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The information comprises of the life styles, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and usage of medicine, weight and history of dieting, gynecologic history, psychological factors, and social background. Among all such factors the study revealed that the hypertension and the use of diuretics were crucial risk factors for hysterectomy which are found prevalent among the educated women and women having weight fluctuations. The study thus concluded that the history of hypertension, weight cycling, and absence or less of education are inextricably related to constitute the risk elements for pre-menopausal hysterectomy. Hypertension is regarded as a plausible biological factor of menorrhagia and a cause for hysterectomy. (Settnes; Jorgensen, 1998)
Not withstanding the clinical indications, the rate of hysterectomy varies in accordance with the personal or demographic characteristics of women. The studies, however, depicts inconsistency on the influence of the race, education, and socio-economic status of the patient on hysterectomy. Some of the studies…
Depression in Women" Retrieved at http://www.cchs.net/health/health-info/docs/2300/2364.asp?index=9308. Accessed 5 November, 2005
Hysterectomy" New York State: Department of Health. Retrieved at http://www.health.state.ny.us/nysdoh/consumer/women/hyster.htm . Accessed 4 November, 2005
Lee, Chung-won; Toney, Michael B; Berry, Edna H. "Non-clinical risk factors of hysterectomy" The 130th Annual Meeting of APHA. Retrieved at http://apha.confex.com/apha/130am/techprogram/paper_47155.htm . Accessed 5 November, 2005
Osborn, M. F; Gath. DH (August, 1990) "Psychological and physical determinants of premenstrual symptoms before and after hysterectomy. Psychological Medicine. Vol: 20; No: 3; pp: 565-572
I would like to discuss the complications resulting from this procedure as my mother has undergone this surgery and I have seen how a patient can suffer from numerous consequences. Hysterectomy can lead to many long-term complications which may include urinary problems, hormone imbalance, sexual issues, depression, adhesions and heart complications etc. For this reason, hysterectomy has often under attack. It is believed that this procedure is being performed far more commonly than needed and hence some critics are skeptic of the need to have this performed because in most cases, the problems are not very serious. "Many people question the fact that more than 650,000 hysterectomies are performed in the United States each year. Very few of these operations are performed because of a life-threatening situation, and it is likely that many of them are unnecessary. Per capita, half as many hysterectomies are performed in the Great Britain…
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 4th Edition. Avery Trade; 4 edition (October 19, 2006)
Stanley West MD, Paula Dranov. The Hysterectomy Hoax: The Truth About Why Many Hysterectomies Are Unnecessary and How to Avoid Them, 3rd Edition. Next Decade, Inc.; 3rd edition (April 1, 2002)
Adelaide Haas. The Woman's Guide to Hysterectomy: Expectations and Options Celestial Arts; Revised edition (September 1, 2004)
technology has revolutionized society: communication, transportation, commerce, and especially medicine. . Ironically, for centuries and still in Oriental Medicine, healthcare was and is tailored to the individual. Even the Greek Physician Hippocrates wrote that he prescribed sweet elixirs to some and astringents to others depending on their individual condition (Pray, 2008). 21st century medicine, though, is more about an individual person's genetic code, and is made possible by advances in genetic technology and engineering. This is partially due to the Human Genome Project, a massive program completed in 2003 that focused on the identification of the individual genes that make up human DNA with the overall hope that it would initiate genomic medicine -- healthcare delivered based on the individual's medical history and genetic profile (About the Human Genome Project, 2011). Traditionally, medicine diagnoses human illnesses based on quantitative and qualitative signs and symptoms. With the advent of genetic technology,…
About the Human Genome Project. (2011, September 19). Human Genome Management Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources / Human_Genome/project/about.shtml
Gattaca. (1997, March). Retrieved from International Movie Database: http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119177/
Personalized Medicine - An Overview. (2011, January 11). Retrieved from: U.S. News Health report: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
Public Law 110-223. (2008). The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ233/content-detail.html
Presence of regional and distant metastases alters the stage of the disease and for these patients, standard therapy is inadequate [KEYS et al. 2004]. With the diagnoses of endometrial adenocarcinoma it is most likely that the patient in question is at an early stage of disease. To have a better prognosis, further surgical diagnosis to achieve a FIGO stage is needed as that will allow doctors to ascertain the level of myometrial muscle invasion, histological type, and differentiation grade [AMANT et al. 2005]. If the patient is at a FIGO stage one, the five-year survival rate stands at 85%, with stage II standing at 75%, stage III at 45%, and stage IV at 25% [GRISBY et al. 1992]. Treatment should follow the established regimen of hysterectomy along with radiation therapy.
