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Even if it, the tyranny of the majority would challenge the idea that sovereignty should be the utmost principle by which the world's people guide itself.
The United Nations has developed the R2P concept on the basis of its philosophical vision for the world. The organic development of sovereignty in couched in the ideal of control over territories by the people who live there. hen the latter condition does not hold, the case for placing the value of sovereignty above the value of humanitarian intervention weakens. Syria was a signatory to R2P, so the regime there understands that not only does it have an obligation to its own people, but that the international community also has an obligation to the Syrian people. It is morally acceptable, therefore, for the international community to override Syria's sovereignty in order to provide humanitarian intervention. Such an intervention would necessarily need to be…
Finnemore, M. (2002). Constructing norms of humanitarian intervention. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. Retrieved November 15, 2012 from http://www.metu.edu.tr/~utuba/Finnemore.pdf
Holzgrefe, J. (2003). The humanitarian intervention debate. Humanitarian Intervention Ethical, legal and political dilemmas. Cambridge University Press.
Philpott, D. (2008) Revolutions in sovereignty: How ideas shaped modern international relations. Princeton University Press.
Powers, G. (2012). Humanitarian intervention in Syria: A classic just war? Huffington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2012 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/gerard-powers/humanitarian-intervention-and-just-war-in-syria_b_1707436.html
Humanitarian Intervention in Somalia (1990)
What is genocide?
When it comes to genocide there is a lot of disagreement amongst legal scholars as to what is enough to qualify as genocide. But basically genocide is described as the logical, structured, planned attack or in other words the deliberate destruction of a national, religious, racial or ethnic group. The said destruction could be in whole or in part. Scholars of the legal system have long since debated as to what is enough so as to qualify as genocide. The 1957 United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) has laid out what it believes to be a precise definition. As described by article 2 of 1957 (CPPCG) the act of genocide is described as any act that is mean to destroy in entirety or in part any racial, ethnic, or religious group by the following…
Africa Watch. (1992). 'Somalia: Beyond the warlords', News from Africa Watch, Vol. 5, No 2, p.6.
Alton, F. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention: Crafting a Workable Doctrine. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Andre, L.S. (2005). Stateless Justice in Somalia. Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue.
Arthur S.B., Muller, T.C., Overstreet, W. (2008). Political Handbook of the World 2008, CQ Press, p.1198.
Using NATO and Other Alliances to Counter International Terrorism
The increased use of terrorism to attack foreign nations has increased during the last decade at an alarming rate and on an even more alarming scale of destruction. Following the September 11, 2001, attack on the United States by organized terrorists, and because the United States' response to that attack has since itself come under world scrutiny and criticism, the time has arrived for the world community to take decisive action in coming to agreement on how, and by whom, action should be taken to prevent and to respond to acts of terrorism. This essay takes the position that the United Nations is not the entity that should be charged with preventing and confronting terrorist activity. Rather, that responsibility should be placed upon a different organization, and one that does not come under the management or control of the…
Barnes, Sam. Humanitarian Aid Coordination during War and Peace in Mozambique, 1985-1995. Uppsala: Nordic African Institute, 1998. Questia. 6 Nov. 2007
Humanitarian intervention is morally and legally justified in response to internal atrocities, even at the expense of national sovereignty.
The ongoing violence in Syria has raised the specter of intervention by external forces in order to address the growing humanitarian crisis. Yet to this point, no foreign government or body has been willing to intervene. The legitimacy of humanitarian intervention at the expense of national sovereignty has been an issue for over a century (Kahler, 2011). The most recent guidance on the issue comes from the UN General Assembly, which passed guidance known as "responsibility to protect." The final arbiter of such intervention under the R2P framework in the UN Security Council, and any nation that signed on to R2P must accept that it may one day be subject to intervention, as such action would be legal if the UNSC approves it.
The R2P mechanism was put into place because…
Chesterman, S. (2011). Leading from behind: The responsibility to protect, the Obama doctrine, and humanitarian intervention in Libya. New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers.
Kahler, M. (2011). Legitimacy, humanitarian intervention and international institutions. Politics, Philosophy and Economics. Vol. 10 (1) 20-45
Pape, R. (2012) When duty calls: A pragmatic standard of humanitarian intervention. International Security. Vol. 37 (1) 41-80.
Rauchhaus, R. (2009). Principal-agent problems in humanitarian intervention: Moral hazards, adverse selection and commitment dilemma. International Studies Quarterly. Vol. 53 (4) 871-884.
The neoliberal conception of the world that emerged after World War Two incorporated an expanded role for international agencies, led by the United Nations, and an expanded sense of common responsibility among nations. Humanitarian intervention is one of the ways in which this common responsibility has manifested. The process of decolonialization in particular has brought about new conceptions of sovereignty and the nation-state. The UN emphasized one of the key ways in which these ideas have changed. In the past, a nation's sovereignty was absolute, but in the modern world the move has been more towards the concept of human rights, of the individual, and this can at least in some selected cases trump the sovereign nation-state. The UN in particular has instituted the concept of the Right to Protect, meaning humanitarian intervention.
Toward Humanitarian Intervention
The UN's charter did not make mention of peacekeeping, and yet peacekeeping…
Iraq War: Humanitarian Intervention?
No news item garners more interest and more debate today in America and around the world than the impending second war against Iraq. President George Bush led a coalition in a war against Iraq over a decade ago after Iraq's leader, Saddam Hussein, attacked and overran the small princely state of Kuwait.
Coalition forces "drew a line in the sand" and forced Saddam Hussein's forces out of Kuwait. Of course, the popular mandate at the time was a liberation of Kuwait, but truly the only rallying cry could have been sovereignty, as the Kuwaiti people - subjects of a princely state - were anything but liberated according to the de Toquevillian version of liberation and democracy under which American and its allies function.
Today, a similar situation has reared its head. After prosecuting a war on terror in Afghanistan, the Philippines, Bali and other distant locales,…
(Somalia - UNOSCOM 1. Background) However, a major limitation of the initiative was that the UN force was limited to self-defense, which resulted in it being infective and virtually ignored by the various warlords in the regions.
The United States also attempted to intervene and manage the conflict. To this end the U.S. organized a military coalition with the purpose of, "...creating a secure environment in southern Somalia for the conduct of humanitarian operations" (Somalia). This coalition was known as the Unified Task Force or UNITAF and began functioning in the country in 1992 under the name Operation Restore Hope. The central aim was to restore order and reduce the impact of famine in the country. This initiative was replaced in 1993 by the United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II).
