Hydraulic Fracturing Essays (Examples)

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Fracturing Boom or Bust

Words: 1645 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75877606

Hydraulic fracturing can be compared and contrasted in sharply different manners; rhetoric on both sides can go over the edge, and oftentimes such extreme rhetoric ensures that any type of sane or rational discussion is rendered virtually impossible. Opponents have gone so far as to call hydraulic fracturing an "abnormally dangerous activity" (inaldi, 2015, p. 388) while proponents often argue that additional "EPA controls would cause energy prices to skyrocket, slow the development of natural-gas fields, and block enormous economic benefits" (Hobson, 2009, p. 19).

Both sides of the issue seem to make strong points in order to support their positions. Few and far between are the calls for objective and trustworthy research such as the one in America (the magazine) that asks for opponents and proponents to at least agree on the fact that the science behind fracking should take into effect the complexity of the situation as well…… [Read More]


Christopherson, S. & Rightor, N.; (2012) How shale gas extraction affects drilling localities: Lessons for regional and city policy makers, Journal of Town and City

Management, 2(4) p. 350-368.

Environmental Protection Agency (2010) Scoping materials for initial design of EPA

research study on potential relationships between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources, accessed on December 7, 2015 at:
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Hydraulic Conductivity

Words: 1587 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93368919

Hydraulic Conductivity, How it Is Measured and hy it Is Important for Transient Storage

The hydraulic conductivity of soil is related to its texture. The rate is generally higher in coarser soils, but it is also influenced by structure and can be profoundly influenced by soil management operations and the exchangeable cation status (Richards 1956). The quality of irrigation water is an important consideration when determining irrigation feasibility and permanence alternatives. Rather than hazards to irrigation agriculture from the soluble constituents of irrigation water, the main problems appear to be the accumulation of soluble salts and exchangeable sodium in soil. In this regard, the salinity of irrigation water has a direct impact on such factors as crop selection, the appropriate method of application of the water, as well as the leaching required to effectively manage salt accumulations in the soil, all of which are factors subject to constraints imposed by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ali, S. Harris. (1999). The Search for a Landfill Site in the Risk Society. The Canadian Review

of Sociology and Anthropology, 36(1):1.

Beven, Keith J. (2004). Soil moisture. In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].

Caldwell, Robert N. (1998). Six-Packs for Subdivisions: The Cumulative Effects of Washington's Domestic Well Exemption. Environmental Law 28(4):1099.
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Natural Gas Is Less Polluting Than Coal or Other Fossil Fuels

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32787328

Hydraulic Fracking Issues

There has been a great deal of controversy over the technique called hydraulic fracking, which environmentalists and others have claimed it is a dangerous procedure to extract natural gas from the earth. The industry insists it is safe, and recently the Environmental Protection Agency issued research that indicates fracking can be safely done. hat is hydraulic fracking? Fracking is a procedure in which water is injected under high pressure into a "bedrock formation," which in turn releases natural gas that has been trapped in rock formations (USGS). This paper points out the benefits of hydraulic fracking

Main Body of the Paper on Hydraulic Fracking

Fracking involves a process where water is mixed with chemicals and "fine sands, then pumped at extremely high pressure into the shale rock," which fractures the rock, according to the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Once the rock below the surface of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Environmental Protection Agency. "Assessment of the Potential Impacts of Hydraulic

Fracturing for Oil and Gas on Drinking Water Resources." Retrieved November 24, 2015,

From http://www.epa.gov. 2015.

Grace Communications. "Natural Gas Fracking -- Introduction." Retrieved November 24,
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Business Rhetoric Drilling in the Marcellus Shale

Words: 3160 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76048601

Business hetoric: Drilling in the Marcellus Shale

and Environmental Politics

Inexpensive energy sources are a requirement if the country is going to continue to thrive the way it has for more than 200 years. The United States is trying to decrease the amount of fossil fuels that it uses in everyday applications. However, the worry is not the fuels themselves, but the costs associated with the fuels. Fossil fuels are a viable resource if they are clean and extracted from the earth in ways that can be shown to be environmentally friendly. Because of these requirements, natural gas has become one of the new class of fuels that is thought of as superior to producing products from crude oil.

