. (1988). Poor Support: Poverty in the American Family. New York: Basic Books.
Cancer Call Center was happy to see Wendy's answers, because they appeared to coincide with the management approach taken by Cancer Call Center. For example, all of the call center's customer service representatives were given full authority to resolve customer complaints, which meant that they did not have to resort to a manager to approve customer service issues. Furthermore, Cancer Call Center used a two-level approach to call scoring. The first level involved taped calls and measured how many of the standard call points, for example correct greeting, the customer service representative used. However, the second system involved follow-up calls to customers by an independent agency, and they measured customer satisfaction. In addition, supervisors at the call-center reviewed performance on a weekly basis, giving both positive and negative feedback to the customer service representatives.
Despite Wendy's good fit with the company's policies, she still appeared to have a problem fitting…
Franken, R.E. (2007). Human Motivation (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Mauro, T. (2002, February). Helping organizations building community: a sense of community at work can make all the difference. T&,D 56(2), 52-7.
McNerney, D. (1996, August). Employee motivation: creating a motivated workforce. HR
Focus, 73(8), 1-4.
Driving Forces Behind Motivation
For some the notion of staying motivated seems unnatural. This is especially the case for healthcare workers, nurses in particular, who face long shifts and inadequate support due to nursing shortages. Healthcare organizations are facing their own crisis as they struggle to recruit qualified nurses then encourage them to remain motivated despite grim circumstances. Given the current healthcare climate, which is demanding and often overburdening, one challenge organizations must face is discovering new ways to motivate staff. But what is motivation and how does an organization motivate an already overworked staff?
For centuries organizations have worked to develop clear and well defined plans for motivating staff. The first challenge organizations must face is understanding what motivation is. Without understanding first what motivation is, it is impossible to motivate workers. Many believe that you are either born with motivation or without. Other myths suggest that workers who…
Atkinson J.W., & Feather N.T. ( 1966). A theory of achievement motivation. New York: Wiley.
Bolton, L. (2005). "Process theories of motivation." Information Technology and Management. Retrieved August 5, 2005: http://opax.swin.edu.au/~388226/howto/it2/mproc.htm
Drillings, M. & O'Neil, H.F. (1994). Motivation: Theory and research. Hillsdale, NJ:
I would agree most with the humanistic approach to understanding human motivation, and in particular, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory. That is primarily because Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs describes five specific levels of human psychological needs, of which three seem directly connected to the ways that people respond to their work environment. In between the first stage of Physiological Needs and the highest stage of Self-Actualization (which is nor necessarily ever reached by many people), are Maslow's Security and Safety Needs, Social Needs, and Esteem Needs (George & Jones, 2008; obins & Judge, 2009).
In the workplace, security and safety relate directly to the transactional nature of work, whereby the financial and more general tangible aspects of security in life depend on the maintenance of gainful employment in return for the monetary compensation and other benefits necessary for the individual to support himself and a…
George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S.P. And Judge, T.A. (2009). Organizational Behavior. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall.
MASLOW'S HEIACHY OF NEEDS
ANALYSIS OF MASLOW'S HIEACHY OF NEEDS
Analysis of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
During the 20th century, dominant psychology theories were Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis and Watson and Skinner's behaviorism theories. In both of these theories, they portrayed human beings as faulty machines. Freud's view saw human beings as being driven entirely by primitive urges like aggression and sex. Therefore, while living together in a civilized society, the ever-present impulses must be managed, and it leaves many people hopelessly conflicted at an unconscious level. The view of the behaviorists sees humans are oversized lab rats - programmed to behave the way they do by factors that are beyond their control. Since people are like programmed machines, they can be manipulated into doing anything. From here, Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) became dismayed by attempts made to reduce human psychology to simple mechanisms. Therefore, he wanted to understand and know what…
Chretien, K. C. & Kind, T. (2014). Climbing Social Media in Medicines Hierarchy of Needs. Academic Medicine, 89(10), 1318-1320.
Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Neuberg, S. L. & Schaller, M. (2010). Renovating The Pyramid of Needs Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5(3), 292-314.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370-396.
Serlin, I. (2011). The History and Future of Humanistic Psychology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 51(4), 428-431.
Motivation in Behavior
a) What does Tolman's theory of animal learning tell us about the motivation for human learning?
Unlike John Watson, B.F. Skinner and the other strict behaviorists, or the ussian physiologists like Ivan Pavlov, Edward C. Tolman argued that the behaviorist theory that learning was a matter of stimulus-response (S-) and positive and negative reinforcement was highly simplistic. Although he rejected introspective methods and metaphysics, he increasingly moved away from strict behaviorism into the areas of cognitive psychology. In short, he became a mentalist without actually using that term to describe himself and concluded that all behavior was "purposive" (Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 428). All of his experiments with rats moving through mazes at the University of Berkeley proved to his satisfaction that behavior was actually the dependent variable, with the environment as the independent variable, with mental processes as intervening variables. Tolman summarized this basic theory, which he…
Leaf, J.B. et al. (2010). "Comparison of Simultaneous Prompting and No-No Prompting in Two-Choice Discrimination Learning with Children with Autism." Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 2 (Summer 2010), pp. 215-28.
Lerner, R.M. (2002). Concepts and Theories of Human Development, (3rd ed.) Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Lund, S.K. (2009). "Discrete Trial Instruction in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention" in E.A. Boutot and M. Tincani (eds). Autism Encyclopedia: The Complete Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders. Prufrock Press, Inc.
Hergenhahn, B.R. (2009). An Introduction to the History of Psychology, (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth
One example of this is shown when explaining why people eat, aside for being a basic need; people eat as a form of interaction or in some instances for entertainment. People are motivated to eat because they enjoy doing it with the company of friends and family. Individuals are motivated to eat for other reasons that may include health consideration in particular. Motivation in this aspect is largely attributed to be an internally driven. Each individual has a different motivation in pursuing a certain goal. This motivation is manifested in the human will or volition; some writers see it as the human spirit. In times of difficulty that a person encounters, it is this internal motivation that surfaces which provides the person added strength to weather the storm. For instance, when the body encounters substantial physical and mental stress, the body secretes adrenaline resulting to a situation wherein the individual…
Beck, Robert. (2000) Motivation: Theories and Principles. New Jersey Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Franken, Robert (1998) Human Motivation. New York: Brooks/Core Publishing Company.
Ford, Martin (1992) Motivating Humans. London: Sage Publications.
Houston, John (1985) Motivation. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
Although his theory is not necessarily incompatible with Maslow and Alderfer's ideas, Herzberg places less emphasis on basic needs, and more upon using higher, internal needs to elicit optimal performance from the individual.
One common objection to theories of human motivation, of course, is that different types of people appear to be motivated by different things. For example, one teacher may choose his or her position because of job security, while another teacher may be more motivated by the idea of changing children's lives. This means that different strategies must be deployed in motivating people within the same organization or within different professions: a salesperson may be motivated by different things than a professor. "According to David McClelland's an individual's specific needs are acquired over time and are shaped by one's life experiences. Most of these needs can be classed as either achievement, affiliation, or power" (McClelland's theory of needs,…
Herzberg's Two-Factor theory. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
McClelland's theory of needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved February 23, 2010.