Neither of these efforts was to achieve any lasting success towards conflict resolution or management. The reason often…
Annan, K. The Causes of Conflict and the Promotion of Durable Peace and Sustainable Development in Africa," Report of the Secretary-General. 1998, January 18, 2008. http://www.un.org/ecosocdev/geninf/afrec/sgreport/report.htm www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011979485
Bellamy, Alex J. "Responsibility to Protect or Trojan Horse? The Crisis in Darfur and Humanitarian Intervention after Iraq." Ethics & International Affairs 19.2 (2005): 31+.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
Briefing of SRSG a. Ould-Abdallah to the United Nations Security Council, UN
George . Bush made the Bolton appointment while the Senate had been dismissed for holiday and only then. Even conservatives in the U.S. Senate were never warm to the rhetoric of Bolton. He was rude, pushy, and the most anti-United Nations ambassador in the history of American diplomacy. In fact Bolton wanted the U.S. To pull out of the UN at one point. It was difficult to imagine why a U.S. president, even a conservative president, would seek to appoint a man with such a shrill, ostentatiously hostile attitude about the institution he was appointed to serve.
In his critique of Bolton's book (Surrender is not an Option), Richard Gowan (associate director for policy at the Center on International Cooperation at New York University) notes that Bolton famously stated: "The United Nations to this day remains the UN of UNICEF trick-or-treating on Halloween…" (Gowan, 2008, p. 502). Bolton alluded to…
Badescu, Christina G. (2007). Authorizing Humanitarian Intervention: Hard Choices in Saving
Strangers. Canadian Journal of Political Science. 40(1), 51-78.
Berdal, Mats. (2005). The United Nations, peacebuilding, and the genocide in Rwanda.
Global Governance, 11(1), 115-131.
Humanitarian intervention: hen is it justified?
One of the most controversial concerns of 20th and 21st century international affairs is the question of when it is justified to embark upon humanitarian interventions. On one hand, there have been clear examples in recent history of genocides (most notably in Rwanda and Bosnia) that clearly defy human decency. On the other hand, the concept of national sovereignty well as the logistics and costs of a coordinated humanitarian intervention can be daunting. Furthermore, calls for humanitarian intervention also often provoke concerns about using such interventions as the pretext for self-interested actions of a more powerful state. This paper will argue that while there are legitimate philosophical objections to humanitarian interventions, on a practical basis such interventions are required to preserve international stability and to prevent future warfare.
A number of theorists of international relations believe that humanitarian interventions of any kind are unjustified.…
Clarke, Walter & Herbst, Jeffrey. "Somalia and the Future of humanitarian intervention."
Foreign Affairs. March/April. 1996. Web. 4 May 2015
"Dutch state liable for 300 Srebrenica massacre deaths." The Guardian. 16 Jul 2014. Web.
4 May 2015
As the end of the Cold War, would present a unique opportunity to take advantage of this situation. This strategy could have been successful had there been a commitment from both the U.S. And UN to the long-term stability of Somalia. The problems began, when the different roles of the mission would change and there would not be enough resources or support to obtain the different objectives of UNSOM II.
At the same time, various war lords and terrorists would fear that a large international presence will take away their power as well influence. At which point, they would begin to target the different troops and aid workers. This is troubling, because various bureaucrats and political talking heads refused to take into account this reality. As a result, both operations were doomed to failure because there were no resources or the support to engage these warlords and terrorist. This would…
Ambush in Mogadishu. (2010). PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/ambush/ etc./cron.html
Glossary a -- B. (2001). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved from: http://www.umass.edu/wsp/statistics/glossary/ab.html
Qualitative Research. (2009). Market Research World. Retrieved from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=393&Itemid=42
United Nations Operation in Somalia. (2003). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom2.htm
International Disasters and Humanitarian Law
Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:
Instant physical relief of victims
eduction of social dislocation
estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure
The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.
International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…
Jonathan Winters, (2009) combating Corruption in the Multilateral Development Banks'
Paul Wodlfowitz, (2006) press conference, U.S.Pacific command, Indonesia 16 January
They also felt like they could assist in the war efforts. This is what the American public had issues with because in our effort to create a more peaceful Somalia, we were losing some of our troops in the process.
Providing relief to eliminate starvation should not mean the loss of life for anyone. On the one hand, we want to help those who are severely in danger. On the other hand, does this mean that those we send to aid and assist can expect to lose their lives by doing what is considered humanitarian? The right thing for most of us is to do what is humanitarian by providing food for those that are starving. When met with opposition, it is natural for this country to feel the need to help those in need. It must be understood that in any war, lives will be lost. While we do…
United Nations (OCHA)
U.N. Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
United Nations Office of the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs
OCHA forms a significant part of the United Nations secretariat, which contributes remarkably in matters concerning human welfare across the globe. OCHA's responsibility is key to activities that relate to the saving of human life and interventions of various humans aids that come in handy during natural and man-made disasters. It is a part of the United Nations organization that forms a network, which connects various humanitarian actors in times of emergencies. OCHA has a policy development that distinctly defines its core functions as supporting effective humanitarian aid, saving life, and reducing suffering (OCHA, 2012).
The roles and responsibilities of OCHA cannot be sidelined from the core values and mission of the United Nations body. The mission is to:
Gather humanitarian efforts form different national actors across the globe…
Teng'o, D., & Khan, F.A. (31st March, 2012). Humanitarian response to IDP influx in KP. Humanitarian Bulletin: Pakistan. 3(1). Pp 2-7.
OCHA. (2012). Coordination. OCHA. Retrieved July 20, 2012, from http://
" Clearly, strengthening America's military is a unilateral objective that requires a focused military agenda.
The remaining six features that Kugler identifies from the National Security Strategy are inherently multilateral. Championing aspirations for human dignity, the first feature, is vague but likely refers to issues related to gender, class, and social struggles worldwide. esolving such struggles requires multilateral efforts. The second and third features, strengthening alliances to prevent and defeat global terrorism and working with others to defuse regional conflicts are explicitly cooperative in tone. Preventing enemies from threatening peace may require both multilateral and unilateral action, depending on the situation. Igniting a new era of global economic growth and expanding the circle of development both clearly require the cooperation of foreign markets, regional trade organizations, and the international private sector as well.
Kugler, ichard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a…
Kugler, Richard L. "A Distinctly American Internationalism for a Globalized World."
Protection and Humanity
Intervention in an independent state
Sadly, human rights violation persists in this modern era. This is clearly the case in third world countries run by operators. The states are all independent for that matter; there comes a point when third party must intervene for saving the humanity at large.
When massive portions of population are being wiped off, efforts must be taken to avert the killings. The violations of human rights are a concrete reason to intervene in an otherwise independent state.
There are a number of factors which affect the present dilemma. By proposing that human rights are being violated means that the issue at hand is being handled too loosely. This paper will profess to highlight the value of human rights violation. Then situations will be examined where it was imperative to intervene, considering the ins and outs each party carry. The justification of the…
Cheadle, Don. Prendergast, John. (2005). Never again' again. USA Today.
United Nations Chronicle. (1993). Enforcing human rights: The UN machinery. Vol 30 (1) p93-95
Ghandhi, P.R. (1998). The Universal Declaration of Human Rights at fifty years: Its origins, significance and impact. German Yearbook of International Law Vol 41 p206-252
The Economist. (2005). Lengthening the arm of global law. Vol 375 (8421) p38
ECJ5 Action Officer's GRADE, NAME
APPROVED BY: ____ DATE
STRATEGIC ESTIMATE OF THE CAUCASUS REGION
Ahurastan has a population of 33 million, comprised of 80% Azeri, 9% Kurd, and 11% other, and is 89% Shi'a and 10% Sunni.
