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The hurricane season in the Atlantic Ocean begins runs from June to November, with the majority of activity coming in the middle of that season. Hurricanes typically begin life as low pressure systems over the ocean that, facing no obstacles (land), can gain in power such that their windspeeds increase to very high levels. When these hit land, they cause immense damage. Storms bring with them rain and waves, but are classified by their windspeeds. In the Atlantic, storms are categorized using the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The first level of storm is a tropical depression, with speeds in excess of 38 mph. Once a storm becomes a tropical storm, it is named, and then once it becomes a hurricane it goes through five more categories. The highest, five, is a severely destructive storm if it makes landfall. Weaker hurricanes are destructive in the Caribbean and Central America,…
Masters, J. (no date). Remembering Hurricane Hugo. Weather Underground. In possession of the author.
Parker, L. & Booth, W. (1989). Hurricane Hugo rips through South Carolina. Washington Post. Retrieved November 4, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/weather/hurricane/poststories/hugo-sc.htm
Washington, W. (2009). How SC would react to Hugo now. The State Retrieved November 4, 2013 from http://www.thestate.com/2009/09/22/952983/how-sc-would-react-to-hugo-now.html
So that is one step we can take. Here is a different one.
Nowadays we regularly file environmental impact statements showing the insinuation for the environment of this or that responsibility (a new strip mine, an undeveloped establishment another airport, a dump yard…you can provide any one of hundreds of examples). e ought to in this similar fashion file statements showing the force of real estate development; the building of structures, dams, and levees; and other main projects -- on the augmented vulnerability to hazards they will compel on others. In this politically charged climate, this will look like to many like another unrequited federal "undertaking," but why should my self-determination extend to building a levee to defend my property that will augment the risk to your property downstream on that same river? Should I not have to check with you? The obligation for Environmental Impact Statements prompted numerous complaints…
Strasser; Annie-Rose. Conservatives Bash Christie for Cooperating With Obama Post-Sandy. ThinkProgress - Election. Oct 31, 2012
Kirkland, Joel. Energy Became Surprise Issue in Bitter Presidential Race. E&E reporter. http://www.accuweather.com/en/features/sandy/energy_became_surprise_issue_i/1182402
Hurricane Sandy: Covering the Storm, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2012/10/28/nyregion/hurricane-sandy.html
Serna, Joseph. Hurricane Sandy death toll climbs above 110, N.Y. hardest hit. Los Angeles Times. November 03, 2012.
The linear model of communication contains the following components:
In What Context?
This model could have been applied not only between the FHA and insured home owners, but also between the FHA and other agencies attempting to mitigate the situation. This would have relieved much of the anxiety and stressed experienced by already unhappy, stressed citizens, as suggested by the social exchange model of communication. According to this model, communication is social interaction. What this means in practice is that the communication media we have today could have served much better as a mitigator of conflicting information and the stress associated with this. Although the FHA (2013) has placed a large amount of information on its Web site, it could also have made use of social media such as Facebook and even Twitter to maintain brief updates. These could have created a much…
Barron, J., Lipton, E., and Rivera, R. (2012, Nov. 5). With $200 Million in U.S. Housing Aid, Officials Begin Relocating the Displaced. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/06/nyregion/housing-relocation-begins-after-hurricane-sandy.html?_r=0
CBS News (2012, Nov. 6). Sandy-affected homeowners face long insurance wait. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57545785/sandy-affected-homeowners-face-long-insurance-wait/
CBS News (2012, Nov. 6). Sandy Victims' Concerns: Voting, housing, power. Retrieved from: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-201_162-57545592/sandy-victims-concerns-voting-housing-power/
Federal Housing Administration (2013). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved from: http://portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/FHAFAQ
It is well-known that tropical cyclones form over warm water and it is the heat in the water from which they get their energy. Therefore it is reasonable to believe that warmer waters could increase hurricane intensity and activity. armer waters would translate into more energy to fuel the tropical cyclone and make their effects more pronounced. There is also evidence that global warming is contributing to changing circulation patterns.
Sea level rise due to warmer conditions which melts glaciers and sea ice can have a number of implications for the Earth's storm patterns. Many climate models have suggested that with warmer temperatures there would be higher wind speeds in hurricanes. In fact, one study shows a 70% increase since the mid-1970s of an index of hurricane activity related to the total power dissipation, which is proportional to the cube of the maximum wind speed, integrated over the lifetime of…
Anthes, R., Corell, R., Holland, G., Hurrell, J., MacCrackin, M., & Trenberth, K. (2006). Hurricanes and Global Warming - Potential Linkages and Consequences. Bulletin of the American Meteoroligical Society, 623-628.
The most important way to prepare for disasters like these is by stockpiling resources and developing adequate resource funding and distribution channels. As Bucci, et al. (2012) point out, the states of New Jersey and New York were fully dependent on FEMA and other federal funds; those two states had absolutely no contingency plans and no state-level disaster relief funds. Moreover, by the time Sandy hit, FEMA resources had been overstretched. FEMA resources should not be used for relatively minor events (Bucci, et al., 2012). Instead, FEMA resources should be managed more efficiently so that when major disasters like these occur, resources are available.
Individuals can prepare for a disaster in a similar way. Stockpiling resources requires setting aside as much space as possible for essential items for survival like canned food and water, as well as extra jerry cans of gas for vehicles. Families who can afford it…
Bucci, S, P. et al. (2012). After Hurricane Sandy: Time to Learn and Implement the Lessons in Preparedness, Response, and Resilience. Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/10/after-hurricane-sandy-time-to-learn-and-implement-the-lessons
CDC (2013). Hurricane Sandy: What Have We Learned? Retrieved online: http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2013/05/hurricane-sandy-what-have-we-learned/
Gurian, S. (2014). Two years after hurricane Sandy, New Jersey's recovery trudges along. NJSpotlight. Retrieved online: http://www.njspotlight.com/stories/14/10/29/two-years-after-hurricane-sandy-new-jersey-s-recovery-trudges-along/
Unlike earthquakes, hurricanes offer a small window for immediate, acute emergency preparedness that can help members of the public at least get their families to safety. Hurricane Sandy was no different, but while the media did provide ample warnings that the hurricane was coming and to be prepared, the during and after stages of the event were not handled as well as they could have been in many communities on the Jersey Shore. Frank Timmerman, a homeowner, complains about several issues related more to responsiveness than to preparation. "We had filled up the tank with gas and were ready to evacuate as soon as we were ordered to do so, we had ample water and tinned food supplies, and we had flashlights, batteries, candles, and all that other stuff. We also took as many precautions as we could to secure our house and make sure to minimize property damage. Thankfully…
Bucci, S.P., et al. (n.d.). After hurricane Sandy. Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2013/10/after-hurricane-sandy-time-to-learn-and-implement-the-lessons
Goldberg, D. (2012). Hurricane Sandy response. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/news/index.ssf/2012/11/sandy_proves_importance_of_com.html
Probably the largest bias is the confirmation bias, where decision makers tend to focus on information that supports their opinion. By failing to be prepared for the hurricanes and the extreme weather that caused flights to be grounded, the companies participated in a confirmation bias by assuming things would go their way. The companies also made a crucial mistake when talking to the media before the problem was sorted out.