Experimental Research on Motivation
Among the psychological variables discussed, motivation is the psychological variable that I have the most interest in, primarily because it helps uncover the 'mystery' of why we are drive to successfully accomplish tasks and activities. Motivation is at the center of every individual who makes a decision to commit an action or behavior; it develops within the individual the willingness to commit to change through his/her own actions. Whether or not the motivation was positively generated, motivation remains a key component to understanding the human psyche.
Take as an example weight loss or diet programs. These programs are anchored on the premise that given the correct motivation, individuals can successfully achieve weight loss. Weight programs are driven only by two important factors: the trainer's support to the individual in the program, developing the right motivation in him/her, and the individual's motivation to successfully finish the…
Society also ingrains many values and ideas into its populace, for instance, by gender conditioning. oys are told they should not cry or display feeling while it is okay for a girl to do it. oys are also expected to be tough and aggressive and told from a very young age that they need to be "strong." The worst insult for a little boy generally is that he is acting like a girl. This fact is observed in almost all societies irrespective of geographical location. Parenthood, marital status and involvement in social circles also influence values and attitudes.
Franken defined motivation as a multifaceted phenomenon. (Franken, 1998) He associated motivation as an internal state of need, desire or want that serves to activate or energize behavior as well as to give direction to behavior. Motivation is also defined as a factor that helps people get energized towards attaining a goal…
Ashforth, B., & Humphrey, R. (Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity). 1993. Academy of Management Review, 18(88-115).
Franken, R.E. (1998). Human motivation (4th ed.). vrPacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole Pub. Co.
Gove, W.R. (1994). Why We Do What We Do: a Biopsychosocial Theory of Human Motivation. Social Forces, 73.
Jackson, K.M., Mannix, E.A., Peterson, R.S., & Trochim, W.M.K. (2003). A Multi-faceted Approach to Process Conflict. Paper presented at the IACM 15th Annual Conference.
As a conclusion, in terms of both responsibility and motivation, it is more that obvious that our two characters Iago and Krogstad are involved in destroying a marriage but the effects of their involvement are quite different; while Krogstad, through his blackmail, is motivated by the fact that he wants to spare his children of the miseries of a spoiled reputation and is responsible only for providing the necessary circumstances which will unravel the truth to Nora concerning her false happy marriage, in Iago's case we consider him fully responsible not only for destroying Othello's marriage but also for the death of many people around him, victims of his Machiavellian plans. Questioning his motivation, there isn't any and this exact utter lack of motivation is what makes him Shakespeare's greatness villain.
Katherine E. Monahan Huntley - Storytelling Output Report for a Doll's House " http://www.dramatica.com/story/analyses/analyses/dollshouse.html
Ian Johnston - on…
Katherine E. Monahan Huntley - Storytelling Output Report for a Doll's House " http://www.dramatica.com/story/analyses/analyses/dollshouse.html
Ian Johnston - on Ibsen's a Doll's House " http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/introser/ibsen.htm
Enotes - a Doll's House Text
McGregor makes a similar point where individual ego needs are concerned. Quite certainly, all personnel like to know that their work, efforts and particular skills are being appreciated. McGregor points out that this dimension represents a great priority to man subsequent to having achieved his survival needs and attended to his social requirements. hen these basic imperatives have been satisfied, McGregor makes the point that all individuals will attempt some greater level of personal validation. This, he reports, is to be formed on a combination of personal self-esteem and the validation given thereto by others.
McGregor goes on to argue that especially for those working in the lower tiers of the industrial-organizational hierarchy, positive ego-orientation can be nearly impossible to achieve. He makes the argument -- notably connected to the practices of his era -- that commonly applied methods of production strategy make no acknowledgement of the connection…
McGregor, D.M. (1957) The Human Side of Enterprise. Management Review.
Human Resource Management. It a case study format Academic Essay. Use Harvard style reference list intext reference, Do include bibliography. Number reference: 20 Academic References Detail find upload file.
In today's challenging economic and business environment, managers are often faced with a dilemma regarding the human resource policy that is best applicable. In this particular case study, an important problem is brought forward: what is the optimum dimension of the workforce in an organization? There are several dimensions to this problem that will be discussed in this paper, including the challenges and consequences of having an adequately large workforce, motivational theories that apply to the employees etc.
The premise of the issues described in the case study is simple: in the present time, the economy no longer has a predictable trend. With stagnation and economic recession just passed, the economic and business environment has not truly returned to the levels…
15. Randstad. 2008. The world of work 2008. Rochester, NY: Harris Interactive, Inc.
16. Eaton, S.C. 2003. If you can use them: Flexibility policies, organizational commitment, and perceived performance. Industrial Relations
17. Galinsky, E., Bond, J.T., & Hill, E.J. 2004. When work works: A status report on workplace flexibility. New York: Families and Work Institute.
Employment otivation and Engagement: How to Recruit and Retain Top-Quality Talent in a Competitive arketplace
Because employee performance and productivity are closely aligned with corporate profitability, there has been a great deal of research over the years concerning optimal approaches to motivating people in the workplace. The analysis of what motivates people to perform to their maximum effort, though, has becoming increasingly complex as the result of a growing number of theories concerning the antecedents of motivation and optimal job performance and motivational methods to achieve it. While the debate concerning which motivational approaches produce the best results continues, there is a consensus among organizational behavior researchers that pay ranks among the top factors that include employee motivation, perhaps the overarching factor in most cases. Despite these findings, studies have shown time and again that money talks when it comes to employee motivation. When people become convinced that their efforts…
Murphy, C., Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. & MacCurtain, S. 2006, July 1. Organizational Justice Perceptions and Employee Attitudes among Irish Blue Collar Employees: An Empirical Test of the Main and Moderating Roles of Individualism/Collectivism. Management Revue, 17(3), 329.
In this case one may imagine the student who attending class in school and cannot concentrate on what is being taught because their stomach is rumbling from lack of having eaten and they also have a headache from a general lack of nutrition. Furthermore, this student has no sense of security or safety and is nervous and anxious.
Example 2: The individual in this example is not hungry and they are not tired but they are nervous because their parents fought all night and this resulted in their being awake and scared the neighbors would call the police again and that their parents would wind up in jail by morning. This individual has no inner motivation to learn because they are worried and stressed about their own safety and security in their home life. This individual may very well be extrinsically motivated to learn but have not reached the level…
Soenens, Bart et al. (2005) Maladaptive Perfectionist Self-representation: The mediational link between psychological control and adjustment. Personality and Individual Differences 38 (2005). Online available at Science Direct:
Michalik, Nicole M. et al. (2007) Longitudinal Relations among Parental Emotional Expressivity and Sympathy and Prosocial Behavior in Adolescence. Social Development May 2007 Vol. 16 No.2. Online available at: ttp:/ / www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1949391
Experience Alters How We Perceive Emotion (2002) Science Daily - Science News. 18 Jun 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020618072601.htm
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape from routine and inhibitory factors.
Disinhibition is also strongly related to the conventions of society where the individual may feel hemmed in and confined by the routine and patterns of ordinary life. This can lead to addictive behavior as the use of drugs or substances are motivated by the desire to free one's self and sense of identity and fulfill experiential needs.