Ahurastan was founded in 2019 and the government is a military dictatorship.
The current Ahurastan president is Piruz Dilanchi and the prime minister is General Ali Kerimli.
The country is a terrorist sponsor that supports the South Azeri People's Army (SAPA) and places the country at odds with Azerbaijan. Ahurastan naval vessels have confronted Turkish and Azerbaijani oil exploration vessels in the Caspian Sea but trade with Armenia continues.
The country appears to be strengthening its relationship with Russia which sells arms to the Ahurastan military.
Ahurastan also has a number of nuclear facilities that Iran would like to reacquire.
Current U.S. programs include securing Caspian Sea routes through support of the…
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
The weakness here is that, given the specificity of the situation analyzed in the article, the conclusions are not nearly as broadly applicable as the author seems to imply. Doubtless the conclusions can be related to other events to some degree, but the author himself acknowledges that a lack of experts on Somalia was instrumental in the ultimate failure of the intervention, and other countries would require other experts and different proposed solutions. Still, the author is quite successful in developing his theory through direct analysis of what key players and documents actually said regarding the issue, basing his theory firmly in facts and drawing conclusions based on effects rather than on theoretical principles.
Along the same line, the research methods that the author employs and his evidence collection are directly related to the research questions that he developed. His citing of Oakley, the U.S. Ambassador in Nairobi, as well…
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order
This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.
As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.
IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…
Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1
The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#
Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm
Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
Turkey to address the needs of the Syrian refugees, thereby facilitating the safety of the refugees while ensuring the health of the local Turkish communities.
United Nations leader Ban Ki-moon has described the Syrian Civil War as having reached "appalling heights of brutality," ("UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP"). According to official United Nations counts, more than 460,000 Syrians have fled Syria to find safety, and those numbers are expected to surge to 700,000 by the beginning of 2013. Most of the refugees have crossed over the border to Turkey and also to Jordan, but many others have gone farther -- to North Africa and Europe. With the crisis having already reached epic proportions, and growing bigger, the time for providing a Christian plan of aid is nigh.
There are many options for assisting the refugees. The most pressing is to help Turkey build enough well stocked…
Krajeski, Jenna. "Taking Refuge: The Syrian Revolution in Turkey." World Policy Institute. 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.worldpolicy.org/journal/summer2012/taking-refuge-syrian-revolution-in-turkey
Ozey, Ramazan. "Turkey's Land Borders and Border Disputes." Retrieved online: http://www.ramazanozey.net/rozey/icerik/detay.asp?id=4&dil=en
Reynolds, James. "Syrian Refugees Slipping into Turkey." BBC News. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20433238
"UN predicts huge surge in Syrian refugee numbers: AFP." Retrieved online: http://www.focus-fen.net/index.php?id=n293725
Global Refugee Regime eems to Be Veering Away From Traditional Rules
As the threat of war looms large, the situation of those displaced because of violence and fights is becoming the focal point of talks amidst humanitarian groups. Many wrote about the situation in Afghanistan. The last many years have brought about quite a lot of enormous "refugee movements and humanitarian emergencies." More than 50 million people have been displaced by conflicts, war and other disasters and things may get worse.
The many organizations that offer aid to those who are forced to flee from their native lands are trying their level best to reach out and help each one of them. But nations all over seem to be hesitant to take in refugees who do not have any place else to go. What is the solution? How can humanitarian agencies cope with the increasing number of refugees? A book…
Agamben, Giorgio (1995). We refugees.(Section 2: Issuing Identity) Symposium v49, n2 (Summer):114
Appling, Cathy (1995). United Nations Involvement in Haiti from a Humanitarian Perspective. Current World Leaders 38, 4, Aug, 83-98.
Copeland, Emily (1992). Global refugee policy: an agenda for the 1990s. (Conference Reports) International Migration Review v26, n3 (Fall):992
Deng, Francis M. (1995). Dealing with the Displaced: A Challenge to the International Community. Global Governance 1, 1, winter, 45-57.
One also has to question the 'rationality 'of these criteria in the light of the severity of the possible repercussions and diplomatic fallout.
The most acceptable criterion which could justify the use of force in intervention is when the freedom of the state of the safety of its citizens comes under real and tangible threat. However, what is much more questionable are other criteria which are vague and possibly ethically suspect. For example, the view of theorists like Clausewitz that forceful intervention is a tool used by the states to achieve certain political objectives:"….war was merely one means states might employ to achieve objectives set by political authorities" ( Viotti and Kauppi, 2009, chapter 7).
The above perspective, in my point-of-view, is unacceptable as a true criterion for the intervention by force. The reason for the rejection of this criterion is not only on ethical grounds but also refers to…
Brown, B.S. (2000). Humanitarian Intervention at a Crossroads. William and Mary Law Review, 41(5), 1683. Retrieved June 23, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5001761450' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
S. government chose not only to ignore the great humanitarian tragedy but even refused to condemn the killing. The American inaction on the wandan genocide places a big question mark on any subsequent action of its government overseas for humanitarian reasons.
Besides being accused of using "humanitarianism" as a smokescreen for pursuing its own narrow national interests, the United States is also accused of undermining the United Nations and International Law in following a policy of unilateralism and pre-emption. The results of pre-emptive action by the United States for purportedly humanitarian reasons in recent times have been far from satisfactory. For example, when the NATO forces started its bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, there was a mass exodus of about 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities as refugees from the province; there was an increase in the Serbs' attacks on ethnic Kosovan Albanians and their ethnic cleansing: as a…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Introduction: The World of 1898." (1998). The Spanish American War-Hispanic Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on September 9, 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/1898/intro.html
Parmet, H.S. (1993) "The History of American Foreign Policy: Thematic Essay." Encarta Yearbook, 1993: Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2005, CD ROM Version
Babuna, Aydin. "National Identity, Islam and Politics in Post-Communist Bosnia-Hercegovina." East European Quarterly 39.4 (2005): 405+.
Lischer, Sarah Kenyon. "Military Intervention and the Humanitarian "Force Multiplier." Global Governance 13.1 (2007): 99+.
Mangum, Ronald Scott. "NATO's Attack on Serbia: Anomaly or Emerging Doctrine?." Parameters 30.4 (2000): 40.
Mertus, Julie a. "Legitimizing the Use of Force in Kosovo." Ethics & International Affairs 15.1 (2001): 133+.
Petras, James. "The Meaning of ar: A Heterodox Perspective." Journal of Contemporary Asia 35.4 (2005): 423+.
Piiparinen, Touko. "The Lessons of Darfur for the Future of Humanitarian Intervention." Global Governance 13.3 (2007): 365+.