3. In all three of the cases, companies had to deal with the constraint of the situation being far out of their hands. None could control the weather and none could accurately predict the voracity of the natural disasters. Similarly, the companies had to deal with the constraint of business. Because the companies were large conglomerates, a chain of command had to be followed. No one person could nor was he or she responsible for making large decisions on his…
Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Sandy
Tropical cyclones can badly destroy settlements and structures along the coast. ecent destructive tropical cyclones such as the 2005 Katrina and the Sandy which happened in 2012 affirm that the destruction caused by a land-falling tropical cyclone is not merely dependent on its categorization on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. The hurricane Sandy of 2012 caused a lot of destruction. Only the hurricane Katrina which happened in 2005 has caused more damage than Sandy. To reduce casualties from such calamities, the public needs to react promptly to any pre-storm decisions made by authorities (Kantha, 2013).
Government's esponse to Hurricane Katrina
Hurricane Katrina was indeed an out of the ordinary occurrence that brought with it great tragedy. Destroying a vast area of land, approximately 90000 square miles, it is the natural disaster that has caused most destruction in the history of America. Consider the fact that the…
Adamski, T., Kline, B., & Tyrrell, T. (2006).FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief. Retrieved from http://www.asu.edu/mpa/FEMAReorganization.pdf
ABC News (2005).Who's to Blame for Delayed Response to Katrina?. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/HurricaneKatrina/blame-delayed-response-katrina/story?id=1102467
Associated Press (2011).In Book Nagin tells very different Katrina Story. Retrieved from http://www.today.com/id/43696734/ns/today-today_books/t/book-nagin-tells-very-different-katrina-story/#.VGyxAPmUf9U
Cash, J.T. (2014).Political Failures of Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140708194346-192858373-political-failures-of-hurricane-katrina
Hurricanes & Typhoons
Hurricanes and Typhoons
Hurricanes and typhoons both fall under the classification "tropical cyclone," which is the generic term for what the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) calls "a non-frontal synoptic scale low-pressure system." To a lay person, this definition could be difficult to understand.
But meanwhile, to simplify the definition, this "non-frontal synoptic low pressure system" must have wind speeds up to 74 MPH or higher, and be over water 81°F or warmer, to be classified as a "hurricane" (if the tropical cyclone is in the North Atlantic, the Northeast Pacific east of the dateline, or the South Pacific east of 160E); to be classified as a "typhoon," it must have wind speeds of 74 MPH or higher, be over water 81°F or warmer, and be located in the Northwest Pacific east of 160E).
It is easy to understand why people would be confused between a…
Hong Kong Observatory. "Nature and Structure of Tropical Cyclones." Available:
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Hurricane Research Division:
Frequently Asked Questions, What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone?"
Hurricane Sandy was a tropical cyclone that swept the entire Caribbean world across the Coastal towns of America in October 2012. This storm led to early deaths, massive loss of power and thousands became homeless. Damages occasioned by this storm can be estimated in billions of dollars. Hurricane Sandy was the deadliest storm ever to hit the northeastern parts of America. This hurricane was the most costly in the history of the nation. The effects of Hurricane Sandy reached far (FEMA (n. d)). While the storm led to the devastation of the eastern coast of America with main impacts on New York and New Jersey, its winds went as far as Canada and Wisconsin prompting the rise of water levels from one city to other cities. Hurricane Sandy is associated with over 70 deaths in U.S. from New Hampshire to Maryland. No hurricane has ever hit…
FEMA (n. d). Hurricane Sandy. Retrieved on April 6, 2012 from http://www.fema.gov/hurricane-sandy
Hogan, D.E., & Burstein, J.L. (2007). Disaster medicine. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer
Penuel, K.B., & Statler, M. (2011). Encyclopedia of disaster relief. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Hurricane Andrew is a storm that originated from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic in 1992. It first started as a low-pressure system off the coast of Africa and seemed no different from many other atmospheric ripples that form every summer in this part of the world (Pimm, Stuart & Gary 19). However, the seemingly innocent weather system slowly gained enough strength and by August 16, 1992 Hurricane Andrew had grown into a significant tropical storm and officially given the name: "Andrew."
Shear from strong wind prevented intensification of the storm at first. However, the following day saw a decrease in shear, which allowed the strengthening of the depression thus becoming Tropical Storm Andrew. On August 18, convection associated with the storm diminished due to increase in wind shear. Andrew later headed westward due to the effect of a high-pressure system. It then increased rapidly before crossing Bahamas (Pimm,…
Pimm, Stuart L., and Gary E. Davis. "Hurricane Andrew. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 224-229. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
Zhang, Yang, and Walter Gillis Peacock. "Planning For Housing Recovery? Lessons Learned From Hurricane Andrew." Journal Of The American Planning Association 76.1 (2010): 5-24. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
Tilmant, James T., and Richard W. Curry. "Hurricane Andrew's Effects On Marine Resources. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 230-237. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
Smith, Stanley K., and Christopher Mccarty. "Demographic Effects Of Natural Disasters: A Case Study Of Hurricane Andrew." Demography 33.2 (1996): 265-275. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
Although it had lost some pop, Andrew was still a Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale Category 3 hurricane on the second go around. but, the first round was enough to know that Andrew was bad. From a business perspective, Hurricane Andrew crippled the offshore oil facilities on its second approach throughout the gulf coast and in Louisiana where the storm added another billion dollars in damage.
These financial losses did not even take into consideration the badly deteriorated Everglades ecosystem which would be restored several years later after a second hurricane, Opal, crippled the ecosystem even more.
The state of Florida had one of its worst hurricane seasons on record in 2004 yet the state was much better prepared. The state seemed to have learned some valuable lessons from 1992. "As hundreds of millions of dollars in hurricane relief become available to Florida, Lt. Gov. Toni Jennings declared ednesday that she…
Biscayne National Park Plaque Commemorates 10th Anniversary of Hurricane Andrew. Ed. NOAA. NOAA Hurricane Service. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.srh.weather.gov/mfl/newpage/biscayne_andrew_plaque.html.
Hurricane Andrew. 8/23/1992. National Weather Service. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.srh.weather.gov/srh/jetstream/tropics/andrew.htm.
Hurricane Andrew CSC. August 16-28, 1992. csc.noaa.gov. Retrieved on 13 Nov. 2004, from http://www.csc.noaa.gov/crs/cohab/hurricane/andrew/andrew.htm.
Hurricanes: Unleashing Natures Fury. Ed. NOAA. National Weather Service. 13 Nov. 2004 http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/brochures/hurr.pdf .
XYZ Hamburger Havens
ince our restaurants are situated along the East Coast, every year some or our franchises run the risk of being in the path of a hurricane. These are your instructions for preparing your location for a hurricane. Please use these instructions to create a "Hurricane Preparations" notebook for easy reference if a hurricane should threaten your locale.
First, walk around the building looking for items that might become dangerous if propelled by strong winds (taff writers, 2004). uch items could include trashcans, benches not solidly anchored to the ground, umbrella tables, and even some shrubbery: in a hurricane, a flying coconut can do a lot of damage. Make a list of these hazards and place it in your Hurricane Preparations notebook.
Then meet with the fire department or building inspector of your city to make sure you have identified all hazards. Make a note…
NUI. DATE. "Hurricane Safety." City Gas Company Of Florida. Accessed via the Internet April 9, 2004. http://www.nui.com/content.cfm?cid=380
Staff writers. 2004. "Taking Care of Business." South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Accessed via the Internet April 9, 2004. http://www.sun-sentinel.com/news/weather/hurricane/sns-hc-prep-business,0,5902211.story
Hurricane Aftermath, Returning to a workplace
Disasters are itself destruction to humanity for long time and recovering from that disaster is a challenge which has to be achieved with the gradual process. Safety is the fundamental concern similar to the stability of our mental and physical well-being. Proper planning is required to make the process of recovery achievable in the most efficient way, much faster and less stressful. The research paper followed is a guideline to recover from hurricane and return back to home, community, school, work and normal life.