The central concept that links al of these motivational theories is that they all can be seen to contribute…
Ammerman, R.T., Ott, P.J., & Tarter, R.E. (Eds.). (1999). Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved December 6, 2007, from Questia database:
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
There are a number of human sides to leadership that are important. Traits like empathy, ability to motivate, listening skills, and relationship-building have all been identified as traits of effective leaders under a number of different leadership styles. Leaders are, after all, responsible for dealing with human beings. The better the leader is able to guide human resources, the more effective the leader will be. Motivation is critical, because leaders often need to build consensus and get buy-in throughout their teams for new initiatives. If leaders are unable to reach their teams, they will be ineffective in their roles.
I especially value motivation because it encapsulates so many other attributes of the human side of leadership. The first is respect. As a leader, you forge relationships with the different people you work with, but these relationships are largely built on professional respect, because there will be times when you…
This paper investigates the issue of motivation as it applies to an organizational setting.
The research regarding motivation in the workplace has been a major area of investigation that is of interest to corporate leaders, managers, organizational psychologists, and educators. The issue that this paper will discuss has to do with the particular factors that managers and leaders can address to increase the motivation of their workers to perform as well as to increase the job satisfaction levels of their employees. However, motivation is only one issue regarding increased productivity or increased job satisfaction; we would certainly think that at a basic level an employee would need a certain level of motivation to perform as well as the ability to actually do the job (as it turns out the research is consistent with this type of common-sense thinking). However, the actual types of interventions/activities that can be used…
Argyris, C. 1993, Knowledge for action: a guide to overcoming barriers to organizational change, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Chien, J.C. 2013,'Examining Herzberg's Two Factor Theory in a large Chinese chemical fiber company' World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, vol. 78, no. 248, pp.1433-1438.
Gneezy, U. And Rustichini, A. 2000, 'Pay enough or don't pay at all', Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 115, no. 3, pp. 791-810.
Hackman, J.R. And Oldham, G.R. 1980, Work redesign. Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, N.J.
Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration
HM technologies are essential towards reduction of the cost of operations as well as an increment in the level of consumer satisfaction hence effective management of the resources and available opportunities. Wal-Mart should focus on the quality and efficient automation of the processes and departments for the purposes of eliminating errors and overhead costs. This is essential through management of the HM technologies such as CM, FID, and EP with the aim of achieving maximum profit levels and revenues at the end of the fiscal year.
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an EP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The ole of Information Systems
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an ERP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The Role of Information Systems
Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes. Journal Of
Human esource Issues in Health Field
The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research on human resources in the health sector Successful realization the mission and goals in this field is determined by the dedication and skills that the specialists possess. This study identifies various issues that often arise and bedevils this field. Current trends relating to technological advancements affecting the success and performance of employees in this field are also identified (Fried, & Johnson, 2002). Therefore, in order to improve service delivery in the health sector and consequently promote a healthy society, it is critical to identify and analyze the various challenges facing human resources in the health sector. This will provide a basis for developing various interventions aimed at dealing with the identified challenges and consequently improving the quality of service delivery in…
American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration. (2012). American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration ... membership directory. Gainesville FL: Naylor.
Fried, B., & Fottler, M.D. (2011). Fundamentals of human resources in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
Fried, B., & Johnson, J.A. (2002). Human resources in healthcare: Managing for success. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press.
Kabene, S.M. (2011). Human resources in healthcare, health informatics and healthcare systems. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.
The first consideration is that employees may be reluctant to reveal their innermost feelings about the company for fear that they will be punished for their responses. For this reason, it is imperative that employees are assured of absolute anonymity. This will also encourage honest answers and be the most likely to result in discovering the root causes of the problem. Employees will be able to respond anonymously by dropping their folded responses into a box by human resources.
Those that feel good about their job may be more eager to respond to a survey than those that are unhappy. A voluntary response would be more likely to result in a biased sample population. It is important that the sample is representative of the entire plant, rather than a small, select group. Therefore, employees will be told that the survey is mandatory. Although, there will be no real way to…
Gibson, S. (2004). Social Learning (Cognitive) Theory and Implications for Human Resource Development. Advances in Developing Human Resources. 6 (2): 193-210.
Manta Company Intelligence.(2008)Cardington Yutaka Technologies, Inc. (CYT). Retrieved May 28, 2008 at http://www.manta.com/comsite5/bin/manta_tt_page.pl?page=uecp_help_sidebar&mf=coms2/dnbcompany_cc305sq
Zimmerman, M. (2007). Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic value. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 28, 2008 at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/value-intrinsic-extrinsic
Modern business has now fully integrated computer technology and Internet connectivity within the professional business environment, but has been comparatively slow to adapt the new reality that many professional business functions are fully capable of being conducted from the home, for at least some significant portion of the typical office employee's work week.
Is it possible to increase employee motivation by providing increased employee input into factors that normally are not subject to employee preference in the professional business environment? Specifically:
To what extent would greater autonomy and individual choice of work shift hours and structure (length of shift, work hours, etc.) improve employee motivation while at work?
To what extent would the opportunity to work from home improve employee satisfaction and therefore, motivation at work?
To what extent is the prospect of improving employee motivation through implementation of greater autonomy in relation to work shift structure and…
Human esource Management
Two Motivation Strategies
Motivating Minimum Wage Service Workers
The Importance of the Individual
Individual Work to Teamwork
Employers will usually want to maximize the productivity of their employees. Different employers may use different strategies to support and improve productivity. It has been demonstrated by a number of theorists, such as Mayo, Maslow, and Herzberg, that one of the most effective ways of improving employee performance is through the use of motivational strategies (Tohidi, 2011). The aim of this paper is to look at the development of a motivational plan, identify two potential motivational strategies and consider the way that a minimum wage worker may be motivated.
A good motivational plan may allow the employer to motivate employees by supporting high levels of jib satisfaction, which will support positive behavioral traits, including low turnover, high produced and high quality work. For employees…
Cook, Sarah, (2008), The Essential Guide to Employee Engagement: Better Business Performance Through Staff Satisfaction, Kogan Page Publishers
Danish, Rizwan Qaiser; Usman, Ali, (2010), Impact of Reward and Recognition on Job Satisfaction and Motivation: An Empirical Study from Pakistan, International Journal of Business & Management, 5(2), 159-167
Mone, E. M; London, M. (2010), Employee engagement through effective performance management: A practical guide for managers, New York, Routledge.
Tohidi, H, (2011), Teamwork productivity & effectiveness in an organization base on rewards, leadership, training, goals, wage, size, motivation, measurement and information technology, Procedia Computer Science, 3, 1137-1146
Motivation, Stress, And Communication
Ford motor is a global company dealing with the manufacture of vehicles. It has several offices/manufacturing plants in most parts of the world. For the company to run smoothly and efficiently, its operations are divided into several department headed by several departmental managers. One of the departments am in charge is the Supply Chain Systems Sales department a position I filled as the head of department.
A Supply Chain System Sales Operations Manager is in charge of two broad roles. One of roles concerns supplies while the other deals with sales of their locomotives. These two roles are interlinked in a way that the person in charge must ensures that their sales offices are supplied by their products (vehicles) for sales and shipping of new vehicles to other customers or to their sales offices in countries ford motors has no factory. Sales are an interactive kind…
Champoux, J. (2010). Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations: Taylor and Francis.
Locke, E.A., & Latham, G.P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American Psychologist, 57, 705-717.
Oldham, G.R., & Hackman, J.R. (2010). Not what it was and not what it will be: The future of job design research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 463-479.
