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Gene Rogers who served as the medical director for Sacramento County's Indigent Services program for the most of the last decade who has "waged a long fight against the central California country's practice of providing non-emergency medical care to illegal immigrants - a policy he says violates federal law and results in the poorest American citizens being denied the care they deserve." (Cromer, 2007) it is related in Cromer's report that "That fight cost Dr. Rogers his job. In a two sentence memo to Dr. Rogers, the county's Health and Human Services director, Lynn Frank, informed him that he was fired, but thanked him for his services. No reason for his termination was offered..." (Cromer, 2007) According to Cromer "The local cost of the medical treatment provided to illegal immigrants is small when contrasted to the billions of dollars the state and federal governments spend every year on the 'undocumented'…
Berk, Marc L.; Schur, Claudia L.; Chavez, Leo R. And Frankel, Martin (2000) Health Care Use Among Undocumented Latino Immigrants. Health Affairs July/August 2000. Project Hope. Online available at http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/19/4/51.pdf
Cosman, Madeleine Pelmer (2005) Illegal Aliens and American Medicine. The Journal of the American Physicians and Surgeons. Vol. 10. No. 1 Spring, 2005.
Cromer, Mark (2007) California Travesty. The Washington Times. 27, Aug 2007. Online available at http://www.washingtontimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070827/EDITORIAL/108270019/1013
Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Escarce, Jose J., and Lurie, Nicole (2007) Immigrants and Health Care: Sources of Vulnerability. Health Affairs 26, No. 5. 2007 Project Hope. http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/abstract/26/5/1258
It was good news. ut it was bad news to healthcare providers in areas with large populations of alien immigrants. The benefits did not link up with the funding employers or the government to pay for the benefits. It did not offer enough incentives for the choice of a healthy lifestyle or the available health care services. It needed to simplify administrative procedures. It relied too much on government regulation and too little from public sector's initiative. And it provided few incentives to study the effectiveness of its procedures and outcomes. These comprised the bad news.
Eichstaedt, Peter. National Healthcare: reakthrough or Pipedream? 3 pages. New Mexico usiness Journal: The New Mexico usiness Journal, November, 1993
The author commends former President Clinton's health plan as noble, high-quality and cost-effective for all Americans. It would require the employer to pay 80% of the health cost and the employee to bear the…
Boulet, J., Jr. (2004). Democrats' Forked Tongue on Health Care, National Security. 2 pages. Human Events: Human Events Publishing, Inc.
Clarke, R.L. (1994). The Health Security Act - Good News, Bad News. 2 pages. Health Care Financial Management: Healthcare Financial Management Association
Dembeck, C. (2004). Maryland Lawmakers Want Impact Studies on Influx of Illegal Aliens. 2 pages. The (Baltimore) Daily Record: Dolan Media Newswires
Eichstaedt, P. (1993). National Healthcare: Breakthrough or Pipedream? New Mexico Business Journal: The New Mexoci Business Journal, 1993
Wal-Mart will make payment of $11 million to the United States Attorney's Office.
It commands Wal-Mart to never again knowingly hire, recruit, or employ unauthorized aliens.
It mandates that Wal-Mart must develop a system to verify that all independent contractors are taking the necessary steps to comply with any and all immigration laws.
It directs Wal-Mart to create and provide, over the next 18 months, all current store managers and future store managers with appropriate training regarding immigration laws and anti-discrimination laws.
Wal-Mart must also maintain their currently existing program that lays out the process for ensuring that employees are authorized to work in the United States, and complies with anti-discrimination laws.
And, the settlement mandates that Wal-Mart continue to fully cooperate with the ongoing investigation of alleged illegal alien employment (amey, 2005, p. 12).
Maintenance of Innocence:
Wal-Mart continues to maintain their innocence by lack of knowledge of wrongdoing…
Chisam, B. (5 Apr 2004). The time is right to reform immigration. DSN Retailing Today, 43(7), p. 11.
Garten, J. (8 Mar 2004). Wal-Mart gives globalism a bad name. Business Week, (3873), p. 24.
Miaello, M. (7 Jun 2004). Preying on human cargo. Forbes, 173(12), pp. 74-80.
Nordlinger, J. (19 Apr 2004). The new colossus. National Review, 56(7), pp. 30-32.
For example a study in 1982-83 had found that illegal aliens were contributing more to the economy than the state was spending on them. (Cited in LeMay, ed. 1989, 10)
There is much confusion in connection with the economic impact. Some studies feel that illegal aliens contribute very little considering the fact that they are usually employed in low paying jobs.
Economists have consistently argued back and forth as to whether or not illegal immigrants are actually driving down wages and making working conditions even worse. Some economist saw it from a different angle. They felt that some employers need to fill the low wage niche as they need to make some profit too and this niche can only be filled by illegal aliens who are willing to work at very low wages. If it had not been for those immigrants, some small firms would go out of business. This…
Muller and Espanshade 1985, 11-12; LeMay 1987, 73-102; and Stanley Lieberson, a Piece of the Pie (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1980).
