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Humanitarian Action in a Dangerous Age
Humanitarian action in the present dangerous age necessitates "Humanitarian Intervention" and "Pre-emptive action."
Human rights violations have taken place from the medieval times to the present day, throughout the world. Recently, serious and widespread human rights violations and humanitarian catastrophes have rocked the world and prompted new international responses. Cambodia, Uganda, Somalia, Rwanda, Serbia, Bosnia' Cuba and other Latin American countries, South Africa's apartheid regime, East Timor, Congo and most recently Iraq - the list is never ending - have challenged the international communities to deal with these situations. The magnitude, duration, and pace of recent emergencies, as well as how to respond to them, present serious challenges to governments and the larger international community. Actions to address such humanitarian catastrophes are urgently needed. The way a government treats its citizens is no longer exclusively an internal affair. Massive human rights violations, genocide, and…
1. Ramsbotham, Oliver and Woodhouse, Tom (1996), Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict: A Reconceptualization, Polity Press, London.
2. Murphy, Sean D., (1996), Humanitarian Intervention: The United Nations in an Evolving World Order, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.
3. Danish Institute of International Affairs (1999), Humanitarian Intervention: Legal and Political Aspects, Submitted to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Denmark, December 7 (called the "Danish Institute Report").
4. Williams Ian (2003), Intervene with Caution, retrieved from the site http://www.alternet.org/story.html accessed on Nov 26, 2003
Humanitarian Supply Chain Management Project Plan
The project at hand has the potential to really make an impact in the world today. It examines how organizations are actually handling management of humanitarian aid in cases of natural disasters in the attempt to increase overall efficiency of supply chain management. This examination is meant to highlight any inefficient areas in order to better situate humanitarian efforts to become more effective measures for delivering the help that is most needed in dire situations.
The project needs to be incredibly detailed, and thus will have to spend a significant amount of time examining the issues at hand. Thus, the cycle time will be approximately six months for research and project construction, including data collection. Then the project will need another six months for the analysis of the data and the write up of the final document. Interviews and survey analysis…
S. And from the battle field back to the families here in the U.S.A. As well (Military Advantage, 2011).
IV. elief Impact on Economic growth
The relief that the AC provides to the various disaster stricken areas has over the years proven to be vital in the revival of the economy of the areas and the countries at large.
(a). Why some area receive less aid than others
The distribution of aid has various factors that determine the proportion of the aid that an area can receive. The fundamental one is the extent of the need that prevails. There are disasters that destroy the entire supply of the victims and leave them with no supplies; these are usually given more priority than those who need a supplement to the little they are left with after the disaster.
The other factor that would dictate the amount that a region can get…
American Red Cross, (2011). A Brief History of the American Red Cross. Retrieved April 6,
2011 from http://www.redcross.org/museum/history/brief.asp
American Red Cross, (2011). Reports Detail the Work of the American Red Cross in 2010.
Retrieved April 6, 2011 from http://www.redcross.org/portal/site/en/menuitem.1a019a978f421296e81ec89e43181aa0/?vgnextoid=faa6f53dd7f9d210VgnVCM10000089f0870aRCRD
Instead, they chose to pursue their endeavors abroad; I believe such people must possess a genuine concern for improving the welfare of others. I myself have always shared such concerns throughout life; thus I have come to know that humanitarian assistance best expresses such concerns.
The necessity and importance of humanitarian assistance has become more apparent than ever today. The well-publicized situations in countries like Iraq and Afghanistan have served as constant reminders of the suffering people experience during times of war. Recent news has covered the devastating effects of the tsunamis that struck nine countries throughout Asia and Africa, killing more than 20,000 people. Many other regions of the world continue to suffer from hunger, disease, and oppression, even if they don't garner as much public attention as the events mentioned above. This serves to illustrate the importance of humanitarian assistance. Without it, people would be left to fend…
The story highlights the rigors of international aid work, revealing the very real dangers that greet aid workers.
Moreover, the Chechnya situation highlights the problems with political restructuring. Although the first several sections of the book focuses more exclusively on the character of Cuny himself and not necessarily on Chechnya, Anderson already begins to hint at the political underpinnings and motives for his book. Anderson is showing how humanitarian conflicts brew continually worldwide as geo-political boundaries are artificially drawn around nationalism rather than ethnic integrity. The situation in Chechnya continues to be tense, well over a decade after the disappearance of Cuny and his colleagues. Similar conflicts, such as that of the Kurds, also demand sensitive yet conscientious aid.
Scott Anderson, and especially Fred Cuny, understands the importance of humanitarian engineering as an ethical imperative. Communities of marginalized and oppressed people continue to succumb to international pressure and the dictates…
Anderson, S. (2000). The Man Who Tried to Save the World. Anchor.
S. And Haiti communications infrastructure in the damaged areas. The large numbers of generators can be used for other purposes if not needed to power comms equipment. Unfortunately, they require a large workforce to assist with humanitarian effort. The engineer brigade will provide heavy construction support. Including specialized workforce and equipment that can rapidly enhance and build up the temporary infrastructure to support military and locals. It can assess the structural integrity of buildings, bridges, road and power network. They have carpenters, electricians and equipment that can provide disaster relief to aid in personnel recovery and to restore local services.
The U.S. Army special forces will establish contact with and provide security for both Haiti and U.S. government officials. They will advise the Haitian military and security forces. They will also facilitate the evacuation of personnel in rapidly deployable and austere environments. SOF have highly specialized personnel with regional/cultural training…
U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, U.S. Dept. Of Defense. (2009). Joint publication 3-29 foreign humanitarian assistance. Washington, D.C.: U.S.Dept. Of Defense.