Amant, F. et al. 2005. Endometrial Cancer. ancet, 366, pp. 491-505.
Boulet, G.A.V., et al. 2008. Human Papillomavirus…
Lazcano-Ponce, E. et al. 2008. Decreasing Cervical Cancer Mortality in Mexico: Effect of Papanicolaou Coverage, Birthrate, and the Importance of Diagnostic Validity of Cytology. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers, and Prevention, 17(10), pp. 2808-17.
Leitao Jr., M.M. et al. 2009. Comparison of D&C and office endometrial biopsy accuracy in patients with FIGO grade I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Gynecologic Oncology, 113(1), pp. 105-8.
Rubatt, J.M. et al. 2005. Development of metastatic endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma while on progestin therapy for endometrial hyperplasia. Gynecologic Oncology, 99, pp. 472-6.
O'Connor, Anahad. (June 22, 2004) "The Claim: Too Much Sleep Is Bad for You." The New York Times. Science & Health Section. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/22/health/22REAL.html
It's hard to believe, but this article councils the reader that getting more than seven hours of sleep may be hazardous to his or her health. "A 2002 study found that getting more than seven hours of sleep each night was associated with a shorter life span. Several studies since then, including one this year by researchers at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, also found a link," between poor health and getting more than seven hours of sleep a night.
Thus, the article makes vague reference to several studies pointing to such a correlation, but only provides specific information on one particular 2002 study. This "2002 study examined data on more than a million Americans over the age of 30 between 1982 and 1988." The article,…
Forecasts for the future of the advertising industry are looking up, according to the projected statistics compiled for this article. Unlike much of statistical analysis, this article is future looking rather than looking at the past. Because of the raise forecast estimates for 2004 yesterday the improving economy should result in an even more optimistic outlook in his first assessment of 2005.
Robert J. Coen reduced his prediction for ad spending growth in local media across the country, "citing softness in categories like retail and classifieds." But Mr. Coen, senior vice president and forecasting director at Universal McCann in New York, lifted his estimate for the growth of combined national and local ad spending in the United States to 7.3% this year compared with 2003. In December, he had forecast a gain of 6.9% in 2004.
Ad spending is considered to be an early economic predictor of consumer confidence in America. A "7.3% increase would be the largest since 2000, when American ad spending rose 11.3% from 1999." In contrast, advertising spending "fell 6.5% in 2001, the first decline since 1991 and the largest since 1938; it rebounded 2.4% in 2002 and 3.6% last year, and next year, ad spending in the United States should grow an additional 6.5% over 2004." However, for the layperson this article does not chronicle how total advertising revenue is compiled, and how this varies from industry to industry. Also, do not certain types of products advertise more, such as goods with low product differentiation that tend to be consumed by the proportion of the population, such as young people, whom are most apt to try new products and switch product alliances? This calls into question the ability for expenditures on advertising to predict overall economic success in the American economy as a whole.
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…
1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.
2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.
3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.
4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.
Population of the City of Atlantis on March 30, 2003 = 183,000
of new active cases of TB occurring between January 1 and June 30, 2003 = 52
of active TB cases according to the city register on June 30, 2003 = 238
The incidence rate of active cases of TB for the 6-month period was: [ONE POINT]
per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
183,000 is 183% of 100,000, so the rate per 100,000 would be 52 divided by 1.84...or 28.
The prevalence of active TB as of June 30, 2003, was: [ONE POINT]
14 per 100,000 population
130 per 100,000 population
144 per 100,000 population
264 per 100,000 population
e. none of the above
B -- using the same math as above...except it's 238 / 1.84 -- 129.3
3. Which of the following is an advantage of active surveillance?…
Abortions, in addition to being moral and religious wrong, are wrong for the damage that they can cause the woman physically and the emotional scars. Emotionally at the time of the abortion, the feeling may be of relief from the unwanted child but later the feelings can change to depression or guilt. In later life, the abortion can haunt the person especially if she has more children and she has to think about the one she aborted. The feelings are there regarding would my child have had a brother or a sister. Ask any woman who has lost a child during or after childbirth and they will tell you. YOU NEVER FORGET.