LeMay Michael. 1985. The Struggle for Influence. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
This illegal immigration essay example provides an examination of all the different parts of a paper of this type that you will need to know when writing your own. Specifically, it looks at possible topics to cover related to illegal immigration, a variety of essay titles that could help to catch the reader’s interest, a sample outline of how to structure the essay, an introduction for a paper on illegal immigration, an essay hook to keep the reader invested in the paper, a possible thesis statement, and the different elements of the subject that should be addressed: 1) a definition of illegal immigration, 2) the pros and cons of illegal immigration, 3) arguments for illegal immigration, 4) arguments against illegal immigration, and 5) illegal immigration statistics. Finally, this article provides a conclusion and a list of possible resources you could use for more information.
Build the Wall…
Many peoples' lives, destinies, and hopes for the future, and not only American ones, depend and will depend in the future on this taking place sooner rather than later, and now more than ever before in America's history.
Illegal Immigration." ikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, illiam V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d" Love Unites Them, La Migra Separates Them." El observador, 30 Nov. 2006. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id= b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d.html>.
Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Longman 2nd Edition, November 20, 1998.
Snyder, Tanya. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlinesTo Slow Immigration from El Salvador, Understand its Causes."
Baltimore Sun, 11 Jan. 2007. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines.
Young Migrants Risk All to Reach U.S." ashington Post. 28 Aug 2006.
Illegal Immigration." Wikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html >.
Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual
Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.
Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
Officials in border states see the matter as far more than a scholarly legal debate. Pam Slater, a San Diego County supervisor, called the current system "a travesty" that is bankrupting state and local governments. Educating 355,000 citizen-children of illegal aliens cost California taxpayers $1.7 billion in fiscal 1995-96, for example.
An offer of financial support to children born in the United States is far too great a lure," she said. "This loophole must be closed (p. 5)."
Educating illegal immigrants' children is reflected in the test scores of the border state public schools, and other school systems with a large population of illegal immigrants. While federal and state law prohibits the collecting of information that would specifically target Hispanic children as the problem behind low test scores, one might conclude that for some school districts the language barrier might contribute to those low test scores.
However, while we cannot…
Enforcing Immigration Laws. (2007, March 17). The Washington Times, p. A12. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019905500 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106216446
Kalmar, T.M. (2000). Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy: Latino Migrants Crossing the Linguistic Border. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved March 14, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106216448 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001985430
States Pay $7.4 Billion to Educate Illegals; Report Notes Drain on U.S. Children. (2003, August 21). The Washington Times, p. A04. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001985430
'We Are Overwhelmed'; Caring for Illegal Immigrants Taxes Facilities in Border States. (2002, September 24). The Washington Times, p. A01. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000828657
Therefore, the state is daily loosing important revenue that could help improve the financial situation of different Departments such as health care, social services, and even immigration policies. However, without this source of money, the federal budget would be forced to allocate funds from other destinations.
Thirdly, there is also the issue of workers' rights. In this sense, it is a rather well-known fact the idea that illegal workers are often exploited by employers by giving them wages that are below the normal tariffs. However, the inclusion of illegal workers as legal immigrants would grant them the rights each worker in the United States has. More precisely, "in past decades, labor unions often saw immigrant workers as the enemy, accusing them of depressing wages and breaking strikes. ut the executive council of the AFL-CIO adopted a more sympathetic approach, contending that too often U.S. immigration rules have enabled employers to…
Coalition for the future American worker. An Amnesty by Any Other Name is Still an Amnesty. N.d. 10 March 2008 http://www.americanworker.org/amnesty_handout2.htm
Greenhouse, Steven. "Unions Urge Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants Legalized workers would be easier for labor to organize." San Francisco Chronicle. 2000. 10 March 2008 http://www.commondreams.org/headlines/021700-02.htm
Isidore, Chris. Skilled worker shortage hurts U.S. Employers would be hiring more if they could just find the skilled workers they need. 2007. 10 March 2008. http://money.cnn.com/2007/01/04/news/economy/jobs_outlook/index.htm
Scores of illegal Latin Americans work in the hospitality industry, construction, meatpacking, agriculture, and landscaping sectors. In fact, in some of the states it is said that almost half of the construction workers are from Latin America. There are arguments that if all these illegal immigrants were removed these jobs would improve the unemployment situation for the American citizens. It is also generally argued that the pay scale for low skilled jobs would also increase. Also, most of the illegal aliens utilize healthcare, education and other services without paying taxes causing significant drain for the government.
The above points are clearly valid but there are both positive and negative effects of illegal immigration. Economists feel that totally eliminating illegal workers would only marginally improve the pay scale for high school dropouts and would not have any significant impact for workers with higher qualifications. Furthermore, illegal immigration contributes positively as Americans…
1) Michael Barone, 'Living with Illegals', U.S. News and World Report, April 3rd 2006.
Education for Immigrant Children
The Importance of Education
The Immigrant Issue
The story of America as seen and known today has been built by immigrants. In fact, the motto of America is that it is a nation of immigrants. Yet many camps within today's society either look down on or fight against immigration. This is because illegal immigration from Central and Southern American nations have affected the way in which America works, and not always in a positive way. Though these individuals are not the only illegal immigrants in this country, they make up a very large population and, for this reason, many have found ways in which to attack this group of immigrants. Needless to say, this is a very 'hot' issue, and this is one of the reasons why it must be discussed and analyzed from an objective standpoint. One of the one hand, this paper will provide…
Barnes, E. (2010). Illegal Immigration Costs U.S. $113 Billion a Year, Study Finds. Fox News. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .
Brennan, J. (1982). Plyler v. Doe. Legal Information Institute. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .
Griffee, S.L. (2011). Are Children of Illegal Immigrants Entitled to a Public Education? New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .
N.A. (2012). Illegal Immigration. U.S. Immigration Support. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .
GEOPOLITICS OF ILLEGAL MIGATION IN THE U.S.
Slowing or stopping the flow of immigrants across the U.S. Mexico border has remained a hot political issue for several decades. The events of 9/11 only added fuel to the fire and politicians have repeatedly promised to plug the leaky border. Although the budget and manpower of the Border Patrol has been tripled since 9/11, leaders in congress felt more needed to be done. In 2006 the Secure Fence Act was passed into law, which authorized funding to build 700 miles of fencing along the most troublesome stretches of the Mexico/U.S. border (Ellis, 2011). By the end of 2008 only 120 miles had been completed. In 2006 the Secure Border Initiative awarded a billion dollar contract to Boeing to build a virtual fence along the border and by the end of last year only 53 miles had been completed. The past…
Coleman, Matthew. (2008). Between public policy and foreign policy: U.S. immigration law reform and the undocumented migrant. Urban Geography, 29, 4-28.
Ellis, Ashton. (2011, Jan. 21). Border fence update: Governing elites use promises to ease resistance for illegal immigrants' amnesty. Texas Insider. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from http://www.texasinsider.org/?p=41295
Jackson, Melinda S. (2011). Priming the sleeping giant: The dynamics of Latino political identity and vote choice. Political Psychology, 32, 691-716.
PEW Hispanic Center. (2011). The Mexican-American Boom: Births overtake immigration. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/144.pdf
S., and that the world is moving rapidly in the direction of a world community, a global community, and a global economic system. This is an argument separate and apart from the issue at hand, but is peripheral to it in that in order for the world community to grow and to develop an economic that facilitates the population in the world, that it becomes necessary for borders to become invisible and for individuals to have free and unhindered access to other regions of the world. Thomas C. Fischer, in his book, the United States, the European Union, and "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries (2000), discusses borders in relationship to globalization, and helps put into perspective the concept of open borders and globalization.
In conclusion, there is a need to be cautious about the borders as a result of economic and social conditions that exist south of the…
Fischer, T.C. (2000). The United States, the European Union, and the "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries?. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from Questia database:
Health and Human Services, Division Immigration Health Services, online, found at http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5219a3.htm , retrieved 27 November 2007.
New York Post, http://www.nypost.com/seven/11142007/news/regionalnews/out_of_gas_eliot_putting_the_brakes_on_l_9236.htm , November 14, 2007, retrieved 27 November, 2007.
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…
Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf
Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
If the foundations of the NLA are to be supported, the illegal worker will need to be provided with the complete display of NLA solutions. With that said, the tension still remains.
Statistics do show that illegal aliens are accounting for 21% of the foreign born populace in the U.S. In 2000 with that amount snowballing to 30% by 2005(Abraham, 2002). With numbers progressively going up each year, a lot have started asking why. They want to know where are the immigrants coming from and why are there so many of them that are allowed to come into the nation. Statistics display that Mexico is the major distributor of illegal and legal immigrants (http://cis.org/illegal). Statistics show that more than half of the Mexicans that are living in the U.S. In the year 2000 were illegitimate (odriguez, 2006). By 2004, 10.5 million illegal and legal immigrants that were Mexican…
Foreign sourcing decisions under the duty to bargain under the nlra. (1973). The International Executive (Pre-1986), 15(1), 17.
Abraham, S.E. (2002). The supervisory exclusion under the NLRA: Has the Supreme Court gone too far? Working USA, 6(1), 77-77.
Cimini, C.N. (2008). Ask, don't tell: Ethical issues surrounding undocumented workers' status in employment litigation. Stanford Law Review, 61(2), 355-415.
Delaney, J.T., Lewin, D., & Sockell, D. (1985). The NLRA at fifty: A research appraisal and agenda. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 39(1), 46-46.
Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.
Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…
Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.
Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing
Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.
Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
The other colored groups like the Asian-Americans and African-Americans supported the measure. The changes came when the bill came to the legislature and on that day, 77% of the Latinos voted against the bill along with 53% of the Asian-Americans and African-American voters. (Proposition 187 Lessons)
Yet it still could not stop the bill from being passed as a large majority of the voters were white, and the whites wanted the bill passed to continue enjoying the privileges that they had been enjoying for generations. Passing of the bill got the other groups active as they would like the bill to be stopped anyway as the bill would mean that a major section of the community would be put in trouble if they did not get the benefits that they were enjoying in the past. This pushed the situation where several lawsuits were filed in the California State Court by…
Adams, Jan. Proposition 187 Lessons. Z Magazine. March, 1995. Retrieved at http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/mar95adams.htm. Accessed on 26 May, 2005.