Shank, Gregory. "Commentary: Not a Just ar, Just a ar - NATO's Humanitarian Bombing Mission." Social Justice 26.1 (1999): 4+.
Sloan, Elinor C. Bosnia and the New Collective Security. estport, CT: Praeger, 1998.
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5014679198' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This paper looks at the public policy of R2P and humanitarian intervention abroad, which serves as a major drain on American resources and benefits a foreign country more than it does the U.S. The money spent on these wars waged under the banner of R2P could be better spent on projects at home. The solution to this flawed policy is to address the elephant in the room, which is the Israeli lobby, to end the wars in the Middle East and put that money into healthcare, education or infrastructure back home, and to deny the persons in the State Department who serve under one administration from serving under the next so that they cannot force their continuity of government onto the incoming administration.
Much has been made of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine that has become the de facto, go-to reason for intervening in other parts of…
Though Gareth Evans identifies a continued need or justification for the responsibility to protect (R2P) by citing the existence of mass atrocities around the world even to this day,[footnoteRef:2] there is a contrary perspective that indicates the political and imperial manner in which the R2P doctrine can be used as a cover for hegemonic aims.[footnoteRef:3] Humanitarian intervention has been used as the excuse of the West, for instance, in various invasions around the world since 9/11 (but well before that as well) on up to the current crisis in Venezuela, over which the U.S. Secretary of State Pompeo and Sen. Rubio along with Ambassador Bolton have been using social media to promote R2P and justify regime change in the South American country in order to drum up support (both domestically and internationally) for American military action in the southern hemisphere. There are, of course, ethical considerations to be made when…
Horn of Africa experienced what was termed the worst drought in 60 years. The drought, caused by the failure of the rains for two consecutive seasons, led to a severe food crisis across Djibouti, Somalia, Ethiopia, and Kenya, and killed more than 100,000 people while placing hundreds of thousands at risk of starvation. According to Hiller and Dempsey (2011), the greatest tragedy was that the world had seen this disaster coming, but little had been done to prevent it. From as early as 2010, there had been clear indications of a looming crisis and its consequences. La Nina, a climate condition that would lead to drier than normal conditions over the entire area had already been confirmed. Further warnings of the crisis were repeated and became more strident in 2011. In light of all the warning signs, it is, therefore, rather surprising that proper response from the international aid system…
Bart, C., 1988. Budgeting Gamesmanship. Academy of Management Executive. vol.(2)4, pp. 285-294.
Hiller, D & Dempsey, B., 2011. A Dangerous Delay: The cost of late response to early warnings in the 2011 drought in the Horn of Africa. Oxfam International and Save the Children. Available at https://www.oxfam.org/sites/www.oxfam.org/files/bp-dangerous-delay-horn-africa-drought-180112-en.pdf. [Accessed 25 April 2015]
Kaplan, R. & Norton, D., 1996. The balanced scorecard: translating strategy into action. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press
Mintzberg, H., 1987. Crafting strategy. Harvard Business Review. Vol. (65)4, pp. 66-75.
(1996) This separation of individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been perpetrated against them in the rhetoric and reality dehumanizes them to a degree and allows discourse on redress and resolution to falter.
Having discussed the main premises of these three, for lack of a better word, philosophers one must now look to Nyers, who discusses the political nature of the status of "refugee" and how in the modern, post 9-11 atmosphere many states have opted to lay a veil of security across international border crossing and refugee status. In the post 9-11 atmosphere it has become common place to "detain" and "deport" those who are seeking political asylum when they come from places of security risk. In short the current situation, cumulative of the highly political and state sponsored international humanitarian body that seeks to divorce individuals and groups from the wrongs that have been done to…
Campbell, David. 1998. Why Fight: Humanitarianism, Principles, and Post-structuralism. Millennium 27. 497-521.
Edkins, Jenny. 2003. Humanitarianism, humanity, human.. Journal of Human Rights. ( June) 2(2). 253-258.
Malkki, Liisa H. (1996) Speechless Emissaries: Refugees, Humanitarianism, and Dehistoricization. (August) 11(3). 377- 404.
Nyers, Peter (2003) Abject Cosmopolitanism: The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement. Third World Quarterly. (December) 24(6). 1069-1093.
Legal egulation Conservation Laws on UN Countries Territories
For a long time, the roles of the UN in managing state affairs and world peace have evolved. There are more state and non-state actors in the process of developing and imposing UN laws in sovereign states. This research paper aims at evaluating legal regulation of the conservation laws of UN of the countries territories. The essay argues that the regulations are not sufficient in conserving country progress.
ussia is noticeable in the modern world through its interventions during the post-Soviet era with the special focus of the current leadership. China is trending towards becoming increasingly authoritarian through its military-geopolitical or oil/gas-motivated expansionist diplomatic offensives on neighboring or trading countries propelled by the current leader. The authoritarian behavior appears to be supported by a strong sovereignty sense (Ferris, 2011). The UN has taken it to be a case of economic weakness within…
Browne, M.A. (2011). United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress. New York: DIANE Publishing.
Ferris, E.G. (2011). The Politics of Protection: The Limits of Humanitarian Action. New York: Brookings Institution Press.
Freedman, R. (2013). The United Nations Human Rights Council: A critique and early assessment. New York: Routledge.
Ramcharan, B.G. (2009). The Protection Roles of UN Human Rights Special Procedures. New York: BRILL.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established in 1949 as part of the post-war effort among the nations of the West to work together to establish the peace. Throughout the Cold War, NATO was more of a symbol than an actual military alliance. It was not until the Cold War ended that the first joint military NATO operations were conducted. The first was in 1990 and the second in 1991—Anchor Guard and Ace Guard were NATO’s response to Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait. The Gulf War that followed, based on Bush’s trumpeting of the same kind of unsubstantiated claims that his son would make with U.S.’s second Middle Eastern intervention, was the first demonstration of NATO’s force[footnoteRef:2]—i.e., NATO as a wing of the U.S. military and a kind of political and international justification and show of support for what Bush wanted to do to Saddam Hussein. Bush used NATO…
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…
Ahmed, S. Keating P. & Solinas, U (2007), 'Shaping the Future of UN Peace Operations: is there
A Doctrine In the House?' Cambridge Review of International Affairs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 11-28, viewed 26 November 2011,
Cristol, J (n.d.), International Relations Theory, Oxford Bibliographies Online, viewed 26
strategy executed by the United States (U.S.) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) met the criterions for a just war as defined below. Both the U.S. And NATO did not fight this war in order to overthrow the Yugoslavian government nor to give the Kosovo Albanians a country of their own. ather, the war was fought to stop the needless ethnic violence against the Albanians living in Kosovo and allow the return of all refugees, and that is just what both the U.S. And NATO did during this military operation. The U.S. And NATO had no intention of any major military operation, they only wished to use the minium force required in order to achieve their stated goals. This paper examines the strategy formulation, coordination, and execution, that lead to NATO's war to save Kosovo. How the U.S. And NATO reached their goal could not be described as perfectly…
Yugoslavia: Travel Guide, n.d. [cited 12 December 2004] Available from World Wide Web: http://sg.travel.yahoo.com/guide/europe/yugoslavia / history.html
Elshtain J.B. "The third annual grotius lecture: Just war and humanitarian intervention." American Society of International Law: Proceedings of the Annual Meeting.( 2001) 1-12
Please replace this with the proper citationr, e.g. (W.U. 1987 4)
Need reference for W.U.