A woman considering abortion should take a good long look at the medical complications that can be faced by an abortion. They can affect the health of a woman at the time of the abortion as well as…
Buzzle.com. (2010). "Anti-abortion arguments - Reasons against abortion." Retrieved on April
20, 2010 from http://www.buzzle.com/articles/antiabortion-arguments-reasons-against-abortion.html
Lifestyle.iloveindia.com. (2010). "Reasons against abortion." Retrieved on April
20, 2010 from http://lifestyle.iloveindia.com/lounge/reasons-against-abortion-4507.html
A newer and easy test is the OSOM Vlue, which mixes a swabbed specimen from the vagina with a reagent. The test yields sialidase activity or presence in the vaginal fluid in 10 minutes. Sialidase is produced by V pathogens (Mashburn).
The most reliable criterion for detecting V is a pH>4.5 (Mashburn, 2007). A normal pH should, therefore, rule out V. A pH >4.5 can also indicate trichomoniasis or muco-purulent cervicitis. Vaginal inflammation more strongly suggests trichomonas or muco-purulent cervicitis, in turn associated with gonorrhea or chlamydial trachomatis (Mashburn).
The patient's pH level is 6, indicating V.
These are an inexpensive and relatively easy screening procedure for the most common sexually transmitted diseases, such as V (Iglesias, Alderman & Fox, 2000). The practitioner should be appropriately trained and experienced in using this procedure. Hence, the proper protocol and quality control are needed to insure accurate diagnosis.…
Alfonsi, G.A.; Cshlay, J., and Parker, S. (2004). What is the best approach for managing
Recurrent bacterial vaginosis? Journal of Family Practice: Dowden Health Media,
Inc. Retrieved on July 7, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_8_53/ai_n6169486/?tag=content;col1
Brown, M (2007). Treating a case of bacterial vaginosis -- case study. Health and Republic News: Health Republic. Retrieved on July 12, 2009 from http://www.healthcarerepublic.com/res/clinical/article/572868/treating-case-bacterial-vaginosis
Beatie did not accept biological determinism as the means by which to do gender. On the other hand, Beatie transcends gender altogether. By rejecting and then changing his genitalia and physique, Thomas Beatie passed through his life as a male and was legally and socially identified as such. He married a woman and most of the people he interacted with treated Beatie like they would any other man. When Beatie chose to become pregnant, he further stretched the boundaries between male and female. Beatie both subverts and ascribes to traditional gender roles and norms. Pregnancy is a female domain; had Beatie been born with male reproductive organs he would not have been able to experience childbirth. He and his wife would have been forced to adopt a child or choose a surrogate mother. Yet the fact that Beatie states, "I see myself as my own surrogate" shows that a male…
Beatie, T. (2008). Labor of love. The Advocate. Mar 26, 2008. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.advocate.com/exclusive_detail_ektid52947.asp?page=2
Lorber, J. "Night to his day": The social construction of gender.
West, C. & Zimmerman, DH Doing gender.
hat produces value in managed care is a good health outcome rather than medical intervention. Not every visit to a doctor is necessary; nor is every test conducted, every medication prescribed, or every placement in an intensive care unit going to produce an effective outcome. Ideally, medicine should be ruled by rationality and efficiency in the choice and implementation of evaluations and treatments. This means that the variability between providers not only should be but can be eliminated, and the only factors that should make a difference in deciding who to treat and what treatment to undertake is the nature of the patient's disease or injury (Birenbaum, 14)."
hat these opposing views tell the insured, the uninsured, and those of us who rely on the expertise and ethical practices in an industry that has our very lives in their hands, is that they're not making decisions in our best interest…
Beck, Christina S., Sandra L. Ragan, and Athena DuPrae. Partnership for Health: Building Relationships between Women and Health Caregivers. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997. Questia. 23 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78592347 .
Birenbaum, Arnold. Managed Care: Made in America. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997. Questia. 23 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27467039 .
The fourth person I will see in heaven is Lisa. Lisa is the owner of my son's daycare. She is a vision of courage and strength because she recently discovered that she has cancer at the young age of 27. While this is devastating enough, she must face the fact that a hysterectomy lies in her future - a future without children which is something she wants so badly. Despite this news, she continues to live her life and if worse comes to worse, she will adopt. In addition to this strength, she also accepts people as they are. When I encountered difficulty finding a daycare that would accept a child with a cleft palate, Lisa had no problems with this at all. She had no experience but was willing to learn. My son started attending that daycare when he was 10 months old, now he is 3 years old,…
There are two constant irritations in U.S. pharma companies' relationships internationally:
Some developing nations, such as India, razil and South Africa, are chipping away at the patent situation, trying to shorten the time until the drugs can be brought out in generic form.