"USAID to Provide Emergency Food Aid for Haiti Earthquake Victims." Usaid.gv. USAID, 13 January 2010.
Web. 14 Mar 2012. .
In fulfilling my appreciation for life and all of its wonderful experiences, I have dedicated my efforts to learning and helping others in their journey. Acceptance into "insert schools name" Healthcare Management program appears to be the pathway on which I can continue my studies and contribute to my community and environment.
The decision to contact and ultimately apply to this program is a direct result of the summation of my life experiences. As a child, my main interests always centered around the healing processes and how these processes can be maximized for full efficiency and effectiveness. This field of study both satisfies my internal desire to help others while providing a useful and appropriate means of attaining a respectful and worthwhile career in medicine and healing.
To me, life is a reward and should not be undervalued or marginalized. Protecting this gift by applying methods and systems…
The United Nations defines a complex humanitarian emergency (CHE) as a humanitarian crisis in a country, region, or society where there is total or substantial breakdown of authority ensuing from internal or external conflict and which necessitates an international response that goes beyond the mandate or capacity of any single or ongoing UN country program. Such emergencies necessitate customized, focused, and practical field reactions to be structured within short time frames, frequently under difficult convenience, security, and climate circumstances. Over the years, operational efficiency in the field of humanitarian aid has increased because of experience and research carried out during these emergencies (Complex Humanitarian Emergency Program, 2012).
Humanitarian assistance is the aid to an affected population, which serves as its primary purpose to save lives and alleviate suffering of a crisis-affected population. Humanitarian assistance must be offered in accordance with the basic humanitarian principles of humanity, impartiality,…
Complex humanitarian emergency program. (2012). Retrieved from http://globalhealthsciences.ucsf.edu/education-training/complex-humanitarian-emergency-program
Rice, X. (2011). Drought in east Africa prompts calls to address humanitarian emergency.
Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/jul/04/drought-east-africa-humanitarian-emergency
" (Jonge Oudraat, 338) This shift demonstrates a greater interest in focusing the nature of sanctions strictly on an offending action rather than in a sweeping manner which impacts the civil order of a targeted nation.
An example of use to our discussion might be North Korea, where the UN has increasingly sought sanctions that focus their attention on the equipment, technology and resource required to advance North Korea's ambition for nuclear capability. The desire to protect a public already recognized for its issues of poverty, humanitarian abuse and scarcity of resource has encouraged a shift away from methods of compellence that would seek to break the North Korean regime by popular deprivation of economic and infrastructural necessaries.
The idea of denial and deterrence sharpens the relevance of sanctions by ensuring that deprivation is felt by the regime in question rather than by the public. Even still, such policies are…
Chigas, D. (2007). Chapter 31: Capacities and Limits of NGOs as Conflict Managers Leashing the Dogs of War.
Jonge Oudraat, C. (2007). Chapter 19: Economic Sanctions and International Peace and Security. Leashing the Dogs of War.
Marketing for Humanitarian Organizations
Marketing and Humanitarian
Marketing is often described as the activities which a company or organization undertakes in selling and buying products and services. It involves promoting their products and services through advertising, sales, and delivery to clientele. Marketing is often embedded in the marketing mix which states the four 'Ps' of marketing which are product, place, promotion, and price. Marketing involves concept such as customer relationship management, business marketing, societal marketing, and branding. Customer relationship management refers to the activities conducted to provide the best possible interaction between the organization and its clients to ensure they build loyalty (Piercy and Evans, 1983: 19). Business marketing refers to the activities that organizations or companies take to market themselves to other organizations through providing quality goods and services that make other organizations want to be associated with them. Societal marketing refers to curtailing harmful activities that may occur…
BARBER, P. 2012. Regulation of U.S. Charitable Solicitations Since 1954. Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 23, 737-762.
BARKSDALE, H.C., GOLDSTUCKER, J.L. & DELAUNE, J.W. 1995. Marketing information: a professional reference guide, Atlanta, Georgia, Georgia State University Business Press.
BOULDING, W., MOORE, M.C., STAELIN, R., CORFMAN, K.P., DICKSON, P.R., FITZSIMONS, G., GUPTA, S., LEHMANN, D.R., MITCHELL, D.J., URBANY, J.E. & BARTON, A.W. 1994. Understanding Managers' Strategic Decision-Making Process. Marketing Letters, 5, 413-426.
CABONI, T.C. 2010. The Normative Structure of College and University Fundraising Behaviors. The Journal of Higher Education, 81, 339-365.
Spirituality is not a set of rules and it cannot be understood as an object or even an objective but instead spirituality is a state of being and the essence of the true nature of mankind when receiving positive spiritual energy and guidance and then taking those and applying them to daily live and implementing the accompanying principles, ethics and morals into the processes in forming and directing the culture and society.
erry, Thomas in Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Hill, ernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
Kevin Phillips, Wealth and Democracy: A Political History of the American Rich, roadway ooks, 2002, see also: Public…
Berry, Thomas in Hill, Bernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.cgjungpage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=769&Itemid=40
C.G. Jung. The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1969.
Hill, Bernice. Money and the Spiritual Warrior. Jung: Reflections on Psychology, Culture and Life. 10 May 2009. Online available at:
International Disasters and Humanitarian Law
Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:
Instant physical relief of victims
eduction of social dislocation
estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure
The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.
