Humanitarian Intervention Essays (Examples)

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Moral Interventions

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29121753

Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?

One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.

A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."

Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015

"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.

4 May 2015
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U S Intervention in Somalia Introductory

Words: 2117 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11699405

As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.

At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…… [Read More]

References

Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/ etc./cron.html

Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html

Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42

United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from:  http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2.htm
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International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19231916

International Disasters and Humanitarian Law

Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:

Instant physical relief of victims

eduction of social dislocation

estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure

The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.

International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'

Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
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Somalia Intervention and the Public

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34755946

They also felt like they could assist in the war efforts. This is what the American public had issues with because in our effort to create a more peaceful Somalia, we were losing some of our troops in the process.

Providing relief to eliminate starvation should not mean the loss of life for anyone. On the one hand, we want to help those who are severely in danger. On the other hand, does this mean that those we send to aid and assist can expect to lose their lives by doing what is considered humanitarian? The right thing for most of us is to do what is humanitarian by providing food for those that are starving. When met with opposition, it is natural for this country to feel the need to help those in need. It must be understood that in any war, lives will be lost. While we do…… [Read More]

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UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86181811

SAFETY

United Nations (OCHA)

U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

OCHA forms a significant part of the United Nations secretariat, which contributes remarkably in matters concerning human welfare across the globe. OCHA's responsibility is key to activities that relate to the saving of human life and interventions of various humans aids that come in handy during natural and man-made disasters. It is a part of the United Nations organization that forms a network, which connects various humanitarian actors in times of emergencies. OCHA has a policy development that distinctly defines its core functions as supporting effective humanitarian aid, saving life, and reducing suffering (OCHA, 2012).

The roles and responsibilities of OCHA cannot be sidelined from the core values and mission of the United Nations body. The mission is to:

Gather humanitarian efforts form different national actors across the globe…… [Read More]

References

Teng'o, D., & Khan, F.A. (31st March, 2012). Humanitarian response to IDP influx in KP. Humanitarian Bulletin: Pakistan. 3(1). Pp 2-7.

OCHA. (2012). Coordination. OCHA. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://
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Military Intervention Richard Kugler Outlines

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5163160

" Clearly, strengthening America's military is a unilateral objective that requires a focused military agenda.

The remaining six features that Kugler identifies from the National Security Strategy are inherently multilateral. Championing aspirations for human dignity, the first feature, is vague but likely refers to issues related to gender, class, and social struggles worldwide. esolving such struggles requires multilateral efforts. The second and third features, strengthening alliances to prevent and defeat global terrorism and working with others to defuse regional conflicts are explicitly cooperative in tone. Preventing enemies from threatening peace may require both multilateral and unilateral action, depending on the situation. Igniting a new era of global economic growth and expanding the circle of development both clearly require the cooperation of foreign markets, regional trade organizations, and the international private sector as well.

eference

Kugler, ichard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a…… [Read More]

Reference

Kugler, Richard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a Globalized World."
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Protection and Humanity Intervention in an Independent

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15977729

Protection and Humanity

Intervention in an independent state

Sadly, human rights violation persists in this modern era. This is clearly the case in third world countries run by operators. The states are all independent for that matter; there comes a point when third party must intervene for saving the humanity at large.

When massive portions of population are being wiped off, efforts must be taken to avert the killings. The violations of human rights are a concrete reason to intervene in an otherwise independent state.

There are a number of factors which affect the present dilemma. By proposing that human rights are being violated means that the issue at hand is being handled too loosely. This paper will profess to highlight the value of human rights violation. Then situations will be examined where it was imperative to intervene, considering the ins and outs each party carry. The justification of the…… [Read More]

References

Cheadle, Don. Prendergast, John. (2005). Never again' again. USA Today.

United Nations Chronicle. (1993). Enforcing human rights: The UN machinery. Vol 30 (1) p93-95

Ghandhi, P.R. (1998). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at fifty years: Its origins, significance and impact. German Yearbook of International Law Vol 41 p206-252

The Economist. (2005). Lengthening the arm of global law. Vol 375 (8421) p38
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Identifying Optimal Interventions for a Terrorist State

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91391971

ECJ5 Action Officer's GRADE, NAME

APPROVED BY: ____ DATE

STRATEGIC ESTIMATE OF THE CAUCASUS REGION

Ahurastan has a population of 33 million, comprised of 80% Azeri, 9% Kurd, and 11% other, and is 89% Shi'a and 10% Sunni.