Safety Measures Adopted and recommendations
The foremost concern after hurricane disaster is the safety of the people affected and surrounding areas. The team comprising of safety supervisors will observe issues and monitor healthcare facility of families and individuals and will scrutinize their well being. To look after the safety measures it will be important for team to make a recovery…
Hurricane Harvey: Emergency Management
Billed as being one of the most costly tropical cyclones in recent times, Hurricane Harvey, according to the National Hurricane Center (2018) caused damage worth $125 billion. According to McGillivray (2017), both the federal and state governments were not prepared for the hurricane. This is more so the case with regard to long-term mitigation planning. The big-picture considerations both levels of government missed “include looking at the condition of green space and wetlands that could have aided in mitigating the impact of the storm, land-use planning and runaway development in such places as Houston, building codes in affected areas....” This is an assertion that is seconded by Kimmelman and Haner (2017), who are of the opinion that more mayhem in places like Houston was caused by issues on the ground, rather than those form the sky.
Hours before the disaster, FEMA issued the relevant information with…
Despite there being a "Federal Response Plan" in place, the bureaucratic machinery took a long time to activate. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which was supposed to implement the Federal Response Plan, was hardly in a state to respond adequately to the situation. The Agency was still geared to respond primarily to a massive nuclear attack and saw its main responsibility as distributing federal loans and grants to help rebuild an area after a disaster. It would not issue direct aid to a state until it was given a specific request by the governor, and the state was unable to issue specific requests for aid because it had no one was available to assess the damage (Franklin). Federal help was so slow in arriving that a frustrated director of Dade County's Emergency Office made the famous remark, "... here the hell is the cavalry on this one?" (Quoted by…
Franklin, Daniel. "The FEMA phoenix - reform of the Federal Emergency Management Agency." Washington Monthly, July-August, 1995. September 21, 2008. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1316/is_/ai_17263136
Lerbinger, Otto. The Crisis Manager: Facing Risk and Responsibility. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Preliminary Report -- Hurricane Andrew." National Hurricane Center. Updated December 10, 1993. September 21, 2008. http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html#FOOT1
Schneider, Saundra K. Flirting with Disaster: Public Management in Crisis Situations. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995
hurricanes Floyd and Grace both brought devastating damage, Floyd's impact came largely from the Floyd itself, while Grace's impact came from the combination with two other weather systems. By itself, Floyd was a force to be reckoned with: a Category 3 hurricane that stretched from Canada to the U.S. that came on the heels of Hurricane Dennis. In contrast, Grace was a less powerful storm that would have dissipated naturally before causing serious damage.
Hurricane Floyd first formed as a tropical depression on September 7th 1999. Floyd formed about 1,000 miles east of the Lesser Antilles, and gradually grew in strength over the next few days while moving in a west-northwest heading for several days. During this time of growth, Floyd moved over the islands of the Bahamas and began to parallel the southern coast of the United States. During this time, Floyd fluctuated between a Category…
Cappella, Chris. 1991's 'perfect storm' a hybrid hurricane. USA Today. 23 April 2005.
Herring, Dennis. Hurricane Floyd's Lasting Legacy. 23 April 2005. Earth Observatory.
Being that it is an operation that is being conducted in an industrial area, and in an industry that dealt with compressed gas, it is critical that all the safety measures are taken into account in a categorical and safe manner in the bid to re-enter the after the terrible hurricane. For instance there are various experts who are present and I would recommend that their individual expertise be put to use in the recovery process. First, the entire employees' body must be informed of the extent of the damage and the seriousness of the problem at hand and instructed not to venture into any area within the firm without the clearance and subsequent communication through a central communications office that they have to be informed of. I would also suggest to the Incident Commander to have a formal written process for the recovery of the firm. This…
Biophica Inc., (2011). The "Chlorinated" Water Issue and the Water Ionization Alternative using
Colloidal Copper or Colloidal Silver Nanocrystal Ionization. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://www.biophysica.com/chlorine.html
Healthy Working Lives, (2010). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Retrieved October 19,
2011 from http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/minimising-workplace-risks/ppe.aspx
On August 25, 2017, Hurricane Harvey made landfall on the coast of Texas. While it was predicted to hit the United States as less destructive tropical storm or Cat 1 hurricane, a number of factors combined to make Harvey extremely destructive. First, Harvey strengthened as it approached land. Second, the storm was slow-moving, so that it continued to drop rain on the coast. Finally, Harvey’s rains hit one of the most heavily-populated areas of the United States. Combined together, these factors made Harvey one of the most destructive natural disasters to ever hit the United States.
One of the reasons that Harvey was so destructive is that people did not have adequate time to prepare for the storm. Harvey formed very quickly and was expected to make landfall as a tropical storm or, at most, a Category 1 hurricane. The upgrade to above Category 1 status occurred very quickly before landfall. Although local employers and school districts struggled…
" The lawsuit states that the "defendants knowing paid out far less than policy holders deserved to repair flooded homes and property [Officials throughout NFIP] deliberately and fraudulently used low-balling, high pressure tactics to get people to accept pennies on the dollar of what they are entitled to. (Seid, 2005)
In an article entitled "Multiple Failures Caused elief Crisis - The Breakdown of the elief Operation in New Orleans was the esult of Multiple Failures by City, State and Federal Authorities" (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) which states: There was no one cause. The failures began long before the hurricane with a gamble that a Category Four or Five would not strike New Orleans." (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) This mistake followed with an evacuation plan that was lacking and resulted in "a relief effort hampered by lack of planning, supplies and manpower, and a breakdown in communications of the most basic…
Seid, Jessica (2005) Disaster strikes, lawsuits follow -National Flood Insurance Program may pay out billions, but some may choose to head to court.
CNN Money September 15, 2005: http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/14/news/economy/katrina_lawsuit/index.htm
La Monica, Paul R. (2005) Rebuilding the Gulf, but at what cost? - Economists say Bush's reconstruction plan is necessary; some wonder if the government can afford it.
CNN Money September 16, 2005: http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/16/news/economy/katrinarebuild/index.htm?cnn=yes
("About FEMA," 2007)
The method followed by FEMA is to lead the country in cases of a disaster, in a risk-based comprehensive emergency management system that would have as its important tenets preparedness, protection, response and recovery, and finally, mitigation of the losses that the people have suffered. These are some of the plans that FEMA has in place, and for which it recruits trainees: the National esponse Plan, strategic Plan, and Annual Agency Performance Plan. The National esponse Plan encompasses a sort of a complete and all hazards approach to the management of domestic incidents. Some of the protocols that the National esponse Plan have established are: to save lives and also to effectively protect the lives and the health and safety of the public, the responders to the calamity, and to the health care and rescue workers at the scene, while at the same time making sure that…
Auerhahn, Elliot. (2006, Jun) "Broward's new Hurricane Ready Decal
Program Helps Residents Identify Businesses That Will Be Open after a Hurricane" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://bcegov2.broward.org/newsrelease/viewscreen.asp?MessageID=1168
Brunelli, Mark. (2003, Jun) "Data Center Futures: More companies seeking to create internal disaster recovery centers" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchwebservices.techtarget.com/tip/0,289483,sid26_gci905212,00.html
Hickey, Andrew R. (2006, Oct) "Disaster Recovery centre focuses on network management" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid103_gci1222603,00.html
Some never will be, due to the damage and loss sustained after the hurricane and floods. The society is New Orleans is still suffering because they have lost the order that was there, and are struggling to rebuild it, often without the support of any outside sources. It has taken too long to try to get New Orleans back to normal, and there are questions that wonder if it will ever be remotely close to the place it was before the hurricane.