International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…
Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'
Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
International Humanitarian Aid: Aims vs. Outcome
Humanitarian aid represents a commitment to support vulnerable host populations that have experienced a sudden emergency, requiring ongoing assistance to maintain or improve their quality of life. Over the past 15 years the number of humanitarian agencies, private organizations, governments (taxpayers), corporations, individuals and other stakeholders have grown enormously. This group of diverse donors have differing mandates, values, goals, strategies, actors and activities, but most function under one universal humanitarian principle: to protect the vulnerable by decreasing morbidity and mortality, alleviate suffering and enhance well-being, human dignity, and quality of life. However, many stakeholders believe that humanitarian aid has been unsuccessful in delivering on these promises through lack of coordination and duplication of services. This results in a failure to meet the needs of those meant to benefit. Indeed humanitarian aid with its diverse mandates, roles, people, time lines and funding, as well as…
United Nations (OCHA)
U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OCHA forms a significant part of the United Nations secretariat, which contributes remarkably in matters concerning human welfare across the globe. OCHA's responsibility is key to activities that relate to the saving of human life and interventions of various humans aids that come in handy during natural and man-made disasters. It is a part of the United Nations organization that forms a network, which connects various humanitarian actors in times of emergencies. OCHA has a policy development that distinctly defines its core functions as supporting effective humanitarian aid, saving life, and reducing suffering (OCHA, 2012).
The roles and responsibilities of OCHA cannot be sidelined from the core values and mission of the United Nations body. The mission is to:
Gather humanitarian efforts form different national actors across the globe…
Teng'o, D., & Khan, F.A. (31st March, 2012). Humanitarian response to IDP influx in KP. Humanitarian Bulletin: Pakistan. 3(1). Pp 2-7.
OCHA. (2012). Coordination. OCHA. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://
This is significant, because it is illustrating how the act is giving all nonprofits the chance to be in compliance with: various provisions of the law the moment a particular organization has been added to the list. As a result, the arrests and the activities of law enforcement that are directed at these groups is Constitutional. This based on the premise that they are supporting terrorism by: continually ignoring these distinctions that have been made. At which point, they should be subject to arrest and prosecution under the law.
In this aspect, the decision will have an impact on number of different stakeholders. As far as institutions / groups are concerned, this will have a positive impact for law enforcement and the intelligence community. The reason why is because, they can use the decision as way to effectively target those individuals that are providing any kind of support for…
"Case Detail." WLF, 2010. Web. 18 Jun. 2011.
"Empirical," The Free Dictionary, 2011. Web. 18 Jun. 2011
Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project." Brennan Center, 2009. Web. 18 Jun. 2011.
"Holder v. Humanitarian Law Project." Law Notes, 201. Web. 18 Jun. 2011.
Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?
One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.
A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…
Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."
Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015
"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.
4 May 2015
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
The weakness here is that, given the specificity of the situation analyzed in the article, the conclusions are not nearly as broadly applicable as the author seems to imply. Doubtless the conclusions can be related to other events to some degree, but the author himself acknowledges that a lack of experts on Somalia was instrumental in the ultimate failure of the intervention, and other countries would require other experts and different proposed solutions. Still, the author is quite successful in developing his theory through direct analysis of what key players and documents actually said regarding the issue, basing his theory firmly in facts and drawing conclusions based on effects rather than on theoretical principles.
Along the same line, the research methods that the author employs and his evidence collection are directly related to the research questions that he developed. His citing of Oakley, the U.S. Ambassador in Nairobi, as well…
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
Powell Assertion Number Two: In his Feb. 5, 2003 speech to the U.N., Powell said: "We have no indication that Saddam Hussein has ever abandoned his nuclear weapons program." But in October, 2002, in his memo to the White House, CIA Director George Tenet voiced "strong doubts about a claim President Bush" was about to make in the State of the Union address "that Iraq was trying to buy nuclear materials" from Africa. And on July 24, 2003, Spain's Foreign Minister, Ana Palacio, an ally of the U.S., said their was "no evidence" prior to the U.S. attack on Iraq of a nuclear bomb program by Saddam, according to the Hanley article in Editor & Publisher.
Powell Assertion Number Three: Powell told the U.N. he had proof that Saddam was deploying "Contamination Vehicles" associated with chemical weapons on at least two sites. Those alleged contamination vehicles turned out to be…
Barry, John; Hirsh, Michael & Isikoff, Michael. (2004). "The road to Abu Ghraib began after 9/11, when Washington wrote new rules to fight a new kind of war," Newsweek International.
CBSNEWS.com. (2004). "The Man Who Knew," 4 Feb. 2004. Available:
Dodds, Paisley. (2005). "Gitmo Soldier Details Sexual Tactics," Associated Press, Yahoo News, 27 January.
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…
Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.
Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.
Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.
Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.
Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.
United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.
There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…
Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey
Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en
Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20433238
"UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP." Retrieved online: http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n293725
AIDS and Politics in African
Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…
Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003
Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf
Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003
Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…
Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1
The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#
Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
hile some of the products of this time orientation, like their emphasis on traditional forms of hospitality and the slow pace of the culture in respect to the dynamic rhythms of nature, are valuable and perhaps superior to our own cold, rushed, and removed values, other aspects of the Balti's past-oriented culture are not. There is great religious intolerance by some members of the society, such as the Taliban and a constant hashing-over of tribal and religious grievances produced very negative results. At one point, Mortenson was kidnapped, beaten and threatened by Islamic extremists for his efforts, simply because he was an outsider and American. Mortenson's founding of schools enabled him to share the future-orientation of American culture in a positive way, just as the Balti's hospitality brought positive aspects of their culture into his life.
These forms of fruitful cultural dialogue show the benefits of cultural interaction, and show…
Beer, Jennifer. (2003). High and low context. Culture at work. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at http://www.culture-at-work.com/highlow.html
Gardener, Marilyn. (2006, September 12). A failed mountaineer becomes a philanthropist after a village saves his life. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 5 Nov 2008 at http://www.threecupsoftea.com/2006/09/12/a-failed-mountaineer-becomes-a-philanthropist-after-a-village-without-a-school-saves-his-life/
Kristoff, Nicholas. (2008, July 13). It takes a school. The New York Times. Retrieved 6 Nov 2008. http://www.threecupsoftea.com/2008/07/13/ny-times-school-not-missiles/
Mortenson, Greg & David Oliver Relin. (2007). Three Cups of Tea. New York: Penguin.