Ahurastan was founded in 2019 and the government is a military dictatorship.

The current Ahurastan president is Piruz Dilanchi and the prime minister is General Ali Kerimli.

The country is a terrorist sponsor that supports the South Azeri People's Army (SAPA) and places the country at odds with Azerbaijan. Ahurastan naval vessels have confronted Turkish and Azerbaijani oil exploration vessels in the Caspian Sea but trade with Armenia continues.

The country appears to be strengthening its relationship with Russia which sells arms to the Ahurastan military.

Ahurastan also has a number of nuclear facilities that Iran would like to reacquire.

Current U.S. programs include securing Caspian Sea routes through support of the…… [Read More]

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Interventionism From the Perspective of Realism vs

Words: 13409 Length: 44 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80916514

interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…… [Read More]

'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.

Available from . [24 Aug 2013].

Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
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IR Review Fox J 2001

Words: 541 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82913282

The weakness here is that, given the specificity of the situation analyzed in the article, the conclusions are not nearly as broadly applicable as the author seems to imply. Doubtless the conclusions can be related to other events to some degree, but the author himself acknowledges that a lack of experts on Somalia was instrumental in the ultimate failure of the intervention, and other countries would require other experts and different proposed solutions. Still, the author is quite successful in developing his theory through direct analysis of what key players and documents actually said regarding the issue, basing his theory firmly in facts and drawing conclusions based on effects rather than on theoretical principles.

Along the same line, the research methods that the author employs and his evidence collection are directly related to the research questions that he developed. His citing of Oakley, the U.S. Ambassador in Nairobi, as well…… [Read More]

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Post War Iraq a Paradox in the Making Legitimacy vs Legality

Words: 14187 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57694954

Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality

The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1

The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990

Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003

Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.

Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
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September 11 and the New Emerging International

Words: 4078 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83500963

eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order

This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.

As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.

IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…… [Read More]

Sources:

Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1

The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#

Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm

Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
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Turkey to Address the Needs of the

Words: 1982 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16187352

Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.

United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.

There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…… [Read More]

References

Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online:  http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey 

Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en

Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20433238 

"UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP." Retrieved online: http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n293725
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Global Refugee Regime Seems to Be Veering

Words: 10399 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23350149

Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules

As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.

The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…… [Read More]

Sources

Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114

Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.

Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992

Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
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Global Socioeconomic Perspectives the Issue

Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55091806

One also has to question the 'rationality 'of these criteria in the light of the severity of the possible repercussions and diplomatic fallout.

The most acceptable criterion which could justify the use of force in intervention is when the freedom of the state of the safety of its citizens comes under real and tangible threat. However, what is much more questionable are other criteria which are vague and possibly ethically suspect. For example, the view of theorists like Clausewitz that forceful intervention is a tool used by the states to achieve certain political objectives:"….war was merely one means states might employ to achieve objectives set by political authorities" ( Viotti and Kauppi, 2009, chapter 7).

The above perspective, in my point-of-view, is unacceptable as a true criterion for the intervention by force. The reason for the rejection of this criterion is not only on ethical grounds but also refers to…… [Read More]

References

Brown, B.S. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention at a Crossroads. William and Mary Law Review, 41(5), 1683. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761450

Hillen H. (1996) American Military Intervention: A User's Guide. Retrieved from http://www.heritage.org/Research/Reports/1996/05/BG1079nbsp-American-Military-Intervention-a-Users-Guide

Johnson J. Which Criteria Should the President Use to Decide on Armed Intervention?

Retrieved from  http://gotmine9.blogspot.com/2008/05/which-criteria-should-president-use-to.html
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U S Foreign Affairs Since 1898

Words: 3511 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23289174

S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.

Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…… [Read More]

References

Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:

Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm

Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at  http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html 

Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
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Political Science United States Participation

Words: 2003 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71236377



orks Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198

Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021483873

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002379425

Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002428204

Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5012238644

Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5024612690

Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001290275

Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106744168

Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001203447

Talbot, Karen.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198

Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021483873

Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
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Management Decision-Making

Words: 2912 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64068892

Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.

Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at  https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf . [Accessed 25 April 2015]

Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press

Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
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Politics of Protection by the UN

Words: 3081 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28609689

Legal egulation Conservation Laws on UN Countries Territories

For a long time, the roles of the UN in managing state affairs and world peace have evolved. There are more state and non-state actors in the process of developing and imposing UN laws in sovereign states. This research paper aims at evaluating legal regulation of the conservation laws of UN of the countries territories. The essay argues that the regulations are not sufficient in conserving country progress.

ussia is noticeable in the modern world through its interventions during the post-Soviet era with the special focus of the current leadership. China is trending towards becoming increasingly authoritarian through its military-geopolitical or oil/gas-motivated expansionist diplomatic offensives on neighboring or trading countries propelled by the current leader. The authoritarian behavior appears to be supported by a strong sovereignty sense (Ferris, 2011). The UN has taken it to be a case of economic weakness within…… [Read More]

References

Browne, M.A. (2011). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. New York: DIANE Publishing.

Ferris, E.G. (2011). The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action. New York: Brookings Institution Press.

Freedman, R. (2013). The United Nations Human Rights Council: A critique and early assessment. New York: Routledge.

Ramcharan, B.G. (2009). The Protection Roles of UN Human Rights Special Procedures. New York: BRILL.
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Edkins Campbel and Malkki All

Words: 1494 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39780750

(1996) This separation of individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been perpetrated against them in the rhetoric and reality dehumanizes them to a degree and allows discourse on redress and resolution to falter.

Having discussed the main premises of these three, for lack of a better word, philosophers one must now look to Nyers, who discusses the political nature of the status of "refugee" and how in the modern, post 9-11 atmosphere many states have opted to lay a veil of security across international border crossing and refugee status. In the post 9-11 atmosphere it has become common place to "detain" and "deport" those who are seeking political asylum when they come from places of security risk. In short the current situation, cumulative of the highly political and state sponsored international humanitarian body that seeks to divorce individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been done to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Campbell, David. 1998. Why Fight: Humanitarianism, Principles, and Post-structuralism. Millennium 27. 497-521.

Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Humanitarianism, humanity, human.. Journal of Human Rights. ( June) 2(2). 253-258.

Malkki, Liisa H. (1996) Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization. (August) 11(3). 377- 404.

Nyers, Peter (2003) Abject Cosmopolitanism: The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement. Third World Quarterly. (December) 24(6). 1069-1093.
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International Relations Theory and United Nations Peace

Words: 2630 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23279245

International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:

International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…… [Read More]

References:

Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there

A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,

Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26

November 2011,
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Kosovo War

Words: 2552 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27675563

strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…… [Read More]

References

Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html

Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12

Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)

Need reference for W.U.
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Abduction of Innocence Though Adults

Words: 3226 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33234415

D., a senior child-protection specialist with the Christian Children's Fund. "You don't falter. You don't disobey. Any show of weakness and you're killed" (Amber, 2004).

Hamer (2010) writes "Child soldiers were portrayed as having no connections in society, without skills, incompetent and prone to violence, and it was strongly implied that they were trapped in a vicious circle and that they would always experience difficulties in returning to a non-violent routine because they had been actors and witnesses of too many atrocities during the war (p. 54).

Post Traumatic Stress

It is possible to identify with captors by other means as well. Due to their age and size children are basically powerless in the world. By identifying with their tormentors it is possible for children to gain a strong sense of power, denied to them by other means. By following orders they may come to believe they will receive additional…… [Read More]

References

Amber, J. (2004). Abduction of Innocents. Essence (Time Inc.), 35(8), 172-218. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Convention on Rights of the Child. (n.d.). United Nations Office of the High Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 6, 2011.  http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf 

Denov, M. & MacLure, R. (2006). Engaging the Voices of Girls in the Aftermath of Sierra Leone's Conflict: Experiences and Perspectives in a Culture of Violence. Anthropologica. Vol. 48, No. 1, War and Peace / La guerre et la paix (2006), pp. 73-85. Published by: Canadian Anthropology Society Article Stable URL:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/25605298 

Dickson-Gomez, J. (2002, Dec.). Growing up in Guerrilla Camps: The Long-Term Impact of Being a Child Soldier in El Salvador's Civil War. Ethos. Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 327-356 .
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U S Foreign Policy Was Deeply

Words: 3095 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31241896



It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).

Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Baumgartner, J.C. & Francia, P.L. & Morris, J.S. A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.s. Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly 61.2 (2008).

2. Farer, T.J. (2004). The Interplay of Domestic Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (New York: Routledge.

3. Klinkner, P.A. Mr. Bush's War: Foreign Policy in the 2004 Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36.2 (2006).
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U S Policy Concerning Iraq War

Words: 3455 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93404755

However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.

At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf

Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003

Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.

Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
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Theoretical Applications on Why Bill

Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3464459

Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.

One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bacevich, a.J., and Eliot a. Cohen. 2001. War over Kosovo. Columbia University Press.

Morgenthau, Hans J. 1978. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 5th ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.

Sell, Louis. 2003. Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press, September 1.

Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring): 391-425.
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Human Security Origin and Development

Words: 3263 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8278717

It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.

Rethinking the Concept

Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.

General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:

Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009

Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,

Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
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International Law Consists of Customs

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99213216

S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).

However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at  http://findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421

Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:

Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm

Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
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Suspect Just Like Any Other

Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34487544

The convention entitles those who have not attained 18 years to special protection. State parties admitting those under the age of 18 into their national armed forces under voluntary recruitment must ensure that such recruitments are genuinely voluntary. Informed consent of the parents of such recruits has to be sought. ecruits have to be fully informed of their engagements in such military service. The protocol forbids armed groups that are not armed forces of states from enlisting those under the age of 18 years into their ranks as to take part in armed conflicts. State parties are called upon to ensure that legal measures are taken against armed groups that recruit individuals below the age of 18. State parties must ensure that the principles and provisions of this protocol are known and promoted. Other than the optional protocol there exists international humanitarian law that safeguards the rights of a child.…… [Read More]

References List

Badescu, C.G. (2010). Humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect: security and human rights. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis

Evans, G. (2006). From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 3(2)

Grey, S. (2006). Ghost Plane: The True Story of the CIA Rendition and Torture Program. New York: St. Martin's Griffin.

Linde, C. (2006). The U.S. Constitution and International Law: Finding the Balance. Journal of Transnational Law & Policy, 15 (2), 307-308.
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Black Hawk Down Directed by Ridley Scott

Words: 2806 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67969843

Black Hawk Down, directed by idley Scott. Specifically, it will look at a summary of the film, what part of the film was accurate, what impact it had on the period; what impact it had on future periods; and what impact, if any, it may have on you. "Caring about someone's life, rather than your own," is a very powerful and brave belief to breathe under, as declared by producer, Jerry Bruckheimer. "Black Hawk Down" brings out the "heroism under fire" by which every brotherly soldier of the U.S. angers and Delta Force reside.

HISTOY AND BLACK HAWK DOWN

Somalia - 1993. Two sides were fighting against each other to gain control of Somalia. One was led by "a member of the Abgal (Hawiye) subclan, and the other by General Mohamed Farad Aidid, a member of the Habr Gidir (Hawiye) subclan" (Lefebvre 49). By November 1991, thousands of Mogadishu residents…… [Read More]

References

Black Hawk Down. Dir. Ridley Scott. Perf. William Fichtner, Josh Hartnett, Ewan McGregor, Jeremy Piven, Sam Shepard, Tom Sizemore. Sony Pictures, 2001.

Clarke, Walter M., and Jeffrey M. Herbst, eds. Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.

Lefebvre, Jeffrey A. "The U.S. Military Intervention in Somalia: A Hidden Agenda?" Middle East Policy II.1 (1993): 44-62.

Menkhaus, Ken. "U.S. Foreign Assistance Somalia: Phoenix from the Ashes?" Middle East Policy V.1 (1997): 124-149.
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About Egypt

Words: 1533 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65027965

History Of Egypt

Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3

The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4

ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5

Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6

Conclusion & Suggestions

Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,

and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.

Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.

Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
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International Law and the Invasion

Words: 5121 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75791788

The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material breaches that necessitated enough authority to take action.

