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Hydraulic Fracturing Essays Examples Essays (Examples)

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Fracturing Boom or Bust
Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75877606
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Hydraulic fracturing can be compared and contrasted in sharply different manners; rhetoric on both sides can go over the edge, and oftentimes such extreme rhetoric ensures that any type of sane or rational discussion is rendered virtually impossible. Opponents have gone so far as to call hydraulic fracturing an "abnormally dangerous activity" (inaldi, 2015, p. 388) while proponents often argue that additional "EPA controls would cause energy prices to skyrocket, slow the development of natural-gas fields, and block enormous economic benefits" (Hobson, 2009, p. 19).

Both sides of the issue seem to make strong points in order to support their positions. Few and far between are the calls for objective and trustworthy research such as the one in America (the magazine) that asks for opponents and proponents to at least agree on the fact that the science behind fracking should take into effect the complexity of the situation as well…


Christopherson, S. & Rightor, N.; (2012) How shale gas extraction affects drilling localities: Lessons for regional and city policy makers, Journal of Town and City

Management, 2(4) p. 350-368.

Environmental Protection Agency (2010) Scoping materials for initial design of EPA

research study on potential relationships between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources, accessed on December 7, 2015 at:

Hydraulic Conductivity
Words: 1587 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93368919
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Hydraulic Conductivity, How it Is Measured and hy it Is Important for Transient Storage

The hydraulic conductivity of soil is related to its texture. The rate is generally higher in coarser soils, but it is also influenced by structure and can be profoundly influenced by soil management operations and the exchangeable cation status (Richards 1956). The quality of irrigation water is an important consideration when determining irrigation feasibility and permanence alternatives. Rather than hazards to irrigation agriculture from the soluble constituents of irrigation water, the main problems appear to be the accumulation of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium in soil. In this regard, the salinity of irrigation water has a direct impact on such factors as crop selection, the appropriate method of application of the water, as well as the leaching required to effectively manage salt accumulations in the soil, all of which are factors subject to constraints imposed by…

Works Cited

Ali, S. Harris. (1999). The Search for a Landfill Site in the Risk Society. The Canadian Review

of Sociology and Anthropology, 36(1):1.

Beven, Keith J. (2004). Soil moisture. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Caldwell, Robert N. (1998). Six-Packs for Subdivisions: The Cumulative Effects of Washington's Domestic Well Exemption. Environmental Law 28(4):1099.

Fracking Policy Analysis
Words: 3910 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85885174
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1. Executive summary

While the extraction of natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing is a decade- long practice, of late, it has witnessed immense development owing to advancements in the area of horizontal drilling which enables gas and oil operators to now harness earlier- unprofitable natural gas reserves within rock formations. Extant extraction- related policies combine state-federal alliances and voluntary endeavors by private organizations. More unprejudiced, scientific studies providing details on how fracturing and extraction potentially affect environmental media like water and air are essential, in addition to those focusing on natural gas surges’ long- term effects on local societies. Primary models and hypotheses may offer a basis to reasonably discuss possible effects.

Maintenance of the current state of affairs with regard to free market rules and governmental policies will potentially continually check short- run public expenses; however, it will not contribute sufficiently to furthering response to concerns regarding…

Business Rhetoric Drilling in the Marcellus Shale
Words: 3160 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76048601
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Business hetoric: Drilling in the Marcellus Shale

and Environmental Politics

Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than 200 years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications. However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly. Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil.

Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States.…


American Petroleum Institute (API). (2010). Hydraulic fracturing: Unlocking America's natural gas resources. American Petroleum Institute.

Brown, V.J. (2007). Putting the heat on gas. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 76-77.

Chambers, A.J. (2007). Report of the international energy transactions committee. Energy Law Journal, 30(1), 207-217.

City of New York. (2010). Natural gas drilling overview. Retrieved from

Conflict Which Has Repercussions in the Present
Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 66997610
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conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…

Marcellus Shale Is a Black
Words: 2338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66606638
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Energy prices went up again in 2008. Drillers created 29,000 jobs for the people. And State and local governments offered $240 million worth of taxes (Sapien 2009). And modern technology was there to realize the dream.

When asked about the initiative's threat to human health, the DEP at first assured all sectors that TDS were not generally considered a major risk. In 2008 alone, at least 4,000 new oil and gas wells were drilled. The frenzy sidestepped the greater and graver responsibility of disposal of huge wastewater. The new oil and gas wells produce approximately 9 million gallons of wastewater a day in Pennsylvania alone. This volume was expected to increase to at least 19 million this year. This volume is greater than that what all of the State's waterways combined can safely absorb, DEP itself says. ut in the wake of continued complaints and apprehensions, it advised consumers to…


Legera, Laura. Hazards Posed by Natural Gas Drilling Not Always Underground. The Sheranton Times Tribune:, 2010. Retrieved on May 3, 2011


Lustgarten, Abrahm. Is New York's Marcellus Shale too Hot to Handle? ProPublica:

ProPublica, Inc., 2009. Retrieved on April 18, 2011 from

Shale Gas Production Processes
Words: 3643 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 76368198
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Shale Gas Analysis

What is shale gas?