Natural gas is a clean energy source that can be extracted more safely than other sources of gas. Another bonus is that the product is very plentiful in the United States.…… [Read More]


American Petroleum Institute (API). (2010). Hydraulic fracturing: Unlocking America's natural gas resources. American Petroleum Institute.

Brown, V.J. (2007). Putting the heat on gas. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 76-77.

Chambers, A.J. (2007). Report of the international energy transactions committee. Energy Law Journal, 30(1), 207-217.

City of New York. (2010). Natural gas drilling overview. Retrieved from  http://www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/news/natural_gas_drilling_overview.shtml
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Conflict Which Has Repercussions in the Present

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66997610

conflict which has repercussions in the present time or one that is indeed actual. The following chosen conflict can actually be regarded as conflictive on two grounds which makes it all the more so important. First, hydraulic fracturing has been demonstrated to have severe environmental consequences on a negative scale which subsequently affect people's well-being. Second, as a technological development of the twentieth century, hydraulic fracturing, provided that the aforementioned is indeed true, would constitute reasonable grounds to estimate that the effects of industrialization have been detrimental to the common interest of the mere population while it has only boosted more financial benefits for the rich. The two grounds mentioned before make hydraulic fracturing a very current dangerous conflict which is why it has been chosen here. Moreover, certain companies seem to be given the right to drill internationally while the population is not made aware of the consequences, especially…… [Read More]

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Marcellus Shale Is a Black

Words: 2338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66606638

Energy prices went up again in 2008. Drillers created 29,000 jobs for the people. And State and local governments offered $240 million worth of taxes (Sapien 2009). And modern technology was there to realize the dream.

When asked about the initiative's threat to human health, the DEP at first assured all sectors that TDS were not generally considered a major risk. In 2008 alone, at least 4,000 new oil and gas wells were drilled. The frenzy sidestepped the greater and graver responsibility of disposal of huge wastewater. The new oil and gas wells produce approximately 9 million gallons of wastewater a day in Pennsylvania alone. This volume was expected to increase to at least 19 million this year. This volume is greater than that what all of the State's waterways combined can safely absorb, DEP itself says. ut in the wake of continued complaints and apprehensions, it advised consumers to…… [Read More]


Legera, Laura. Hazards Posed by Natural Gas Drilling Not Always Underground. The Sheranton Times Tribune: hetimes-tribune.com, 2010. Retrieved on May 3, 2011

from http://thetimes-tribune.com/news/hazards-posed-by-natural-gas-drilling-not-always-underground

Lustgarten, Abrahm. Is New York's Marcellus Shale too Hot to Handle? ProPublica:

ProPublica, Inc., 2009. Retrieved on April 18, 2011 from http://www.propublica.org/articles/is_the-marcellus-shale-too-hot-to-handle-1109
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Productivity of Oil and Gas

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84066094

In such cases, production does not even cover operating costs. Yet, even hydraulic fracturing cannot help increase the overall productivity of wells in the form of these shales. In such cases, the best way to increase efficiency is to actually drill horizontal wells. After this has been done, hydraulic fracturing can be conducted at multiple points over a period of time within the structure of the horizontal well. There are thus a number of benefits from drilling horizontal wells. First, horizontal wells increase the actual contact length "between the wellbore and formation" which will help increase the ability to use hydraulic fracturing to implement more efficient well measures (Daneshy 8). With horizontal wells, the ability to fracture at multiple locations makes for a greater contact area, thus increasing the overall efficiency of the well itself. Fracturing can even take place within cased and cemented horizontal wells. The well must be…… [Read More]


Daneshy, Ali. "Increasing Productivity of Oil and Gas Wells."
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Shale Gas Production Processes

Words: 3643 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76368198

Shale Gas Analysis

What is shale gas?