Iraq consistently violated many of the Security Council resolutions created by the United Nations and many of these dealt primarily with inspection of facilities and disarmament. Because Iraq continually violated these resolutions the rationale for military action came about largely from this issue. The fact that the terrorist attacks had taken place and there were possible links between Iraq and Al Qaeda also caused much of the tension. The disregard for these resolutions,…… [Read More]

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International Affairs Political Science -

Words: 2284 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19605268

S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."

Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"

During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:

1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…… [Read More]

References

The Post Cold War Army Online at http://www.army.mil.cmh-pg/books/COS/34-42.htm.

Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf

Russia Country Analysis: A Country Report Online available at: Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf

Kupchan, Charles (2002) The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-first Century - Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs Online available at http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID / 9/prmID/876
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Chinese-American Relations What the Future Holds

Words: 3451 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19865291

Sino-U.S. elations in the Post-Cold War Era

Today, China and the United States are inextricably linked in the modern world and some observers maintain that any disagreements that emerge between the two countries are relatively insignificant and will not adversely affect this growing economic and political relationship. By contrast, other international analysts argue that recent trends in China's economic and military growth will inevitably result in armed conflict between these two superpowers. To determine the facts, this paper provides a discussion concerning the accuracy of these respective viewpoints concerning the status of Sino-U.S. relations in the post-Cold War era, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

China's development in the 20th century

The 20th century was a turbulent one for China, marred by major famines, foreign occupation and civil unrest.[footnoteef:1] Despite these problems and the enormous challenges in achieving self-sufficiency in food production, the…… [Read More]

References

Bruce, Jacobs J. "Looking North, Looking South: China, Taiwan, and the South Pacific," China Review International (Fall 2012) 19(3), pp. 367-372.

Buszynski, Leszek, "The South China Sea: Oil, Maritime Claims, and U.S. -- China Strategic Rivalry," The Washington Quarterly (2012), 35(2), pp. 139-156.

"China" (2015). CIA World Factbook. [online] available https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html.

"China economic profiles," (2015) NationMaster. [online] available: http://www.nation master.com/country-info/profiles/China/Economy.
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International Law and the Use

Words: 1984 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63908669

And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."

On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office

Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College

Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association

Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
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Human Security Is a Rising

Words: 1459 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47899607

Some writers have also reverberated the dread that human security could become a philosophical tool.

Does Respectable Conception it work? Altering Facets OF Human Safety.

Founded on this apparently un fluctuating contrast of opinions produced by procedural insufficiencies and possible incoherency, there is other approaches that can be proposed. In an appreciation, to some it seems to have come full circle: there are important resemblances concerning the impression of human security as stated from the expansion reports / UN angle, on the one hand, and on the other, Galtung's theory of structural violence and human psychosomatic potential (Roberts). Certainly, Sabine Alkire describes the goal of human security as "being to defend the vigorous center of all human lives in methods that progress individual liberties and human contentment," a description that replicates Galtungian measurements of human growth. ut in spite of the likelihood of uncertainty and haziness natural in such a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Roberts, D. (2005). Empowering the Human Security Debate: Making it Coherent and Meaningful. International Journal of WorldPiece, 3.

Snedeker, Laura. (2010) "Wolf Blitzer: "Is Human Rights More Important than American National Security?" 16 November, 2007. 18 April, 2010. .

Suhrke, A. (1999). Human Security and the interests of States. Sage Publications, 265-276.

Kumar, C. Raj. (2005). "Human rights implications of national security laws in India: combating terrorism while preserving civil liberties." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 22 March, 2005. 18 April, 2010. .
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U S Cuba Culture Cultural Differences Between the

Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12175010

U.S. Cuba Culture

Cultural Differences between the U.S. And Cuba

The role of culture in society has become increasingly important as the United States continues to spread its influence around the globe. Developing a sense of cultural awareness represents a type of knowledge that can be useful in mitigating sources of conflict. In the military cultural factors have been a critical, yet mostly unexamined, aspect of missions conducted in Africa and the Middle East since the end of the first Gulf ar in 1991 and cultural factors played an important, but usually unacknowledged, role in shaping the scope of the United States' humanitarian intervention in Somalia during the 1990s[footnoteRef:1]. However, there has been a growing awareness that cultural awareness is a critical success factor that needs to be further developed because it can serves as a critical success factor in dealing with other nations. [1: (underle)]

Cuba and the U.S.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Murray, M. Katrina aid from Cuba? No thanks, says U.S. 14 September 2005. Web. 13 April 2013.