The U.S. has supported high prices as the cost for innovation. Since other countries are not playing along, this means that their citizens are benefiting from the innovation paid by Americans.
ig Pharma is at a crossroads today. The previous "great" chronic diseases, like diabetes, heart disease, infectious disease (viral and bacterial) have now been tackled by "blockbuster" drugs.
The high regulatory pressures, price pressures and lack of future such blockbuster markets dictates that pharma companies will have to innovate a lot more in niches -- more products, smaller markets. The large pharma companies which grew up in a time of plenty will therefore have to…
Bureau, U.S. Census. (2001). An Aging World. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
Economist. (2007, October 25). The Pharmaceutical Industry: Beyond the Pill. Economist, p. n.p.
Economist. (2007). World Atlas. London: Economist.
Herper, M. (2007, October 29). Drug Drought. Forbes, p. n.p.
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; aup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and ipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer , Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Habermeyer E, Kamps I, Kawohl W: A case of bipolar psychosis and transsexualism. Psychopathology 2003; 36:168-170
Diagnosing and Treating Gender Identity in Women (1997) Medscape Psychiatry & Mental Health eJournal. 1997 Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/430853_4
Zucker, K.J. (1985) Cross-gender-identified children. Chapter 4 in .W. Steiner (ED.) Gender Dysphoria: Development, Research, Management, New…
Mouffak, Faycal; Gallarda, Thierry; Baup, Nicolas; Olie, Jean-Pierre; and Krebs, Marie-Odile (2007) Gender Identity Disorders and Bipolar Disorder Associated With the Ring Y Chromosome. American Journal Psychiatry 164:1122-1123 July 2007. Online available at http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/164/7/1122#R1647CHDJECID
Childhood Gender-Identity Disorder Diagnosis Under Attack (2007) National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. NARTH. Leadership U. Online available at http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/narth/childhood.html
Osborne, Duncan (2003) Voices - Identity Crisis. OUT magazine. Los Angeles, April 2003. Liberation Publications, Inc. Online available at http://www.antijen.org/Out.html
Hepp U, Kraemer B, Schnyder U, Miller N, Delsignore a: Psychiatric comorbidity in gender identity disorder. J Psychosom Res 2005; 58:259-261
Gail Godwin's "Dream Children" and Tobias Wolff's "The Liar" are both stories about escapism. In "Dream Children" a woman whose baby was stillborn and who may have had a hysterectomy because of it finds solace in out-of-body experiences and dreams. Her escapism is harmless, and yet it deeply disturbs her neighbor and worries her husband. Likewise, James's compulsive fibbing in "The Liar" is not intended to hurt anyone, but the behavior gravely disturbs his mother. James lies to create alternative realities, just like Mrs. McNair uses astral travel. The two short stories are told from different points-of-view: "The Liar" in first person and "Dream Children" in third. However, the tales share a considerable amount in common including characterization, resolution, and theme. Both Godwin and Wolff show how escapism is a natural human response to painful life situations.
Godwin and Wolff are both Southern writers; both were born in Alabama but…
Godwin, G. "Dream Children." In American Short Story Masterpieces.
Wolff, T. "The Liar." In American Short Story Masterpieces.
Africans had poor health care in the 1950s
There is much that still remains swept under the proverbial carpet about America's treatment to its African immigrants. One of the chapters, little known and often left untold has only recently started to emerge and concerns American health care system and its using Blacks as guinea pigs.
Attorney and author Vernellia . Tandall tells the story in her book 'Dying While Black' showing how America's health care system was built on the bodies of African-American individuals from the 19th century continuing to present days. Some f the information is unbelievable at best shocking at worst such as her allegations that AIDS was created by a government-sanctioned health care for the purposes of medical advancement.
Countless stories from Black residents of both North and South tell about how they were unwillingly and unknowingly abducted and exploited for medical experiments. There were the 'night…
Brooking Institute (2008) "Meeting the Dilemma of Health Care Access" (PDF). Opportunity 08: A Project of the Brookings Institution. Retrieved on 2/19/2011
Orlando Sentinel. (Dec., 04. 1993). Clinic On Wheels To Take Health Care To Elderly Poor . retreived 11/7/2011 from http://articles.orlandosentinel.com/1993-12-04/news/9312040190_1_clinic-project-care-seniors
Skloot, H. (2010) The immortal life of Henrietta Lacks NY. Random House.