According to Alexander et al., (2011), shale gas refers to a natural gas that stored in organic-rich, fine-grained rocks, including shale, laminated siltstone, or mudstone. It contains a mixture of hydrocarbon gases, majorly ethane, and methane. The gases are tightly locked within the pore spaces of the sedimentary rocks. The reservoirs of the shale gas have features such as low impermeability to clay content and, small grain sized contents. The term shale does not focus on a specific rock, but rather the rocks that have fine-grained particles that are smaller than the coarse-grained particles such as siltstone and carbonate rocks among other rocks. The generation of the shale occurs through various processes that include primary and secondary thermogenic degradation alongside biogenic degradation of the organic matter. The occurrence may also occur in a combination of all of the above mechanisms. The formation of…… [Read More]


Alexander, T. et al., 2011. Shale Gas Revolution. Oilfield Review, 23, pp.40 -- 55. Available at:  http://www.slb.com/~/media/Files/resources/oilfield_review/ors11/aut11/04_shale_gas_revolution.pdf .

Andrews, I.J., 2013. The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Report, p.64pp.

Bakshi, V. 2012. Shale gas: a practitioner's guide to shale gas & other unconventional resources. London, United Kingdom: Globe Law and Business.

Berman, A., 2009. What's new in exploration? Shale plays and lower natural gas prices: A time for critical thinking. World Oil, 230, pp. 15 -- 16. Available at: http://www.worldoil.com/Magazine/MAGAZINE_DETAIL.asp?ART_ID=3762&MONTH_YEAR=Jan-2009.
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Gasland the Planet's Major Resources Are Continually

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89666748


The planet's major resources are continually threatened by industry and business. Among them, water has become such a priced commodity that finding areas with uncontaminated drinking water is slowly becoming a feat. How many people actually still trust to drink quality tap water without being cautious over it? That seems to be the premise of the documentary Gasland (2010), which focuses on the negative effects of siphoning gas through hydraulic fracturing on surrounding areas of the land. In Josh Fox's travels across the countryside, the testimony, evidence, and glaring supportive evidence seem clear enough that there are adverse effects. The companies, however, seem reluctant to do any further investigations.

Gasland's introduction brings the audience first to Fox's land, with a special focus on the history of his house and a greater focus on the beauty of the surroundings. He proceeds through the film by mentioning the letter from a…… [Read More]

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Peak Oil the Global Oil Industry Covered

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26946651

Peak Oil

The global oil industry covered all of Earth's continents in search of oil, and the limited results that they found prompted geologist M. King Hubbert to declare an impending peak oil situation; but the prospect of peak oil has not been reached more than 60 years later, and in fact, the rate of new oil prospectus has been growing in the past decade. The reason for this is sheer innovation; from the ground to the pump, in achieving further gains from existing oil fields, and opening up entirely new regions of untapped oil.

The first new technology since the 1950s is the least exciting, but cheapest option. It is the practice of using steam and gas in existing oil wells in order to loosen the hardened oil that is not easily pumped out in a liquid form. This technology has been used effectively in oil fields like the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Hydraulic Fracturing Background Information." Home. 23 Mar. 2012. Web. .

Leovy, Jill. "Greenspace." Gulf Oil Spill: Drilling Technology Explained. 29 Apr. 2010. Web. .

"Local." Gov. Brown Welcomes Fuel-Efficient Boeing Dreamliner To Long Beach -- CBS Los Angeles. 12 Mar. 2012. Web. .

Mouawad, Jad. "Oil Innovations Pump New Life Into Old Wells." The New York Times, 5 Mar. 2007. Web. .
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Production Engineering -- Summary the

Words: 471 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81783690

Ideal fracture geometry differs depending on the relative permeability conditions. Reservoir length is the most important dimension in low-permeability reservoirs, whereas reservoir width is more important in high-permeability reservoirs.

Artificial Lift

In general, the objective of artificial lift processes is to reduce the bottom hole flow pressure by increasing the flow rate. The Gas Lift method relies on gas compressor systems controlled by valve systems and produces oil and gas at the surface. Beam pumping has been used in its most conventional form, relies on gravity-based beam pumping units used by the industry since the 19th century. Various more modern forms of beam pumping systems include unitorque, air-balanced, and low-profile pumping unit configurations.

More recently, the electrical submersible method was developed and it can be advantageous in various operational environments and conditions. More particularly, electrical submersible pumps can lift high volumes of product at lower cost per volume; they are…… [Read More]

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Shale Gas Reservoirs Resource Estimation and Recoverable

Words: 1975 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3923023

Shale Gas eservoirs, esource Estimation and ecoverable Volumes

What is Shale Gas?