Wunderle, W. Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for U.S. Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries. Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute Press, n.d. Print.
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Society and War

Words: 2371 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52016082

War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.

John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']

Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.

Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1.

Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
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European Convention Human Rights African Charter Human

Words: 2522 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6722480

European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .

Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.

From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…… [Read More]

References

African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights. University of Minnesota. 1981.  http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm . (accessed March 05, 2011).

Calvocoressi, Peter. World Politics since 1945. London: Longman, 2008.

Council of Europe. "European Convention on Human Rights." Hellenic Resource Center. 2010.  http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html  (accessed March 05, 2011).

Louw, Frans Viljoen and Lirette. "State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1994-2004 ." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007.
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Ethics of War

Words: 2010 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43083612

Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar

hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.

Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.

Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.

Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
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What Were the Causes of the Civil War in Somalia

Words: 3477 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64181976

Somalia Civil war

SOMALIA- CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WA

Columbia Encyclopedia describes the geographical position of Somalia in these words:

Somalia is directly south of the Arabian Peninsula across the Gulf of Aden. It comprises almost the entire African coast of the Gulf of Aden and a longer stretch on the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the NW by Djibouti, on the W. By Ethiopia, on the SW by Kenya, and on the S. And E. By the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu is the capital. There are 18 regions. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2000)

Somalia has been ruled by various imperial empires. Some of its earlier rulers were the nations of Oman, Turks and Zanzibar. Most of these nations lost control in Somalia. Britain, France and Italy came to this part of the world in the 19th century. Each country has had a say during its rule. It was…… [Read More]

References

The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, Page 43895, 2000

I.M. Lewis: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, I.M. Lewis, Westview Press, 1988

Simons, Anna: Networks of Dissolution: Somalia Undone, Westview Press, 1995

Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Walter M. Clarke, Jeffrey M. Herbst, Westview Press, 1997
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China IR Study Notes

Words: 3601 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91167370

China

Is China a status quo or aggressive power?

Johnston (2013) argues that China's allegedly new assertiveness is nothing of the sort. He makes the case that this view underestimates the aggressiveness of past Chinese foreign policy, and that the country has not really changed its level of assertiveness. This aligns with the explanations that Fravel (2007) has of past hard power that China has used in border disputes, which also highlights that there has been aggression in the past. The author also argues that the assertiveness level of Chinese foreign policy since 2010 has been overstated. The crux of the argument made is that China was always assertive in certain contexts with respect to foreign policy, and it remains assertive in those contexts. The level of assertiveness has not actually changed much. Perhaps people are just noticing it more -- he literally shows a graph of news articles about…… [Read More]

References

Callahan, W. (2012). China's strategic futures. Asian Survey. Vol. 52 (4) 617-642.

Fravel, M. (2007). Power shifts and escalation explaining China's use of force in territorial disputes. International Security. Vol. 32 (3) 44-83.

Huang, Y. & Ding, S. (2006). Dragon's underbelly: An analysis of China's soft power. East Asia Vol. 23 (4) 22-44.

Hughes, C. (2011). Reclassifying Chinese nationalism: The geopolitik turn. Journal of Contemporary China Vol. 20 (71) 601-620.
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U S Foreign Policy Pre and

Words: 4171 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95331019

A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).

President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437

Beard, J.M. (2002). America's New War on Terror: The Case for Self-Defense under International Law. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 559+. Retrieved May 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Buchanan, P.J. (1999) a Republic, Not an Empire: Reclaiming America's Destiny, Regenary, 1999, Washington, D.C.

Bryd, R.C. Senator, (2004) Losing America: Confronting a Reckless and Arrogant Presidency. W.W. Norton, New York http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001205015
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International Policies and Laws

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86323620

Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.

Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…… [Read More]

References

Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.

Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8

Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.

Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
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Services Provided to Support and

Words: 1753 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10200111

(Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1) Limitations of the program were acknowledged after a study reported findings which state: "...there an awareness of hidden areas of trauma that exist in this population, such as, for instance, an awareness that most humanitarian entrant women (between 80% and 100%) have been the victims of rape and the shame associated with this mitigates against disclosure and dealing with the effects of it." (Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1)

ibliography

Allan, David and afoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html

Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good eginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EF9E6-975-438-2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf

Gallegos, Danielle,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allan, David and Bafoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html

Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good Beginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EFB9E6-9B75-438B-B2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf

Gallegos, Danielle, et al. (2007) Service Provision in the Upper Northern Suburbs for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Scoping Study. March 2007. On behalf of the CaLD Interagency Reference Group for the Northern Metropolitan Corridor. Online available at http://www.cscr.murdoch.edu.au/CaLDNorthScopingReport.pdf

Spinks, Harriet (2008) Adult Migrant English Program Budget 2009-09 Social Issues. Parliament of Australia. Parliamentary Library. Online available at http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/RP/BudgetReview/Social_Issues.htm
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Se Asia Conflict Triggers Local

Words: 2740 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78817321

229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.

If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:

In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…… [Read More]

References

Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.

Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.

Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.

Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.
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Critical Incident Stress Management CISM

Words: 1341 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67422380

Compassion Fatigue and Secondary Trauma

It is now six months after the attack on the nuclear power facility and low level radiation release. The critical incident stress management plan has been an affect and long-term intervention strategies are now in place. However, it is now time to consider the effects of long-term stress from managing those that have stress related to the critical incident. This research will consider the effects of compassion fatigue on staff and secondary stress on those who have to treat first responders and in their families.

Symptoms of Secondary Trauma Among Family Members and Staff

The issue of secondary trauma among family members was addressed previously in the overall critical incident stress management plan. Family members were offered services when requested by them. At the time of the incident, supervisors were requested to schedule workers on rotating shifts with adequate time off for rest and stress…… [Read More]

References

Figley, C. (1995). Compassion Fatigue: Coping with Secondary Traumatic Stress. Routledge,

London, UK.

Clair, M. (2006, August). The Relationship between Critical Incidents, Hostility, and PTSD

Symptoms in Police Officers. Retrieved from http://idea.library.drexel.edu/bitstream/1860/1118/1/Clair_Mary.pdf
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International Law and Human Trafficking

Words: 3756 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59467640

The new law has prosecuted 426 traffickers in 203 cases. These traffickers had 844 victims in that year alone. This law imposes penalties from 10 years imprisonment to life imprisonment (Kyodo).

Myanmar: Effective or Not?

The capacity of the national government in fighting the problem of human trafficking has been limited (UNODC 2007). It is particularly limited in implementing policy changes in remote areas where traffickers operate. Anti-trafficking groups are looking into the situation. The UNODC addresses the issue by implementing projects and participating in partnership initiatives in the country. These projects and initiatives include increasing public awareness of the problem, provision of technical assistance for the law enforcement sector and the judiciary, greater and easier access to service providers and enhancing their capabilities (UNODC).

Cambodia

Reports say that Cambodia is a source, transit and destination country for human trafficking (HumanTrafficking.org 2009). Human traffickers consist of organized crime syndicates, parents,…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

CIA. Russia. The World Fact Book: Central Intelligence Agency, 2009. Retrieved on April 23, 2009 from http://www.cia.gov/library/publications/2732.htm

Gekht, Anna. Shared but Differentiated Responsibility Integration of International

Obligations in Fight against Trafficking in Human Beings. Denver Journal

International Law and Policy: University of Denver, 2008. Retrieved on April
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Order and Justice in World Politics

Words: 1979 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3919620

Facilitating a Geographical Corporate Environment of Human ights in Brazil

This company has been retained by The New Global Link (TNGL), a corporation that has recently been awarded a license to do business in the country of Brazil. As such, TNGL, in retaining this company, seeks to understand the Brazil in terms of its socio-economic-political environments. TNGL, an American corporation, has a reporting responsibility and a fiscal responsibility to its shareholders, and is to ensure its success globally, beginning in Brazil, where it will be working towards further global expansion in South America. It therefore essential that TNGL establish itself not just as a corporate business partner with the country of Brazil, but as a social and economic partner that realizes that the social and economic health and well being of the country will reflect itself on TNGL in numerous ways. Therefore, TNGL is seeking a comprehensive briefing that will…… [Read More]

Reference List www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108125967

Balderston, Daniel, Mike Gonzalez, and Ana M.L pez, eds. Encyclopedia of Contemporary Latin American and Caribbean Cultures. London: Routledge, 2000. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108126074.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95812157

