Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches to Personality
Psychodynamic and Humanistic Approaches
Personality can be defined as the unique characteristics that various individuals possess. These characteristics differentiate individuals from others. In other words, personality can also be defined as a unique system of feelings, thoughts and behaviors that prevail over time and that is evident in various situations. Different psychologists have determined different approaches to study personality. Some psychologists try to examine various aspects of personality that an individual possesses, whereas, others try to understand why there are differences in the personalities of various individuals. (Morris et al., 2010)
Listed below are the two different approaches to personality;
Psychodynamic theories establish the thought that our personality is an outcome of inner psychological forces which are not under the control of our conscious mind. Psychodynamic approach basically studies the energy of our unconscious mind and it also explores how this energy…
Morris, C. And Maisto, A. (2010). Understanding Psychology . Oxford: Orford University Press. pp.45-65. http://ftp.cleary.edu [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
Unknown. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives on Human Behavior. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishers. pp.53-65. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/36524_PE_Chapter2.pdf [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
Unknown. (2005). Personality. Thousand Oaks: Cluj-Napoca: University of Medicine and Pharmacy. pp.1-5. http://psychiatry-psychology.ro/file/Stiintele%20Comportamentului%20ENG/Lecture6_Personality.pdf [Accessed: 11 Jun 2013].
Biological & Humanistic Approach to Personality
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs follows two distinct categories: deficiency motive, which include needs that must be fulfilled in order to move a person towards self-actualization (Burger, 2008). An example of deficiency needs would be basic needs like hunger or being safe. The second category is growth needs, which include a person progressing towards their unique potential, as well as giving love in an unselfish manner (Burger, 2008). For the purposes of this essay, growth needs will be discussed at length. The official hierarchy of needs follows a pyramid, with the bottom need being physiological needs like hunger and thirst; and up the pyramid with safety needs like protection or structure; belongingness and love needs like finding a mate or being close to someone; esteem needs like finding respect in ones work; and, lastly, the need for self-actualization, where a person fulfills their true…
Burger, J.M. (2008). Personality. (7th ed., pp. 299-301). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Burger, J.M. (2011). Personality. (8th ed., pp. 223-225). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=bZY7I2_8yRMC&printsec=frontcover&dq=personality&hl=en&ei=BP7nTt3TEeSNsQLM2930AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA
Buss, D.M. (1990). Toward a biologically informed psychology of personality. . Journal
biological humanistic approaches personality. The paper cover areas. *Use Maslow's hierarchy discuss extent growth influence personality formation. *Describe biological factors influence formation personality.
Biological and humanistic approaches to personality:
An overview of the debate
Biological theories have become increasingly popular in the field of psychology, as scientists seek to understand the roots of human behavior. Several reasons are at the heart of this shift in emphasis from 'nurture' to 'nature': the first is our expanding knowledge of neuropsychology and how different components of the brain affect behavior. A change in the physical matter or the environment of the brain can result in a change in personality. The second is the expansion of psychopharmacology, whereby aspects of the human character once thought beyond conscious control, such as hyperactivity or a tendency towards melancholy, can be shifted when medications change the individual's brain chemistry. Finally, changes in behavior are evident at different…
Cherry, Kendra. (2012). Hierarchy of needs.
Coccaro, Emil F. & Larry J. Siever. (2008). The neuropsychopharmacology of personality disorders. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress,
Davidson, Richard. (n.d). Towards a biology of personality and emotion. Annals New York
Maslow's work, specifically his hierarchy of needs theory that provided insight into basic human needs and a potential hierarchical structure of said needs. This is a great way to introduce Maslow's concept of self-actualization and helps the reader gain insight into the nature of the concept by addressing the background and theoretical framework. "The five needs that were originally enlisted were physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization. Maslow further expanded self-actualization into four needs, namely cognitive, aesthetic, self-actualization, and self-transcendence" (D'Souza & Gurin, 2016, p. 210). Although the information is a great addition to the introduction, there is no real development of thesis.
Literally for the entire paragraph, it is more of a regurgitation of information on Maslow's humanistic approach to development. Some of the lines even sound very similar from textbook descriptions of his work. The authors only begin to lean more towards their own examination of…
D'Souza, J., & Gurin, M. (2016). The universal significance of Maslow's concept of self-actualization. The Humanistic Psychologist, 44(2), 210-214. doi:10.1037/hum0000027
Both Existential and Transpersonal psychologies have this in common, a respect for and utilization of Eastern techniques to reach a state of stress-free maintenance of human psychological health.
But the differences lie in their origins. While Transpersonal psychologies are related to the Eastern or Western indigenous epistemologies, Existential-Humanistic psychologies have a Freudian origin, coming through Freud and his descendents. While Transpersonal psychology is considered to be a "fourth force" in psychology, psychoanalysis, behaviorism and humanistic psychologies are outside of the "transegoic" elements, ignoring insights from the world's contemplative traditions in both Eastern and Western religions. Labeled "Western," Existential and Humanistic psychologies are focused mainly on prepersonal and personal aspects of the psyche.
Existential and humanistic psychologies are based on the writings not only of Freud, but Kierkegaard, Nietzche, Heidigger, Sartre, Camus and other European intellectuals who had experienced European wars and chaos during the twentieth century. Important to them were…
Cortright, B. (1997). Psychotherapy and spirit: Theory and practice in transpersonal psychology. New York: State University of New York Press.
Daniels, M. (2005). Shadow, self, spirit: Essays in transpersonal psychology. Charlottesville, VA: Imprint Academic.
May, R. (1969) Love and Will, New York: W.W. Norton & Co., Inc.
Sartre, J.P. (1956). Being and nothingness (H. E. Barnes, Trans.). New York: Washington Square Press.
Hence, since it is inevitable and it is natural, there is no reason to fear it. This is a difficult point to argue with. Aurelius looks at death from a purely physical point-of-view. He recognizes that it is both inevitable and that it is an eventuality in all life of all types. Nobody and nothing escapes death. For this reason, it makes no sense to him to fear it.
This is, for me, the most important point that he makes. No human being can argue with the fact that death is the natural end to the process of life. Interestingly, this is also the point he makes that I find most comforting. We do not know what happens after death, but Aurelius suggests that there is no reason to let this distress us. We will either change form or lose consciousness altogether. In either case, we will be free from…
Humanistic and Existential Personality Theories Worksheet
Abraham Maslow proposed the Hierarchy of needs theory of personality.
According to Maslow, self-fulfillment and realization of one's full potential are examples of self-actualization needs.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs proposes that basic needs must be satisfied before secondary/higher level needs will become motivators for behavior.
The belief that matter evolves from simpler to more complex forms is evolution.
The ideal self according to Rogers, is one's view of self as one wishes to be.
Carl Rogers believed that conditions of worth, incongruence, defensiveness, and disorganization are all considered undifferentiated.
Rogers believed that counselor congruence, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are necessary elements of psychotherapy.
Intentionality is the structure that gives meaning to experience and allows people to make decisions about the future.