In the functionalist approach, parts of society are interrelated. That certainly illustrates New Orleans after the hurricane, because the society has struggled so hard to come back together. Restaurants have reopened, Mardi Gras has continued, the French Quarter tries to lure visitors, and the businesses are coming back, some more slowly than others. Many people are determined to rebuild the city and make it better than it was…
US Disaster Preparation and Lack of with Regards to the Hurricanes and US Administration
The health policy relating to U.S. disaster preparation or lack thereof with respect to hurricanes is one that must include a better system of communication between the U.S. disaster response teams and the hospitals in the affected regions. As Hurricane Katrina showed, the U.S. was not prepared to handle the level of response needed in the wake of the catastrophe the hurricane produced. The problems with the response to Hurricane Katrina were numerous: there was no National Response Plan (NPR) in place and there was no National Incident Management System (NIMS) in existence. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was virtually ineffective: it had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an…
GEOINT Role in Responding to Hurricane Katrina
The American federal government's response operation in the aftermath of the 2005 disaster, Hurricane Katrina, establishes a crucial military necessity of improving the nation's evaluation, decision-making, and response processes. Operational art, design and other similar concepts apparently offer a means for framing the operational issue. However, both the aforementioned elements are unable to effectively improve commanders' capacity of grasping the condition. Processes like those mentioned above prove inadequate when it comes to solving key questions and conveniently translating into missions for troops to execute. The process of situation evaluation commences with the examination of a map by military staff members and commands. This is where GEOINT (Geospatial Intelligence) comes in. GEOINT refers to an emergent subfield in the intelligence domain responsible for offering comprehensive information analyses, an operational environment evaluation, and a way to examine potential issues which might surface. GEOINT represents the…
David J. Macguire, Michael Batty, and Michael F. Goodchild. GIS, Spatial Analysis and Modelling. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2005.
Department of Defense. Joint Publication 2-03 Geospatial Intelligence Support to Joint Operations. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, March 2007
Department of the Army. Field Manual 6-0: Mission Command. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army, 2003.
ESRI. "Homeland Security: GIS for Preparing and Protecting a Nation." www.esri.com/industries/federal/homelandsecurity. March 20, 2007. http://www.esri.com/industries/public_safety/homeland_security/homeland_security.html (accessed April 10, 2017).
Emergency Plan for Jacksonville, Florida During Hurricane Season
First and foremost, when preparing for a hurricane, it is essential that a community have an effective communications plan for before, after, and during the storm. The government should have a plan regarding how to disseminate information to the public, including if there is a loss of power. The public should likewise be prepared beforehand to communicate with family members and work colleagues as well as emergency personnel. This may include being prepared for emergency texts and emails sent by the local government, being aware of the best websites and news channels to seek out for information, and having battery-powered radios in case of a total outage of both power and cellular service.
Given that the conditions of a hurricane are always changing, families should be encouraged to have adequate amounts of food and water on hand, batteries for flashlights, and any…
How to prepare for a hurricane. (2016). FEMA. Retrieved from:
This also seemed to follow a pattern set by the 911 disaster (prior warning signs were ignored by governing officials then as well).
The article brings to the reader's attention the problem at hand, which is that there are three main proposals being debated to prevent any further severe coastal damage in this region. All of them are very expensive and this seems to lie with the way the work will be contracted. The author (Michael Fischetti) even includes that the Army Core of Engineers is usually the group who would handle the design and the building of any safety structures (71).
Most of the information in this article has been common knowledge but can easily be referenced if one wished to verify the information contained within. It is rather disappointing that the article does not include any journal citations to make the reader's job of checking for accuracy less…
Fischetti, Michael. 2006. Protecting New Orleans. Scientific American. 2 September 2006 http://www.sciam.com
NOVA. Sept. 2005. Warnings from the ice. Transcripts. 2 September 2006 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2508warnings.html
Wikipedia. 3 Sept. 2006. Hurricane Katrina. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 3
September 2006 http://www.wikipedia.com
Hurricane Floyd was deemed to be a Category 4 storm with 145 mph winds. It was also seen to be bigger than the hurricane Andrew, which had struck south Florida in 1992. Andrew caused a huge disaster and left 26 dead, 160,000 homeless, and property damage of $25 billion. Floyd was determined to be bigger and potentially more dangerous than Andrew, which caused people to panic. Officials had reported by Sunday night Floyd could become a Category 5 hurricane with winds exceeding 155 mph, which led to the officials deciding to evacuate the residents who were most likely to be affected by the storm. However, hurricane Floyd bypassed the state completely with its 140 mph winds skirting the peninsula off the coastline. Floyd did not make landfall and the evacuation orders issued were not necessary.
The issue hurricane Floyd presented was one to do with communication on who should evacuate.…
HLS-355: CRITICAL THINKING FOR HOMELAND SECURITY Final Project
The fight against Hurricane Katrina in a political environment set on fighting terrorism
Improving security can be a particularly challenging mission and this makes a critical thinking technique particularly useful for a person or a community to effectively strengthen their position and legislations. One of the first things that someone dealing with the concept needs to consider is the fact that security can never be one hundred percent foolproof. Even the most advanced security systems can be defeated and caring for such a system thus entails having to be in constant alert and to attempt to improve it every minute. The better a security system is, the harder it is for a criminal to defeat it and the more successful the individuals benefiting from it are.
Many individuals have a limited understanding of the idea of security, as they only tend to…
Bullock, J., Haddow, G, & Coppola, D.P., "Introduction to Homeland Security: Principles of All-Hazards Risk Management," (Elsevier, 2012)
Kiltz, Linda, "Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management," Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http://www.innovative-analytics.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/DevelopingCriticalThinking.pdf
Matthews, J. "Mass Shootings: Six Steps to Survival," (eBooks2go, 10 Jan 2014)
Purpura, P. "Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction with Applications," (Butterworth-Heinemann, 29 Aug 2011)
Writing doesnt have to be a chore.
To prove it, heres a cause and effect essay example that gets down and dirty with a semi-controversial issue that polarizes a lot of people (no pun intended): yes, were talking about climate change.
This topic has been in the news for a good long while.
There have been movies made about it, conferences held about it, and many works of scholarly and not-so-scholarly literature written about it.
So lets take a look at how to turn this subject into the main topic of a cause and effect essay.
Well start off with a title, give you the hook, underline the thesis, and highlight some important parts for you to consider.
Best of all, well show you how to have fun with your essay. Lets go!
b. Did climate change cause Harvey et al.?
The problem with the response to Hurricane Katrina was not that a National Response Plan (NPR) was not in place or that a National Incident Management System (NIMS) did not exist. It was that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an effective response to a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina (Lewis, 2009; Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina,2006). This paper will 1) describe 3 major examples regarding the leadership demonstrated in regard to preparing for and responding to Hurricane Katrina, give an assessment of each and explain why each was pivotal in the response’s outcome. It will also give an assessment of how each could have been improved. 2) It will describe…
catastrophic events can impact hospital risk financing, the purchasing of new physical property and insurance. Catastrophes can range from terrorist acts like 9/11 to natural disasters like Hurricane Katrina to biological endemics/outbreaks that shut down entire cities for days as medical teams race to erect quarantines in order to stop the spread. Each catastrophe has its own unique fall-out and impact. Terrorist attacks call for higher alert by law enforcement authorities and demand more scrutiny and optimum records keeping by hospitals, for safety's sake. Natural disasters call for optimum coordination among the various impacted medical facilities so that the best and highest quality care can be delivered in a collaborative fashion to those in need who are detrimentally affected. And biological outbreaks can be threatening to hospitals especially as they are in the business of treating patients who might have come into contact with a deadly illness and thus have…
Epstein, A. (2014). Financing Risk. JPUB. Retrieved from http://samples.jbpub.com/9781449645656/45656_CH05_Kavaler.pdf
Gould, N. (2015). Understanding the vulnerability of hospitals to natural disasters.