D., a senior child-protection specialist with the Christian Children's Fund. "You don't falter. You don't disobey. Any show of weakness and you're killed" (Amber, 2004).
Hamer (2010) writes "Child soldiers were portrayed as having no connections in society, without skills, incompetent and prone to violence, and it was strongly implied that they were trapped in a vicious circle and that they would always experience difficulties in returning to a non-violent routine because they had been actors and witnesses of too many atrocities during the war (p. 54).
Post Traumatic Stress
It is possible to identify with captors by other means as well. Due to their age and size children are basically powerless in the world. By identifying with their tormentors it is possible for children to gain a strong sense of power, denied to them by other means. By following orders they may come to believe they will receive additional…
Amber, J. (2004). Abduction of Innocents. Essence (Time Inc.), 35(8), 172-218. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Convention on Rights of the Child. (n.d.). United Nations Office of the High Commission on Human Rights. Retrieved January 6, 2011. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/pdf/crc.pdf
Denov, M. & MacLure, R. (2006). Engaging the Voices of Girls in the Aftermath of Sierra Leone's Conflict: Experiences and Perspectives in a Culture of Violence. Anthropologica. Vol. 48, No. 1, War and Peace / La guerre et la paix (2006), pp. 73-85. Published by: Canadian Anthropology Society Article Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25605298
Dickson-Gomez, J. (2002, Dec.). Growing up in Guerrilla Camps: The Long-Term Impact of Being a Child Soldier in El Salvador's Civil War. Ethos. Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 327-356 .
However, this change has been a progressive process and largely set on economic premises and cooperation between the Saudi state and western ones. Nonetheless, it represents an important example of progress in the Middle East.
At the moment the opinions regarding the current situation in the Middle East are rather mixed. On the one hand, there are those who see the Iranian case as being eloquent for the despise and opposing attitude of the majority in the Middle East; on the other hand, there are those who take Saudi Arabia as reference point for the possible success of future strategies concerning the democratization process and the way in which a totally Muslim country can change and improve its standards. From this point-of-view, the situation in Saudi Arabia, the progress it made in areas such as social activities, political participation, education, and other levels at which the population can express itself…
Bennis, Phyllis et al. "U.S. Policy Toward Iraq: Policy Alternatives." Foreign Policy in Focus. N.d. 18 February 2008. http://www.fpif.org/pdf/iraqStmt.pdf
Carothers, Thomas. "Is gradualism possible? Choosing a strategy for promoting democracy in the Middle East." Middle East Studies. Democracy and Rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. 2003
Cortright, David et al.. "Contested Case: Do the Facts Justify the Case for War in Iraq?" Policy Brief F8. Institute for International Peace Studies, University of Notre Dame. 2003.
Fisher-Thompson, Jim. "Mechanics Training for Iraqi Army Fuels Engine for Change." America. Gov website. 2008. 18 February 2008. http://www.america.gov/st/washfile-english/2008/January/200801071712331EJrehsiF0.7347071.html
It is hard to determine what was the foreign policy used by the George . Bush administration in the Iraq ar. The U.S. foreign policy was shaped by outside factors up to the 9/11 events. The presidential administrations preceding George . Bush's were aware that they had to adapt their foreign policies on account of their interests and of the interests of the international public. Surprisingly, at the apex of the Iraq ar, a large number of Democrats in Congress conveyed ambiguous criticism. Moreover, through their criticism, Republicans proved that they were in fact supportive of the war (Forsythe, 2004, p. 79).
Throughout his first term, George . Bush managed to generate positive feedbacks from the American public. "Culturally conservative voters and especially white evangelical Christians" appeared to have become fond of him and thus turned most of their votes toward choosing him to complete a second term. One of…
1. Baumgartner, J.C. & Francia, P.L. & Morris, J.S. A Clash of Civilizations? The Influence of Religion on Public Opinion of U.s. Foreign Policy in the Middle East. Political Research Quarterly 61.2 (2008).
2. Farer, T.J. (2004). The Interplay of Domestic Politics, Human Rights, and U.S. Foreign Policy Wars on Terrorism and Iraq: Human Rights, Unilateralism, and U.S. Foreign Policy. ed. Thomas G. Weiss, Margaret E. Crahan, and John Goering (New York: Routledge.
3. Klinkner, P.A. Mr. Bush's War: Foreign Policy in the 2004 Election. Presidential Studies Quarterly 36.2 (2006).
Therefore Clinton can be said to have generally followed a realist foreign policy program in Kosovo, yet due to changes in the international system which made it problematic to cut too many deals with dictators and war-criminals like Milosevich, a more conflictive approach to the issue was created. National interest, while predominant, was no longer the only consideration.
One of the problems with a constructivist understanding of the war though, is to what extent the international system allows for freedom of choice. If constructivism were true, then there were no "real" constraints on the actions of ill Clinton during the crisis. Yet sending ground troops in for example, would have been politically infeasible, not only due to American public opinion, but because Russia might have seen that as a threat to its interests in the region and moved to act in a provocative way. The point is then, that if…
Bacevich, a.J., and Eliot a. Cohen. 2001. War over Kosovo. Columbia University Press.
Morgenthau, Hans J. 1978. Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace. 5th ed. New York: Alfred a. Knopf.
Sell, Louis. 2003. Slobodan Milosevic and the destruction of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press, September 1.
Wendt, Alexander. 1992. Anarchy is what States Make of it: The Social Construction of Power Politics. International Organization 46, no. 2 (Spring): 391-425.
It closely links human rights violations with national and international insecurities. And the concept enhances development thinking by expanding real freedoms already enjoyed by people. Protecting security, therefore, urgently requires a new consensus among all countries, whether developed or developing. It must aim at reviewing current foreign policies and aiming at creating real opportunities for people's safety and dignity.
Rethinking the Concept
Human security focuses more on generalized poverty than average well-being.
General poverty means being below a threshold of well-being. A policy on human security concerns itself mainly with persons in situations of deep want. Human development pertains to average levels of human well-being. Many believe that human security must be a priority in human development. A "prioritarian" view is for the improvement of everyone but emphasis on that of those at the bottom. An egalitarian view wants well-being to be distributed across all persons. An egalitarian person will…
Compass. Human Security. Manual on Human Rights Education with Young People:
Council of Europe, 2000. Available from http://www.eycb.coe.int/compass/en/pdf.5_10.pdf; internet: accessed 29 Oct 2009
Fuentes, Claudia F. And Aravena, Francisco Rojas. Promoting Human Security: Ethical,
Normative and Educational Frameworks in Latin America and the Caribbean.