May proposed that existential freedom is the freedom of action, whereas essential freedom is the freedom of being.
10. The basic concepts…
There are six approaches for studying the personality development of a person. Two of the most popular ones are the biological and humanistic approaches. The other four of these approaches include the trait, cognitive, behavioral and psychoanalytic. Each of these approaches are used to describe the system through we acquire our personality and factors that influence this personality development. The use of the approach is determined by the psychotherapist as well as the client, as they can differ from one person to another with respect to their effectiveness. However, it is the responsibility of the therapist to make sure that the approach used by him would be appropriate for the particular client he is dealing with. Even though it is not expected of the therapist to specialize in all the approaches, he should at least have an idea about each one of them. In this paper, we will…
Lawrence, Sawyer (2009). "Biological vs. Humanistic Approach to Personality." University of Phoenix.
Vigil, Jeremy (2002). "Biological v. Humanistic." Psychology 250.
The crime rates in the western countries started when the Europe experienced a growth rate, which was the time of the 19th century industrial era. During the period, there was an influx of immigration from different part of the world that led to the urbanization and growth of the cities. Moreover, different thoughts were emanated during the period such as romanticism, modern western industrialization, rationalization of enlightenment, and Darwin theory of evolution. The book, "The Humanistic Tradition," (Fiero, 2010 p 1) illustrates the emergence of different thoughts that include realism and romanticism of the 19th century (Fiero, 2010). However, different thoughts in the books are reflected in the film titled the Seven (1995). The chapter 27 of the books reveals the industrial progress of the 19th century, the idealistic thought, nature of European literature, and Asian literature. However, the crime rates was part of the major characteristics of…
Fiero, G.K. (2010). The Humanistic Tradition Book 5: Romanticism, Realism, and the Nineteenth-Century World.(6th Edition). Chicago. Humanities & Social Science.
Claire, K. (2015). Synopsis for Seven (1995) . Amazon Company.
Experiential Family Therapy (EFT) is the central place of humanistic therapies and psychology. This therapy includes the works of Fritz Perls, Carl Rogers, and Abraham Maslow, along with the communication theories and family systems of Paul Watzlavick, Don Jackson, and Gregory ateson. It is called a meeting place for all the theorists because clearly the experiential family therapy includes multiple systems used for therapy. The authors ecvar & evcar (2006) like to call these 'experimental approaches to family therapy' instead of 'experimental models'. Virginia Satir, one of the main predecessors of the experiential approach, is also considered to be part of communication approaches as well as experiential (Lester, 2009).
The family tree of the family system has three main parts: (1) the Communications approach of Virginia Satir; (2) the Gestalt experiential approach of Walter Kempler; and (3) the Symbolic experiential approach of Carl Whitaker (ecvar & ecvar, 2006). However, the…
Becvar, D.S. & Becvar, R.J. (2006). Family therapy: A systemic integration. Boston, MA: Pearson
Broderick, P., & Weston, C. (2009). Family Therapy with a Depressed Adolescent. NCBI, 32-37. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2719446/
Greenburg, L.S., Watson, J.C., & Lietaer, G. (1998). Handbook of experiential psychotherapy. New York: Guilford
Israelstam, K. (1988). Contrasting four major family therapy paradigms: implications for family therapy training. Journal of Family Therapy, 179-196.
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
Humanistic and Technological Issues in Education
In education today, there are many humanistic and technological issues that must be addressed in order or students to receive the best possible education. Humanistic issues are concerned with educational opportunities that help students to better understand their personal development, to learn and use human relations skills, to assess humanistic issues in both personal and societal terms, and to establish goals for the future. Technological issues are concerned with students' evolution towards a knowledge society
Humanistic issues are best described as various educational theories and challenges that are committed to the humanism, human development, well-being, and dignity as the ultimate end of all human thought and action (orton, 1970). Many experts feel that education today can be a disrespectful and alienating experience for students and teachers.
Some of the most important humanistic issues in education are concerned with curriculum. Often, states ask educators…
Borton, Terry. (1970). Reach, touch and teach. McGraw-Hill, New York.
" (Strom, 1996) From the view of adult education the purpose of the liberal thinker is development of intellectual powers of the mind. Within this framework the learner is a seeker of knowledge on the conceptual and theoretical base and the teacher is the expert which transmits knowledge. The Progressive view holds that transmission of cultural and societal structure is the path to promoting change on a social level therefore the provision of practice knowledge and skills for problem-solving are necessary if society is to be reformed. From this view the learner needs, interests and experiences are primary factors in learning and the teacher is the organizer and learning experience guide, instigator and evaluator. The Humanistic philosophy holds that development of those who are open to change and ongoing learning and enhancing the personal growth and development of these individual is the path to societal reform. From this view the…
Strom, Bruce Todd (1996) the Role of Philosophy in Education-for-Work. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education. Winter 1996. Online available at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v33n2/strom.html
Philosophies of Adult education (1997) Lorraine Zinn in chapter three ("Identifying Your Philosophical Orientation") of Adult Learning Methods: A Guide for Effective Instruction (1990). The tables were edited and expanded during a discussion in ADE 5080 Spring 1997. Online available at http://www.fsu.edu/~adult-ed/jenny/philosophy.html
unsuccessful leaders in modern society, one will notice modern leaders considered successful are those that embrace change and work to empower subordinates and followers in a non-threatening manner, and in a manner that is consistent with other's ideologies and spiritual beliefs (Siegel, 2001). This confirms the theory of transformational leadership where leaders work to enable change in an uncomplicated and organized fashion. This theory of leadership is possible and logical today because so much of our time is invested in change, whether it is technological in nature (Couillard & Lapierre, 2003) or strategically based.
Complicating matters are modern notions of "transactional leadership" which suggest leaders, especially those working in an organizational context, must work to motivate people using an exact system. This system would reward and punish those who accomplished or failed to accomplish their goals (Gerzon, 2003). This seems illogical however, if one considers how far leadership has come…
Barker, R.A. (2001) the nature of leadership. Human Relations, 54(4): 469-93.
Barnett, T. & Shubert, E. (2002) Perceptions of the Ethical Work Climate and Covenantal
Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(1): 280-90.
Bennett, N., Wise, C., Woods, P., & Harvey, J. (2003) Distributed Leadership.
Issue in Counseling:
Helping clients deal with anxiety
Many individuals experience anxiety today. ith the help of therapeutic counselors, clients learn how to cope with their anxiety-related issues, in turn allowing them to live a healthy and manageable life. Many counselors choose to use the existential method in counseling clients with anxiety. The existential approach to counseling is an approach to helping clients of all cultures find meaning and harmony in their lives. Counselor's who use this approach focus on the eternal issues of love, loneliness, suffering and death that each of us face daily. It seeks to cultivate our philosophical mindedness in relating to ourselves, others, nature, and our faith. Existential counseling has no planned endpoint but is the beginning of a search for hope, love, and meaning in life. It is applicable to all problems in living, but it is especially appropriate when…
Carlson, L.A., (2003). Existential theory: Helping school counselors attend to youth at risk for violence. Professional School Counseling, 6 (5), 310.