.. The history of miscegenation in this country...demonstrate[s] how society has used skin color to demarcate lines between racial groups and to determine the relative position and treatment of individuals within racial categories. (Jones, 2000, p. 1487)
Prior to the civil war lighter skinned blacks were more likely to gain their freedom, and own property, through favor or inheritance. This is probably in part to the public, sometimes even official, recognition of their lineage, often they were the product of their white masters and favored slaves.
The large number of mulattoes among the slaves freed in Missouri suggests the master's benevolence was a genuinely warm feeling he had for persons he knew to be his blood relations. By 1860, the presence of 1,662 mulattoes in the total free Negro group of 3,572 in Missouri, indicates considerable race-mixing. (Official Manual State of Missouri, 1973-1974 "The ole of the Negro in Missouri…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=25779117' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…
Beard, J.M. (2002). America's New War on Terror: The Case for Self-Defense under International Law. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 559+. Retrieved May 9, 2005, from Questia database,
It is important, therefore to understand the different frameworks by which the ethics of an act can be evaluated.
The art of citizenship, as identified by Barber (no date), must taught as part of one's education. It also holds that practical experience is the best way to teach the art of citizenship. People learn about the consequences of their actions by attaching themselves to those consequences physically. In my case, the sheer volume of shoes that I had to sort made the point clear -- I was helping people clothe themselves. Every box of children's shoes I sent was a child that I helped to live a better life. e have a responsibility, Barber argues, to understand the implications of our actions on our communities.
The different approaches to ethics can also be studied through practical experience. It is social interaction that illustrates for us the outcomes of our actions,…
Barber, B. (no date). A model program: Education-based community service at Rutgers University. In possession of the author.
CharityNavigator.org (2011). World Vision. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=4768
Daniels College of Business. (2011). Daniels today and tomorrow. University of Denver. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.daniels.du.edu/aboutus/missionvisionvalues.html
Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. International Monetary Fund. In possession of the author.
The Nerio article shows prisons are organizations because they are run by administrators with power, they serve a purpose in the local economy and in keeping people safe, and they are powerful in the criminal justice system by resolving who stays in prison and who does not. They can be corrupt as organizations, which clearly has severe humanitarian, political, and social repercussions on society, the community, and of course, black Americans, who suffer most from these repercussions.
In conclusion, I agree with these perspectives because the facts do not lie, and there are more blacks in prison, and that helps the economy of many areas, which acting as another way to subjugate black Americans, and prisons are indeed organizations that suffer from an organizational mentality, where blacks do not do as well as whites in organizations. All of this combines to keep more black Americans in prison.
Nerio, R. Prisons as organizations in five parts.
Street, P. (2007). Reverse reparations: Race, place, and the vicious circle of mass incarceration. ZDNet. 1-14.
Western, B. Punishment and inequality in America.
Third Semester Exam
How does Command and Control and Intelligence help the JFC and staff integrate, synchronize and direct joint operations?
Joint Force Commands seek to utilize the full spectrum of abilities and strengths that our military possesses across the entire range of the battlefield. Therefore, JFCs typically focus their efforts in particular types of operations and hold back in others. Thus major operation and campaign tactics must utilize the correct balance between offense, defense and stability operations at all points in planning. It is crucial that planning for stability operations be initiated when joint operation planning begins and not to allow a simple focus on offense and defense obfuscate planning. JFCs must possess a strategic long view and anticipate the switch from combat operations (whether offensive or defensive) to the end of joint operations and the reinstitution of civilian control. A myopic focus on planning offensive and defensive…
Leni Riefenstahl. The writer explores the topic of Riefenstahl and her unethical art. The writer examines the catastrophic consequences and her lack of integrity that lead to horror for millions. There were nine sources used to complete this paper.
Leni Riefenstahl: Her Unethical Art and The Catastrophic Consequences
The reign of Adolf Hitler is one that history will never forget. Under his terrorist reign of terror millions of people died. Those who did not die suffered from the loss of loved ones, loss of privacy and loss of financial stability. It was a time in which the world was introduced to the dangerous side of charismatic politics. While there were many who were fooled in the beginning by Hitler's manipulation tactics they soon learned his true motivations and spent the rest of their lives working to unseat the inhumane dictator. There is one person however, who admired him from the…
JANE SUMNER / Staff Critic, The Riefenstahl riddle: At age 100, famed Germanfilmmaker Leni Riefenstahl still stirs an enigmatic cocktail of emotions., The Dallas Morning News, 08-18-2002, pp 1C.
John Anderson, Leni Riefenstahl, Film's Queen of Denial., Newsday, 03-16-1994, pp 65.
Author not available, THE WONDERFUL HORRIBLE LIFE OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL; DIE MACHT DER BILDER., Magill's Survey of Cinema, 06-15-1995.
saw two houses: one in the suburbs and one in the center of town. he suburban house was less expensive than the one in town so there must be something wrong with it.
he fallacy present in this remark revolves around the notion that when something costs less, it's as a result of some sort of flaw. While there is an expression "you get what you pay for" this expression is not always absolute. Many times there is a host of reasons why something might cost less than something else, and many of these reasons will have nothing to do with flaws or something being "wrong" with the house. For instance, the house might be priced less because it is further a way from the center of town, or might have an undesirable view or might be on a street where some tragic act of violence occurred. Regardless, none of…
The fallacy of this statement is that it seeks to separate human actions from religion. The reality is that man human actions are motivated by their spiritual beliefs and it might be sound in theory to attempt to separate them, but that is not realistic.