IRMI. Retrieved from https://www.irmi.com/articles/expert-commentary/understanding-the-vulnerability-of-hospitals-to-natural-disasters
RMS. (2015). Catastrophe, injury and insurance. Retrieved from http://static.rms.com/email/documents/liferisks/reports/catastrophe-injury-and-insurance.pdf
responder hazards for a hurricane in Jacksonville, Florida include mold and fungi due to flooding, exposure to asbestos and other dangerous substances from damaged buildings, bacteria and infectious organisms from sewage in local drinking water, downed power lines leading to problems such as possible electrocution or injury from falling limbs, strains from moving heavy objects in the rescue or cleanup efforts, slippery surfaces leading to falls, falls from workers on rooftops, and transportation accidents. Protective measures that can be introduced to minimize or mitigate these hazards include ensuring adequate ventilation for workers in enclosed spaces, the provision of situation-specific protective gear for all personnel, following procedures for proper disposal of hazardous waste, properly training workers regarding downed power lines, operation of transportation or construction vehicles, and working with utility companies to selectively cut power to certain areas during the cleanup and rescue operations. Although many of these controls are being…
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2015). Emergency response resources. Retrieved online: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/emres/flood.html
OSHA Fact Sheet. Retrieved online: https://www.osha.gov/Publications/OSHA_FS-3610.pdf
Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816.
Images of Hurricane Katrina, found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,2005,retrieved 1 March 2009.
Images of Brittany Spears, found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAV16M6q9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.
Bloggerhead.com, found online at, retrieved 1 March 2009.
Garrett, Brandon L., and Tania Tetlow. "Criminal Justice Collapse: The Constitution after Hurricane Katrina." Duke Law Journal 56.1 (2006): 127+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019431816 .
Images of Hurricane Katrina, found online at http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&q=looting%20hurricane%20katrina&um=1&ie=UTF-8&sa=N&tab=wi,2005,retrieved 1 March 2009.
Images of Brittany Spears, found online at http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://judicial-inc.biz/81b.ri1.jpg&imgrefurl=http://thisiszionism.blogspot.com/2008/01/brittany-spears-rushed-to-hospital.html&usg=__uoZgO_FKCKQSYT3FQzen5-UUDYU=&h=317&w=405&sz=27&hl=en&start=1&um=1&tbnid=HnAWV16M6qW9DM:&tbnh=97&tbnw=124&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dbrittany%2Bspears%2Bhome%2Bchildren%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DG,retrieved1 March 2009.
For instance we can take the examples of African-Americans, the events and issues show that some ethnic groups had to struggle hard to stay ahead in the social fabric of American society.
The living conditions of poor and middle segment of the society are main indicators of the health of economy and income distribution. While in developing nations the plight of the poor and even middle segments of society is well-known. Developed nation like United States have not been associated with poverty and the poor treatment of certain segments of society. Recent event have made people argue that over the years issues of poverty and unequal income distribution have hit America in a big way. These issues now can not be brushed under the carpet as the issues are being debated at all forums. People have accepted the grim fact that Income gap exists in American Society and these…
Dovring, F. Inequality: The Political Economy of Income Distribution. Praeger Publishers. New York. 1991.
Kristof. N. The Larger Shame. New York Times. Sep 6,2005 http://cygnus.lcc.edu:2051/pqdweb?did=892078491&sid=2&Fmt=3&clientId=9230&RQT=309&VName=PQD
Ryscavage, P. Sharpe. Income Inequality in America: An Analysis of Trends M.E. Sharpe. New York, 1999.
Scott, J. & Leonhardt, D. Class in America: Shadowy Lines That Still Divide; CLASS MATTERS. New York Times. May 15, 2005. http://cygnus.lcc.edu:2051/pqdweb?did=839712251&sid=8&Fmt=3&clientId=9230&RQT=309&VName=PQD
the nineteenth century saw the Mardi Gras celebration banned, but when it were restored in New Orleans in the 1820s it was a great equalizing force, allowing African-Americans -- man of them still slaves -- the freedom to drum and celebrate in ways they were unable to almost anywhere else or at any other time (Carnaval 2000). The celebrations are still a great equalizer, brining together people of all classes and backgrounds in a racous celebration of life.
Davis, J. (1997). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.eastjeffersonparish.com/culture/MADIGA/HISTOY/history.htm
Carnaval. (2000). "Mardi Gras: Myth and history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.carnaval.com/cityguides/neworleans/history.htm
Hall of Festivities. "Mardi Gras." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.novareinna.com/festive/mardi.html
Mardi Gras New Orleans. (2009). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html
Davis, J. (1997). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.eastjeffersonparish.com/culture/MARDIGRA/HISTORY/history.htm
Carnaval. (2000). "Mardi Gras: Myth and history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.carnaval.com/cityguides/neworleans/history.htm
Hall of Festivities. "Mardi Gras." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.novareinna.com/festive/mardi.html
Mardi Gras New Orleans. (2009). "Mardi Gras history." Accessed 8 September 2009. http://www.mardigrasneworleans.com/history.html
The author of this report has been asked to focus on a single hurricane or tornado and how it impact human and societal life. Being that it is quite recent and it was very destructive, the author of this report has chosen the EF-5 tornado that decimated much of Joplin, Missouri in 2011. The author will cover how the tornado impacted the earth, the damage toll, the death toll, the economic impacts involved and any permanent consequences that have resulted. While the city of Joplin is certainly in recovery mode, that tornado hit that city head-on and levied a massive amount of destruction.
One account of the Joplin tornado that is quite exhaustive and informative would be that of the National Institute of Standards and Technologies, or NIST. The "EF-5" label mentioned in the introduction makes reference to the Fujita scale of tornado intensity. There are only five…
NIST. (2015). Joplin Missouri Tornado 2011. Nist.gov. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.nist.gov/el/disasterstudies/weather/joplin_tornado_2011.cfm
Wheatley, K. (2013). The May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri EF5 tornado. United States Tornadoes. Retrieved 16 June 2015, from http://www.ustornadoes.com/2013/05/22/joplin-missouri-ef5-tornado-may-22-2011/
Hurricane esponse Issues
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and describe the various details that are inherent within a disaster. This essay will focus on a recent hurricane event that demands the attention of the Emergency Operations Center (EOC) and includes the necessary actions by the Incident Commander (IC). The current status of the problem is post hurricane and extra medical supplies are needed. Along with this problem lies the issue of drinking water, food and temporary shelter. There is also continuous rain falling as floods are threatening the well being of both the residents of this area and the rescue effort itself.
Prioritizing during emergency responses is a very necessary thing to do in order to survive these troubling situations. Leadership is necessary in these cases to provide guidance and a sense of faith and hope in times of peril and danger. In hurricane response situations,…
Bucci, I., Inserra, D., Lesser, J., Mayer, M.A., Slattery, B., Spencer, J., & Tubb, K. (2013). After Hurricane Sandy: Time To Learn And Implement The Lessons In Preparedness, Response, And Resilience. The Heritage Foundation Emergency Preparedness Working Group, (144).