Equal Protection: An Overview. Legal Information Institute. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/equal_protection.html . Accessed on 26 May, 2005.
History of Proposition 187. California Coalition for Immigration Reform. Retrieved at http://ccir.net/REFERENCE/187-History.html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005.
Pat Buchanan. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Joseph_BuchananAccessed on 26 May, 2005.
The plight of American born children forced to reside outside of the United States because of their dependent and minority age statuses, begs the question of whether or not these children, if raised in third world countries like Mexico, Nicaragua, or Columbia, can ever achieve the promise of the American dream upon return to the United States, which has, in their absence, become foreign to them, and they foreign amongst their peer group?
The subject of immigration, especially that which moves daily across the Mexican-American border, is an emotional and tense issue, and one into which a new breath of life is breathed during every presidential election. There is no denying the economic impact of illegal immigration on the United States; it is a serious problem. This, however, does not make it acceptable to wreak potential economic havoc on a U.S. born citizen that is, on an individual level, just…
Rodriguez, Gregory (2008). Mongrels, Bastards, Orphans and Vagabonds: Mexican
Immigration and the . Random House Publishing, New York, NY. Book.
Simon, Julian Lincoln (1999). The Economic Consequences of Immigration, University
of Michigan. Book.
These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…
Galuszka, P. (2008). Hispanics bearing the brunt of xenophobia. Diverse Issues in Higher
Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mWMX/is_1_25/ai_n2491956?tag=content;col1
ICE (2008). About ICE. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://www.ice.gov/about/index.htm
Marcucci, M.R. (2007). Marchers call for immigration reform. Oakland Tribune: ANG
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…
Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.
Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.
Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.
Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.
Rationale of Study
Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…
Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of
1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration
I can think of few things that could be more dangerous for homeland security than granting amnesty to 8 to 12 million illegal aliens," said Rep Tom Tancredo, R-Colo., an outspoken critic of legalization. "Perhaps the administration ought to dedicate more energy to enforcing our existing immigration laws and less on finding ways to allow millions to skirt them," Tancredo added. (Stern and Kammer) legalization program on the scale Tom Ridge, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, suggested would overwhelm his already overburdened department," said Krikorian. (Stern and Kammer)
Principles on Legalization
According to the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), there are key elements that must go along with a legalization program in order for it to be acceptable.
Sacrificing the future wages, labor protections, and working conditions of both U.S. And future foreign workers in order to achieve legalization is too high a price," says a…
Barry, Tom. America's Program. 14 November 2008. 18 November 2008 http://americas.irc- online.org/am/5671>.
Brownstein, Ronald. "Immigration Reform on House Democrat's Minds." July 2002.
Agricultural Personnel Management Program. 17 November 2008 http://are.berkeley.edu/APMP/pubs/agworkvisa/earnlegal072302.html .
Camarota, Steven. "Backgrounder." June 2006. Center for Immigration Studies. 15 November 2008 http://www.cis.org/articles/2006/back606.pdf .
In order to fully safeguard the country's borders, it is necessary to take into account that criminals tend to develop as fast as new technology can be implemented. Hence it is important to improve methods for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, analysis and training, and support efforts to deter not only illegal aliens, but also the substances some of them bring into the country. On the other hand, it is also important to recognize the human element inherent in the immigration problem. Some believe they have no choice but to risk their lives in order to have any quality of life at all.
Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. etrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf
Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. etrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747
The White House (2010). emarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration eform. American…
Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf
Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747
The White House (2010). Remarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration Reform. American University School of International Services, Washington, D.C
U.S. Immigration Support. (2010). Illegal Immigration from Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/illegal-immigration-from-mexico.html
To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).
They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).
13 MEXUS 45, P52
21 BYE J. Pub. L. 153 P. 157
U.S.C. Section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) (2006
U.S.C. Section 1184(g)(1)(a)(i) (2000
They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.
The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…
Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.
Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.
Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
S. is that they accept the problem as if there is no solution to it. The government believes that preventing immigrants from entering the country is the only answer to reducing the number of undocumented individuals. However, if they were to carefully analyze the dilemma, they would come to the conclusion that it needs to be stopped from its core. Illegal border-crossings would be reduced if people had been acquainted with the fact that the U.S. government does nothing to support illegal immigrants.
ords such as medievalism, nationalism, and discrimination might spring into one's mind when relating to illegal immigrants in the U.S. not receiving any assistance from the government. However, legislations such as the DREAM Act are only contributing to the increase of the number of undocumented immigrants.
Observing that their kin abroad are virtually being provided with help by the American government itself, people from around the world…
1. Knott, Tom. "Dream Act Begins an American Nightmare." The Washington Times, 11 Oct. 2007.
2. Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
3. "Public Policy." NASFA: Association of International Educators. 22 Nov. 2009
Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
In addition to core studies, optional programs are available throughout Alberta, including art, drama, music, career and technology studies, Aboriginal studies, and 16 different languages. Provincial tests tell authorities how well students have progressed in relation to achievement targets. Overall, the tests tell Albertans how well students are learning the Alberta curriculum and which areas of the curriculum need improvement. Provincial tests are designed as one indicator of how well Alberta students are meeting provincial, grade-level standards. They complement the teacher's assessments.