20. Socrates is a man. All men are mortal. Therefore, all men are Socrates. (Woody Allen Love and Death 1975)
The fallacies of this statement cannot even be stated. It is illogical and absurdist.
Loma Linda University are particularly attractive and meaningful to you and why you have chosen to apply for advanced education.
I have been in search of an excellent academic program with top quality faculty that also suits my interests, aptitudes, and preferences in geographic locale. Loma Linda University meets all my needs. I grew up in Southern California, and wish to remain here during the course of my education because being close to family and friends is important to me. Loma Linda also supports a multicultural environment, and because I am of mixed heritage, I will feel most comfortable on this campus. I speak English, Spanish, and Chinese and look forward to interacting both with other students as well as faculty members during the pursuit of my advanced degree in health sciences. In fact, it was Loma Linda's commitment to a robust health sciences department that become the primary reason…
(1996) This separation of individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been perpetrated against them in the rhetoric and reality dehumanizes them to a degree and allows discourse on redress and resolution to falter.
Having discussed the main premises of these three, for lack of a better word, philosophers one must now look to Nyers, who discusses the political nature of the status of "refugee" and how in the modern, post 9-11 atmosphere many states have opted to lay a veil of security across international border crossing and refugee status. In the post 9-11 atmosphere it has become common place to "detain" and "deport" those who are seeking political asylum when they come from places of security risk. In short the current situation, cumulative of the highly political and state sponsored international humanitarian body that seeks to divorce individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been done to…
Campbell, David. 1998. Why Fight: Humanitarianism, Principles, and Post-structuralism. Millennium 27. 497-521.
Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Humanitarianism, humanity, human.. Journal of Human Rights. ( June) 2(2). 253-258.
Malkki, Liisa H. (1996) Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization. (August) 11(3). 377- 404.
Nyers, Peter (2003) Abject Cosmopolitanism: The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement. Third World Quarterly. (December) 24(6). 1069-1093.
Intelligence document review
Global Humanitarian Emergencies 1993-1994. (1994). CIA. etrieved:
"Basic intelligence concentrates mainly on descriptions, with a secondary focus on explanation and evaluation" (Major 1994: 7). The document "Global Humanitarian Emergencies 1993-1994" published by the CIA contains a review of different crises which occurred during the years 1993-1994. It contains basic intelligence in the form of facts and figures about countries around the world in what could be considered 'hot spots' of regional discord or which have been affected by serious, dramatic natural disasters. The document provides an overview of is purpose in its introduction, and then delves into various regional conflicts, including civil wars and natural events like droughts and floods. It identifies sources of humanitarian relief, such as the European Community and the UN and profiles their resources (Global Humanitarian Emergencies 1993-1994, CIA: 11).
The document provides specific regional profiles…
Global Humanitarian Emergencies 1993-1994. (1994). CIA. Retrieved:
Major. John. Communicating intelligence. Joint Military Intelligence College.
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.
Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.
Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.
Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.
Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.
Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…
AFP. (2010). Ivory Coast PM urges UN to speak out on poll results. AFP. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iedxpbLd4aBzQjdcFHeD-LdVH2qA?docId=CNG.347958328eebaf1a5122e531750726d6.c81
Africa Speaks. (2011). 2010 elections in Cote d'Ivoire: What most media do not tell you. Africa Speaks. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.africaspeaks.com/reasoning/index.php?topic=7026.0
Aloisi, S. (2003). New hope of Ivory Coast peace as rebels join talks. The Guardian. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2003/jan/09/westafrica
AP. (2011). Gbagbo nationalizes cocoa in Ivory Coast. Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved May 21, 2011 from http://finance.yahoo.com/news/Gbagbo-nationalizes-cocoa-in-apf-4254897232.html?x=0&.v=1
On November 8, 2001, the U.S. Senate passed several new conditions before direct 'military-to-military relations can be restored with Indonesia including the punishment of the individuals who murdered three humanitarian aid workers in West Timor, establishing a civilian audit of armed forces expenditures, and granting humanitarian workers access to Aceh, West Timor, West Papua, and the Moluccas."
Following are two very recent bills and rulings by the U.S. Congress concerning the Indonesian presence, changes, and sanctions.
In the House resolution, number 666, urton (R-IN), Wexler (D-FL), and lumenauer (D-OR) congratulate the Indonesian people and government for a successful election process, supported Indonesia in political and economic transformations, expresses gratitude to Indonesian leadership for arresting 109 terrorists, supports the emerging legal framework, commends Indonesia for "discovering new ways of working with regional law enforcement and intelligence communities in a sincere effort to root out domestic radicalism, and urged Indonesia to conduct…
(2001). U.S. And Indonesia Pledge Cooperation, Joint Statement Between the United States of America and the Republic of Indonesia.
(2001, October 1). U.S. To Send Team to Indonesia To Discuss Combating Terrorism. Xinhua News Agency.
(2001, November 27). U.S. Admiral Urges Indonesian Military To Account for East Timor Mayhem. Agence France-Presse.
Baker, P. (1997, April 22). U.S. To Impose Sanctions on Burma for Repression. Washington Post.
As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.
At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…
Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/etc./cron.html
Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html
Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42
United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2.htm
This paper looks at the public policy of R2P and humanitarian intervention abroad, which serves as a major drain on American resources and benefits a foreign country more than it does the U.S. The money spent on these wars waged under the banner of R2P could be better spent on projects at home. The solution to this flawed policy is to address the elephant in the room, which is the Israeli lobby, to end the wars in the Middle East and put that money into healthcare, education or infrastructure back home, and to deny the persons in the State Department who serve under one administration from serving under the next so that they cannot force their continuity of government onto the incoming administration.