Epp, L., (1998). The courage to be an existential counselor: an interview of Clemmont E.
Vontress. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 20 (1), 1.
Krueger, M.J. & Hanna, F.J., (1997). Why adoptees search: an existential treatment perspective. Journal of Counseling and Development, 75 (3), 195.
Different Therapeutic Approaches and a Diversity of Clients
The prolific nature of theory generation makes it difficult for a therapist to choose a single approach with regard to a specific client type. Cave (1999) listed the "broad" categories of theory as somatic (medical interventions), psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive, and humanistic. Under these broad headings are many different subsets of theory that can be used to treat a specific type of malady.
However, this proliferation does offer one benefit to the therapist searching for an approach. Since the diagnostic and statistical manual offers so many choices with regard to disease, the therapist needs just as many avenues for treatment. When the number of possible diagnoses are coupled with the range of different personality types, it can be even more difficult to find an effective therapy. But, at least the choices are there. And if the choice is not available, it…
Baradon, T. (2010). Relational trauma in infancy: Psychoanalytic, attachment and neuropsychological contributions to parent-infant psychotherapy. London: Taylor & Francis.
Cave, S. (1999). Therapeutic approaches in psychology. London: Psychology Press.
Paniagua, F.A. (2005). Assessing and treating culturally diverse clients: A practical guide. Grand rapids, MI: SAGE.
Trepper, T.S., & Barrett, M.J. (1989). Systematic treatment of incest: A therapeutic handbook. London: Psychology Press.
Also known as person-centered or client-centered, Rogerian therapy, it "places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role" Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders). However, although effective with some clients: "Person-centered therapy, however, appears to be slightly less effective than other forms of humanistic therapy in which therapists offer more advice to clients and suggest topics to explore," as the client may use the therapy sessions more to complain or go over old grievances, than use the therapy to move forward in his or her life (Person-centered therapy, 2009, Mind disorders).
Another type of therapy that has radically escalated in popularity is that of family or marital therapy, which, like cognitive-behavioral therapy, tends to be focused on specific problems and of a fairly short duration. "Marriage and family therapists regularly practice short-term therapy; 12 sessions on average" FAQs, 2009, AAMFT). The…
FAQs about marriage and family therapy. (2009). American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://www.aamft.org/faqs/index_nm.asp
Mulhauser, Greg. (2009). An introduction to cognitive therapy and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Counseling Resource. Retrieved February 28, 2009 at http://counsellingresource.com/types/cognitive-therapy/
Park, C. (2006, October 18). Best evidence summaries of topics in mental healthcare.
BEST in MH clinical question-answering service.
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Maslow gave them that self-meaning and appreciation and became one of the pioneers of a movement that brought the focus of individual feeling, yearning and wholeness into psychology. He sort of read them out and spoke their thoughts, feelings and aspirations for them. He devoted much energy to humanistic psychology and the human potential and inaugurated the "fourth force" in psychology towards the end of his life. The first force consisted of Freud and other depth psychologists; the second force, the behaviorists; his own humanism and European existentialism, the third. This fourth force was made up of transpersonal psychologies that derived from European philosophies, which examined meditation, higher consciousness levels and para-psychological phenomena and which reacted against the then dominant psychoanalysis and behaviorism schools of the 20th century. Among the most prominent European philosophers were Kierkegaard, Husserl and Heidegger and the most prominent in the humanist/existential group were Carl Rogers,…
Beneckson, Robert E Personality Theory. Florida International University. http://vorlon1.com/PersonalityTheory2b.htm
Boeree, George C. Motivation and Personality by Abraham Maslow. Understanding Human Motivation. Personality Theory, 1970
Dickinson, Dee. Revisiting Maslow. Transforming Education: New Horizons for Learning, 2002. http://www.newhorizons.org/trans/dickinsonmaslow.htm
media equation theory and its applications. The author of this paper uses the movie The Truman Show to develop an understanding for the reader of what the Media Equation Theory is and how it can be applied to media examples such as the movie. There were six sources used to complete this paper. The paper is in MLA format.
MEDIA THEORY IN PRACTICE
The technological explosion of the last three decades has taken us to places we never dreamed before were possible. ith each passing year, the technology becomes more linked to human thought and emotions than ever before. Today, there are studies being conducted worldwide to understand the phenomena of people treating their media tools in the same manner that their human interactions are treated. For several years, the habits and protocol of people who work with these questions have been narrowly defined by the rigid demands of research…
Reeves, Byron. Nass. Clifford. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (C SLI Publications 1997)
This source was a major source for the paper in that it explains the theory itself as well as applies it to several real life media scenarios. The highlights detail the belief of the authors tht we are becoming more ingrained with media tools than ever before and assigning them human like qualities.
Luskin, Bernard J., Toward an understanding of media psychology. (educational CDs) (Technology Information). Vol. 23, THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 02-01-1996, pp 82(3).
This source was a solid source of information for the paper. Its highlights included the discussion of media psychology and the way humans today, interact and feel about their media tools. Many of the facts presented in the paper dovetail with the belief we are integrating more and more with media as if it has feelings, intellect and emotions. The source was viable for the foundational explanation of the theory itself.
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
As such, a nurse is primarily to recognize herself as an individual in the world, with certain responses to this world. When a patient enters the hospital, such a patient is also to be seen as a unique individual who responds to the world and his or her environment in a certain way.
Humanistic nursing is then primarily experiential rather than experimental. This means that new knowledge is gained with every new patient that arrives for treatment. In giving treatment, responses are observed and noted for future reference in similar situations. It is not however assumed that a treatment will work because it did in the past and in similar conditions. Instead, hypotheses are based upon experiences of the past. The recognition that hypotheses may prove incorrect helps the nurse to be open to new experiences. Each human being is then seen as a "world," as it were, with the…
Cody, William K. & Kenney, Janet W. (2006). Philosophical and Theoretical Perspectives for Advanced Nursing Practice. Jones & Bartlett.
Collaboration for Academic Education in Nursing. (2009). Foundational Perspectives. http://www.caen.ca/content/view/46/133/
Current Nursing (2009, March 16). Nursing Theories. http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/development_of_nursing_theories.htm
Kleinman, Susan (2009). Humanistic Nursing Theory. http://www.humanistic-nursing.com/faq.htm
Existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy all fall under the rubric of humanistic psychology. They share a considerable amount of theory, philosophy, and practice. Yet each of these practices is stemmed in its own theoretical framework; therefore, existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies differ in key ways. ecent scholarship on existential, person-centered, and gestalt therapies builds on the rich canon of literature in these three core humanistic traditions, but is more than just summative. The following review of literature shows how existential therapy, person-centered therapy, and gestalt therapy are practiced in the 21st century, and in so doing, reveals the similarities and differences between these three humanistic psychological frameworks.