Moreno, Albrecht. "Bossa Nova::Novo Brasil the Significance of Bossa Nova as a Brazilian Popular Music." Latin American Research Review 17, no. 2 (1982): 129-141. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95812158.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001760348
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Nursing Recent Research Shows That Mental Health

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57185155

Nursing

ecent research shows that mental health problems can manifest in early childhood. As many as one in ten Australian children under five exhibit symptoms of social, emotional, and mental disorders including temper tantrums, difficulty adapting to new surroundings, problems relating to peers, and hyperactivity (Edwards & Martin, 2012). Although psychological diagnoses like clinical anxiety or depression are not typically made on populations under five, researchers do identify early childhood behaviors as risk factors for developing mental health disorders later in life. Thus, being withdrawn or inhibited has been identified as "one of the best identified risk factors for later anxiety disorders," (apee, Kennedy, Ingram, Edwards & Sweeney, 2005, p. 488). Early childhood behaviors can reveal to parents and counselors the warning signs of childhood and adolescent psychiatric problems such as Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Sawyer, Arney, Baghurst, et al., 2008). It is important to…… [Read More]

References

Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H. & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 129(2), Mar 2003, 195-215.

Duncan, G.J., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Kato Klebanov, P. (2008). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development 65(2): 296-318.

Edwards, V. & Martin, S. (2012). Preschool mental health toll at 10pc. The Australian. 24 Dec, 2012.

Felner, R.D.; Stolberg, A. & Cowen, E.L. (1975). Crisis events and school mental health referral patterns of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 43(3), Jun 1975, 305-310.
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Civil War Termination

Words: 1779 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48793798

consequences of the interventions by the UN in Somalia and Mozambique demonstrates a better scope of identifying situations to predict that the conditionality under which the interference might or might not entail the coveted consequences. A successful intervention is considered to be one where the conflict between adversaries concluded with the effectuation of a formal peace pact. A failure activity on the other hand refers to one where the adversities persistently go on intermittently during the process of interference. The demarcation of an effective act of interference having been instituted makes it easier to probe into the reasons behind the failed intervention in Somalia and the effective intervention in Mozambique. (UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone)

Let us first consider the successful UN intervention in Mozambique, the causes for the success and the reasons which had made the successful intervention to become…… [Read More]

References

Bethany, Lacina. International Interventions and Imperialism: Lessons from the 1990s. SAIS Review Sample Article. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2003. Retrieved from  http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/sais_review/sample.html  Accessed on 10 May, 2005

Jett, Dennis C. Lessons Unlearned - or why Mozambique's successful Peacekeeping Operation might not be replicated elsewhere. The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance. 20 January 2002. Retrieved from http://www.jha.ac/Ref/aar008.htm Accessed on 10 May, 2005

Limitations of African Peacekeeping Efforts. Monograph. No: 33: Constructive Disengagement. December, 1998. Retrieved from http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No33/Limitations.html Accessed on 10 May, 2005

UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone.
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Manipulation of Media Coverage During War on Iraq

Words: 3487 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70599967

Manipulation of Media Coverage During War on Iraq

The role of the media is critical in nearly every walk of life now because of its expanse especially in the last decade. The media has grown into such a powerful tool of communication and influence that it has now become an integral part of the wars that are being fought e.g. The War on Terror or the U.S. intervention in Iraq. The reason behind the media being such an integral part of the international wars is because the world is now a global village where to preserve the right image and intentions in fighting or winning a war it is important to win the opinions and the support of the global community. Even though most media outlets aim to present both sides of the story, many journalists agree that the pattern has always been the formation of an opinion that is…… [Read More]

References

Aday, S., Livingston, S., & Hebert, M. Embedding the truth: A cross-cultural analysis of objectivity and television coverage of the Iraq War. Harvard International Journal of Press / Politics, 10(1), 3-22. 2005.

Bennett, W.L. The news about foreign policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1994.

Center for Media and Public Affairs. The media go to war: TV news coverage of the war in Iraq. Media Monitor, 2003, July-August, 17(2), 1-8.

Chief of the General Staff, General Sir Mike Jackson, Ministry of Defence Press Conference, London, 28 March 2003.