The interest in palliative care, or counseling for bereavement comes to different people in different ways, and one doctor came into it through home care as long ago as 1975. The doctor had just finished working as a house staff in the University of California in San Francisco. Then he got a job at Massachusetts General Hospital as a physician. The doctor was placed at Chelsea Memorial health Center. This was a neighborhood health center in a poor multi-ethnic community, yet not a great distance away from MGH. The doctor had come to replace a person who had come from Britain for a working experience of a year in United States and had gone to the houses of a few elderly patients. In the beginning itself, it was suggested to the doctor by the senior that he visit two patients who were being cared by relatives at home. This…
A Compendium of Hospital-Based Palliative Care Practices. Retrieved from http://www.haponline.org/downloads/PPCN_Compendium_2004.pdf Accessed on 31 May, 2005
Austenfeld, Jennifer L. Stanton
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2004.00299.x;jsessionid=iVt_UOAe61_b?journalCode=jopy Accessed on 31 May, 2005
Bloomington School District. 20 November, 2002. Retrieved from http://www.shfsc.org/reports/BL2002.pdf Accessed on 31 May, 2005
This situation was extremely serious and could have resulted in the possible death of the patient (the documentation does not state that the patient died). Subsequently, Berstein's actions could have also resulted in substantial monetary woes for his employer, which is certainly at risk for a civil lawsuit due to the doctor's negligence. Yet the most deplorable aspect of this case is Berstein's attempts to dissemble the full magnitude of his inept work by falsifying documents that supported his dearth of proper treatment of the patient. It is also significant to mention the full scope of the punishment issued to Berstein, whose reinstatement "shall be limited to non-surgical specialty or administrative medicine" (Nolan, 2004).
This sort of unethical treatment on the part of a medical professional is exceedingly difficult to prevent given the large amounts of autonomy that surgeons have in practicing medicine. However, it is significant to note that…
Mujtaba, B.G. (No date). "Ethical implications of employee monitoring: what leaders should consider." Journal of Applied Management and Engineering. Retrieved from http://www.huizenga.nova.edu/Jame/articles/employee-monitoring.cfm
Nolan, P.A. (2004). "Consent Order." State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations Department of Health.
In the 35 years following its development, femoxetine, commonly known by its trade name "Paxil," has been the focus of a growing body of research based on its proven harmful effects, most especially an increased incidence of suicide. The fact that the drug's manufacturer concealed evidence of these harmful effects has added further fuel to the investigatory fires and new findings continue to confirm the harmful effects of Paxil today. To gain some current insights into Paxil's use and how it has affected consumers in recent years, this paper provides the history of the drug, representative evidence from the scientific community that confirms its several dangers, as well as the results of two face-to-face interviews with former Paxil users to identify specific points of convergence with the scientific research as well as differences. A summary of the research and important findings are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis…
Breggin, P.T. (2006). "How Glaxosmithkline Suppressed Data on Paxil-induced Akathisia:
Implications for Suicidality and Violence." Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry,
8(2), pp. 91-93.
Choate, L.H. & Ginter, G.G. (2011). "Prenatal Depression: Best Practice Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment." Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(3), pp. 373-376.
A CEO who has elected to allow workers to make their own choices as to whether they want to do something dangerous as part of their work for the company is setting herself up for an entire host of problems. There are several reasons why it is not a good idea for the CEO to allow this kind of behavior, and the most compelling moral argument on the subject comes from utilitarianism (Cornman, et al., 1992). This particular type of moral theory states that the good of the masses is more significant and important than the good of the few (osen, 2003). In other words, people should not be allowed to have "free reign" to do what they please if that is going to harm others. In this case, one could argue that the workers would only be harming themselves, but that is not true. The chemical exposure…
Cornman, J., et al. (1992). Philosophical problems and arguments - An introduction, 4th ed. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Co.