Existential therapy has been called "a way of thinking rather than…a particular style of practicing," (Corey, 2008, p. 216). Corey (2008) claims that existential therapy is "not a separate school or a neatly defined, systematic model with…
Ceil, C. (2012). Person-centered therapy. Social Science Electronic Publishing. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2051484 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2051484
Corey, G. (2008). The existential approach to groups. Chapter 9 in Theory and Practice of Group Counseling. Cengage.
Crocker, S.F. & Philippson, P. (2005). Phenomenology, existentialism, and Eastern thought in gestalt therapy. Chapter 4 in Gestalt Therapy: History, Theory and Practice. Sage.
Geller, J.D. (2003). Self-disclosure in psychoanalytic-existential therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology 59(5): 541-554.
Over the last several years, many health care professionals have been focusing on wide variety of approaches to fully understand the impact that depression having on people. At the heart of this area of research, has been studying the way that a person is reacting to a particular event. This is because there are certain genetic factors and traits that can have an effect on how they are interpreting a variety of situations. As a result, there has been an emphasis on comprehending how these elements can influence an individual's thinking. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than, observations from Plomin (2003) who observed, "We are rapidly approaching the postgenomic era in which we will know all of the 3 billion DNA bases in the human genome sequence and all of the variations in the genome sequence that are ultimately responsible for genetic influence…
Benediketer, R. (2010). The Future of Self-Image. Futures, 42 (1), 1102 -- 1109.
Lobstien, D. (1983). Depression as a Powerful Discriminator. Journal of Psychology, 27 (1), 69 -- 76.
Plomin, R. (2003). Psychopathology in the Psotgenomic Era. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 205-288.
Ryback, D. (2006). Self-Determination and the Mindfulness of Neurology. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 46 (4), 474 -- 493.
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm
Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Personal Model of Helping
Therapists do whatever they can to help their clients overcome a wide range of problems ranging fromdeath of a pet to major life changing crisis, such as sudden loss of vision. However genuine a therapists' desire to help is, they will be limited by the tools he or she uses. It makes sense, then, as a therapist to design and integrate webs of models that have shown to yield efficacy. This new, personally designed model should work to assist and meet the requirement of every client. To embark upon this task of designing a personal model of helping, it is important to be aware of existing theories and models.
The first is the humanistic approach based on Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Maslow's triangle consists of basics needs at the base followed by needs of safety, love and belonging, achievements and lastly self-actualization at the top.…
Brew. (2007, Nov 27). Models of Helping. Retrieved April 3, 2011, from http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/18616_chapter3.pdf .
Eysenck 1965; Thomas et al. 1968; Heatherington and Parke 1986; Sheldon 1994a
Brian Sheldon, Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: Research, Practice, and Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1995) iii, Questia, Web, 3 Apr. 2011.
The experimental method is usually taken to be the most scientific of all methods, the 'method of choice'. The main problem with all the Psychodynamic Method is lack of control over the situation. The experimental method is a means of trying to overcome this problem. The experiment is sometimes described as the cornerstone of psychology: This is partly due to the central role Experimental method play in many of the physical sciences and also to psychology's historical view of itself as a science. A considerable amount of psychological research uses the experimental method. An experiment is a study of cause and effect. It differs from Psychodynamic Method; in that it involves the deliberate manipulation of one variable, while trying to keep all other variables constant.
Psychodynamic psychology, although still practiced clinically, is not one of the current major approaches to personality psychology. During the 1950's and 1960's, numerous attempts…
Margaret Wetherell (Editor) (1996), Identities, Groups and Social Issues, Sage Publications Ltd.
Roger Sapsford (Editor), Arthur Still (Editor), Dorothy Miell (Editor), Richard Stevens (Editor), Margaret Wetherell (Editor) 1998, Theory and Social Psychology (Social Psychology), Sage Publications Ltd.
Bion, W.R. (1961). Experiences in groups. London: Tavistock Publications.
Bion, W.R. (1970). Attention and interpretation. London: Tavistock Publications.
disorders discussed in the text was the frontotemporal dementia. This is an interesting disorder in that it can affect three different areas. This neurological disorder presents itself through "three clincal subtypes that present with either changes in behavior (behavior variant FTD (bvFTD)) or changes in language (semantic dementia (SD)) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA)) (Rascovsky, Hodges, Knopman, Mendez, Kramer, 2011; Gorno- Tempini, Hillis, eintraub, Kertesz, Mendez, 2011). Patients who develop FTD usually do so in their 50's or 60's and the signs displayed depend on what subtype the disorder takes.
Until recently, FTD was considered a relatively rare disorder but according to the text it now is considered prevalent in 40-60% of neurological disorders. According to the website created by Alzheimer Organization "there is no single test - or any combination of tests - that can conclusively diagnose frontotemporal dementia" (Frontotemporal Dementia, 2013). Rather than tests, FTD is more a…
Ethical Principles (2014) accessed on Mar 10, 2014 at the American Psychology Association website: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx
Frontotemporal Dementia (2011) accessed on March 9, 2014 at the Alzheimer Organization's website: http://www.alz.org/dementia/fronto-temporal-dementia-ftd-symptoms.asp
Gorno-Tempini, M.L.; Hillis, A.; Weintraub, S.; Kertesz, A.; Mendez, M.; (2011)
Classification of primary progressive aphasia and its variants. Neurology, Vol. 76, pp.
self-therapy in the context of what needs to be done to elevate the healing process in life. The therapy that is often used to treat is that which people rely on to practice self-treatment. In this paper, Art Bohart's talk on self-healing is will be used to manifest what is best-used means of conducting self-therapy. In this paper, the general supportive treatment of stress and other psychological ailments will be covered. The aim is to reach out to the diverse sections of the therapy and how it may be of use to the people. The paper also discusses the relevance of this program in the treatment of emotional challenges that people face. Finally, the paper will discuss whether the lessons learned from Art Bohart's talk can be integrated into real life. The focus extends to include the texistential-humanistic therapeutic interventions and the benefits associated with their use on patients.
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). What Do We Mean By The Client As Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 3-23). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-001
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Research Results That May Surprise You -- How Do We Know the Client is an Active Self-Healer? In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (pp. 25-55). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-002
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing Without a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 57-84). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-003
Bohart, A. C., & Tallman, K. (1999). Self-Healing With a Therapist. In, How Clients Make Therapy Work: The Process Of Active Self-Healing (Pp. 87-104). Washington, DC, U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/10323-004
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
Existential Counseling Case Study
The given case is an adequate account of a life of an individual in an unlikely situation. The case speaks about a thirty eight years old woman Michelle. Life and the given history of Michelle form an impression that she is in a stable situation and has enjoyed a highly satisfying career path. Unlike many other she has a successful married life with her partner Dave and has enjoyed life at its most. The most primitive adjectives that bombards the mind once we consider a successful individual in the western setting are the; professional stability and the emotional stability. It has been for this reason that the case draws the ideology that Michelle is a stable and a successful person in life. Yet the very factor that determines the stability of emotions and thoughts in an individual are the aggregate sum of the normal behaviors exhibited…
Eriksen, Karen, and Garrett McAuliffe. 2001. Teaching Counselors and Therapists: Constructivist and Developmental Course Design. Edited by Karen Eriksen and Garrett McAuliffe. Westport, CT: Bergin & Garvey.