This country has some definite problems with our educational system. One aspect of the Alberta system is measurement and accountability. Students should be required to meet objective standards in order to progress from one grade to another. Teachers should be required to pass standardized test in order to receive a teaching certificate. Continuing education should be mandatory. y holding people accountable for results, the results will improve.
Berliner, D.C., and B.J. Biddle. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America's Public Schools. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995.
Emergency Room Overcrowding: Hospital implements new procedure." WOWT.com. 1 June 2005. http://www.wowt.com/news/features/2/1492392.html .
Emergency Room Visits Soar." Live Science. 26 May 2005. 1 June 2005. http://www.livescience.com/othernews/050526_emergency_visits.html .
Hospitals Can't Win on Immigrant Health Plan." The Detroit News. 30 August 2004. 3 June 2005. http://www.detnews.com/2004/editorial/0408/30/a08-257287.htm .
They point out that if a suspected terrorist gets on a plane and gets off at a place like Copenhagen or Toronto and demands asylum, even if he is not granted asylum, he's pretty much got a safe haven to operate in because he can' be deported or extradited back to where ever he came from. They believe that such lenient 'European' laws create a huge gap in security, which need to be tightened and that human rights conventions such as the Convention Against Torture make it almost impossible for states to gain a reasonable and necessary degree of assurance against devastating attacks in an age of asymmetrical warfare against international terrorists.
Former U.S. officials such as Michael Scheuer, who helped to set up the CIA's rendition program during the Clinton administration, are more forthcoming about commenting on the nature and existence of 'extraordinary' renditions. Scheuer has in different statements…
Begg, Moazzam. "Rendition: Tortured Truth." New Statesman 26 June 2006: 19.
Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance.'" Amnesty International Report. April 5, 2006. February 5, 2008 http://www.amnesty.org/en/alfresco_asset/5d82f002-a2d8-11dc-8d74-6f45f39984e5/amr510512006en.html
Charter, David. "Britain accused on secret CIA flights." Times Online. November 29, 2006. February 5, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article653418.ece
Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1987. February 5, 2008. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm
trustees' actions, requiring the company plan to pay additional fees to the detriment of the interest of the pensioners, may have been abhorrent and unethical, strictly speaking according to the letter of the law, they were not a violation of the specific terms that are covered under ERISA. First of all, ERISA "does not require any employer to establish a pension plan. It only requires that those who establish plans must meet certain minimum standards. The law generally does not specify how much money a participant must be paid as a benefit." (ERISA, "Compliance Assistance," 2005) Nor does it specify that the pension must be of a certain amount, and is not subject to change, dependant upon the whims of the market and other commercial demands.
If the employer does maintain a plan, ERISA merely requires that the employee who is eligible to become a part of the pension plan…
ERISA. (2005) "Compliance Assistance." Official ERISA website. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/compliance_assistance.html#section1
FLSA (2004) Official Website. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/esa/whd/flsa/
ESA. Final Rule. (2002) "Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection" Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/esa/regs/fedreg/final/2002031525.htm
Immigration and Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/guide/aw.htm
Immigration can be defined as the voluntary movement of non-native persons into a different country with the goal of settling and living there (Boneva & Frieze, 2001). The major reasons that people immigrate from one country to another is that they want to improve the quality of their lives, improve the future prospects for their families, or to be closer to family or close friends (Boneva & Frieze, 2001; Skrbis, 2008). Illegal immigration has been a problem in large countries like the United States that border on other countries where the standard of living is significantly lower (such as the case of the United States and Mexico). People find these relatively unprotected borders easy to transverse and are motivated to do so by the promise of a better life for them and their families. When large numbers of people legally immigrate to another country barriers are created between the immigrants…
Boneva, B.S., & Frieze, I.H. (2001). Toward a concept of a migrant personality. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 477-491.
Hoeing, J. (2013). Immigration benefits America. In Capitaistpig. Retrieved on July 1, 2015
from http://capitalistpig.com/news-media/open-immigration-benefits-america/ .
Ngai, M.M. (2014). Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America:
There is no question, however, that immigration issues will remain in the forefront of our national policy debates.
Deportation Factors and Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude
Research indicates that since the late 1980s, Congress had been tightening the substantive provisions of the immigration laws, to make it far less likely that a convicted criminal alien can find a way to be relieved of expulsion. For many years the basic statutory pattern was that a crime involving moral turpitude rendered a person deportable, if it was committed less than five years after the person's entry and resulted in a sentence of one year or more confinement. A later-committed crime or one that drew a lighter sentence did not result in deportation. If the person committed two such crimes that were not part of a single criminal scheme, they could render the person deportable no matter when they were committed. A drug offense…
Calavita, Kitty. Immigration, law and marginalization in a global economy: Notes from Spain. Law and Society Review (1998).
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Immigration Act of 1907. http://www.multied.com/documents/immigrationact.html (26 Apr. 2005).
Levinson, Peter. The facade of Quasi-Judicial Independence in Immigration Appellate Adjudications. http://www.rightsworkinggroup.org/files/peter_article.pdf.(26 Apr. 2005).
Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville
The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…
Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.
Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.
Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.
Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…
Activists say Minutemen causing fear, ACLU offers training in El Paso. Associated Press. 28
August, 2005. Retrieved From
Accessed 31 August, 2005
What need to be understood is the fact that the immigration problem today is a part of the general environment in which it is found, and that the traditional immigration law enforcement strategies are actually encouraging an increase in the immigrant population, rather than discourage it. When a citizen of the U.S.A. thinks of an illegal alien, with images provided by the media, in previous years, it was that of a hardworking laborer. However, after the September 11 debacle, more people than ever before see an illegal alien as a prospective terrorist. The official policy of the INS now called the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement or the BICE is to target the employers of illegal aliens. This is in order to understand and act upon the reason as to why the illegal aliens come to the United States, because it is a well-known fact that many…
Cullingworth, Barry J; Cullingworth, JB; Caves, Roger W. Planning in the U.S.A., policies, issues and processes. Routledge (UK). 2003.
Heer, David M. Undocumented Mexicans in the U.S.A.
Cambridge University Press. 1990.
House passes Bill to tighten Immigration Laws. USA Today. 17 December, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-12-15-immigration-usat_x.htm . Accessed 2 August, 2006
Public Administration: Presenting for the Future
Immigration Policy eform
The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…
Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf
Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan
Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.
What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?
The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:
"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…
Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,
Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
Final Project / Dissertation
Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized
Specialization: Constitutional Law
The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act
This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.
Table of Contents
Elements of Human Trafficking
Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000
Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation
New York State's Human Trafficking Law…
1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf
2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.
3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights
4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
They point out that neither the Constitution nor the Supreme Court has precluded the States or localities from enforcing the criminal provisions of immigration law.
Because the enforcement of the criminal provisions of Federal Law has not been expressly prohibited by the Constitution, it would be reserved to the states respectively. According to the Tenth Amendment of the .S. Constitution, "The powers not delegated to the nited States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
This is interpreted to mean that the states have implied powers in addition to the powers explicitly enumerated to them in the Constitution.
With this understanding of the Constitution, proponents argue that the disputed SB 1070 provisions are not immigration law provisions, but criminal law provisions.
For example, the provision making it a state crime for an alien to be in Arizona…
United States v. Arizona, No. 10-16645, Brief of Amici Curiae State Legislators for Legal Immigration, 7-10 (2010).
Laura Sullivan and Beau Hodai, How Corporate Interests Got SB 1070 Passed, November 9, 2010, available at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=131191523
Gabriel J. Chin, et.al., a Legal Labyrinth: Issues Raised by Arizona Senate Bill 1070. Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-24, 3 (2010).
The 'euniting Families Act' would also try to increase the current per country limit of 7% to 10% for the issuing of green cards. This bill, if passed, would also permit widows, widowers and children of those persons who die before the completion of the immigration process to get LP status. (Shank, Michael Honda to Announce Key Component of Comprehensive Immigration eform: euniting Families); (euniting Families Act-2009); (Honda, The euniting Families Act (H.. 2709))
euniting Families Act also attempts to stop discriminatory clauses in other immigration rules which prevent permanent same-sex partners to reunite with their families. From the perspective of illegal immigrants, section 245(i) would be more suitable as they will not have to return to their home country before filing a petition for a change of status because if they do return, they might face a possible ban ranging from 3 to 10 years barring them from entering…
Butterfield, Jeanne A. AILA on 245(i) Provisions.
Dinan, Stephen. Senate Democrats propose amnesty for some illegals. The Washington Times, 10
May, 2002. p. A4.
Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies
-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-
The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."
Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)
During the year…
Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html
Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success
The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
Tortilla Curtain - by T.Coraghessan Boyle
The much-talked-about "American Dream" - that elusive dream of being able to own a house, raising educated and successful kids, earning middle class money, and most of all being accepted as a functioning part of the great diverse U.S. economic and social structure - is but an "American Myth" to many immigrants arriving in this country. It's certainly a myth for many thousands of Mexicans coming to the U.S. And attempting to carve out a better life for themselves. The Boyle novel offers readers a close-up, graphically realistic view of the hardships that confront those immigrants - juxtaposed with the "good life" of an affluent family living behind stylish walls.
This review of The Tortilla Curtain will compare and contrast the main characters in the novel - Delaney Mossbacker (and his wife Kyra) and Candido incon (and his wife America) - in order to…
Boyle, Coraghessan T. The Tortilla Curtain. New York: Viking, 1995.
Brzezinski, Steve. "The Tortilla Curtain." The Antioch Review. 54 (1996): 113-114.
Hicks, Heather J. "On Whiteness in T. Coraghessan Boyle's The Tortilla Curtain."
CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 45 (2003): 43-65.
So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.
Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:
This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…
Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
violation of the immigration laws to "bring" an illegal alien into the United States. Can a defendant who does not essentially or technically cross the border with an illegal alien be found guilty under these laws? What must the prosecution prove?