Shale gas is best described as rich in organic content and fine-grained (Bustin, 2006). Shale, is however a very broad term, and gas found in any reserve is trapped in the layers of sediment alternating between clastic and sandstone or carbonates. Shale usually denotes fissile mudstone containing mm scale laminations of >50% silts and clays below 1/16mm (1% TOC, high Si%, low clay %, >40m thick, >1000km2, >1km deep, gas window thermal maturity levels, low expulsion potential and have a natural fracture network (Jarvie et al. 2007; Bouhlel and Bryant 2012). Shales, however are very heterogeneous and hence every play needs independent methodologies and estimations. That makes replication of one successful attempt to another play difficult (Khattab 2012).

The analysis of systemic variations in the mudstone architecture is measured on the parasequence scale using Sequence stratigraphy (Passey et…… [Read More]


Advanced Resources International (ARI) (2011). World shale gas resources: an initial assessment of 14 regions outside the United States. Washington, DC: Advanced Resources International Inc.

Aplin, A.C. Fleet, A.J. & Macquaker, J.H.S. (1999). Muds and Mudstones: physical and fluid flow properties. Geol. Soc. Lon. Spec. Pub. Vol. 158, p.1-8.

Bouhlel, A.M. & Bryant, I. (2012). An Effective Approach to Unconventional Resource Exploration in the Middle East. SPE152455.

British Geographical Survey (BGS) (2013). The Carboniferous Bowland Shale gas study: geology and resource estimation. Department of Energy and Climate Change
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Causes and Effects of Environmental Degradation

Words: 2641 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29376352

negative effects of degradation of the environment. It will first discuss human population as a cause for environmental degradation by also relating to afferent effects. It will then bring into equation urbanization and industrialization which are closely linked. Ultimately, the general effects of global warming, as both a cause and an effect in itself, will be considered.

Key terms: environment, population density, urbanization, industrialization, global warming.

Man has impacted the environment since the beginning of times but, unlike nowadays, the effects were then negligible. As the number of population increased and spread around the globe, so did changes in the environment. Defining the environment has taken many forms throughout the years. The broader and most common understanding is that it represents the sum of conditions and natural factors that influence human activity. The environment is understood in terms of a dynamic system with a well defined structure where its components,…… [Read More]

Reference List

Ahmad, F. (2012). India's economic development: Nexus between poverty and environmental degradation. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 1(5), 61-66. Retrieved from  http://www.ijstr.org/final-print/june2012/Indias-Economic-Development-Nexus-Between-Poverty-And-Environmental-Degradation.pdf 

Beck, M.W., Shepard, C.C, Birkmann, J., Rhyner, J., Welle, T., Witting, M., Wolfertz, J., Martens, J., Maurer, K., Mucke, P., & Radtke, K. (2012). WorldRiskReport 2012. Berlin: Alliance Development Works, ISBN 978-3-9814495-0-3.

Duraiappah, A. (1996). Poverty and environmental degradation: A literature review and analysis. CREED Working Paper Series No 8. Amsterdam: Institute for Environmental Studies. Retrieved from  http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/8127IIED.pdf 

Malthus, T. (1998). An essay on the principle of population (Electronic ed.). Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project. Retrieved from  http://www.esp.org/books/malthus/population/malthus.pdf
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Mergers in the Oil Industry

Words: 2052 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40772693

Oil Industry

For the corporation that has acquired another company, merged with another company, or been acquired by another company, evaluate the strategy that led to the merger or acquisition to determine whether or not this merger or acquisition was a wise choice. Justify your opinion.

The oil and gas industry is extremely important in how the world operates and sustains its living. The ability to capture the nature resources provided to us by the environment has proven to be a very lucrative and profit rich industry that had demonstrated its worth over the long run. Within this industry, there are many large and powerful companies that have built strong organizations across the globe. Exxon -- Mobil is one such company that has experienced mergers and has benefited greatly off of their benefits.

The joining between Exxon and Mobil in 1999 created shockwaves around the industry as a new global…… [Read More]


Coll, S. (2012). Private empire: ExxonMobil and American power. Penguin.