Fall, Kevin A., Janice Miner Holder, and Andre Marquis. 2004. Theoretical Models of Counseling and Psychotherapy. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Frankl, Viktor E. 2004. On the Theory and Therapy of Mental Disorders: An Introduction to Logotherapy and Existential Analysis. Translated by Dubois, James M. New York: Brunner-Routledge
Furbish, Dale S. 2007. "Career Counseling in New Zealand." Journal of Counseling and Development 85:115+.
Economics: Neoclassical, Keynesian, And Marxian Theories
Social theories attempt to explain how people interact with each other, and with their surroundings. For this reason, it is believed that social theories shape society, so much so that people will theorize elements in their surroundings based on their life situations and what they experience in their interactions. Towards this end, what one person thinks or believes about a certain aspect may not necessarily be what another person thinks; people hold different theories about how the economy works, and how it influences human interactions - and this is particularly why we have multiple economic theories today. Social theories are broadly categorized into three -- humanism, structuralism, and dialectics. These three have been applied to economic theory to explain how the various elements of the economy interact to realize maximum outcomes. This text demonstrates how the aforementioned social theories have been used to shape…
Hackett, Steven. Environmental and Natural Resources Economics: Theory, Policy, and the Sustainable Society (2nd ed.). Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe, 2012. Print
Wolff, Richard and Resnick Stephen. Contending Economic Theories: Neoclassical, Keynesian, and Marxian. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012. Print
Wolff, Richard. "The New Reading of Karl Marx's Capital in the United States." Professor Wolff's Social Movement Project, 2007. Web. 3 March 2015 http://www.rdwolff.com/content/new-reading-karl-marx%E2%80%99s-capital-united-states
Erik Erikson postulated that personality is a progress through a number of stages and facing conflicts in the course of progression and the in order to pass through a process, the individual has to overcome these conflicts. These internal conflicts therefore aroused defense mechanisms that thereafter dictated the personality of an individual (Kendra, 2010).
Humanistic approach emphasizes the individual worth and the centrality of the value of a person. It is pegged on the philosophy of existentialism and emphasized on creativity, spontaneity and activeness of human beings. The approach focuses on the development and possibility of humans to defeat hardship and misery as opposed to defeat and pessimis.
Under this approach, there is emphasis on free will and the experience of an individual to be fundamental in the shaping of the personality. It looks at the concept of self-actualization, which is an internal natural need for personal growth…
Kendra Cherry, (2010). Theories of Personality. Personality Psychology Study Guide. Retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologystudyguides/a/personalitysg_3.htm
Warren & Carmichael, (1930). Elements of human psychology (Rev. Ed.; Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin, 1930), p. 333. Cited in Allport, Pattern & growth in personality (1937/1961, p.36). retrieved June 10, 2010 from http://www.thepersonalitysystem.org/PFA%20What%20Is%20Personality/How%20Is%20Personality%20Defined.htm
There is also little doubt that viewing the original works is a very different experience to viewing a reproduction. There is as sense of presence and intimacy in viewing the original works that is not evident when viewing a reproduction. There is something tangible and direct that comes across when looking at the original that is lost in viewing reproductions. With the original paining one is allowed to view the actual brush strikes and paint build-up in a way that cannot be achieved with a reproduction.
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
"Italian vs. Northern Renaissance." Accessed September 10, 2011.
"Religious Themed Paintings inside Houston's MFA." Accessed September 10, 2011.
http://peggy-w.hubpages.com/hub/Religious-Themed-Paintings-inside-Houstons-MFAaissance Art and Architecture
"Renaissance Art and Architecture." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano ugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John," accessed September 10,…
"Early Renaissance, 1400-1500." Accessed September 10,
"Guilliano Bugiardini Madonna and Child with Saint John." Accessed September 10,
From its tribal stages in Jerusalem to the conversion of Augustus,
from the Crusades and Inquisition to the splintering Americanization of the
U.S. antebellum era, Christianity would be the province of both the
conquered and the conqueror over history, with either of these conditions
serving the cause to stimulate Christian faith. This would help us to
attach Christian history, importantly, to the moments at which human
movements, political systems or social parameters would invoke the
magnification of its influence. This is meaningful to us as a
demonstration of the crucial role played by the historical context in
framing the relationship between man and faith.
Barrett, David B. (2001). orld Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. orld Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. . (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Sotkin, Joan. (1978) Vedanta Vedanta Society of Southern California: hat
is Vedanta? Online at…
Barrett, David B. (2001). World Christian Encyclopedia. Oxford University
Hooker, Richard. (1996). Buddhism. World Civilizations. Online at
Rahula, Ven. Dr. W. (2002). A View on Buddhism. Buddhism. Online at
Daiso Strategic Alignment
Humans are constantly reasserting beliefs in their own skills and abilities. Without question humans constantly give themselves undue credit while ignoring other factors contributing to the individuals overall behavior. This occurs constantly in work environments, social circles and governments around the nation. Such is the case of humanism or the belief that humans are of prime importance irrespective of divine or supernatural intervention. According to Flo Wineriter, president of the humanists of Utah, "Humanists believe that moral values are neither divinely revealed nor the special property of any religious tradition, that they must be found by humans through the use of their natural reason, and that our beliefs about what is right or wrong in human behavior must be constantly subjected to the deepest reflection in light of our evolving understanding of our nature and the world in which we live (What is Humanism, 2012)." This belief…
1) "What Is Humanism?" What Is Humanism? Web. 14 Mar. 2012. .
Thus, studying psychology is morally and intellectually improving. Psychology is so all encompassing as a field of study that it makes a person's mind more flexible. In psychology classes, a student must learn about analysis from a qualitative, even literary approach, as encompassed in the words of Sigmund Freud and William James. In other psychology classes, a student must understand how to interpret an Excel spreadsheet used in a research study to prove the efficacy of a particular antidepressant drug. Or, he or she must understand a more scientific and neurological approach to the human brain than more humanistic approaches to psychology might suggest in other classes. All of these different approaches are integral to modern psychology. A psychology major must be fluent in the liberal arts, the social sciences, and the natural sciences, and so he or she will be able to apply many approaches to solving problems in…
Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution of Vernacular
All types of art are normally influenced by both the social and the political factors within a geographical region. These social aspects are reflected in the designs of the time and most of the inspiration that the designers get is from history. In Scandinavia, it is easy to define the style as straightforward. The logic behind the simplicity of this was due to the limited resources which emphasized saving and proper utilization (Pile, 335). It is also democratic in the manner that its main intention was to please, the masses. Architects in Scandinavia share an inherent bond with nature and the natural landscape. hen studying the geographical locations of these nodes and, therefore, cross referencing their localities to similar cultural conditions a trend is found. It is the intention of this research to research just how the natural landscape is invited into the manmade…
Bandle, Oskar, Kurt Braunmu-ller, Lennart Elmevik, and Gun Widmark. The Nordic Languages:
An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages. Berlin: de
Gruyter, 2005. Print.