Much has been made of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine that has become the de facto, go-to reason for intervening in other parts of…
The ole of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs and their Involvement in the elief Efforts Following the 2002 Nyirangongo Eruption
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) operates under the remit of the United Nations Secretariat, with 35 global offices and approximately 1,900 staff (OCHA, 2012). The organization has four principle roles which are stated as being a part of its' mission (OCHA, 2012). The first role is as an inter-agency body; involved in the mobilization and coordinating of actors that respond to humanitarian emergencies, which it aims to perform in a principled manner to help alleviate the suffering caused by disasters and emergencies (OCHA, 2012). The actors that are mobilized and coordinated by the OCHA include United Nations (UN) actors and non-governmental organizations (NGO's) at both national and international levels (OCHA, 2012). The second role of the OCHA…
OCHA, (2012), retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://www.unocha.org/
O'Malley, Stephen, (2002, Sept 16), The role of OCHA in the emergency operations following the eruption of the Nyiragongo Volcano in Goma, Democratic Republic of Congo, report for the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, retrieved 12th August 2012 from http://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic-congo/role-ocha-emergency-operations-following-eruption-nyiragongo
Though Gareth Evans identifies a continued need or justification for the responsibility to protect (R2P) by citing the existence of mass atrocities around the world even to this day,[footnoteRef:2] there is a contrary perspective that indicates the political and imperial manner in which the R2P doctrine can be used as a cover for hegemonic aims.[footnoteRef:3] Humanitarian intervention has been used as the excuse of the West, for instance, in various invasions around the world since 9/11 (but well before that as well) on up to the current crisis in Venezuela, over which the U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo and Sen. Rubio along with Ambassador Bolton have been using social media to promote R2P and justify regime change in the South American country in order to drum up support (both domestically and internationally) for American military action in the southern hemisphere. There are, of course, ethical considerations to be made when…
One also has to question the 'rationality 'of these criteria in the light of the severity of the possible repercussions and diplomatic fallout.
The most acceptable criterion which could justify the use of force in intervention is when the freedom of the state of the safety of its citizens comes under real and tangible threat. However, what is much more questionable are other criteria which are vague and possibly ethically suspect. For example, the view of theorists like Clausewitz that forceful intervention is a tool used by the states to achieve certain political objectives:"….war was merely one means states might employ to achieve objectives set by political authorities" ( Viotti and Kauppi, 2009, chapter 7).
The above perspective, in my point-of-view, is unacceptable as a true criterion for the intervention by force. The reason for the rejection of this criterion is not only on ethical grounds but also refers to…
Brown, B.S. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention at a Crossroads. William and Mary Law Review, 41(5), 1683. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761450' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Conflict in DC (Case Study)
Conflict in DC
Conflict in the Democratic epublic of Congo
Background of DC Conflict
The Democratic epublic of Congo (DC), otherwise also known as epublique Democratique du Congo from their French masters and formerly Zaire is a nation situated in Central Africa boasting of a very brief coastline that runs approximately 37 Kms. DC is the third largest country in the entire Africa and stands at 12th position in terns of size in the world scale with 2,345 Square Kms (U.S. Department of State, 2010). It is the eight in the world in terms of population and fourth in Africa with the 71 million populations.
DC is neighbored by Central Africa epublic and Sudan from the northern side, the Atlantic Ocean is on its West, to the south Zambia and Angola border it and wanda, Uganda and Burundi are its neighbors to the East.
Claudia Rodriguez, (2007). Sexual Violence in South Kivu, Congo, Forced Migration
Retrieved February 11, 2011 from http://www.vday.org/drcongo/background
Electoral Institute for the Sustainability of Democracy in Africa, (2011). Democratic
Republic of the Congo. Retrieved February 10, 2011 from http://www.eisa.org.za/WEP/drc.htm
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press
Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
Political Issues Based on the Film "Eye in The Sky" In Which Government Attitude, Which Decides Who Lives and Who Dies for The Cause of The Nation Is Examined
The film "Eye in the Sky" is somewhat a literal depiction of war fare between the drones. This is a flagrantly contrived film that examines the ethics of using remote control to kill. The subject was dramatized a year ago in Andrew Niccol's film "Good Kill." In this film, there is a simplistic device of the little girl in which it is made clear that the new ones have no chance of winning hearts. The debate is getting awful to change any mind; even though, there is no attempt to try and change the mind. That is where its strength lies. In the film "Eye in the Sky" the case is argued on all fronts: the merits and the perils of…
(Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1) Limitations of the program were acknowledged after a study reported findings which state: "...there an awareness of hidden areas of trauma that exist in this population, such as, for instance, an awareness that most humanitarian entrant women (between 80% and 100%) have been the victims of rape and the shame associated with this mitigates against disclosure and dealing with the effects of it." (Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1)
Allan, David and afoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good eginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EF9E6-975-438-2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Allan, David and Bafoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good Beginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EFB9E6-9B75-438B-B2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Gallegos, Danielle, et al. (2007) Service Provision in the Upper Northern Suburbs for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Scoping Study. March 2007. On behalf of the CaLD Interagency Reference Group for the Northern Metropolitan Corridor. Online available at http://www.cscr.murdoch.edu.au/CaLDNorthScopingReport.pdf
Spinks, Harriet (2008) Adult Migrant English Program Budget 2009-09 Social Issues. Parliament of Australia. Parliamentary Library. Online available at http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/RP/BudgetReview/Social_Issues.htm