Motivation at Work Application
In the case study, Making of Hotplates, Workers seems to be having jobs which are extremely specialized. Each task is balanced for three minutes per each station making the work to be extremely monotonous to the workers making them to become unhappy, Because of unhappiness of workers at the workplace; these would have resulted in poor morale as well as low motivation. Motivation in the workplace is a form of force that makes the employees to do things which will result to high production by having an inspiration of completing the tasks allocated. When there is motivation in organization, the employees try to put more effort to increase the output standard (Whiteley, 2002). This paper analyzes the importance of motivation to the workers in the workplace and problems that result when there is low motivation.
Changes in the workplace accounting for increase in productivity and decrease…
Rush, H.M. (2008). Job design for motivation; [experiments in job enlargement and job enrichment,. New York: Conference Board.
Stack, L. (2010). Super competent the six keys to perform at your productive best. New York:
Whiteley, P. (2002). Motivation. London: Capstone Pub.
Human esource Management Practice
Certain combinations of human resource management practices lead to superior outcomes for organizations. The H combination department is at the heart of organizational performance, productivity, turnover, profits, and market value outcomes. Employees are considered a source of non-duplicable and sustainable competitive advantage. By using the combinations in capabilities, resources, relationships and decisions presented by employees, organizations strategically position themselves thus avoiding threats and maximizing opportunities. Organizations and H combinations managers aim to generate strategic capacity by ensuring that an organization acquires a skilled, committed and motivated workforce. Integration of H combinations issues, organization performance and H management systems in organizational strategic processes serve as a solution to business problems. The need to create and manage capabilities and skills and align such capabilities to organizational performance and future needs drives Human esource Management. As such, the H department plays a greater role in planning and implementing a…
Alipour, M., Salehi, M., & Shahnavaz, A. (2009). A study on-the-job training effectiveness: Empirical evidence of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management, 4 (11), 63-68.
Boxall, P., & Macky, K. (2009). Research and theory on high performance work systems: Progressing the high involvement stream. Human Resource Management Journal, 19, 3-23.
Harris, C.M., McMahan, C.G., & Wright, P.M. (2012). Talent and time together: the impact of human capital and overlapping tenure on unit performance. Personal Review, 41(4), 408-427.
Martin-Alcazar, F., Romero-Fernandez, P.M., & Gardey, G.S. (2005). Strategic human resource management: Integrating the universalistic, contingent, configutational and contextual perspectives. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 15 (5), 633-659
Motivation grows out of the awareness that someone gave the time and effort to notice one's achievement (Klaff).
Recent strikes against continuously rising health care costs have strained all employers and labor and employee relations. Employers have been trying to reduce double-digit cost increases by modifying health-care plans, which shift the expense to employees, by raising premiums for family members to providing alternatives (Klaff 2003). Health care costs have been nightmarish to companies and led to strikes, which have left more and more Americans without health coverage at all. Although some manage to come, the system itself appears headed to a collapse before any reform can be put in place (Klaff)
In their rabid search for answers, employers revaluate the traditional way of providing health coverage, but experts think that these companies or employers must first discover where the costs are coming from (Klaff 2003). A study conducted by PricewaterhouseCoopers…
Cohen, D.J. (2003). Knowledge Development in Human Resource Management. HR Magazine. Society for Human Resource Management. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_1_48/ai_96453615
Feeney, SA. (2003). The Battle Over Benefits. Workforce Management, pp 20-33. Crain Communications, Inc. http://www.workforce.com
Hansen, F. (2003). The Cutting Edge of Benefit Cost Control. Workforce, pp 36-42. Crain Communications, Inc.
The success, performance, as well as development of an employee are influenced by motivation. There are numerous methods and theories on motivation. McClelland, for instance, in his theory expresses that each employee has specific needs acquired over time based on life's experiences. His theory summarized the needs of people into achievement, power, and affiliation. Different employees get motivated in varying manners therefore a manager should not rely on one motivation technique to serve the entire workforce. This paper will address three motivational methods, and how they would be applied in the workplace.
One motivational method that would reap numerous benefits from the employees and commonly applied in most organizations is rewards. Everyone is familiar with the use of rewards as a motivator since as early as preschool and daycare, rewards such as sticker chart and snacks were given for good behavior. Even later in life rewards still appeal…
Atchison, T.A. (2003). Exposing the myths of employee satisfaction. Healthcare executive. 17(3), pp. 20.
Cummings, L.L., & Elsalmi, A.M. (1968). Empirical research on the bases and correlates of managerial motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 70, pp.127 -- 144.
At which point, managers must be able to challenge them on an intellectual level. In many ways, one could argue that the most successful organizations will address these basic needs and will then find a way to continually challenge their employees (at the levels of self-actualization).
Incentives Offered to Employees to keep them Motivated
There are a number of different ways that executives can motivate employees the most obvious is: addressing the basic needs of everyone. Where, employers have to offer benefits that will go above and beyond their competition to include: having generous health insurance, increasing flexibility in how employees plan their schedules, the ability for the staff to prepare for retirement and those little extras that can improve the work environment (such as: health club benefits, employees discounts, company parties along with child care). These different elements are important, because they will address the basic needs of employees.…
Benefits. (2010). Google. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com/international/en/jobs/lifeatgoogle/benefits/index.html#bbb
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. (2010). Net MBA. Retrieved from: http://www.netmba.com/mgmt/ob/motivation/maslow/
Bruce, A. (2006). How to Motivate Every Employee. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Kurtus, R. (2001). Basic Principals of Total Quality Management. School for Champions. Retrieved from: ( http://www.school-for-champions.com/tqm/principles.htm
Another valuable lesson is pegged to the necessity to select and hire the most suitable staff members. Then, the equal employment rights stimulate the researcher to adopt a more open view of cultural diversity in the workplace. Additionally, as a future application, it would even be important to remember that people of different backgrounds have different skills and abilities. Instead of striving to standardize them, the players in the workplace community should try to capitalize more on the points of difference offered by culturally diverse staff members, such as their increased ability to communicate with culturally diverse customers.
5. Impact of the Study on Career and Personal Life
It is yet uncertain as to how the personal career of the researcher would be impacted by the findings of the study. What is however known with certainty is that the baggage of HM knowledge of the researcher has significantly increased. Within…
Heathfield, S.M., What is human resource development (HRD)? About, http://humanresources.about.com/od/glossaryh/f/hr_development.htm last accessed on July 02, 2010
McNamara, C., Employee benefits and compensation, Management Help, http://managementhelp.org/pay_ben/pay_ben.htm last accessed on July 02, 2010
2007, Health and safety, HRM Guide, http://www.hrmguide.co.uk/employee_relations/health-and-safety.htm last accessed on July 02, 2010
Equal employment opportunities, Liverpool City Council, http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/reports/hrm10.html last accessed on June 30, 2010
Motivation for Career Change
Over time, the manner in which different people define success tends to change, and this has certainly been the case with me. Despite the challenges that are involved, I have become highly motivated to make a change in my career that will help fulfill my revised definition of personal and professional success. In this regard, for the past several years, I have been studying clinical medicine and successfully completed my bachelor's degree at Yunyang Medical College in this program of study in mid-2008. Following the completion of my bachelor's degree at Yunyang Medical College, I was employed as an intern at the Weifang Maternal and Child Health Hospital where I gained valuable practical experience in hospital paper-based and computerized administration as well as various treatment protocols. While I found these healthcare experiences to be illuminating and fulfilling, there was something missing. As a result, I came…
Human esource Management is a practice of managing human skills, capacities and talents, to ensure their effective usage in the attainment of organizational goals, objectives and overall competitiveness (Youssef, 2012). Every Human esource manager performs various functions of recruiting, hiring, selecting and training competent employees. In addition, the manager offers competitive compensation and benefits packages, which attract, motivate and retain qualified employees. However, it is the function of the Personnel manager to devise ways, which will increase the employee effectiveness in performing the jobs. These ways include training, offering education and developing the capacities of the employees. As a result, there is an improvement of the employee contribution towards the attainment of organizational effectiveness and efficiency.