Fallan, Kjetil. Design History: Understanding Theory and Method. Oxford: Berg Publishers,
Zinbauer and Pargament (2000).
The counselor ontologically stands in a different mode to the client and has his or her values. This necessarily extends to religion, or lack of it, and the problem may be that even though the counselor seeks not to impose his values on the client, his or her values and ways of thinking covertly rub off and may repel or influence the client. Many counselors deal with this problem by adopting a certain methodology that guides them, for instance a counselor may choose the humanistic approach and closely adhere to Carl oger's prescription of assuming a non-judgmental client-oriented position and refraining from directing the client in any which way. Humanism is a general approach that refers to the counseling methodology in general.
eligion is a subject that may often -- to some extent or other -- creep into the session. There are -- the authors suggest…
Malone, A., Meyer, D.D., Tarlton, T., Wasielewski, L., Reuben, P., West, C., & Mitchell, V. (2011). The relationship between forgiveness and emotional well-being. Retrieved from http://counselingoutfitters.com / vistas/vistas11/Article_23.pdf
Zinnbauer, BJ & Pargament, KI (2000). Working with the sacred. Journal of Counseling and Practice, 78, 601-609.
Sentencing in the US versus in Germany and the Netherlands
There is one major difference between the sentencing and corrections policies of the US and the sentencing and corrections policies of Germany and the Netherlands. The former bases its policy on the ideas of retribution and incapacitation, whereas the latter base their policies on the ideas of rehabilitation and socialization (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). This basic philosophical orientation towards the corrections is what distinguishes the two policies. The US views corrections as a punitive measure while Germany and the Netherlands view corrections in a positive light -- a measure that is designed to return the inmate to society. Indeed, recidivism rate in the US is 40% -- meaning that 4 out of every 10 inmates released will return to prison within the first three years (Vera Institute of Justice, 2013). In Germany and the Netherlands, such a rate is…
The Interdisciplinary Studies degree offers a student the opportunity to integrate disciplines to develop a broader understanding of areas that can be meaningfully applied one’s career. For example, an Interdisciplinary Studies degree that focuses on Religion and Christian counseling provides a suitable foundation for a counselor seeking to specialize in a work area that incorporates aspects of religion into the fundamentals of counseling. It is similar to a chef who has an understanding of a variety of menus and meals and how to prepare them applying for job as a opposed to a chef who has only practiced preparing one menu item over a course of four years applying for the same job. The chef who shows greater breadth within the type of cuisine that he is expected to produce will be the one who is more attractive to the employer. As McKinney (1991) shows, interdisciplinary studies open more…
1. I was first inspired to study the identification and development of high potential employees from the human resources management perspective, which is inherently a multidisciplinary approach. Although my dissertation project seems a long way away, now is a good time to dive into the body of evidence and theory surrounding this important issue. Understanding how to identify, motivate, and develop high potential employees is something that can add value to an organization and increase its overall productivity, effectiveness, and competitiveness in a dynamic market environment.
My research has thus far introduced me to a number of different theories and approaches to studying this topic. For example, some research focuses on theories of motivation and is more within the realm of psychology. Other studies take a more sociological approach or even the anthropology of business approach to show how organizational culture and structure impact decisions related to the identification and…
25). For Shirley Peddy, how to say it is via the art of storytelling. Most of the book the Art of Mentoring: Lead, Follow, and Get Out of the Way is not dry pedantic prose but rather, narrative. It is not clear whether the stories are actually true or not, but their verity matters little in light of the fact that the author's ultimate goal is to illustrate the mentoring process.
Through the mentor of achel, who may or may not be modeled after Shirley Peddy, readers can better understand circumstantial and situational variables that impact their leadership styles. Each character reacts to achel -- as well as to other leaders and managers -- with individuality. The role of the workplace environment is raised in more than one anecdote. Dialogue enables a naturalistic instruction about mentoring instead of a clinical one. Specific phrases and non-verbal cues are critical in the…
Peddy, Shirley. The Art of Mentoring: Lead, Follow, and Get Out of the Way. Houston: Bullion.
The proficient nurses perceive situations as wholes rather than in terms of distinct aspects, and performance is determined by maxims. Perceive or perception is the main word: The perspective is not thought out but presents itself based on experience and earlier events. Proficient nurses understand a situation because they perceive its meaning in regard to long-term goals. Because of their experience, proficient nurses can recognize when the expected normal picture does not materialize, which can considerably improve decision making (Benner, 1984, p. 27-29.)
Lastly, the expert performers do not have to count on an analytic principle, such as a rule, guideline or maxim, to connect their understanding of a situation to an appropriate action. Because of their strong background with an intuitive grasp of situations, they can zero in on the accurate region of the problem without trying unfruitful alternative solutions.
Benner's model of skill acquisition is based on…
Communicability: It is almost impossible for intuitive models to communicate something that is intangible and which the practitioner is unable to express. Given that Benner's model relies on experimental knowledge as the basis of "knowing" as opposed to the science of communicable research, it is difficult to think of a situation where nursing's knowledge base becomes a shared resource open equally to all practitioners.
Similarly, systematic-rational models may promote communicability, but the process itself may not be that relevant if it does not fit with reality of clinical practice (Thompson, 1999, p.1225).
Simplification: If the information processing model does not capture all variables in decision making and clinical diagnosis, and also communicating this incomplete picture to other practitioners in the form of scientific evidence, then nursing's knowledge base will continue to develop in an ad hoc manner with major holes in the complete picture. The intuitive model at least permits the complexity of decisions akin to healthcare provision and sees that health is more than the sum of its parts. Also,
digital games is quite relaxing, as no adequate research has been carried out yet, so nearly anything goes. Writing, in general, about gaming and games is also very much similar. Sadly, and with startling cumulative consequences, games are under-theorized. Although there is the work of authors such as Ehrmann, Huizinga, and Caillois, game theory, philosophical ideas such as the work of Wittgenstein, and libraries teeming with research on board games, one can not get far into the field of computer games using only the above resources. As well, if there is, or will be, a proper computer game research field, it can also be said to be at risk of colonization and intrusion from existing scholarly tribes (Eskelinen 2001). Computer games have to be secured against the colonizing effect of textual and narrative analysis. In the case of semiotics, the idea of "text" generalizes to everything in material existence; however,…
Adams, Ernest. 1999. "Three Problems for Interactive Storytelters.." Gamasutra.
Engberg, Maria. n.d. Markku Eskelinen. Accessed July 14, 2015. http://www.elmcip.net/person/markku-eskelinen.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "The Gaming Situation." The international journal of computer game research.
Eskelinen, Markku. 2001. "Towards Computer Game Studies, Part 1: Narratology and Ludology." Helsinki.