Corcoran, G. (2010). Exxon-Mobil 12 Years Later: Archetype of a Successful Deal. The Wall Street Journal, 30 Nov 2010. Retrieved from  http://blogs.wsj.com/deals/2010/11/30/exxon-mobil-12-years-later-archetype-of-a-successful-deal/ 

DCP Midstream Partners (nd). Competitive Strengths. Viewed 29 May 2014. Retrieved from  http://www.dcppartners.com/company/competitive-strengths 

Exxon Mobil (nd). Our History. Viewed 29 May 2014. Retrieved from http://corporate.exxonmobil.com/en/company/about-us/history/overview
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Current and Future Supply and Demand of Natural Gas

Words: 3584 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92383692

Future Supply and Demand of Natural Gas

The technology developed in the United States has become available for application in other countries mainly through efforts of major service companies. Until the mid 1990s, Canada's gas production was predominantly from conventional gas formations. This conventional gas filled the available pipeline capacity and unconventional gas resources, which are more difficult to produce, were largely ignored. However, as pipeline capacity was expended and conventional gas production began approaching a peak, market conditions in Canada began to favor development of unconventional gas (Harry, pp88-96) In the recent past, the natural gas markets were fairly predictable; they are now undergoing profound and uncertain changes. Independently, each regional market had developed gradually deposits from the nearest pipeline networks and limiting exchanges between areas. The current trend is marked by greater competition between the available sources and greater flexibility in systems gas. (Tad, pp14-15)

It is apparent…… [Read More]

Works cited

Ammann, Daniel. The King of Oil: The Secret Lives of Marc Rich. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2009, p16-38.

Andrei Viforeanu, Wayne Wells, Jay W. Hodny. "Passive surface geochemical survey leads to dry gas discoveries," 2003, p44-46.

Bill White. "State's consultant says nation is primed for using Alaska gas." Energy Bulletin, 2005, p15.

Chris Vernon. "UK gas and electricity crisis looming." Energy Bulletin, 2005, p4-6.
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Letter to the Newspaper Our Community Faces

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31232629

Letter to the Newspaper

Our community faces a public health crisis of unprecedented proportions. My research leads me to believe that the cluster of unexplained illnesses that the people of this town have experienced over the years are the direct result of gas company drilling practices.

It started out with what we all assumed were just unrelated illnesses: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. These may sound like allergies, but no. For the really unfortunate folks in our community, more severe symptoms showed up, like hypotension, metabolic acidosis, hemolysis, pulmonary edema and even coma, even rare and deadly diseases. But here is the zinger: we have too many cases of these illnesses for a community our size, far too many.

I became concerned after a chance remark by the school nurse about the number of children who apparently suffered from allergies, but whose symptoms did not respond to the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cernansky, R. (2009, October 15). Natural gas drilling harms eyes, causes tumors, destroys air: The ugly truth behind the 'natural' energy source. Planetgreen.com. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: http://planetgreen.discovery.com/food-health/gas-drilling-harms-eyes.html

Hurdle, J. (2009, August 27). U.S. finds water polluted near gas-drilling sites. Reuters. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/08/27/idUSN27311701

Junkins, C. (2010, December 19). What's in the water?: Fracking chemicals under microscope. The Intelligencer Wheeling News-Register. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from: http://theintelligencer.net/page/content.detail/id/549992/What-s-In-The-Water-Fracking-Chemicals-Under-Microscope.html?nav=515

Kimball, J. (2011, April 17). Congress releases report on toxic chemicals used in fracking. 8020 Vision. Retrieved October 2, 2011 from:  http://8020vision.com/2011/04/17/congress-releases-report-on-toxic-chemicals-used-in-fracking/
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Groundwater Water Is Starting to Become an

Words: 1205 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82993937


"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.

Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…… [Read More]


Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online:  http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1376/pdf/circ1376_barlow_report_508.pdf 

Ellis, Blake. Water grab in Kansas oil boom. CNN Money. 12 June 2012. Retrieved online:  http://money.cnn.com/2012/06/12/pf/kansas-water-america-boomtown/index.htm 

Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960. Geology of groundwater resources of Harper County, Kansas. Retrieved online:  http://www.kgs.ku.edu/General/Geology/Harper/index.html 

Kansas Geological Survey, 2005. Retrieved online:  http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/ED10/04_occur.html
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Heavier Environmental Regulation on Oil and Gas Drilling Activities

Words: 5303 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7385089

Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport

The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from  http://www.api.org .

Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk.

Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global

Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from  http://www.scienceworldreport.com .
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Tax Law Oil and Gas Is Currently

Words: 3220 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14203970

Tax Law

Oil and Gas is currently at the core of ussia's economy, even though there has been talk at the head of the ussian federation of intentions to attempt to move the economy from one which is based solely in these natural resources, to one which is based on rapidly evolving technology. Of course it will be at least a decade before movements and developments in this fashion are able to unfold with real significance. However, given the strong presence and foundation of the oil and gas sector in ussia's economy, it is natural that the bulk of the regulatory law is founded around these pillars.

Excise Tax

Excise taxes in ussia refer to taxes which need to be paid out on certain goods in ussia, such as raw and refined alcohol, alcoholic drinks which are stronger than 1.5% by volume, cars and motorcycles with engines that have horsepower…… [Read More]


Cfe-eutax.org. (2013). Excise duties in Russia. Retrieved from cfe-eutax.org:  http://www.cfe-eutax.org/taxation/excise-duties/russia 

Deloitte.com. (2012). Tax and Legal Guide. Retrieved from Deloitte.com: http://www.deloitte.com/assets/Dcom-Russia/Local%20Assets/Documents/Energy%20and%20Resources/dttl_Guide-to-the-Russian-Oil-Gas-Sector_03092012.pdf

EY.com. (2011). Doing Business in the Russian Federation. Retrieved from EY.com:  http://www.ey.com/Publication/vwLUAssets/Doing-business-in-the-Russian-Federation-2011/$FILE/Doing-business-in-the-Russian-Federation-2011.pdf 

GFC. (2010). Reducing Carbon Emissions Through Transport Taxation. Retrieved from greenfiscalcommission.org.uk:  http://www.greenfiscalcommission.org.uk/images/uploads/gfcBriefing6_PDF_ISBN_v7.pdf
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Different Types of Energy Waste

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54048300

Waste and Energy Presentation

The first waste product is organic food waste. This ends up in landfills, and there are a number of negative outcomes. Food waste releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. Landfills are 20% of all methane emissions in the United States. Further, organic food waste is material that could be composted, but usually is not, representing a lost opportunity to create valuable compost for growing food. In addition, prior to making its way to the landfill, food waste is often stored in back alleys and in garbage cans, where it attracts rodents and other vermin (EPA, 2015).

Nuclear waste is a by-product of nuclear energy production. Nuclear waste comes in a number of categories, but it generally must be treated before it is deposited, and usually it must be turned to glass, stored in ceramics and then buried deep in the earth. Nuclear wastes have a long…… [Read More]


EPA.gov (2015). The food recovery hierarchy. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from http://www.epa.gov/foodrecovery/

Tollefson, J. (2015). U.S. government seeks sites for nuclear waste storage. Nature. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from  http://www.nature.com/news/us-government-seeks-sites-for-nuclear-waste-storage-1.17183 

Greenpeace (2014). Coal impacts on water. Greenpeace. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from  http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/coal/Water-impacts/ 

SourceWatch (2015). Fracking and water pollution. SourchWatch.org. Retrieved June 1, 2015 from  http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/Fracking_and_water_pollution
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Management of Health and Safety

Words: 2541 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66513500

It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)

Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)

Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…… [Read More]

references and further reading you must purchase this article.

Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.

Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.

Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.

International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/mee/safety.htm
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Better Health Through Rewards and Punishments

Words: 713 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42476683

Health Care Trends

With the passage of the Affordable Care Act the personal health of every American has become an important issue. While most health care funds are spent treating diseases and other health problems, there has recently been a push toward focusing on prevention of health problems. For example, "chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, stroke, and diabetes are now responsible for more than 75% of health care costs." (Berman, 201, p.328) But as these health problems are almost entirely preventable a focus on prevention could save a great deal of money that would be better spent elsewhere. Therefore many Americans are beginning to endorse policies that prevent health problems before they start. Some of these ideas involve incentives to reward people for healthy behavior while others involve penalties to punish those who do not. However, research indicates that punishments are not as effective as incentives when it…… [Read More]


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