Save the Children, 'Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/emergencies/africa/
IRC, 'Food for Thought: Malnutrition's Insidious Impact on Children', Accessed May 4th 2008, Available at, http://www.theirc.org/news/food_for_thought_malnutrition-s_insidious_impact_on_children.html
IFPRI, 'Looking Ahead: Long-Term Prospects for Africa's Agricultural Development and Food Security," Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.ifpri.org/2020/dp/vp41.asp
UNICEF, 'SUDAN Summary for 2005', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.unicef.org/media/files/sudan_summary2005.pdf
UN News, 'New UN Survey Reveals Alarming Malnutrition Rates among Darfur's Children', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=25178&Cr=sudan&Cr1
Charles W. Corey, 'United States has spent $1 illion in Feeding the Hungry in Darfur', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://usinfo.state.gov/af/Archive/2006/May/11-849194.html
Save the Children, ' Save the Children in Sudan', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/countries/africa/sudan.html
Tash Shifrin, 'Sudan on the Verge of Mass Starvation," Guardian, May 24, 2004
USINFO, 'Success in Measles Control', Accessed May 4th 2008, available at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0307/ijge/success.htm
UNICEF, 'New Southern Sudan Government and UN…
Oxfam, 'Sudan: Darfur Crisis," Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.oxfam.org/en/programs/emergencies/sudan/
UNICEF, 'Children of Darfur live Under a Mantle of Fear', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at, http://www.unicefusa.org/news/news-from-the-field/children-of-darfur-live-under.html
Save the Children, 'Sudan: Humanitarian Crisis', Accessed May 3rd 2008, available at http://www.savethechildren.org/emergencies/africa/
IRC, 'Food for Thought: Malnutrition's Insidious Impact on Children', Accessed May 4th 2008, Available at, http://www.theirc.org/news/food_for_thought_malnutrition-s_insidious_impact_on_children.html
Logistic Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations by teven J. Romano
It seems to me that Romano is addressing his article to the Department of Defense (DOD) pointing out various issues in their humanitarian missions that he thinks need addressing. I found the article heavy and intense, although it is lightened up, to some extent, by photographs. Nonetheless, I wondered how the photographs were related to the issue at hand.
Romano is unhappy with the way that the DODF conducts its humanitarian missions saying that the DOD violates many logistical concerns in their operations:
Most humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations are characterized by rapidly changing circumstances and a lack of clear and accurate information; they are also distinguished by substantial pressure to quickly provide relief supplies and materiel to an affected area.
Romano maintains that DOD does have "the airlift capacity, disaster funding, critical supplies, and logistics systems to…
Romano, SJ. Logistics Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations
Developing and Supporting a esearch Question on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Various occupations expose practitioners to traumatized communities or victimized individuals. The exposure increases the risk of these groups to significant levels of stress that affect their health and health outcomes negatively. Empirical evidence shows that people such as clinicians working with those in pain, fear, and suffering have a high risk of developing cognitive, emotional, and physical consequences. Whether exposure to a traumatic event is a disaster or occupational hazards, the consequences of such exposure might present with symptoms of sleeplessness, nightmares, hopelessness, and other forms of stress traumatic disorders (Engel, Schutt, & Engel, 2010). However, exposure to extreme levels of such stress predisposes the individuals to post-traumatic stress the presents over time, unless a corrective action is taken. Therefore, it is at this level that the role of the social worker becomes apparent. The social workers provide services…
Corby, B. (2006). Applying research in social work practice. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Engel, R.J., Schutt, R.K., & Engel, R.J. (2010). Fundamentals of social work research. Los n Angeles: SAGE.
Engel, R.J., & Schutt, R.K. (2011). The practice of research in social work. Los Angeles: SAGE.
Epstein, I. (2010). Clinical data-mining: Integrating practice and research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
opportunity, I would demand UN's immediate attention to the education of children in crisis zones (Duncan, W. aymond, 2008). I would endorse an urgent call for the UN secretary General's action to make sure that vulnerable youth and children across the world obtain quality education by ensuring that:
Schools are protected from attacks
Ensuring that there is a significant increase in humanitarian support towards education
Incorporating emergencies in the budgets before they happen
I would urge the secretary general to take immediate action regarding the 30 million kids residing in nations that are scarred by conflict and violence. This would include millions of children who have been struck by humanitarian crisis such as earthquakes, flood shortages, flooding and other disasters. I would support the UN secretary general's initiative of education which incorporates measures of ensuring the right to education to all kids including all kids living in crisis zones. I…
Duncan, W. Raymond. (2008). World Politics in the Twenty-first Century Brief. Houghton:
Yearbook of the United Nations - 2003. (2005). New York: Department of Public Information.
Clean Water Crisis
Every human being on earth necessitates at least 20 to 50 liters of clean, safe water on an everyday basis for the purposes of drinking, cooking, and basically maintaining themselves to be clean. However, there is a significant need for clean water in countries. In the contemporary setting, statistics indicate that 1 in 9 individuals lack accessibility to clean and safe water (Water.org). There are 844 million people across the globe that are presently living without access to clean water. This lack of clean water has resulted in a health crisis as it causes diseases. Notably, access to safe water leads to poor sanitation, which consequently adds to deteriorated health and increases the spread of infectious diseases. The inference of this is that it results in increased child and mortality rates. Statistics further indicate that every 2 minutes in the present day, a child does because…
D., a senior child-protection specialist with the Christian Children's Fund. "You don't falter. You don't disobey. Any show of weakness and you're killed" (Amber, 2004).
Hamer (2010) writes "Child soldiers were portrayed as having no connections in society, without skills, incompetent and prone to violence, and it was strongly implied that they were trapped in a vicious circle and that they would always experience difficulties in returning to a non-violent routine because they had been actors and witnesses of too many atrocities during the war (p. 54).