82). He introduced plantations that included potato, cabbage, tomato, chilli and brinjal, and helped the Dongria Kondh create irrigation channels from the streams flowing down the mountains (Sachchidananda, p. 83).
The anthropologist also succeeded in resolving feuds and negotiated trades with the Domb so they could enjoy the benefits of fresh fruit and produce without exploiting the Dongria Kondh. According to Sachchidananda on pae 84, among the benefits of having a person who truly understood and cared about the Dongria Kondh and the Domb was that there was a more peaceful interaction between the two indigenous tribes. A "pragmatic rather than mere humanistic approach" certainly aided in solving development and socioeconomic issues as well (Sachchidananda, p. 84).
Vedanta Resources' mining proposal
Meantime, a proposed mining project that was conceived by the Vedanta Resources (of London, UK) -- owned by Indian tycoon Anil Agarwal -- created a major controversy over the…
Bedi, Rahul. (2010). India vetoes mining in tribal region. Irish Times. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2010,
From EBSCOhost (an 9FY3606474806).
Economic Times. (2010). Vedanta's Orissa mining project under govt. scanner. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2010, from EBSCOhost (an 2W61621100201).
Hopkins, Kathryn. (2010). Indian Tribe appeals for Avatar director's help to stop Vedanta.
revos (2005) further states,
"…A person's identity is formed through a series of personal experiences, which reflect how the individual is perceived by both him or herself and the outside world -- the phenomeno-logical field. Individuals also have experiences of which they are unaware and the phenomenological field contains both conscious and unconscious perceptions. The concept of the self is, according to Rogers, however, primarily conscious. The most important determinants of behavior are the one's that are conscious or are capable of becoming conscious. Roger argues that a definition of the self that includes a reference to the unconscious (as with Freud) can not be studied objectively as it can not be directly known."
This perfect description given by revos (2005) is precisely what Rogers would have envisioned of his theory. His aims, unlike Freud, were to allow humanity to return, instead of alienating individuals by placing them in categories…
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Prevos, P. (2005). Hidden Personalities According to Freud and Rogers. Retrieved September 29, .
Ansbacher, Corey, Phillips and Schultz. (2005). Freud's Strengths and Weaknesses. Retrieved September 30, .
As they state on page 119, Native youth "often feel stranded between two cultures." The sense of isolation and dislocation this creates is enormous and detrimental to the well-being of individuals and the community. The authors' perceptions on the psychological isolation and community fragmentation shed light on the many social problems within American Indian populations.
Readers will be struck by the demographic data that the authors present. For example, child abuse and neglect are all too common within the Native American populations. The problems of parents are passed on to their children: poverty and psychological neglect both create intergenerational problems. Also, psychologists have paid relatively little attention to the specific needs of Native persons; historically they have been a neglected and forgotten group of people. Forced acculturation and assimilation has undermined individuals' mental health as well as the health of the entire community.
I was particularly struck by the authors'…
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
The relevance of counseling as a helping profession cannot be overstated. This is more so the case taking into consideration the role counseling plays towards the facilitation of the development of not only an individual but also a family or even a group.
Counseling as a Distinct Profession: The History and Philosophy of the Profession
Marini and Stebnicki (2008) point out that although counseling as a term made its first appearance (in print) sometimes in the year 1931, the practice of the same had started earlier on. It is important to note that although the roots of counseling as a helping relationship can be traced to the early omanian and Greek times, the actual development of the counseling profession as we know it today largely started taking place in the late 1800s. In the words of Marini and Stebnicki (2008), "the origins of the counseling profession in the…
AMHCA (n.d). American Mental Health Counselors Association: The Only Organization Working Exclusively for the Mental Health Counseling Profession. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the American Mental Health Counselors Association website: http://www.amhca.org/default.aspx
ASCA (2012). American School Counselor Association. Retrieved October 14, 2012, from the American School Counselor Association website: http://www.schoolcounselor.org/index.asp
Blonna, R., Loschiavo, J. & Watter, D. (2011). Health Counseling: A Microskills Approach for Counselors, Educators, and School Nurses (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Marini, I. & Stebnicki, M.A. (Eds.). (2008). The Professional Counselor's Desk Reference. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.
American education has evolved considerably since the late 19th century. One of the first philosophers to influence the character of modern American education was John Dewey. Dewey was a progressive, and believed that children should not just sit in classrooms passively memorizing material. Instead, students should learn via experience and interaction with their environments. Dewey's humanistic approach to education revolutionized the ways people thought about schooling and pedagogy. A timeline of American education begins with Dewey, because he was the person to first codify the structure and philosophy of education, and then offer the methods and means to implement those ideas. Dewey is known as a "pragmatist" because of his ability to fuse philosophy and practice, and had "the most significant contribution to the development of educational thinking in the twentieth century," (Smith, 2001).
Maria Montessori was the first female to become a doctor in Italy. Working closely with…
"No Child Left Behind Worsened Education, 48% Of Americans 'Very Familiar' With The Law Say In Gallup Poll," (2012). Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/08/21/no-child-left-behind-wors_n_1819877.html
Smith, M.K. (2001). John Dewey. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-dewey.htm
Smith, M.K. (2012). Maria Montessori. Infed. Retrieved online: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-mont.htm
Moreover, multiculturalism is alive and well in Canada today; to wit, foreign-born Canadian citizens are "over-represented in the fields of mathematics and physical science, the health professions, sciences and technologies," Thompson concludes, as well as in the fields of engineering and applied sciences.
Boyd, Monica. 1976. Immigration Policies and Trends: A Comparison of Canada and the United States. Demography 13 (1): 83-104.
Canadian Council for Refugees. 2001. A hundred years of immigration to Canada 1900-1999:
chronology focusing on refugees and discrimination. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.web.net/~ccr/history.html.
CIC Canada. 2001. The Role of Transportation in Canadian Immigration 1900-2000. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/transport/chap-3b.html.
Patrias, Carmela. 2000. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy
By Ninette Kelley; Michael Trebilcock. The American Historical Review 105 (2): 532-533.
The Canadian Encyclopedia. 2003. Immigration. Retrieved march 20, 2007 at http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com.
Thompson, John Herd; & einfeld, Morton. 1995.…
Boyd, Monica. 1976. Immigration Policies and Trends: A Comparison of Canada and the United States. Demography 13 (1): 83-104.
Canadian Council for Refugees. 2001. A hundred years of immigration to Canada 1900-1999:
chronology focusing on refugees and discrimination. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.web.net/~ccr/history.html .
CIC Canada. 2001. The Role of Transportation in Canadian Immigration 1900-2000. Retrieved March 20, 2007 at http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/department/transport/chap-3b.html .
Mendes, IA, Trevizan, MA, Noqueira, MS, Mayashida, M. (2000) Humanistic Approach to Nursing Communication: The Case of hospitalized Adolescent Female.
Rev ras Enferm (2000) Jan-Mar, 53(1):7-13.
Williams, Carol A. & Gossett, Monette T. (2001) Nursing Communication: Advocacy for the Patient or Physician" Clinical Nursing Research Vol. 10 No. 3 332-340 (2001) Online available at http://cnr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/3/332.