Effective management of employees' productivity is a crucial element in attaining organizational success (Youssef, 2012). High levels of productivity enable the organization to offer high compensation and benefits packages, which do not affect its…
Edwards, P. (2003). Industrial Relations: Theory and Practice. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.
Kreitner, R. (2009). Management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.
Sims, R.R. (2007). Human resource management: Contemporary issues, challenges and opportunities. Greenwich, Conn: Information Age Publ.
Youssef, C. (2012). Human resource management. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education.
Human esource Management
Although there have been many recent developments in the area of human resources and their management, the concept of managing people in the workplace is not a new one. In fact, according to Ogunyomi, Shadare, and Chidi (2011, p.19-20), the concept has evolved over more than a century, starting with the concept of scientific management created and promoted by Frederick Winslow Taylor at the turn of the 20th century during the height of the Industrial evolution. Since the world of business was dynamic, even from the start of large-scale business and organization, the concept of human resource management has also evolved over time to respond to the dynamic business world.
Today, human resource management is an integral part of any company's business strategy. It ensures not only effective recruitment and retention, but also the effective functioning of the company in general, and its adaptability to a dynamic…
Chan, A. (2004, Dec. 28). The Challenges of Human Resource Management. Retrieved from: http://www.webpronews.com/the-challenges-of-human-resource-management-2004-12
The Daily Recruiter (2011, Jan. 3). Emerging Trends of Talent Management and Challenges of HRM. Retrieved from: http://www.thedailyrecruiter.com/the-daily-recruiter-blog/emerging-trends-f-talent-management-nd-challenges-f-hrm.html
Du Plessis, A.J., Beaver, B., and Nel, P.S. (2006, Spring). Closing the Gap Between Current Capabilities and future Requirements in Human Resource Management in New Zealand: Some Empirical Evidence. Journal of Global Business and Technology. Vol. 2, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.gbata.com/docs/jgbat/v2n1/v2n1p4.pdf
Garg, A., Sharma, A. And Pandey, M.R. (2010, July-Dec.). Emerging Trends of Human Resource Management (With Special Focus on Information Technology Industry). Lachoo Management Journal, Vol. 1. Retrieved from: http://www.lachoomemorial.org/lmj/vol1/lmj8.pdf
Human resource managers must help their companies become more sensitive to the issues of sexism, religion, sexual orientation, marital and family status, age, and other life experiences.
The economic position of most companies has shifted drastically in the past decade. One of the strongest forces influencing the way we do business is the phenomenon of globalization, a process in which companies in countries around the world are increasingly linked. A difficult challenge for humane resource managers is developing a system that works in their home countries as well as abroad, where circumstances of life and expectations of employees are often vastly different. The human resources manager must understand thoroughly not only the culture of employment at home but also the intricate rules and culture in all of the other places in which they have employees.
The technological world moves fast, and human resources managers must keep up. The simple fact…
Human esource Management
Using the example of Google, evaluate whether the following H practices/policies is strategic or not. Does this H practice help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives?
In this paper, we are going to be looking at the impact of different policies and procedures on Google. This will be accomplished by studying the strategies that they are using to attract and retain employees. Once this takes place, is when we can show how these ideas have helped the firm to transform the company.
Over the last several years, the issue of employee compensation has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because globalization is having a dramatic impact upon firm, as they need specialized employees to deal with a host of challenges. Those firms that are able to dominate the industry are able to attract the best talent. This helps to give them a competitive…
100 Companies to Work For, 2012. CNN. Available from: [10 May 2012].
Benefits, 2012, Google. Available from:
Human esources Contribution to Competitive Advantage
The human resources department has many opportunities to provide an organization with a competitive advantage. Firms recognizing that human resources can perform beyond simply administering benefits and filing employment documents, but can also play an integral role in shaping corporate culture into a highly productive machine, will experience significant bottom line gains. From quality recruitment, increased employee retention, and diversity, to heightened customer satisfaction and effective job training programs, the human resources department serves as the pulse of leading corporations.
Since the United States has shifted away from manufacturing and is now primarily service-driven, the collective brainpower of an organization is one of the most crucial assets. The human resources department is responsible for recruiting talented individuals who can offer the most value to the organization. Attracting educated, experienced staff members can provide an organization with the knowledge base needed to achieve…
Gaining competitive advantage through human resource management. (2005, March 1). Center for Digital Strategies at the Tuck School of Business. Retrieved from www.tuck.dartmouth.edu/cds-uploads/publications/pdf/Round_Overview_GainCompAdv.pdf
Jayne, R.L. (2006, August 14). Knowledge worker: Human resource strategy to achieve a competitive advantage. (Doctoral dissertation, St. Ambrose University). Retrieved from www.midwestacademy.org/Proceedings/2006/papers/paper9.pdf
Ulrich, D. & Brockbank, W. (2005, June 20). HR's new mandate: Be a strategic player. Harvard Business School. Working Knowledge for Business Leader. Retrieved from http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4861.html
These performance appraisals are usually given to employees by managers. Such appraisals occur once or twice per year, depending upon the industry and the position of the employee. In some cases, performance appraisals are carried out by colleagues. egardless of how feedback is given most organizations recognize it as a legitimate and productive way to judge performance and present employees with ways to improve job performance.
Examples of Employee motivation
According to Neff (2002) the ability to motivate employees is an essential component in creating an organization that is successful. The author points out that the most successful organizations in the world are always succeeding in making certain that job satisfaction and motivation are primary priorities. These organizations have realized that employees who are motivated are also more productive and therefore improve the bottom line. Greater productivity usually leads to greater job satisfaction and ultimately greater customer satisfaction. The author…
Brief, a.P., & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational Behavior: Affect in the Workplace. 279+.
Cameron, J., & Pierce, W.D. (2002). Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation: Resolving the Controversy. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Kermally, S. (2005). Gurus on Managing People. London: Thorogood.
London, M. (2003). Job Feedback: Giving, Seeking, and Using Feedback for Performance Improvement. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
According to Nolan (2010), the right incentive program can help with this process.
Nolan (2010) reports that a motivated and goal-oriented staff is essential to any optometric practice, since staff / patient interaction accounts for about 70% of the patient's total time in the office. If the staff is not content, patients will not be treated appropriately and will look for eye-care services someplace else. Also, the cost of finding and training new staff members is much more costly than ongoing training and retaining activities. In addition, staff productivity significantly influences a practice's volume. Nolan (2010) therefore recommends a three-part incentive process: The first is to set annual financial goals for the practice, or else the staff will not be motivated to achieve them. In the fourth quarter, establish specific goals in attracting new patients and retaining present ones, revenue-per-patient, eye-wear sales and cash receipts. Second is to schedule a…
Gatlin, R (July 1, 1997) How to effectively reward employees. Industrial Management, 1-4.