Wolshon, B., Urbina, E., Wilmot, C., & Levitan, M. (2005). Review of policies and practices for hurricane evacuation. I: Transportation planning, preparedness, and response. Natural hazards review, 6(3), 129-142.
Hurricanes and NASA Problems
Finding the Distance to Stars Using the Parallax Angle
Given the above equation and information provided, about how far away is HT Cas?
Your answer was calculated in parsecs. Given that 1 parsec = 3.2616 light years, about what is the distance to HT Cas in light years? (Your answer in parsecs X 3.2616 light years = The Distance to HT Cas in light years).
217 light years
434 light years
219 light years
Based on your answer, do you think this is a star that we might be able to send a space probe to? Why or why not? Support your answer.
1,287,418,956,726,420 After reviewing some information about probes, I do not think this star is one that we might be able to send a probe to. Voyager 1 is the probe that has gone the furthest in…
Barnes, G. (2009). Hurricanes and the equator. www.soest.hawaii.edu / Retrieved from https://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/hurricanes.html
Hurricanes are frequent in certain parts of the United States like Florida. The most prevalent toxin that can wreak havoc after a hurricane is asbestos. "Asbestos is a naturally-occurring mineral that was used extensively up until its dangers became truly evident in the last quarter century. It was used in nearly all aspects of home and building construction because of its fire-retardant and insulation qualities" ("Asbestos emoval after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos," 2016). While Asbestos does not present an immediate danger when left undisturbed, after a hurricane, potential flooding could release the particles into the air through structural damage of buildings, floors, and pipes lined with asbestos. When released into the air, the particles become 'friable' and can affect humans in a deadly way through diseases of the lung like mesothelioma.
The exposure limit is 0.1 fiber/cm3TWA 1.0 fiber/cm3 Excursion Limit (30 minutes). The target organs are…
Asbestos Removal after a Hurricane -- Safe handling of asbestos. (2016). Mesothelioma.com. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.mesothelioma.com/asbestos-exposure/handling/hurricanes.htm
CDC, (2016). CDC - NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards -Asbestos.Cdc.gov. Retrieved 22 April 2016, from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg/npgd0041.html
Hurricane Katrina and the Plan Efforts to educe elated Disaster Impacts in Future
The hurricane Katrina is one of the deadliest hurricanes to occur in the United States. The hurricane hit Louisiana, Florida, and New Orleans amongst other places. It led to losses, evacuation of people, loss of lives and many businesses came to stand still. New Orleans had flood preparedness systems, which did not help, and floods persisted for weeks. The tragedy was contributed to by the lack of risk preparedness systems. Scientists have estimated lower storm surges and small coverage of wetlands in the 20th century. The winds, surges, and wetlands help to weaken the powerful winds. The areas are still vulnerable to hurricanes and storms in the future due to the geographic location. New Orleans city is also sinking geologically rapidly. Lessons learned from the hurricane Katrina should be used for disaster preparedness.
Department Of Homeland Security Appropriations. (2008). New York: DIANE Publishing.
Daniels, R.D. (2006). On Risk And Disaster Lessons From Hurricane Katrina. New York: University of Pennslyvania.
Huddow, G.J. (2010). Introduction To Emergency Management. Atlanta: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Jenkins, O. (2009). National Preparedness. New York: DIANE Publishing.
" (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that this "incessant interaction and conversion in turn results in joint creation of knowledge by individuals and organizations." (Chennameni, 2006) Organizations are reported to play a key role in activating the "explicit and tacit dimensions of knowledge and in providing a forum for the knowledge spiral through four modes of knowledge creation" (Chennameni, 2006) Those four modes are stated to include: (1) socialization; (2) externalization; (3) combination; and (4) internalization. (Chennameni, 2006)
Socialization speaks of the exchanging of "tacit knowledge among members through the social interactions and shared experiences." (Chennameni, 2006) Externalization refers to the translation of tacit knowledge into from explicit knowledge." (Chennameni, 2006) it is reported that each of the modes of conversion are both "interdependent and tangled." (Chennameni, 2006)
B. Diffusion of Innovation
ogers Diffusion of Innovations explains change via Social Networks. The Diffusion of innovations theory explains the process of…
Chennamaneni, a. (2006) Determinants of Knowledge Sharing Behaviors: Developing and Testing an Integrated Theoretical Model. The University of Texas at Arlington. Dec 2006. Retrieved from: http://dspace.uta.edu/bitstream/handle/10106/305/uta-etd-1428.pdf?sequence=1
Darnton, a. (2008) Reference Report: An overview of behavior change models and their uses. GSR Behavior Change Knowledge Review. Jul 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.civilservice.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Behaviour_change_reference_report_tcm6-9697.pdf
O'Malley, P. (2006) Strategic Communications Planning. A Presentation to IABC Ottawa. Retrieved from: http://www.omalco.com/iabc.htm
Planned Behaviour: A Meta-Analysis," (22:3),2003.
Rubin "Hurricane" Carter has become a symbol, both negative and positive, for American's judicial system.
Rubin carter's case has had a profound impact on accused and convicted criminals today. The advent of DNA technology has helped to reduce the number of wrongful convictions, and has also been instrumental in exonerating a number of convicted prisoners. hile DNA technology has had an important impact on the criminal justice system, experts argue that the number of wrongful convictions is an increasing problem in the United States. One website lists 22 potential wrongful convictions on Texas' death row alone. Racism played an important role in Carter's original conviction, and today allegations of racism continue to plague the criminal justice system. The legal damage to the right of habeas corpus by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 has reduced the ability of prisoners to demand the right to be brought before…
Bos, Carole. RUBIN "HURRICANE" CARTER. Law Buzz. 23 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=584&url= http://www.lawbuzz.com/justice/hurricane/hurricane.htm
Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty (CUADP). 22 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=6132&url= http://www.cuadp.org/pris/pot.html
Hurricane. 2000. Starring: Denzel Washington, Vicellous Reon Shannon, and Deborah Kara Unger. Director Norman Jewison.
Roberts, Paul Craig. From Blackstone to Bentham: Why Wrongful Conviction Is On The Rise. 22 March 2004. http://manhat1.spfldcol.edu/manhat2-bin/link_visit?crs=0340/ENGL11422&id=byihmhzoBDvJsR&loc=6424&url= http://www.lewrockwell.com/roberts/roberts4.html
Hurricane Andrew and Katrina, hurricanes are never a good thing and are always a logistical nightmare. However, those two hurricanes stand out among many others as the death and destruction they rendered was off the charts. Looters and the "strangers" mentioned in the assignment parameters tend to be common as the degenerates of society always take advantage of such calamities. However, some strangers are simply just looking for loved ones. However, people coming into the area other than trained and well-equipped emergency personnel are the last thing a hurricane zone needs. This and other questions will be addressed in this report. While any hurricane response strategy is going to be controlled chaos, there are some best practices that need to be employed.