According to Alexander et al., (2011), shale gas refers to a natural gas that stored in organic-rich, fine-grained rocks, including shale, laminated siltstone, or mudstone. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, majorly ethane, and methane. The gases are tightly locked within the pore spaces of the sedimentary rocks. The reservoirs of the shale gas have features such as low impermeability to clay content and, small grain sized contents. The term shale does not focus on a specific rock, but rather the rocks that have fine-grained particles that are smaller than the coarse-grained particles such as siltstone and carbonate rocks among other rocks. The generation of the shale occurs through various processes that include primary and secondary thermogenic degradation alongside biogenic degradation of the organic matter. The occurrence may also occur in a combination of all of the above mechanisms. The formation of…


Alexander, T. et al., 2011. Shale Gas Revolution. Oilfield Review, 23, pp.40 -- 55. Available at: .

Andrews, I.J., 2013. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Report, p.64pp.

Bakshi, V. 2012. Shale gas: a practitioner's guide to shale gas & other unconventional resources. London, United Kingdom: Globe Law and Business.

Berman, A., 2009. What's new in exploration? Shale plays and lower natural gas prices: A time for critical thinking. World Oil, 230, pp. 15 -- 16. Available at: .

Gasland the Planet's Major Resources Are Continually
Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Movie Review Paper #: 89666748
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The planet's major resources are continually threatened by industry and business. Among them, water has become such a priced commodity that finding areas with uncontaminated drinking water is slowly becoming a feat. How many people actually still trust to drink quality tap water without being cautious over it? That seems to be the premise of the documentary Gasland (2010), which focuses on the negative effects of siphoning gas through hydraulic fracturing on surrounding areas of the land. In Josh Fox's travels across the countryside, the testimony, evidence, and glaring supportive evidence seem clear enough that there are adverse effects. The companies, however, seem reluctant to do any further investigations.

Gasland's introduction brings the audience first to Fox's land, with a special focus on the history of his house and a greater focus on the beauty of the surroundings. He proceeds through the film by mentioning the letter from a…

Words: 3485 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 44647931
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Fracking and Ethics
While “fracking”—the term applied to the practice of hydraulic fracturing of rock to gain access to the oil or gas underground—has been hailed as a revolutionary way for the oil industry to draw oil from previously hard to reach places, there are a variety of ethical issues surrounding the practice (Evensen & Stedman, 2018). Stakeholders in the issue of fracking go beyond those in the oil/gas industry, however. They include people in communities, whose water supply has been contaminated as a result of fracking. They include people whose lives have been changed by fracking due to the opportunity to invest in companies engaged in this practice. They include the workers and employees who are given jobs because of the new opportunities that fracking provides. Thus any position for or against fracking will impact all these stakeholders in different ways. Some believe fracking is the way of…

Production Engineering -- Summary the
Words: 471 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81783690
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Ideal fracture geometry differs depending on the relative permeability conditions. Reservoir length is the most important dimension in low-permeability reservoirs, whereas reservoir width is more important in high-permeability reservoirs.

Artificial Lift

In general, the objective of artificial lift processes is to reduce the bottom hole flow pressure by increasing the flow rate. The Gas Lift method relies on gas compressor systems controlled by valve systems and produces oil and gas at the surface. Beam pumping has been used in its most conventional form, relies on gravity-based beam pumping units used by the industry since the 19th century. Various more modern forms of beam pumping systems include unitorque, air-balanced, and low-profile pumping unit configurations.

More recently, the electrical submersible method was developed and it can be advantageous in various operational environments and conditions. More particularly, electrical submersible pumps can lift high volumes of product at lower cost per volume; they are…

Shale Gas Reservoirs Resource Estimation and Recoverable
Words: 1975 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 3923023
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Shale Gas eservoirs, esource Estimation and ecoverable Volumes

What is Shale Gas?

Shale gas is best described as rich in organic content and fine-grained (Bustin, 2006). Shale, is however a very broad term, and gas found in any reserve is trapped in the layers of sediment alternating between clastic and sandstone or carbonates. Shale usually denotes fissile mudstone containing mm scale laminations of >50% silts and clays below 1/16mm (1% TOC, high Si%, low clay %, >40m thick, >1000km2, >1km deep, gas window thermal maturity levels, low expulsion potential and have a natural fracture network (Jarvie et al. 2007; Bouhlel and Bryant 2012). Shales, however are very heterogeneous and hence every play needs independent methodologies and estimations. That makes replication of one successful attempt to another play difficult (Khattab 2012).