S. policymakers about the international consensus on questions and issues. The U.S. thus uses international law in its foreign policy and also contributes to its formation and development. This is why it formally recognizes and respects fundamental rules and principles as guide to its foreign policy (Joyner).
However, American foreign policy has not focused very much on international law (Rivkin and Casey 2000). Since the end of the Cold War, many international organization have struggled to modify the traditional law of nations governing the relationships between States into an international regulatory code. This intended and new international law would also govern the relationship between citizens and their government. It would regulate primary domestic issues, such as environmental protection and the rights of children. It would also virtually eradicate the use of military force, avoid all civilian casualties during combat, promote the equitable criminal prosecution of individual state leaders or officials…
Joyner, Christopher C. International Law. Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2002. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qx5215/is_2002/ai_n19132421
Mitchell, Paul Andrew. Citizenship is a Term of Municipal Law. Supreme Law Firm:
Supreme Law Library, 2005. Retrieved on January 1, 2008 at http://www.supremelaw.org/rsrc/privlaw.htm
Rivkin, David. B., Jr. And Lee a. Casey. The Shoals of International Law. The National
The convention entitles those who have not attained 18 years to special protection. State parties admitting those under the age of 18 into their national armed forces under voluntary recruitment must ensure that such recruitments are genuinely voluntary. Informed consent of the parents of such recruits has to be sought. ecruits have to be fully informed of their engagements in such military service. The protocol forbids armed groups that are not armed forces of states from enlisting those under the age of 18 years into their ranks as to take part in armed conflicts. State parties are called upon to ensure that legal measures are taken against armed groups that recruit individuals below the age of 18. State parties must ensure that the principles and provisions of this protocol are known and promoted. Other than the optional protocol there exists international humanitarian law that safeguards the rights of a child.…
Badescu, C.G. (2010). Humanitarian intervention and the responsibility to protect: security and human rights. New York, NY: Taylor and Francis
Evans, G. (2006). From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 3(2)
Grey, S. (2006). Ghost Plane: The True Story of the CIA Rendition and Torture Program. New York: St. Martin's Griffin.
Linde, C. (2006). The U.S. Constitution and International Law: Finding the Balance. Journal of Transnational Law & Policy, 15 (2), 307-308.
Black Hawk Down, directed by idley Scott. Specifically, it will look at a summary of the film, what part of the film was accurate, what impact it had on the period; what impact it had on future periods; and what impact, if any, it may have on you. "Caring about someone's life, rather than your own," is a very powerful and brave belief to breathe under, as declared by producer, Jerry Bruckheimer. "Black Hawk Down" brings out the "heroism under fire" by which every brotherly soldier of the U.S. angers and Delta Force reside.
HISTOY AND BLACK HAWK DOWN
Somalia - 1993. Two sides were fighting against each other to gain control of Somalia. One was led by "a member of the Abgal (Hawiye) subclan, and the other by General Mohamed Farad Aidid, a member of the Habr Gidir (Hawiye) subclan" (Lefebvre 49). By November 1991, thousands of Mogadishu residents…
Black Hawk Down. Dir. Ridley Scott. Perf. William Fichtner, Josh Hartnett, Ewan McGregor, Jeremy Piven, Sam Shepard, Tom Sizemore. Sony Pictures, 2001.
Clarke, Walter M., and Jeffrey M. Herbst, eds. Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997.
Lefebvre, Jeffrey A. "The U.S. Military Intervention in Somalia: A Hidden Agenda?" Middle East Policy II.1 (1993): 44-62.
Menkhaus, Ken. "U.S. Foreign Assistance Somalia: Phoenix from the Ashes?" Middle East Policy V.1 (1997): 124-149.
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…
Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,
and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.
Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.
Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
The United States and the rest of the coalition members all argue that there was enough authority in the resolutions that already existed from the Security Council to justify using force for the invasion of Iraq. On the 10th of November of 2002, Secretary of State Colin Powell indicated that the United States believed that there were material breaches in the past, as well as new and current material breaches that necessitated enough authority to take action.
Iraq consistently violated many of the Security Council resolutions created by the United Nations and many of these dealt primarily with inspection of facilities and disarmament. Because Iraq continually violated these resolutions the rationale for military action came about largely from this issue. The fact that the terrorist attacks had taken place and there were possible links between Iraq and Al Qaeda also caused much of the tension. The disregard for these resolutions,…
S. It is now the Germans, the British, the Italians, the Swedes, and all of the European Union."
Over the last fifty years the American foreign policy has been characterized by "liberal internationalism and globalism"
During the period between 1781, which was the beginning of the confederation through the year 1941 the country was equal in unilateralist and isolationist in theoretical framework of international affairs. However in 1941 at the time Pearl Harbor was attacked oosevelt sold the theoretical stance of internationalism to the citizens of America as well as to the epublican Party. Isolationism stated that our neighbors were far away across vast oceans, so therefore, why bother with problems that far away from our homes. Stated by Kupchan (2003) is: " The unilateralism came from two things:
1) American exceptionalism, the sense that we were a new, unique nation, and we don't want to engage in the world,…
The Post Cold War Army Online at http://www.army.mil.cmh-pg/books/COS/34-42.htm.
Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Russia Country Analysis: A Country Report Online available at: Deprivation, Violence and Identities (2003) Office of International Affairs Update from The Ohio State University September/October 2003. Online available at http://oia.osu.edu/communication/septoct2003intaffairsupdate.pdf
Kupchan, Charles (2002) The End of the American Era: U.S. Foreign Policy and the Geopolitics of the Twenty-first Century - Carnegie Council on Ethics and International Affairs Online available at http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/viewMedia.php/prmTemplateID / 9/prmID/876
Sino-U.S. elations in the Post-Cold War Era
Today, China and the United States are inextricably linked in the modern world and some observers maintain that any disagreements that emerge between the two countries are relatively insignificant and will not adversely affect this growing economic and political relationship. By contrast, other international analysts argue that recent trends in China's economic and military growth will inevitably result in armed conflict between these two superpowers. To determine the facts, this paper provides a discussion concerning the accuracy of these respective viewpoints concerning the status of Sino-U.S. relations in the post-Cold War era, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
China's development in the 20th century
The 20th century was a turbulent one for China, marred by major famines, foreign occupation and civil unrest.[footnoteef:1] Despite these problems and the enormous challenges in achieving self-sufficiency in food production, the…
Bruce, Jacobs J. "Looking North, Looking South: China, Taiwan, and the South Pacific," China Review International (Fall 2012) 19(3), pp. 367-372.
Buszynski, Leszek, "The South China Sea: Oil, Maritime Claims, and U.S. -- China Strategic Rivalry," The Washington Quarterly (2012), 35(2), pp. 139-156.
"China" (2015). CIA World Factbook. [online] available https://www.cia.gov/library / publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html.
"China economic profiles," (2015) NationMaster. [online] available: http://www.nation master.com/country-info/profiles/China/Economy.