It is definitely a violation to "bring" an illegal alien into the United States. This is typically referred to as human smuggling and can carry serious consequences. In the United States the primary organization responsible for regulating and prosecuting individuals who are associated with human smuggling is the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). ICE defines human smuggling as:
"Human smuggling is the importation of people into a country via the deliberate evasion of immigration laws. This includes bringing illegal aliens into a country, as well as the unlawful transportation and harboring of aliens already in a country illegally. Some smuggling situations may involve murder, rape and assault (Enforcement,…
Enforcement, U.I. (N.d.). Human Smuggling. Retrieved from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: http://www.ice.gov/human-smuggling
UNODC. (2010). Basic training manual on investigating and prosecuting the smuggling of migrants. Retrieved from UNODC: https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/Basic_Training_Manual_e-books_English_Combined.pdf
Allowing more legal migrants from Mexico will not only save lives, it will decrease the terrible practice of smuggling, and it will free up the Border Patrol to concentrate on more important issues, such as drug smuggling and national security. Legal migration is an important issue that needs to be addressed by Congress, so that more people can enjoy the freedom and prosperity of living in America - legally and without fear of reprisal or deportation.
Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.
Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human ights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.
Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican elations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April…
Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.
Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.
Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human Rights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.
Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican Relations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April 2002. 24 Nov. 2004. http://www.aila.org/contentViewer.aspx?bc=9,576,2199,579
eforming any major national policy such as the immigration policy can be tedious at best. The current policy may not be perfect, but it is certainly working in any number of areas, as many studies indicate. These writers note, "We must recognize that in a multicultural, multiethnic, multi-perspective American society, the immigration debate must not be submerged in a unicultural, labor-economic perspective only, it must be examined multidimensionally" (Asumah and Bradley). Thus, reform may not be the answer. Instead, creating a new entity to deal totally with illegal immigration may be the best way to deal with the problems it entails. Immigration has always been the backbone of our country, and it must remain in place. Controlling illegal immigration, in all areas, is a better solution to the immigration policy dilemma, but it will not be easy.
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration…
Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25.2 (2001): 82+.
Briggs, Vernon M. "Immigration Policy and the U.S. Economy: An Institutional Perspective." Journal of Economic Issues 30.2 (1996): 371+.
Delaet, Debra L.U.S. Immigration Policy in an Age of Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.
Editors. "Immigration Impact - Texas." Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2002. 15 Nov. 2004. http://www.fairus.org/Research/Research.cfm?ID=1511&c=9
The IRS may also impose a 10% excise tax or a maximum of $10,000 on an officer who knowingly entered into a transaction (Samuels and Shoretz).
When this happens, the official endeavors to enter a rebuttable presumption that the compensation and benefits are reasonable (Samuels and Shoretz 2002). The board of directors or trustees must approve the three criteria for the rebuttal. In the first, the board must be composed entirely of members unrelated to and not beholden to the officer in question. In the second, the board must possess reliable data, comparing its compensation level with those of other organizations in similar situations. This is intended to lead the board to make sure the officer's compensation has comparable fair-market value with others in the geographical area. The data may be secured form reputable and independent surveys and the third requires the adequate documentation of the fixed compensation as its…
Auld, H.M. (2002). Better salaries, master's degrees and competition. 2 pages. Library Administrator's Digest: BCPL Foundation. Retrieved on September 24, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3850/is_200212/ai_n9154776?tag=content;col1
Dagan, D. (2005). Lawyers required in claims disputes. 3 pages. Central Penn Business
Journal: Journal Publications, Inc. Retrieved on September 24, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5295/is_200502/ai_n24294898?tag=content;col1
DeCarlo D.T. (2001). Illegal employment. 2 pages. Risk Insurance: Axon Group.
To put a price tag on the problem for reader, Indiana University economist Eric Rasmusen claims in figures from a 2005 GAO report on foreigners that were incarcerated in Federal and state prisons calculated that illegal immigrants commit 21% of crime in America. This cost America more than $84 billion (Kingsbury).
Illegal immigration from Mexico is a major funnel for terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This is stated in the groups own words. In a 2009 video, an al Qaeda recruiter threatened to smuggle a biological weapon into the United States. He claimed that the organization would do this via tunnels under the Mexico border. The video aired on Al Jazeera and was later posted to several web sites. These show Kuwaiti dissident Abdullah al-Nafisi telling supporters in Bahrain that terrorists in al Qaeda were observing the U.S. border with Mexico to figure out how to send terrorists…
"Al Qaeda eyes bio attack from Mexico." Washington Times 3 June 2009: Web.
24 Oct 2010. .
"Al-Qaida Operative Nabbed Near Mexican Border." News Max.com. News Max.com,
20 Nov. 2005. Web. 24 Oct 2010. .
e can see that minority status has far less to do with population size, and instead seems very much to be inclined by race, ethnicity and political power instead. This label of minority status is in many ways used as a tag by which certain groups are detained from political unity or effectiveness.
To a large degree, this is a condition which relates to the nature of the Hispanic demographic, which in spite of its cultural diversity, is typically perceived by the larger American public as a single unified entity. This is both untrue and reflects the ethnocentric qualities of the white American political body that have tended to relegate the Hispanic population to representation that is not proportional to its true presence here. Indeed, "although Mexican-Americans continue to be the largest group within the Latino population, increasing immigration from other Latin American means they are perhaps the most culturally…
Agencia EFE. (2009). Hispanics ask Obama for More Key Government Posts. Hispanic Business. Ret. Feb. 13, 2010 at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/politics/2009/4/30/hispanics_ask_obama_for_more_key.htm
Auerbach, a.J. & Oreopoulos, P. (1999). Analyzing the Fiscal Impact of U.S. Immigration. The American Economic Review, 89(2).