Nolan, B. (2005) Reward your staff to build your practice: by setting financial goals for your practice, scheduling productive staff meetings and offering staff-incentive programs, you'll retain your current employees and grow financially. Review of Optometry 142(12) 36+.
Opperman, M. (2007) Give your team a cut: by offering quarterly bonuses based on employee performance, you give your team a strong incentive to succeed -- and help your practice thrive. Veterinary Economics 48(3), 49+.
Schrag, R.L. May I Speak Frankly. Retrieved March 10, 2010. http://mayispeakfrankly.blogspot.com/
The vertical differentiations are associated with the components of abstraction that permit individuals to determine both their intentions and their behaviors. The horizontal differentiation is associated with different intentions including the completion of the project.
Tubbs and Eckeberg (1991) assert that understanding the intentional model has implications associated with understanding the effects of goal setting. The authors argue that the intentional behavior model explains the cognitive effects of goals which is rarely seen in research pertaining to work motivation. The authors posit that the research is important because it is the first time that research has sought to determine the impact that goals have on people.
Finally Latham and Pinder (2005) discuss Work Motivation Theory and research at the dawn of the twenty-first century. The author point out that interest in motivational theories has not waned since they first begin to surface. According to the authors, work motivation represents a…
Klein J.I. (1990) Feasibility Theory: A Resource Munificence Model of Work motivation and Behavior. Academy of Management Review. 15 (4) pgs. 646-645.
Latham G.P., Pinder, C.C. (2005) Work Motivation Theory and Research at the Dawn of the Twenty-First Century. Annual Review of Pyschology. 56: 485-516.
Tubbs M.E., Eckeberg S.E. (1991) Academy of Management Review. 15(1) pgs. 180-199.
The theory of motivation has as many various meanings as there are its function and intended the desired outcome for that mater. Motivation can be defined as a psychological element that prompts an organism into deeds focused on a set target or goal. Motivation is said to be the reason driving the action, or that which attaches direction, control and behavior to behavior of an individual (Word Net (2011).
It is considered the as the aspect that prompts, directs and sustains or maintains the target/goal oriented behavior of human beings. In the study of motor response and receptors, motivation is taken as what causes an organism to act or react, be it stepping off a thorn or streaming for the river by the animals to quench their thirst.
Motivation covers a wide range of disciplines from the cognitive, social and the biological drives that initiate behavior. In the day-to-day…
About.com, (2011). What Is Motivation? Retrieved March 18, 2011 from http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/motivation-definition.htm
Word Net, (2011). Definitions of motivation on the Web. Retrieved March 18, 2011 from wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webw
By experiencing and discussing each point of the theoretical aspects, I did get to know myself better and see both positive and negative sides of my personality. For instance, while discussing Freud's theories, I managed to explain certain emotional manifestations which, up to a point, were not entirely clear. Furthermore, discussions on matters such as child and life span development improved my perception on family relationships and inter-human communication.
A part of the importance of such courses is to better prepare us for the challenges one has to face throughout his lifetime. Although the experiences accumulated in academic preparation do not necessarily ensure a less troublesome road in life, they do offer additional support. Nonetheless, it is vital to create the proper theoretical background which will guide your actions in every situation. For me, the discussions relating to the stress, the pressure and the social tensions existing today have helped…
Boeree, C.G Personality theories. Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html
Buresch, T., Eiben, a.E., Nitschke, G., Schut, M.C. Effects of evolutionary and lifetime learning on minds and bodies in an artificial society. Free University Amsterdam. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/2005_cec.pdf#search=%22life%20time%20learning%20importance%22
Conditioning and learning. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://psych.fullerton.edu/rlippa/Psych101/outline2.htm
Knowles, M.S. (1962) a History of the adult education movement in the U.S.A., New York: Krieger.
Motivations in Company
To maximize productivity and employee job satisfaction, the heads of companies must provide some kind of monetary motivation for their employees. Often this motivation takes the form of such things as gift certificates, free food, stock shares, and cash bonuses. To ascertain the specific ways the company our group is investigating rewards and motivates its employees, I interviewed Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner; and Michael Donnelly, the Head of HR. Both men indicated the importance of monetary motivation for their employees and outline the specific ways their company provides it. They also offered their personal philosophy regarding employee monetary motivation. I concluded that for the company in question, financial rewards can effectively motivate employees and helps to create company loyalty and a sense of community within the corporation.
Jeremi Karnell, the CMO and founding partner, informed me that the company as a horizontal structure with…
When staff was asked for the reasons why they were quitting one of the responses was that EL's crisis management style was insufficient, better opportunities for career advancement, and that the "chain of command" was also great reason for unrest within the organization. These are all additional reasons that can lead to a lack of motivation in an organization; if an employee feels that there is no one to turn to, that there are no opportunities for advancement, and that the hierarchy does not communicate with them will give the employee reasons to be unsatisfied.
Additional problems in an organization that may be reasons for motivational problems found in EL include the inability of employees to see the finished product. Each department has their job, once their job has been completed, it is possible that the project is then transferred to another building to have other aspects of the project…
Every person who had performed well and met the deadlines was offered a cash bonus at the end of six-month period when performance appraisals were done. However I realized that Sarah was not motivated by this cash reward. She had one child who went to kindergarten and her husband earned well. his meant she needed something other than money to motivate her. his was indeed a challenge since I had no idea how to discover her needs which could enhance her performance and inspire her to meet deadlines.
he first stage was to determine if the job actually suited her aptitude. I spoke to her personally and asked her if she really liked her job. But this was done in a candid manner so she wouldn't know what the real issue was. Sarah talked eagerly about her work and her ideas about the next month's magazine. Studying her resume, I…
This was a very interesting and enlightening survey. I spoke to Sarah and we discussed her various options. I told her that as long as she promised to meet her deadlines, I could allow her to work from home on Tuesdays and Thursdays and she could leave around 1 p.m. provided she guaranteed timely delivery of the work assigned to her. Needless to say, Sarah was thrilled. This is the last time we ever had a problem with her deadline issue. The new reward program motivated her so much that she was putting in extra effort to get everything done on job. The company had no problem with her new schedule and I was finally convinced that a happy employee is a company's best resource.
Ken Smith, Great minds in Management. Oxford University Press, 2005
Human esource Management
Companies will usually downsize in order to reduce costs, especially where a firm is making losses, or to streamline the organizational structure, which may improve efficiency. The downside of downsizing is that there is no guarantee of success, and in the downsizing process the firm may lose resources that would have been useful, including human knowledge as well as capacity which may be a negative influence a firm. One strategy often used is outsourcing, this may cut costs, or allow for access to specialist services at a lower costs that internal provision. However, outsourcing also has disadvantages including loss of control over timing and quality, costs may increase, there may also be risks in terms commercial confidentiality.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs hypothesizes that there is a pyramid of needs with individuals moving up and down over different points in their life (Torrington…
Forsyth, D.R. (2010), Group Dynamics, Belmont, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning
Torrington, Derek; Taylor, Stephen; Hall, Laura; Atkinson, Carol, (2011), Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall
Frank and Taylor (2004) warn that motivating employees is highly dependent on their specific wants and needs. An accounting firm that mostly hires conservative, serious-minded employees who value efficiency above all else are not likely to be motivated by the offer of a life coach or a concierge. They would probably be much more motivated by a good 401k plan. However, that does not mean that all types of organizations cannot get creative with their benefits.