Post Traumatic Stress
It is possible to identify with captors by other means as well. Due to their age and size children are basically powerless in the world. By identifying with their tormentors it is possible for children to gain a strong sense of power, denied to them by other means. By following orders they may come to believe they will receive additional…
Amber, J. (2004). Abduction of Innocents. Essence (Time Inc.), 35(8), 172-218. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Convention on Rights of the Child. (n.d.). United Nations Office of the High Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 6, 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf
Denov, M. & MacLure, R. (2006). Engaging the Voices of Girls in the Aftermath of Sierra Leone's Conflict: Experiences and Perspectives in a Culture of Violence. Anthropologica. Vol. 48, No. 1, War and Peace / La guerre et la paix (2006), pp. 73-85. Published by: Canadian Anthropology Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25605298
Dickson-Gomez, J. (2002, Dec.). Growing up in Guerrilla Camps: The Long-Term Impact of Being a Child Soldier in El Salvador's Civil War. Ethos. Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 327-356 .
The study will also be important to those in the future, because scientists have not yet found ways to cure these chronic illnesses or correct some of these problems that are seen today, and therefore it stands to reason that there will be more people in the future who will have to face the same problems as those with chronic illnesses and traumatic injuries today.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is relatively large, simply because there has been a great deal written about chronic illness and injuries from the perspective of the physician and from the perspective of the patient. Both sides are important, although the focus here will remain largely on the patient perspective. Because there are so many people today that suffer from a chronic illness or traumatic injury, much study has been done about these individuals. Despite these studies, however, not a lot…
Anderson, B.L. (2002). Biobehavioral Outcomes Following Psychological Interventions for Cancer Patients. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(3), 590-610.
Brannon, L., & Fiest, J. (2004). Health Psychology: Vol.. An Introduction to Behavior and Health (Fifth ed.) Belmont CA: Thompson/Wadsworth.
DiMatteo, M. (2004). Social Support and Patient Adherence to Medical treatment: A Meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 23(2), 207-218.
Eitel, P., Hatchett, L., Friend, R., Griffin, K.W., & Wadhwa, N.K. (1995). Burden of Self-Care in Seriously Ill Patients Impact on Adjustment. Health Psychology, 14(5), 457-463.
Enacted after the horrors of World War II demonstrated the limitations of earlier treaties, the Geneva Convention of 1949 have become one of the preeminent international standards dictating the behavior of combatants and the treatment of individuals in the context of international and other conflicts, to the point that it has become a part of generally accepted customary international law. Building upon three earlier treaties signed in Geneva, the Convention of 1949 outlined rigorous standards defining and governing the treatment of civilian and military prisoners, the wounded, and civilians found in and around the war zone. Over the course of the last decade, the centrality of the Geneva Convention to international war and politics has come to the fore as a result of debates surrounding the relevance of the Convention to the United States execution of the War on Terror, especially in regards to the treatment and detainment…
(2008). Senior u.s. officials acknowledge waterboarding of three suspected terrorists; administration defends practice. The American Journal of International Law, 102 (2),
Bellamhy, A. (2008). Security and the war on terror. New York: Routledge.
Bugnion, F. (2000). The geneva conventions of 12 august 1949: From the 1949 diplomatic conference to the dawn of the new millennium. International Affairs, 76 (1), 41-50.
However, despite this sweeping generalization offered by the government, U.S. foreign policy has always been clear and direct about its stance against terrorism. Even President Clinton, far prior to the tragedy of 9/11 addressed the United Nations General Assembly about the importance of the prevention of international terrorism and identified it as a major priority in the world arena (Chomsky, 84).
What must be stressed at this point is that terrorism is about the frustrations of a voiceless country -- one that feels that it will not be heard through conventional political or military means. Since the root of the problem is political, the solution is more of a political issue than a security issue because the solution is not in counterstrikes, or fighting fire with fire, but in finding a way to restore the country's voice so that the frustration is relieved instead of stoked (Scheuer, 88). So far…
Taheri, A. (1988). Nest of Spies. New York: Pantheon Books. Discusses how American polices in Iran have failed since World War II. It provides the history of post-WWII foreign policies with the Middle East and plainly details Kissinger's role in the downfall of positive relations with the country. Offers little in the way of solutions except for being an advocate of the truth in media and the education of the American public on its own foreign affairs and other government workings.
Hartung, W.D. Breaking the arms-sales addiction. World Policy Journal, winter 1990-
91, 7. Describes the fundamental policies and drives behind the arms sales of the U.S. And Britain. Reveals how the sale of arms is, on the surface, seemingly beneficial to the enemy nations, but is in fact a key element of keeping those nations from acquiring capital and therefore independence. Discusses polices of genuine humanitarian efforts and peace treaties that would eliminate the need for the oppression of capital and therefore the perceived need of arms sales.
Chomsky, N. (1999). The new military humanism: lessons from Kosovo. Maine:
On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda attacked the heart of the American economy causing not only losses in terms of property and financial damage, but also widespread terror and fear which extended far beyond the borders of the United States of America affecting the world as a whole. Like any other nation, the foremost interest of the United States is national security[footnoteRef:1], which entails not only the security of the American people, but also the security of the American soil. Since American leadership has always looked towards a better future, the moral aim is to eliminate any such danger that exists in the 21st century, leading to a more peaceful, globalized near future[footnoteRef:2]. President arrack Obama clearly stated in his speech that had there been no such risk, the troops deployed in Afghanistan would be ordered back home immediately. This objective of preserving national security, however, is aimed…
Dagne, Ted, Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace, August 31, 2011, 3-4
Testimony by Menkhaus, Ken, Horn of Africa: Current Conditions and U.S. Policy, Hearing before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, June 17, 2010
International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Afghanistan Commander Counterinsurgency Guidance, 1-4
Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, Report to Congress, March 2009, 1