Colon-Emeric, Cathleen (2006) Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research Vol. 16 NO. 2, 1713-188 (2006)
Vaartio, H. et al. (2006)Nursing Advocacy: How is it Defined by Patients and Nurses, What does it Involve and How is it Experienced? Scand J. Caring Sci 2006 S. ept;20(3):282-92.
Tfouni, LV; de Carvalho, EC; Scochi, CG (1991) Discourse, institution, power: an analysis of the nurse patient interaction 0 Rev Gaucha Enferm 1991 Jan;12(1):20-5.
Jarrett, N. And Payne, S. (1995) A Selective Review of the Literature…
Mendes, IA, Trevizan, MA, Noqueira, MS, Mayashida, M. (2000) Humanistic Approach to Nursing Communication: The Case of hospitalized Adolescent Female.
Rev Bras Enferm (2000) Jan-Mar, 53(1):7-13.
Williams, Carol A. & Gossett, Monette T. (2001) Nursing Communication: Advocacy for the Patient or Physician" Clinical Nursing Research Vol. 10 No. 3 332-340 (2001) Online available at http://cnr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/3/332 .
Colon-Emeric, Cathleen (2006) Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research Vol. 16 NO. 2, 1713-188 (2006)
Demands That Emergency Workers Are Exposed To
In this day and age, where no one is safe and emergency situations arise all the time, the people behind keeping the peace intact play a very important role. In recent studies it has been observed that emergency workers go through immense pressure and stress, which if gone undiagnosed can lead to major psychological problems. In this paper we will discuss at length the trauma that emergency workers suffer form and how to cope with it.
In the present day, United States is no more considered a safe and peaceful place to feel free, but rather it is more like an everyday war zone. Places like schools, offices, homes and even churches are no longer a safe ground like they were once considered to be, violence and hostility somehow find their way into them as well. Things like homicide, sexual and child abuse…
Jensen, SB (1999) Taking care of the care takers under war conditions, who cares? European University Centre for Mental Health and Human Rights.
Kahill, S (1988) 'Interventions for burnout in the helping professions: a review of the empirical evidence' in Canadian Journal of Counseling Review 22 (3):310342. Journal of Counseling Review 22 (3):310342.
Markey, K (1998) 'Reports on risks to health and safety identified by Concern Worldwide's international personnel ', Concern.
McCall, M & Salama, P (1999) 'Selection, training and support of relief workers: an occupational health issue ' in British Medical Journal 318:1136.
Microsoft's strategies relating to leadership. First, an overview of the company will be provided, followed by a discussion of the company's leadership strategies. These strategies will be assessed as to their effectiveness, and compared to leading theories of effective management.
An Overview of Microsoft
Today, Microsoft is one of the world's largest businesses, and the world's largest and most influential software company (Wired News). The company's products have an extensive impact on both the personal and business world, and are seen in almost every office in North America.
Financially, Microsoft is a giant. Its founder, Bill Gates, was the richest man in the world in 2003, with a staggering estimated personal wealth of $40.7 billion dollars. He has been rated the richest man in the world for seven of the past eight years, and was ranked number two in 1997 (Wikipedia).
Microsoft's product range is varied, but focuses almost exclusively…
Leaning to Lead by Expeience
Two yeas ago, I lost the most impotant peson in my life. My heat ached. Befoe I lost my mom, I thought I was in the most secue point of my life -- but I was not. Thoughout the pocess of gieving, I found out who I tuly was. I was someone who took advantage of situations and people, someone who was caeless with money by spending it ecklessly to make himself feel bette and ignoe poblems. I was someone who neve leaned fom my mistakes and kept huting othes because of these decisions. All I knew was that all of these thing that I was doing wee wong but I did them anyways, because it was the only way I knew to solve my poblems. I had to take a long look in the mio knowing what kind of hoible peson I was. The…
references from books:
1. Northhouse, Theory & Practice. (3) styles of leadership and examples.
2. Dwek, Mind Set: The new psychology of success. I would talk about the process of my leadership.
3. The Arbinger Institute, Leadership and the self deception. Talk about being in the box and out of the box. I have really took this book to heart on how I approach situations and even feelings/thinking of people.
4. Life Map
Accept, qualify or refute the contention that failure of late 19th-early 20th century reforms and the subsequent collapse of the imperial system spelled the end for Confucianism in China.
Although the effectiveness of the attempted reforms implemented in China in the late 19th through early 20th century undoubtedly had significant implications for the followers of Confucianism and its status as a state religion, it would be a stretch to say that it spelled the end of this religion, or ideology, and that it was completely eradicated. Although the followers of Confucianism today represent only a small fraction of the world's total religious community, there are millions of individuals who still follow and practice the teachings of Confucius today. However, with that being said, an argument could be made that before sometime before this period marked the peak of the Confucianism influence in China and its influence plateaued before falling out…
In addition, prison managers must deal with the mundane as well as the human equation, because much of their jobs are in the paperwork, union rules, state statutes, and other regulations that are required in the prison system. Management in the prison is a unique challenge, because of the many responsibilities that come with it. It is clear, just as business management and leadership are evolving, that prison management will continue to evolve, and as it does, it could create model prison systems of the future.
Finally, it is important to note that prisons are unique operations, but they still should uphold management principles. Author Daly continues, "Management is responsible for the mission and strategy of the organization. Prisons are unique with special features but they still reflect the philosophy and methodology of management" (Daly, 2002). Prison management should have clearly defined goals and missions regarding their inmate populations, but…
Boin, a. (2001). Crafting public institutions: Leadership in two prison systems. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Daly, W.C. (2002). Shades of gray in prison administration. Education, 122(3), 488+.
Greene, J. (2003). Chapter Five Lack of correctional services. In Capitalist punishment: Prison privatization & human rights, Coyle, a., Campbell, a., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.) (pp. 56-66). Atlanta: Clarity Press.
The poets that return form there are not left unscathed either. "hen we come home, we are half way. / Our screams heal the torn silence. e are like scars." (illiams xx) Are these the scars healing the slices and cuts in the heart of night? I believe that this is illiams' inference here. That the poet presented as healer performs his or her art, however it is always at a price. Sometime that price is to be misread or misconstrued:
He has been misunderstood as an entirely "social" poet, but his real subject is the mind that attempts, never entirely successfully, to ward off the social world that bombards it from every side. His lines, longer than those written by any other significant English-language poet, suggest a big, hitman-like appetite for worldly variety. This is not simply the case. illiams is a poet of imaginative composure amid real-world disarray.…
Chiasson, Dan. "Review: Collected Poems by C.K. Williams." International Herald Tribune 12 Dec 2006
Deresiewicz, William. "To Tell the Truth" the New York Times 15 Feb 2004
Norris, Keith S. "An Interview with C.K. Williams." New England Review 17.2 (1995): 127-140.
Sadoff, Ira. "Dreaming Creatures." American Poetry Review. 34.1 J (2005): 45-50,