Rosen, F. (2003). Classical utilitarianism from Hume to Mill. New York, NY: Routledge
Studies have shown that the mean maternal age of motherhood has been increasing since 1980, which although may suit many modern careers and life styles, it puts women at a greater risk of declining fertility. The fundamental manifestation of ovarian aging is not just because of a decrease in the number of oocytes, but also because of a decline in its quality. Moreover, women of advanced maternal age are at a greater risk of developing aneuploidy in embryos. This contributes to their inability to bear a child by increasing both implantation loss and pregnancy failure. (Judy et al., 2012)
In Vitro Fertilization, IVF is one of the forms of assisted reproductive technology that enhances the chances of conception. In IVF, ovaries are stimulated to produce mature oocytes which are retrieved transvaginally under sonographic guidance. Oocyte retrieval is normally an outpatient procedure, performed with adequate analgesia. The sperm and…
Adewumi, A., Etti, E., Tayo, A., Rabiyu, K., Akindele, R., Ottun, T., & Akinlusi, F. (2012). Factors associated with acceptability of child adoption as a management option for infertility among women in a developing country. International Journal of Women's Health, 5, 365-372. doi: Pubmed
Bauer, U. (2011, Nov). 2009 assisted reproductive technology. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/art/ART2009/PDF/ART_2009_Full.pdf
Echols, D.W. (2010, Feburary 19). The effects of oklahoma city law on surrogate motherhood and child custody. Retrieved from http://family-law.lawyers.com/child-custody/blogs/archives/3994-The-Effects-of-Oklahoma-City-Law-on-Surrogate-Motherhood-and-Child-Custody.html
Goldberg, J.M., Falcone, T., & Attran, M. (2007). In vitro fertilization update. Cleaveland Journal of Medicine, 74(5), 329-338. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.74.5.329
It is generally assumed that iron stores increase during menopausal transition (Kim et al. 2012). However, no longitudinal studies have been conducted to ascertain this. Some women undergoing menopause experience increased insulin resistance and other cardiovascular conditions, which are not attributable to changes in adiposity or sex hormones. Iron is known to be a strong pro-oxidant, which catalyzes reactions tending to raise oxidative stress. This, in turn, is a risk factor for insulin resistance. Increased measures of iron during menopause may then contribute to insulin resistance at this period (Kim et al.).
In response, the Study of Women's Health across the Nation or SWAN was designed and conducted to determine and investigate biologic and sociologic changes during and after menopause (Kim et al. 2012). The researchers measured several iron markers at pre-menopause and post-menopause to find out if 1) iron measures increase from pre-menopause to post-menopause longitudinally; 2) there…
Kim, Catherine, et al. 2012. Changes in iron measures over menopause and associations with insulin resistance. Vol 21 # 8 Journal of Women's Health: 872-877
Legality of Abortion
In a number of modern societies, irresponsible women choose abortion as a form of birth control instead of practices such as abstinence or the use of prophylactics, even with spouses. There are a number of publicly available forms of birth control that do not compare with abortion. The opinions on abortion vary widely and it is an issue that is often vigorously debated. Often the reasoning behind a person's opinion about abortion comes from his/her moral compass. Some people's morality guides them to believe that abortion is wrong and some people's morality guides them to believe that applying laws to women's bodies (and not men's) is the morally upsetting aspect the issue. Abortion is a topic that might begin as a moral issues, then turns into a political issue, and then turns into a legal issue. Morals influence politics, and politics (and political views) influence laws.…
ProCon. (2014). Should Abortion be Legal? ProCon, Web, Available from: http://abortion.procon.org/ . 2014 February 04.
Advance Nursing Practice
In order to sustain life, the human body has to have oxygen. When a person cannot breathe, or there is not enough oxygen coming into the body through the act of breathing, it is not possible for life to continue. The respiratory system is what provides the person with the opportunity to breathe and take in oxygen. Carbon dioxide is also expelled that same way. If oxygen is not received, the brain cells will start dying, followed by other cells, organs, and tissues. Addressed here is a case study dealing with the respiratory system, conditions it may face, and how those issues can be treated.
Patient Initials: Unknown Age: 65 yo Sex: Female
Client Complaints: The patient complains of a dry cough that is rarely productive. She has had the cough for two weeks, and for the last two days has also been running a…
American Lung Association (2014). COPD: Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. Retrieved from http://www.lung.org/lung-disease/copd/about-copd/symptoms-diagnosis-treatment.html
Buttaro, T.M., Trybulski, J., Baily, P.P., & Sandburg-Cook, J. (2013). Primary care: A collaborative practice (4th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier/Mosby.