The key is to creating an effective and creative employee benefit strategy is talk to the employees and find out what they really want. According to Gajewski (2005) it is critically important to modify "the corporate culture to balance employee needs and desires with organizational objectives" (p. 4). Therefore, if companies can change the corporate culture in such as way that satisfies both management and employees, then they would be remiss not to do…
Alsop, R. (2008) The 'Trophy Kids' go to work. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB122455219391652725.html
Are They Really Ready To Work? Employers Perspective On The Basic Knowledge And Applied Skills Of New Entrant To The 21st Century U.S. Workforce. 2006. Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/FINAL_REPORT_PDF09-29-06.pdf
Avery, D.R., & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice: An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personnel Psychology, 59, 157-187.
Birdi, K., Clegg, C.W., Patterson, M.A., Robinson, A., Stride, C.B., Wall, T.D., & Wood, S.J. (2008). The impact of human resource and operational management practices on company productivity: A longitudinal study. Personnel Psychology, 61, 467-501.
"(O'Callaghan and Smits, nd) it is stated that estimations of the Gartner Group is that the majority of the data in organizations (75-80%) is in this state of unstructured format and is generally not easily located when it is needed by the organization.
O'Callaghan and Smits (nd) state that organizations tend to "maintain and variety of systems and databases in a complex ad-hoc architecture that does not seem to fulfill the needs for company-wide unstructured information in business processes, business functions and the extended enterprise." (O'Callaghan and Smits, nd) it is stated that document management (DM) systems focus on the organization and accessibility of files and contain the following parts in the DM system:
a) File storage;
b) File categorization;
d) Collaboration services;
e) Workflow services;
f) Versioning services; and g) Access services. (O'Callaghan and Smits, nd)
2) Organizations should not fail in implementation of 'Enterprise Content Management'…
egarding Manpower Planning, ichard had cut staff levels to the point where the departments themselves were being compromised. However, it should be noted that this was being done by ichard due to his own unsavory goals and plans, but at any rate, ichard's actions make an important point. When manpower levels are cut to unsafe levels, for whatever the reason, disaster is likely to follow.
Employee Motivation was crushed by ichard both by his policies and his actions. When he cut staff levels as was mentioned before, those who remained in the staff were displeased at being forced into assuming more work volume, suspicious of ichard's motivations in slashing the staff levels, and left to fear for their own positions. Beyond this, once it was apparent that there were ulterior motives for ichard to be doing what he was doing, the staff members became more and more disillusioned with the…
In the 21st century, American, European, and Asian trans-national corporations (e.g., General Motors; Toyota; Coca Cola; IBM; Nestle, etc., build plants in Mexico and Latin America, where indigenous labor is cheaper than American labor. Meanwhile, tens of thousands of poor Mexican citizens living in poverty struggle to sneak across the borders of the United States, into California, Arizona, Texas, or New Mexico, in hope of finding better lives by working for American dollars, instead of Mexican pesos.
All in all, European colonialism, an outgrowth and direct result of acquisitive worldwide European exploration and expansion, from the time of the Spanish conquistadores through the Enlightenment Period; through the Industrial Revolution and beyond, has done more harm than good within both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa. For the most part, within these regions, colonialism (and/or its long-lasting after-effects) brought disease; poverty, and much cultural coercion to those areas. Natural resources were stolen;…
Bradshaw, Michael et al. Contemporary World Regional Geography: Global
Connections, Local Voices. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
Diamond, Jared. Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. New York: Norton, 1999.
Human esource Management Methods
What are the author's main points?
The paper discusses Christopher Tomlins' The State and Unions: Labor elations, and the Organized Labor Movement in America as well as Jean-Christian Vinel's The Employee in relation to the different advances and progresses that have transpired in the past 25 years. The main point presented by Hurd, the author, is that the deterioration of labor unions in terms of marginal protections offered under present law labor law and regulations seems to be in tandem with Tomlins' proposition that the New Deal solely offered a counterfeit liberty to labor. Hurd asserts that the deteriorating aspects of labor demonstrate an indication of rigidity amongst institutions and internal weakness because of external limitations and restrictions. This is owing to poor policies as well as the limitations of the labor law.
Do the arguments presented by the author support the main point? What evidence…
Bryson, A., & Wilkinson, D. (2001). Collective bargaining and workplace performance: An investigation using the Workplace Employee Relations Survey 1998 (Vol. 12, No. 01/122). Department of Trade and Industry.
Hurd, R. W. (2013). Moving beyond the critical synthesis: does the law preclude a future for US unions? Labor History, 54(2), 193-200.
Spangler, B. (2003). Integrative or interest-based bargaining. Beyond Intractability.
Tomlins, C. L. (1985). The State and Unions: Labor Relations, and the Organized Labor Movement in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
As the company grew, she hired managers and put them in positions to handle operations, accounting and sales. Although these managers had those titles, it looked to me like they had little communication from the top.
When I joined, the company was having problems fulfilling orders. The purchasing people worked primarily with East Asian suppliers with a long supply chain. They had a lot of problems lining up shipments and getting our retailers what they needed. They seemed to get little help from the top.
Our warehouse was also a mess. We had three different kinds of software, and our Warehouse Manager seemed unable or unwilling to make them talk to one another. When I worked in the warehouse, no one gave me any training: I was hired in the afternoon, and started the next morning. The supervisor asked me to tag along with another employee, who took me to…
Gutteridge, T.L. (1993). A new look at organizational career development. Human Resource Planning, 71-79.
HBS. (2007). Executive Education. Retrieved December 4, 2007, from Harvard Business School: http://www.exed.hbs.edu/programs/finder.html?level=Executive+Leader&topic=Owner-Managed&type=&month=
Keough, M. a. (1992). The CEO as Organization Designer. McKinsey Quarterly, 3-10.
Sims, R. (1990). An Experiential Learning Approach to Employee Training Systems. Westport: Quorum.
Human esource Management
Human esource Training
esponsibility for Choosing the Training Method
Training and Fulfillment of Individual Employee Needs
Link between Training Need Identification and Training Evaluation
Training and development of the employees is a broader strategic objective of the human resource department. It is an essential function of the human resource department because by effectively enhancing the skills, abilities and knowledge of the employees the organizations can gain a competitive edge over their competitors. (Arthur and Bennett, 2013, pp. 234-245)
This report aims at identifying the ways in which an organization can develop an effective training program. It puts light on the fact that the management and employees shall jointly share the responsibility of selective effective training tools and programs. It also indicates that apart from benefitting the organization, training also assists the employees in fulfilling their individual needs.
In addition to that, this report also highlights the link…
Arthur, W. And Bennett, W. 2013. Effectiveness of Training in Organizations: A Meta-Analysis of Design and Evaluation Features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (2), pp. 234-245. Available at: http://www.ispi.org/archives/resources/EffectivenessofTrainingArthur_etal.pdf [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Brown, J. 2005. Training Needs Assessment. Alexandria: International Public Management Association for Human Resources. pp. 7-20. http://ipma-hr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/hrcenter/Training%20Needs%20Assessment/cpr_needs.pdf [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Brum, S. 2007. What Impact Does Training Have On Employee Commitment And Employee Turnover?. Kingston: University of Rhode Island. pp. 1-11. http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/research/papers/Brum-Commitment.pdf [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Community Foundations Of Canada. 2013. Implementing an Employee Training & Development Program | Learning, Training & Development | HR Toolkit | hrcouncil.ca. [online] Available at: http://hrcouncil.ca/hr-toolkit/learning-implementing.cfm [Accessed: 14 Dec 2013].