The analysis of systemic variations in the mudstone architecture is measured on the parasequence scale using Sequence stratigraphy (Passey et…


Advanced Resources International (ARI) (2011). World shale gas resources: an initial assessment of 14 regions outside the United States. Washington, DC: Advanced Resources International Inc.

Aplin, A.C. Fleet, A.J. & Macquaker, J.H.S. (1999). Muds and Mudstones: physical and fluid flow properties. Geol. Soc. Lon. Spec. Pub. Vol. 158, p.1-8.

Bouhlel, A.M. & Bryant, I. (2012). An Effective Approach to Unconventional Resource Exploration in the Middle East. SPE152455.

British Geographical Survey (BGS) (2013). The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Department of Energy and Climate Change

Letter to the Newspaper Our Community Faces
Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31232629
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Letter to the Newspaper

Our community faces a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions. My research leads me to believe that the cluster of unexplained illnesses that the people of this town have experienced over the years are the direct result of gas company drilling practices.

It started out with what we all assumed were just unrelated illnesses: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. These may sound like allergies, but no. For the really unfortunate folks in our community, more severe symptoms showed up, like hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hemolysis, pulmonary edema and even coma, even rare and deadly diseases. But here is the zinger: we have too many cases of these illnesses for a community our size, far too many.

I became concerned after a chance remark by the school nurse about the number of children who apparently suffered from allergies, but whose symptoms did not respond to the…

Works Cited

Cernansky, R. (2009, October 15). Natural gas drilling harms eyes, causes tumors, destroys air: The ugly truth behind the 'natural' energy source. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: 

Hurdle, J. (2009, August 27). U.S. finds water polluted near gas-drilling sites. Reuters. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: 

Junkins, C. (2010, December 19). What's in the water?: Fracking chemicals under microscope. The Intelligencer Wheeling News-Register. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: 

Kimball, J. (2011, April 17). Congress releases report on toxic chemicals used in fracking. 8020 Vision. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from:

Groundwater Water Is Starting to Become an
Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82993937
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"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.

Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…


Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online: 

Ellis, Blake. Water grab in Kansas oil boom. CNN Money. 12 June 2012. Retrieved online: 

Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960. Geology of groundwater resources of Harper County, Kansas. Retrieved online: 

Kansas Geological Survey, 2005. Retrieved online:

Heavier Environmental Regulation on Oil and Gas Drilling Activities
Words: 5303 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 7385089
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Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport

The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…

Works Cited

American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from

Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from .

Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global

Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from .

Different Types of Energy Waste
Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 54048300
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Waste and Energy Presentation

The first waste product is organic food waste. This ends up in landfills, and there are a number of negative outcomes. Food waste releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Landfills are 20% of all methane emissions in the United States. Further, organic food waste is material that could be composted, but usually is not, representing a lost opportunity to create valuable compost for growing food. In addition, prior to making its way to the landfill, food waste is often stored in back alleys and in garbage cans, where it attracts rodents and other vermin (EPA, 2015).

Nuclear waste is a by-product of nuclear energy production. Nuclear waste comes in a number of categories, but it generally must be treated before it is deposited, and usually it must be turned to glass, stored in ceramics and then buried deep in the earth. Nuclear wastes have a long…

References (2015). The food recovery hierarchy. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from /foodrecovery/

Tollefson, J. (2015). U.S. government seeks sites for nuclear waste storage. Nature. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from 

Greenpeace (2014). Coal impacts on water. Greenpeace. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from 

SourceWatch (2015). Fracking and water pollution. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from

Management of Health and Safety
Words: 2541 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66513500
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It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)

Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)

Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.

Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.

Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.

International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from

Better Health Through Rewards and Punishments
Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42476683
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Health Care Trends

With the passage of the Affordable Care Act the personal health of every American has become an important issue. While most health care funds are spent treating diseases and other health problems, there has recently been a push toward focusing on prevention of health problems. For example, "chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are now responsible for more than 75% of health care costs." (Berman, 201, p.328) But as these health problems are almost entirely preventable a focus on prevention could save a great deal of money that would be better spent elsewhere. Therefore many Americans are beginning to endorse policies that prevent health problems before they start. Some of these ideas involve incentives to reward people for healthy behavior while others involve penalties to punish those who do not. However, research indicates that punishments are not as effective as incentives when it…


Blacksher, Erika. (2008). "Carrots and Sticks to Promote Healthy Behaviors." Hasting

Center Report. Retrieved from 

Berman, Micah. (Fall 2011). "From Health Care Reform to Public Health Reform."

Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, vol. 39 (3). Retrieved from