One plan that needs to be implemented right off the top is a cordoning off of the worst areas, especially those that are impassable, so as to…
Dao, J. (2005, September 1). New Orleans Is Awaiting Deliverance. The New York
Times. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/09/02/
Fussell, E. (2010, January 1). Race, socioeconomic status, and return migration to New
As per IC Sec. 1033(h), the tax rules for the replacement of those properties destroyed or converted in such cases are eased and the overall replacement period extended as well. "Some rules were also revised like the 'ev. ule 95-22' which considers the funds received for the primary residence as well as scheduled property such as jewelry, pieces of art, coins, etc. which had been insured, as funds for a single item of property." (IS, Tax Law Changes elated to Hurricanes Katrina, ita and Wilma) These funds were to be considered as a "common pool" of proceeds from which the gains realized by the taxpayer could be to the extent of the amount exceeding the expenses after meeting a suitable replacement property. This revised rule also clarifies that the replacement property could refer to the residence being replaced or any scheduled private property "in any proportion." (Kess, Hurricane Katrina tax…
Agnew, Christine, L. Come Hell and high water: Can the tax code solve the post-
Katrina insurance crisis?
Brown, D.M. Hurricane Katrina: The First Seven Days of America's Worst Natural
Disaster. Kessinger Publishing. 2005.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
Emergency Management: Hurricane Katrina and Lessons Learned
In late August, 2005, Hurricane Katrina became the 11th named storm of the Atlantic hurricane season and was its most deadly and destructive. The federal and state governments' responses to this natural disaster have been heavily criticized in the mainstream media as well as by the hundreds of thousands of victims of this disaster in the years that followed. Although it is far too late for the victims of Hurricane Katrina, there were some valuable lessons learned from the disaster that have been used to help formulate improved responses in the future. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the emergency management of Hurricane Katrina, followed by an assessment of the various lessons that were learned. A summary of the research and important findings concerning these lesson learned are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Birkland, T.A. (2006). Lessons of disaster: Policy change after catastrophic events. Washington,
DC: Georgetown University Press.
Bitto, A. (2007, January-February). Say what? Who? Me? Right here in the trenches?
Collaborate on what? Seeking common ground in regional all-hazards preparedness training. Journal of Environmental Health, 69(6), 28-31.
psychological impact of Katrina & Lusitania
Hurricane Katrina which took place in the year 2005 is said to be one of the worst storm disaster that took place in the history of the United States. It led to loss of many lives, and it was unavoidable. The winds both from Louisiana to Alabama caused the level of water to arise at about 80% of the New Orleans and neighborhoods. The tragedy left many people with worries asking how the tragedy like that could happen to threaten the lives of many Americans (Brinkley, 2006).
The sinking of Lusitania on the other hand, contributed to various impacts on America as well as, the World War One. However, the Americans were never interested in joining the war unless they had finished another two years. The Lusitania sinking also enraged many Americans as well as, hastening the people from United States' entrance into the…
Brinkley, D. (2006). The great deluge: Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, and the Mississippi Gulf Coast. New York: Morrow.
Guterman, P. (2005). Psychological preparedness for disaster. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.academia.edu/233646/Psychological_preparedness_for_disaster
Gant, P.G., & Gantt, R. (2011). Disaster Psychology. October 10, 2012 from http://www.asse.org/professionalsafety/pastissues/057/08/042_049_F1Gan_0812.pdf .
Ballard, R.D., & Dunmore, S. (2003). Exploring the Lusitania: probing the mysteries of the sinking that changed history. New York: Warner Books.
Planning Efforts to educe Future Disaster Impacts
This paper looks at options for programs to be put in place before to a disaster to avoid major and often poorly-managed expenditures after a catastrophe and to offer suitable protection against the risk of those large losses which do occur. It is important for the government to provide programs that enlightens the citizens on how to deal with the hazards that come with hurricanes. Natural hazards have taken place in America and they have not been well attended to. The response in the Haiti earthquake showed some weakness in response. Hurricane Katrina should have given Americans a lesson on how to prevent major destructions in case of a similar scenario.
Katrina was a hurricane that hit the Atlantic in 2005 and was known to be the most dangerous hurricane in history of America. Over 1,836 people died as a result of…
Mancuso, Louis C.; Alijani, Ghasem S.; Kwun, Obyung. (2011). The effects of the BP oil spill and hurricane Katrina in South Louisiana. Entrepreneurial Executive,
Mckenzie, Russell; Levendis, John; (2010). Flood Hazards and Urban Housing Markets: The effects of Katrina on New Orleans. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, pp. 62-76.
LaJoie, Andrew Scott; Sprang, Ginny; McKinney, William Paul.(2010). Long-term effects of Hurricane Katrina on psychological well being of evacuees. Disasters, p1031-1044, 14p,
Shaughnessy, Timothy M.; White, Mary L.; Brendler, Michael D.; (2010). The Income Distribution effect of Natural Disasters: An Analysis of Hurricane Katrina. Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, pp. 84-95
In the year 2005, United States experience one of the biggest, deadliest and costly hurricanes of that period. The hurricane was named Hurricane Katrina; it cost loss of lives, property and flooding across different states. The emergency situation had to be dealt with immediately and strategies to do so had to be all rounded. This is because those affected were either directly involved or witnessed the occurrence. This discussion is aimed and analyzing the victims of the emergency following two approaches that is humanistic and behavioral while comparing and contrasting their effectiveness.
How do therapists using each of these perspectives view the client and client's problem?
Behavioral approach is concerned with theoretical and measurable aspects of human behavior. Human behavior can either be learnt or unlearnt depending on whether they are acceptable on a social and cultural basis. Humanistic approach in the other hand is concerned with individual responses…
Cervone, D., & Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and research. Hoboken;NJ: . Wiley.
Plante, T.G. (2011). Contemporary clinical psychology. Hoboken, NJ:: Wiley.
Sue, D., & Sue, D.M. (2008). Foundations of counseling and psychotherapy: Evidence-based practices for a diverse society. Hoboken, N.J:: John Wiley & Sons.
There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).
3. Politics and decision making process
In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…
Department of Homeland Security, (2004). Catastrophic Incidence Annex. National Response
Plan. Pp1. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/Catastrophic_Incident_Annex.pdf
Homeland Security, (2005). Catastrophic Incident Supplement to the National Response
Plan. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://publicintelligence.net/catastrophic-incident-supplement-to-the-national-response-plan/
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…
Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.
Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.
Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.
Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-
It is always necessary to minimize flooding from storm waters and protect the coastland from devastating storm surges and help clean pollutants from runoff, and "wetlands in our bays perform all these important functions and more for free. One study suggests wetlands provide nearly $7,000 per acre of services each year" (Harvey, 2005)
However, estuaries are quite fragile and are still subject to the ravages of national disasters. "As highlighted in news coverage of Hurricane Katrina, large areas of coastal wetlands have been lost, but those that remain help absorb the brunt of incoming storms, dampening storm energy before storms reach homes" (Harvey, 2005) That is why the EPA's Coastal atershed Protection Strategy "specifically targets technical assistance and support top priority coastal watersheds through its Clean ater Action Plan. The plan "was developed to address enhanced protection of public health from threats posed by the destruction of estuaries by natural…
Estuaries and Your Costal Wetland." (2006). Environmental Protection Agency. (EPA).
Oceans: Fact Sheet. Retrieved 27 Jan 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/owow/oceans/factsheets/fact5.html
Harvey, Tom. (3 Oct 2005). "In Storm's Wake, Estuary Day Shows Value of Wetlands."
Press Release: Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Retrieved 27 Jan 2007 at http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/newsmedia/releases/?req=20051003a
Here, criminal law is of course preemptive in all jurisdictions, yet enforcement is restricted to agencies dedicated to law enforcement investigation and apprehension of individuals.
In spite of billions of dollars spent on homeland security, in the aftermath of Katrina pediatric-specific preparations continue to lag behind. Lack of disaster readiness for hospitalized children and for those undergoing reunification process sheds light on the disjuncture of public administration duty to rescue of minors; regardless of state intervention as 'duty' in all other areas of their lives (i.e. foster care). Children's advocates argue that,
"federal and state policy makers should dedicate research funding for the development of redundant strategies for implementation in states to assure timely reunification of infants, toddlers, and children and with their correct parents and caregivers" (Dolan and Krug, 64).