Cenzon, M. (2014). Emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Retrieved from http://www.symptomfind.com/health/emphysema-chronic-bronchitis/
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014). Oral thrush. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/oral-thrush/basics/basics/definition/con-20022381?_ga=1.193450093.1798610931.1412555487
Facility esearch and Selection
The report describes the facilities, need and services offered in an Ambulatory Care Clinic.
VICTIMS IGHTS MOVEMENT
Health practitioners should expect some very dramatic changes in the area of ambulatory care within the next decade. Driven by different factors, which include double digit improvement in some major outpatient areas, health care managers should expect the trend that began in the 80s to continue. The issue of ambulatory care is now a major issue for health care providers. A lot of health care institutions experienced some growth, spanning double digit in major outpatient sectors and significant changes in some major inpatient services to the modes of outpatient only. Hospitals are expected to adopt a new philosophy and plan of action for system redesign, carrying out a scrutiny of the traditional way of making the needed care available with the aim of surviving in the future. While these…
Allen, David. W, and Weber, Daniel (1995). 'Ambulatory Care Planning for a Hospital'. Healthcare Strategic Management 13.2 (February 1995)
Dailey, David (n.d). 'Ambulatory Care Facilities: The Evolution of Healthcare'. Medical Construction and Design. Extracted from http://mcdmag.com/
Matson, Ted (1991). 'Ambulatory Care to Drive Hospital Services in 1990s'. Healthcare Strategic Management 9.3 (March 1991)
Stouffer, Jeff; Frank Kittredge, Ashley Dias (2013). 'Eight Ambulatory Design Trends'. Health Facilities Management. Extracted from http://www.hfmmagazine.com/
osa Lee Cunningham. Elements such as the subject's health history, legal history, psychosocial history, and diagnostic impressions will be covered.
osa Lee Cunningham
DOB/Age: October 7, 1936
Date of Interview: October 7, 1994
eason for Assessment: osa Lee Cunningham was discovered having a fit at Washington's Howard University Hospital, owing to over-consumption of heroin. In spite of being enrolled in an intervention for drug treatment, there did not appear to be any inclination in osa to quit drugs. In fact, she wished she could access methadone, a synthetic drug with heroin-like effects. Some days prior to being interviewed, osa awoke to find herself with fever; her condition had exacerbated. By noon, she was admitted to the emergency room (Dash, 1996 Prologue). osa states that her drug consumption levels hinge on the amount of money in her pocket and heroin accessibility. The subject also had Preludin-use history, a drug she…
Chapman, D., & Perry, G. (2008). Depression as a Major Component of Public Health for Older Adults. Preventing Chronic Disease, 5(1).Retrieved, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2248771/
Dash, L. (1996). Rosa Lee: A Mother and Her Family in Urban America. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved from https://play.google.com/books/reader?printsec=frontcover&output=reader&id=cc8_CQAAQBAJ&pg=GBS.PA34.w.1.0.349
(n.d.). Drug Addiction Help. Family Therapy. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.addictions.com/family-therapy/
(n.d.). Drug and Alcohol Detox -- Body Cleansing -- Best Detox Diet Programs .Drug Detox Rehab Programs -- Drug Detoxification Centers .Retrieved October 3, 2015, from http://www.detox.net/articles/drug-detox-rehab-programs/
The NIH (2014) defines robotic surgery as "a method to perform surgery using very small tools attached to a robotic arm", wherein the surgeon operates the robot. Robotic surgery was developed to enable the performance of surgical procedures through smaller cuts than open surgery. The robot is capable of smaller, more precise movements that would be possible with a human arm. It is also much easier for the surgeon to work with the surgical tools than would be possible with, say, an endoscope. The NIH notes that robotic surgery is used for an increasing range of procedures, including coronary artery bypass, cancer excision, gall bladder removal, hip replacement, hysterectomy, kidney transplants and pyloroplasty (NIH, 2014).
The minimal invasiveness of robotic surgery means that there is lower risk to the patient during the course of the surgery, and that the post-surgery healing time is lower, and less risky as…
Cancer and Women’s and Men’s Health
Cervical cancer is a kind of cancer that takes place in the cells of the cervix, which is basically situated in the lower part of the uterus that links to the vagina. It is imperative to note that different strains or forms of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection, have a role to play in giving rise to a great deal of cervical cancer.