Human esource Management
The latest issue to discuss in the human resource management field is about unequal job opportunities available for women in the organization, or we can say that discrimination shown towards women in the organizations. This issue has been discussed and worked upon by UNO and various governmental and non-governmental organizations. However, even through governmental efforts these measures do not resolve the issue because it has to be addressed at the organizational level. The consequences of discrimination is not merely not giving jobs to someone but rather eventually it affects the overall employment scenario.
DISCIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF GENDE:
Various discriminations shown towards women can be explained by analyzing each human resource management theory separately.
Wages and salaries is the award given for the mental and physical work done by a person in an organization over a period of time. Most of the time the…
Kabira, Wanjiku Mukabi, ed|Masinjila, Masheti|Muthoni, Wanjira, ed, Road to Empowerment [Part 10 of 10]., Contemporary Women's Issues Database, 01-01-1994, pp 88-103.
Wilkinson, Doris Y., Gender and Racial Inequality at Work: The Sources and Consequences ofJob Segregation.(book reviews). Vol. 75, Social Forces, 03-01-1997, pp 1133(2).
Richard R. Nelson, State labor legislation enacted in 1998. Vol. 122 n, Monthly Labor Review, 01-01-1999.
human resources management Conduct a series specific case studies companies, countries, approach issue human resource management development. Specific comparative analysis made practices U.S. countries.
Human resource management -- the case of McDonald's and Wal-Mart's HM practices in Europe, Asia and the United States of America
The role of human resources management has changed dramatically throughout the past recent decades. Once the people operating the machineries and blindly implementing the decisions made by the managers, the employees have gradually metamorphosed into the most valuable organizational assets. They are the ones who put together their knowledge to create intellectual capital and support the employers in attaining their objectives.
The modern day staff members create value for the organization and represent it in all aspects of the business dimensions and the interactions with other categories of stakeholders -- customers, business partners, the general public, governmental and non-governmental institutions and so on. And this…
Aras, G., Crowther, D., 2010, A handbook of corporate governance and social responsibility, Gower Publishing Ltd.
Berrone, P., Global compensation. Foundations and perspectives, IESE Business School, http://iese.academia.edu/berrone/Books/101418/Global_compensation._Foundations_and_perspectives last accessed on November 24, 2011
Dessler, G., Expanding into China? What foreign employers should know about human resource management in China today, All Business, http://www.allbusiness.com/management/3967622-1.html last accessed on November 24, 2011
Hawkins, G., 2004, How to find work that works for people with Asperger syndrome: the ultimate guide for getting people with Asperger syndrome into the workplace (and keeping them there!), Jessica Kingsley Publishers
Human Resources as Critical Investments
IN AN ORGANIZATION'S FUTURE
The purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not the human resources (HR) within an organization should be used as critical investments. To support this exploration, the terms "human capital," "human assets" and "intellectual capital" will be discussed, on the merits of each specific term as well as in relation to one another. Finally a conclusion will be drawn that determines if human resources should be viewed as any or all of the above terms, and if HR managers should utilize them as critical investments in an organization's future.
To begin, the overarching term "human resources management (HRM)" must be understood. HRM essentially is an all-encompassing term that refers to how an organization's human resources are used to achieve the organization's overall objectives or strategic directions. HRM includes a continuum of activities that can be compartmentalized into seven categories:…
Boone, Christophe, Arjen van Witteloostuijn. Industry Competition and Firm Human Capital. Small Business Economics. 1996. Vol. 8. Pp. 347-364.
Boudreau, John, Peter Ramstad. Measuring Intellectual Capital: Learning From Financial History. Human Resource Management. Fall, 1997. Vol. 36, No. 3. Pp. 343-356.
Bradley, Keith. Measuring Return on Human Assets in Companies. Feb., 1993. London School of Economics, Business Performance Group.
Motivation in the Workplace
My needs are being satisfied by a combination of being provided with the opportunity to do something that I am particularly fond of and being given a satisfactory sum of money for the respective activity. My life has largely been based on a trial-and-error system in which I came across a series of experiences and gradually filtered them until I was satisfied with my condition.
My first jobs involved enthusiastic managers who seemed to believe that bonuses are one of the most effective methods to motivate employees. As a consequence, they were inclined to encourage employees to do everything in their power in order to finish their projects earlier. Profits are obviously one of the most important things in a business and managers are thus sometimes inclined to believe that by providing employees with appealing bonuses they are more likely to make the business as a…
This virtually means that the international community could soon observe mutations in the type and nature of the outsourced processes.
In general terms, companies are looking to outsource growing numbers of more complex operations as they are not willing to assume the risks and make the necessary investments. In this order of ideas, they outsource the operations to firms which have already made the investments and assumed the risks. "Organizations are reluctant to invest in and maintain cutting-edge technology and technical specialists internally, when they know that similar assets exist externally, and were developed with others' investment and risk" (Greaver).
While the companies recognized and capitalized on the benefits of outsourcing, the communities identified the limitations of the processes. The most common dissatisfaction was linked to the fact that outsourcing took jobs away from national workers and gave them to foreigners. In 2003, over 300,000 jobs within the United States…
2009, International Association of Outsourcing Professionals Predicts Top 10 Outsourcing Trends to Watch for in 2010, International Association of Outsourcing Professionals, http://www.outsourcingprofessional.org/content/23/196/1967 / last accessed on March 15, 2010
2009, the benefits of outsourcing, Outsource2India, http://www.outsource2india.com/why_outsource/articles/benefit_outsourcing.asp last accessed on March 15, 2010
Benaud, C.L., Bordeianu, S., 1998, Outsourcing library operations in academic libraries: an overview of issues and outcomes, Libraries Unlimited, ISBN 1563085097
Bucki, J., 2010, Top 6 outsourcing disadvantages, About.com, http://operationstech.about.com/od/outsourcing/tp/OutSrcDisadv.htm last accessed on March 15, 2010
However, there are situations where these managers provide transformational leadership skills. Some of the smaller projects that involve lower levels of risks are assigned to some of the employees in the attempt to improve their project management skills. Therefore, managers in this case are also interested in transforming and improving their subordinates' activity, which influences their career development.
The motivational strategy within the company is an interesting one. Managers in this company develop motivational strategies based on rewarding clearly established objectives and performance levels. This situation determines win/lose relationships between employees. Although this is intended to increase competition between them it is sometimes counterproductive. egarding the relationship between employees in this environment, such strategies determine win/win or no deal situations.
In addition to this, they evaluate the activity of their subordinates in order to establish their potential. Based on these evaluations, managers establish the training programs that are mostly suitable…
1. Lussier, R. & Achua, C. (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application, and Skill Development. Cengage Learning. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=7ctnVNMtBQgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=transactional+leadership&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=transactional%20leadership&f=false .
2. Lang, M. (2010). Transformational Leadership. Retrieved March 22, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=NRyhpx1VzrEC&pg=PA7&dq=transactional+leadership&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=transactional%20leadership&f=false .