Articulation of those terms and the implications of not doing so are inflected in a broader discussion that is…
Dolan, M.A. And Krug, S.E. Pediatric Disaster Preparedness in the Wake of Katrina: Lessons to be Learned. Clinical Pediatric Emergency Medicine. Elsvier, 2006, 59-66.
Handfield, R. In the Wake of Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned through the Lens of Supply Chain Disruptions - Part 1. Supply Chain Management 08 Sept 2005.
Implementation of the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act And Other Organizational Changes. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2006. Web.
Laws and Regulations. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2010. Web.
The following is a response to a major disaster in the Asian coastal country of Bangladesh. A major and destructive typhoon has recently hit the country and there are significant problems. The result of this typhoon has seem massive death, destruction and population displacement, and to worsen the situation, data indicates that cases of a diarrheal disease consistent with cholera have been reported.
This essay will highlight the priorities of work that need to be addressed in order to respond to the cholera outbreak that appears imminent. This response will recommend certain actions that need to be implemented and which agencies to seek assistance from to help in making the plan work. Pre-deployment preparations for those flocking to the disaster will also be discussed to give a more descriptive form to the problem.
Impacts of Cholera Outbreaks
It is important and preliminary to understand the problems and risks associated…
Tappero JW, Tauxe RV. Lessons learned during public health response to cholera epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerg Infect Dis [serial on the Internet]. 2011 Nov [date cited]. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1711.110827
The World Health Organization (2006). Communicable Disease following natural disasters. Risk Assessment and Priority Interventions. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/diseasecontrol_emergencies/guidelines/CD_Disasters_26_06.pdf
Vaccinations in disaster situations: Recommendations of the PAHO/WHO special program for vaccines and immunization (2012). Retrieved from: http://www.paho.org/English/PED/te_vacc.htm
Toms iver Township is a hub of the Jersey Shore. On October 29, 2012, "superstorm" Sandy hit the area, leaving widespread damage to property and infrastructure. A month after the storm hit, most of Toms iver homes are uninhabitable and businesses are far from returning to their "usual" operations. The mayor has been working closely with the state of New Jersey and federal agencies like FEMA, but requires the assistance of an experienced NGO like Acme Disaster Support Services (ADSS).
Goals of recovery include debris removal, restoration of infrastructure, essential services, and core structures, and returning the community to a livable state as soon as possible so that residents and business owners may return. ADSS serves in a support and organizational role, focusing primarily on facilitating communication and coordinating recovery efforts and activities. While ADSS does not supply actual funding or resources, we will help the township understand how to…
Katz, A. (2012). One month after Sandy: Where the storm came ashore. Time. Nov 29, 2012. Retrieved online: http://nation.time.com/2012/11/29/one-month-after-sandy-where-the-storm-came-ashore/
NOAA (n.d.). Toms River, NJ: Community Profile. Retrieved online: http://www.nefsc.noaa.gov/read/socialsci/pdf/NJ/toms%20river-nj.pdf
O'Neill, E. (2013). A year after Sandy, Toms River officials say dunes are top priority. New Jersey.com. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/ocean/index.ssf/2013/10/toms_river_sandy_one_year_later.html
Spoto, M.A. (2014). Hurricane Sandy recovery is slow but steady in Toms River, mayor says. New Jersey.com. Retrieved online: http://www.nj.com/ocean/index.ssf/2014/10/hurricane_sandy_recovery_is_slow_but_steady_in_toms_river_mayor_says.html
In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…
Brown, Sharon P., Sandra L. Mason, and Richard B. Tiller. "The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Employment and Unemployment: After BLS and Its State Partners Made Critical Modifications to Estimation Procedures, Local Area Data Show That Hurricane Katrina Depressed Employment Levels Sharply in Louisiana and Mississippi;" the Initial Effect on Unemployment, Though Also Strong, Was Temporary." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 52+.
Clayton, Richard L., and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina: A Substantial Number of Workers Were Displaced from the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area after Hurricane Katrina; Those Who Quickly Found Jobs in Texas Experienced a Substantial Decline in Their Short-Term Earnings." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 11+.
Hsu Spencer S. Experts Question Proposed FEMA Changes
Washington Post. Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A04
It has also been noted that the communication plans and protocols that were in place had not been properly communicated to all necessary parties, such that even the preparations and infrastructure that existed for the express purpose of dealing with emergency events were not properly utilized (White House 2007). Not only were better public safety communications systems as well as interagency communications systems necessary, then, but these systems needed to be more clearly outlined and presented to the right individuals.
esponse to Noted Problems
The issues that arose during the response to Hurricane Katrina did not go unnoticed by the media, the public, or the officials involved in responding to disasters and coordinating relief efforts. Through the reactions of these officials and the legislation that was proposed and/or enacted in the wake of the hurricane, other specific communications problems that occurred during Katrina as well as more general public safety…
Moore, L. (2005). Public Safety Communications Policy: Before and After Hurricane Katrina. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.hsdl.org/?view&did=457862
Mountjoy, J. (2005). Broken Connections. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.csg.org/knowledgecenter/docs/sn0510BrokenConections.pdf
Perini, M. (2007). Public Communications: Vital Link to Maintaining the Public's Trust During Crisis. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/DIME/documents/Public%20Communications.pdf
US Congress. (2006). Protecting Infrastructure; Public Communication; Role of the Media. Accessed 7 October 2011. http://www.gpoaccess.gov/serialset/creports/pdf/sr109-322/ch20.pdf
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
Memoir: My Mother's Memories of Hurricane Charley
My mother described to me how she felt during Hurricane Charley. The center of Hurricane Charley was located about 30 miles west-northwest of Ft. Myers, Florida, and about 115 miles south-southwest of Orlando.
Hurricane Charley hit landfall on August 13, 2004. My mother recalled the experience of preparing for and surviving the hurricane. Her account echoes descriptions of what victims of other hurricanes, most recently Katrina and Rita, have faced and continue to face.
My mother, however, was one of the lucky ones. She did not have to evacuate, and our house was not destroyed. Still, she says "the trauma lingers, even now. After Charley, my heart goes out to hurricane victims everywhere."
"I felt sad and scared," my mother recalled. "We were all alone in our house, and confused. I didn't have time to board up the windows. I just hoped for…
films may have in common are performers, directors or subject matter. The films, The Shawshank Redemption, The Green Mile and the Hurricane, have several things in common. All three films follow the results of men wrongly convicted of murder. Two of the films, The Shawshank Redemption and The Green Mile, were adapted from original works of the same author, Stephen King. They also were directed by the same person, Frank Darabont. In addition, all three films share something else. They are all films about individuals who have been judged because of the way they look.
In The Green Mile, John Coffey, played by Michael Clarke Duncan, is on death row after being found guilty of murdering two little white girls. The Green Mile is the name given to Coal Mountain Louisiana State Penitentiary's death row. Coffey, a black man, was found with the broken bodies of the two dead girls…
Berardinelli, James. "The Green Mile." 1999. May 2, 2005 .
Berardinelli, James. "The Hurricane." 1999. May 2, 2005 http://movie-reviews.colossus.net/movies/h/hurricane.html>.
Berardinelli, James. "The Shawshank Redemption." 1994. May 2, 2005 .
Ebert, Roger. "The Green Mile." December 10, 1999. May 2, 2005 .