Available Preventative Services
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) gives the recommendation of screening for cervical cancer in women between the ages of 21 years to 65 years with pap smear for every three-year period. It is also recommended for women between the ages of 30 and 65 years who wish to prolong the screening period, and therefore screening with a mixture of cytology and human papillomavirus testing for every five-year period. In the same manner,…
Other signs of manifestation may include irregular bleeding not associated with a woman's normal menstrual cycle, pressure or pain during or after intercourse and abdominal pain of unknown origin (NIC, 2003).
Ultrasound, endovaginal ultrasound and transvaginal sonography have all been used to help identify malignancies within the reproductive organs including the uterus. Of these, the more effective of tools is Color Doppler Sonography, because it allows physicians to distinguish benign masses from malignant masses more easily than do traditional U/S, EVU and TVS techniques. The advantages of U/S, EVU and TVS include the relatively low risk of complications and exposure to radiation which may prove more dangerous than beneficial. In times of old CT scans were often used in an attempt to try to identify malignancies of the uterus and endometrium (oss & Goplerud, 1982). Today, by combining techniques, many doctors find it is much easier to exclude cancer…
Birnbaum, LS. (1991). Pharmacokinetic basis of age-related changes in sensitivity to toxicants. Ann Rev Pharmacol 31(1):101-28.
Charnley, G. & Putzrath, R.M. (2001). Children's health, susceptibility and regulatory approaches to reducing risks from chemical carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(2):187.
Fleischer, MD, Shappell, HW, Parker, LP, & Hanemann, MD. (2006) Color Doppler sonography of endometrial masses. Nashville: Departments of Radiology, OB/GYN, and Pathology: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
NCI (2002 Oct). What is endometrial cancer, National Cancer Institute, UConn Health
It is also a population that often has limited resources and one that seeks to find others to help comfort and educate them. Modern technology has certainly improved both the diagnosis and treatment of the illness, but there are so many options that the patient is often left bewildered and frightened (Guadalupe).
A proactive and professional nursing approach to this illness takes Mishel's theory and uses it in four ways:
To combat ambiguity -- Patients are unaware of the progress and severity of their illness and often fill in with worst-case scenarios. Open and honest communication about that status of the illness will alleviate many concerns, or at least allow for uncoerced decision making.
To combat complexity -- Illness is complex and often based on statistical tables, not individual expressions. Using Michel, the nurse can simplify to the necessary degree both the illness and options.
To provide information -- More…
Alligood, M. (2010). Nursing Theory: Utilization and Application. Denver, CO: Mosby.
Guadalupe, K. (2010, Feb.) Understanding a meningioma diagnosis using Mishel's theory of uncertainty in illness. British Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 6 (2): 77-82.
Mishel, M. And Clayton, M. (2003). Theories of Uncertainty in Illness. In Smith, M. ed. Middle
Range Theory for Nursing. New York: Springer. Chapter 2.
Carl must be psychologically prepared to make such changes, however. Thus, as well as taking Carl's blood pressure and submitting a blood sample to have his cholesterol screened (getting his blood glucose level assessed, even though there were no problems in the past with this reading might also be wise), the nurse should try to obtain a full assessment of Carl's lifestyle. When and what does he eat? What are his work habits? His sleep habits? Has anything changed recently in his life? All of these factors could make a potentially meaningful impact upon both the test results and the eventual prescription for Carl to improve his health.
Carl is still very young to run the risk of having a heart attack: the risk of having a heart attack increases dramatically after age 65) so engaging in positive changes now is wise and prudent (Heart health screening, 2013, AHA). It…
Drug therapy for cholesterol. (2013). AHA. Retrieved:
Heart health screening. (2013). AHA. Retrieved:
The plight of Mr. And Mrs. J is troubling as there are many prominent presenting issues at an initial glance at their case. The most striking issue is the lack of affection these two people have for each other. The recent combining of families in this case is also very stark. While the situation is not dire, this relationship appears headed for doom and trouble if certain steps are not taken to remedy the situation.
The most dominant issue in this case appears to be the professional lives of these individuals. The modern family, as represented in this case, places much emphasis on work and career besides family. 60-hour work weeks for Mr. J. doesn't serve his families best emotional interests. The fact that Mrs. J feels she has to work as well also appears to violate God's laws in some antiquated ways. Overall there is a severe…
Brotto, L. (2009). The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Sexual Aversion Disorder. Archive of Sexual Behavior. APA 2009. Retrieved from http://www.obgyn.ubc.ca/SexualHealth/documents/Brotto_DSM_Review_on_Sexual_Aversion_Disorder.pdf