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…
Bush, G.W. (2002). Statement on signing the authorization for using of military force against Iraq resolution of 2002. 2 pages. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents: U.S. Government Printing Office
Cook, M.L. (2002). The proper role of professional military advice in contemporary uses of force. 14 pages. Parameters: U.S. Army War College
Krieger, D. (2002). Law vs. force. 2 pages. Humanist: American Humanist Association
Rivkin Jr., D.B. And Casey, L.A. (2000). The rocky shoals of international law. The National Interest: The National Affairs, Inc.
Some writers have also reverberated the dread that human security could become a philosophical tool.
Does Respectable Conception it work? Altering Facets OF Human Safety.
Founded on this apparently un fluctuating contrast of opinions produced by procedural insufficiencies and possible incoherency, there is other approaches that can be proposed. In an appreciation, to some it seems to have come full circle: there are important resemblances concerning the impression of human security as stated from the expansion reports / UN angle, on the one hand, and on the other, Galtung's theory of structural violence and human psychosomatic potential (Roberts). Certainly, Sabine Alkire describes the goal of human security as "being to defend the vigorous center of all human lives in methods that progress individual liberties and human contentment," a description that replicates Galtungian measurements of human growth. ut in spite of the likelihood of uncertainty and haziness natural in such a…
Roberts, D. (2005). Empowering the Human Security Debate: Making it Coherent and Meaningful. International Journal of WorldPiece, 3.
Snedeker, Laura. (2010) "Wolf Blitzer: "Is Human Rights More Important than American National Security?" 16 November, 2007. 18 April, 2010. .
Suhrke, A. (1999). Human Security and the interests of States. Sage Publications, 265-276.
Kumar, C. Raj. (2005). "Human rights implications of national security laws in India: combating terrorism while preserving civil liberties." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy, 22 March, 2005. 18 April, 2010. .
U.S. Cuba Culture
Cultural Differences between the U.S. And Cuba
The role of culture in society has become increasingly important as the United States continues to spread its influence around the globe. Developing a sense of cultural awareness represents a type of knowledge that can be useful in mitigating sources of conflict. In the military cultural factors have been a critical, yet mostly unexamined, aspect of missions conducted in Africa and the Middle East since the end of the first Gulf ar in 1991 and cultural factors played an important, but usually unacknowledged, role in shaping the scope of the United States' humanitarian intervention in Somalia during the 1990s[footnoteRef:1]. However, there has been a growing awareness that cultural awareness is a critical success factor that needs to be further developed because it can serves as a critical success factor in dealing with other nations. [1: (underle)]
Cuba and the U.S.…
Murray, M. Katrina aid from Cuba? No thanks, says U.S. 14 September 2005. Web. 13 April 2013.
Wunderle, W. Through the Lens of Cultural Awareness: A Primer for U.S. Armed Forces Deploying to Arab and Middle Eastern Countries. Fort Leavenworth: Combat Studies Institute Press, n.d. Print.
War has shown its ugly side many times throughout the ages. As people have seen through battles, the casualties can be devastating. People lose families, lose their livelihoods, lose their dignity, and lose their homes when they are amidst war. The stories and the personal experiences of non-combatants are often shown to shed light on the brutality and violence that exists in war. Soldiers rape women and kill men. They set fires to entire villages and thousands of children are either left dead, raped, or orphaned. This essay is meant to shed light on the effects of war on non-combatants.
John Keegan, in his book, explains the views of war and the way people may have a particular perspective on combat and the various classifications of people during a war. The friend is the ally who helps or comes to aid. The enemy is the person that needs to die…
Anny Politzer, 'Der heimkehrende Krieger' ['The Returning Soldier']
Bartell, L.S. True Stories Of Strange Events And Odd People. iUniverse, 2014.
Carlson, John. 'War On Behalf Of Noncombatants'. Isme.Tamu.Edu. Last modified 2015. Accessed April 8, 2015. http://isme.tamu.edu/JSCOPE04/Carlson04.html#_edn1 .
Keegan, John. The Face Of Battle. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1978.
European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .
Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.
From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…
African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights. University of Minnesota. 1981. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm . (accessed March 05, 2011).
Calvocoressi, Peter. World Politics since 1945. London: Longman, 2008.
Council of Europe. "European Convention on Human Rights." Hellenic Resource Center. 2010. http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html (accessed March 05, 2011).
Louw, Frans Viljoen and Lirette. "State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1994-2004 ." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007.
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
American Policing on the World Stage
The American “policing” role developed because of the Cold War, but it was primarily a means for protecting and assisting economic interests for itself and its allies as illustrated by recent events as well as earlier ones. When George H. Bush called for the Gulf War in order to push Iraq out of Kuwait, he cast Hussein in the role of “villain” and Kuwait as the “victim” in his address to Congress (Bush, 1991). Colin Powell (2003) would do a similar stunt a decade later in the events leading up to the post-9/11 invasion of Iraq, which was accused of harboring WMDs and using mobile weapons labs to hide them (labs that would in fact never be found). In both cases, the pretext for war was based on phony intelligence—but the point was never about sticking up for the little guy or defending the…
Somalia Civil war
SOMALIA- CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WA
Columbia Encyclopedia describes the geographical position of Somalia in these words:
Somalia is directly south of the Arabian Peninsula across the Gulf of Aden. It comprises almost the entire African coast of the Gulf of Aden and a longer stretch on the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the NW by Djibouti, on the W. By Ethiopia, on the SW by Kenya, and on the S. And E. By the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu is the capital. There are 18 regions. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2000)
Somalia has been ruled by various imperial empires. Some of its earlier rulers were the nations of Oman, Turks and Zanzibar. Most of these nations lost control in Somalia. Britain, France and Italy came to this part of the world in the 19th century. Each country has had a say during its rule. It was…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, Page 43895, 2000
I.M. Lewis: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, I.M. Lewis, Westview Press, 1988
Simons, Anna: Networks of Dissolution: Somalia Undone, Westview Press, 1995
Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Walter M. Clarke, Jeffrey M. Herbst, Westview Press, 1997
Is China a status quo or aggressive power?
Johnston (2013) argues that China's allegedly new assertiveness is nothing of the sort. He makes the case that this view underestimates the aggressiveness of past Chinese foreign policy, and that the country has not really changed its level of assertiveness. This aligns with the explanations that Fravel (2007) has of past hard power that China has used in border disputes, which also highlights that there has been aggression in the past. The author also argues that the assertiveness level of Chinese foreign policy since 2010 has been overstated. The crux of the argument made is that China was always assertive in certain contexts with respect to foreign policy, and it remains assertive in those contexts. The level of assertiveness has not actually changed much. Perhaps people are just noticing it more -- he literally shows a graph of news articles about…
Callahan, W. (2012). China's strategic futures. Asian Survey. Vol. 52 (4) 617-642.
Fravel, M. (2007). Power shifts and escalation explaining China's use of force in territorial disputes. International Security. Vol. 32 (3) 44-83.
Huang, Y. & Ding, S. (2006). Dragon's underbelly: An analysis of China's soft power. East Asia Vol. 23 (4) 22-44.
Hughes, C. (2011). Reclassifying Chinese nationalism: The geopolitik turn. Journal of Contemporary China Vol. 20 (71) 601-620.
“As Long as The Personal and Societal Safety of American Citizens Is at Risk from External Threats, Historical Precedents Suggest That Rather Few Limits Will Be Placed on The Use of American Military Power, Or on The Constraints the United States Will Impose on The Peoples of Other Countries.”
The government of America exists for its citizens’ welfare, an obligation which encompasses being in charge of both its internal and external affairs. US foreign policy’s key principles are: defense of the physical territory of America, safeguarding citizens from attacks by enemies, promoting the status and economic interests of America, and promoting the nation’s democracy- and freedom- related values across the world. By end-twentieth century, the US’s foreign policy entailed relationships with a total of 159 states that were typically competitive, supportive at times, and at other times clearly unfriendly (Deutsch, 1997).
The government’s executive wing has largely remained in charge…
1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Rousseau stated in his Social Contract that “Man is born free—and everywhere he is in chains.”[footnoteRef:2] The insistence on man’s nature right of freedom from the Enlightenment Era philosopher helped pave the way for the French Revolution with its insistence on liberty, fraternity and equality. A century and a half later, those same ideals would still hold significant appeal for the Western nations, especially following two World Wars in the 20th century that decimated Europe and parts of Asia. Liberalism was the main driver of the UN’s declaration of human rights—but the coming Cold War, the onset of which was very much in the minds of world leaders immediately following the carve-up of Europe between the unlikely Allies (capitalists in the West, Communists in the East), also played a part in the declaration: the West was anxious to promote itself as the standard bearer…
A long passage is quoted here by way of showing what all these various writers are concerned about: (Kane, 2003)May 2002 brought the odd spectacle of ex-President Jimmy Carter standing shoulder to shoulder in Havana with one of the U.S. government's oldest enemies, Cuban president Fidel Castro. Carter, on a mission to convey a message of friendship to the Cuban people and to seek some common ground between Cuba and the United States, made a point of meeting and encouraging local democratic, religious, and human rights activists. In a televised address, he endorsed the rights of dissidents and urged democracy on the island nation (Sullivan 2002). He also advocated an end to the U.S. embargo on Cuba (a call immediately echoed at home by 20 Democratic and 20 epublican representatives in Congress).
President George W. Bush's administration responded angrily to Carter's latest adventure as international arbiter. A senior state department…
http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5000729437' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Chernobyl Nuclear disaster took place in 1986 in Ukraine which is a former Soviet State. This plant was built back in 1970 and consisted of 4 reactors. The plant was scheduled to undergo a scheduled and controlled shut down so as to test the generator's ability to produce electricity using the plant's safety system. eactor 4 of this plant exploded after interior energy increased beyond control discharging radioactive debris and smoke on close by cities and created a radioactive cloud that spread out to a big region of the U.S.S.. And Europe. This catastrophe involved over 500,000 workers, and over 18 million ubles. It was considered an International disaster due to the large area that it impacted negatively.
Immediately after the incident, firefighters arrived at the scene and tried to put off the fires. Lieutenant Pravik was among the first commandants to arrive at the scene and he died in…
Alexey V.Y.; Vassily B. Nesterenko; Alexey V. (2009). Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences) Wiley-Blackwell.
Berger, E.M. (2010). The Chernobyl Disaster, Concern about the Environment, and Life Satisfaction. Kyklos, 63(1), 1-8
Davletbaev, R (2001). Last shift Chernobyl. Ten years later. Inevitability or chance? Moscow: Energoatomizdat.
Jargin, S. (2012). Debate on the Chernobyl disaster: on the causes of Chernobyl overestimation. International Journal Of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation, 42(1), 29-34
(Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1) Limitations of the program were acknowledged after a study reported findings which state: "...there an awareness of hidden areas of trauma that exist in this population, such as, for instance, an awareness that most humanitarian entrant women (between 80% and 100%) have been the victims of rape and the shame associated with this mitigates against disclosure and dealing with the effects of it." (Allan and afoon, 2008, p.1)
Allan, David and afoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good eginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EF9E6-975-438-2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Allan, David and Bafoon, Patrick (2008) Strength to Strength (STS) - a family relationships program for humanitarian entrant families living in Western metropolitan Sydney 24 June 2008. Relationships Australia NSW - Humanitarian Entrants Program. Australian Government - Australian Institute of Family Studies. Online available at http://www.aifs.gov.au/afrc/practice/strength.html
Australian Government Department of Family and Community Services (nd) What we know about achievements of the Early Intervention Parenting Program and Good Beginnings Prototypes. Online available at http://www.dest.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8EFB9E6-9B75-438B-B2EA-7967032ADE85/21961/eipp_factsheet.rtf
Gallegos, Danielle, et al. (2007) Service Provision in the Upper Northern Suburbs for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities: A Scoping Study. March 2007. On behalf of the CaLD Interagency Reference Group for the Northern Metropolitan Corridor. Online available at http://www.cscr.murdoch.edu.au/CaLDNorthScopingReport.pdf
Spinks, Harriet (2008) Adult Migrant English Program Budget 2009-09 Social Issues. Parliament of Australia. Parliamentary Library. Online available at http://www.aph.gov.au/library/pubs/RP/BudgetReview/Social_Issues.htm
229). The John Howard government cemented the lesson as a "significant shift in our dealings with the South Pacific," (quoted in McDougall and Sherman, p. 178) and as a result Australia now effectively reserves the right to step in to maintain (or restore) the rule of law throughout the region.
If anything, Australia's relationship to Papua New Guinea is stronger than its interest in the Solomon Islands (Wainwright 2003, p. 26), given its colonial history there. Somewhat more recently, Australia provided tacit material support for Papua's invasion of the breakaway Bougainville faction (McMillan 1997, p. 8) before the Sandline mercenary scandal and ensuing general strike made policy makers rethink their role in the affair and, by extension, the nightmare prospect of a true state failure in the region:
In today's globalized world, the failure of [a] modern nation state would not simply mean that its people would revert to the…
Anthony, MC, 2005, Regional security in Southeast Asia: beyond the ASEAN way, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies: Singapore.
Checchi, F, Elder, G, Schafer, M, Drouhin, E, & Legros, D, Jul 5, 2003, "Consequences of armed conflict for an ethnic Karen population, "The Lancet, vol. 362, pp. 74-5.
Cheesman, N, 2002, "Seeing 'Karen' in the union of Myanmar," Asian Ethnicity, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 199-220.
Dixon, G, Gene, M, & Walter, N, 2008, Joint review of the enhanced cooperation program (ECP), Governments of Australia & Papua New Guinea: Canberra & Port Moresby, viewed 30 March, 2010, http://www.ausaid.gov.au/publications/pdf/ecp_final_report2008.pdf.