Bernstein, R. (2008). U.S. Hispanic population surpasses 45 million now 15% of total. U.S. Census Bureau News.
Borjas, G. (1995). The Economic Benefits from Immigration. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2).
This is her suffering.
LUIS J. RODRIGUEZ, THE REPUBLIC OF EAST LA (2002)
"Unfortunately, Rosalba endured many scary nights staying in dingy hotel rooms with other migrants, mostly women, in downtown Los Angeles. She not only didn't have a man to help but no obvious skills except what she learned on the rancho. She had to survive being cast into a peculiar universe of neon and noise. This was a place where women sold themselves for sex or get stoned, and where people on city buses never say anything to you unless they happen to be drunk or crazy" (229).
In this extract, several things become clear about the nature of Los Angeles and its inhabitants. The migrant, whose group Rosalba joins, represents the suffering of poverty. The "peculiar universe of neon and noise" shows just how far Rosalba feels removed from this artificial, seemingly wealthy world. She has nothing…
For instance, most illegal immigrants earn a living that is below the poverty threshold. Towns and cities can enforce legal policy created due to the economic incentive of protecting local schools and hospitals from financial ruin. Therefore, if there is a large population of illegal immigrants living in a town/city and are below a minimal level of income, the most effective policy is to build additional schools and hospitals designed to cater specifically to these populations.
The idea is to create facilities where illegal immigrants can learn and understand how to become an assimilated immigrant into American life. Additionally, these facilities will house programs that enable immigrants to become American citizens through the legal process of obtaining citizenship. The creation of additional schools and hospitals will increase jobs in the community, which can be funded in part through a number of federal programs that provide direct and indirect monetary resources…
Joch. (2010). "Immigration in the United States." New Presence: The Prague Journal of Central European Affairs. July 1, 2010. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=7&sid=79b0dbd3-39a3-42cd-9251-b89bc3234568%40sessionmgr13&vid=1
Independent Review. January 1, 2010. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=7&sid=9e5d9f48-ef82-40e2-b0da-de96f7c9b839%40sessionmgr15&vid=1
Independent Review. 2010
Padilla v. Kentucky: Implications for U.S. Immigration
This paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning the case, Padilla v. Kentucky,[footnoteef:1] discussing citizenship, and similar predicaments in other countries. It is this paper's thesis that the decision in Padilla has significant implications for defense lawyers who must now become familiar with the complexities of immigration law or retain counsel to assist them in this area. Established in Strickland v. Washington, the test for ineffective assistance of counsel is comprised of two parts: (1) defendants must first show that their counsel was constitutionally deficient and (2) show that the deficiency prejudiced the result of their case.[footnoteef:2] In addition, cases involving guilty pleas require defendants to demonstrate that in the absence of deficient counsel, they would have insisted on a trial.[footnoteef:3] Furthermore, defendants also enjoy the Due Process Clause protections that require judges and defendants to engage in a conversation concerning…
Atkins, K. (2010). Defense Counsel's Duty to Warn About . . . Everything? Lawyers Weekly USA, November 8.
Borden, Jeremy Immigrants Take Guilty Pleas without Lawyers, Face Deportation, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, A-6, (February 3, 2013).
Brief for States of Louisiana et al. 2009: 9; Padilla v. Kentucky.
Brink, Malia A Gauntlet Thrown: The Transformative Potential of Padilla V. Kentucky. 39 Fordham Urban Law 1, 39 (November 2011).
authority to legislate is derived. Determine whether or not Congress has unreasonably and unlawfully expanded upon an identified source's authority to legislate. Provide a rationale for your response.
Congress is one authority which has the ability to legislate. The executive branch of government (the President) is another authority to legislate. These authorities have the ability to move a bill which has been proposed for legislation forward or backward.
One arena where congress has been accused of unlawfully and unreasonably expanding upon a source's authority to legislate was via immigration amnesty. "The Immigration eform and Control Act of 1986 (ICA) was enacted by Congress in response to the large and rapidly growing illegal alien population in the United States. The final bill was the result of a dramatic compromise between those who wanted to reduce illegal immigration into the United States and those who wanted to "wipe the slate clean" for…
Numbersusa.cpm. (n.d.). Dictum. Retrieved from numbersusa.com: https://www.numbersusa.com/content/learn/illegal-immigration/seven-amnesties-passed-congress.html
Silman, J. (2014, June). Killer Gets Maximum Sentence. Retrieved from tampabay.com: http://www.tampabay.com/news/courts/criminal/killer-gets-maximum-sentence-as-story-fails-to-sway-judge/2159595
USAv.Pressley. (1996). UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Dewayne PRESSLEY, Defendant-Appellant. . Retrieved from findlaw.com: http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-7th-circuit/1368169.html
Immigration in America: The Benefits and Costs of a Polarizing Problem
As Suarez-Orozco, Rhodes and Milburn (2009) point out, immigrants need “supportive relationships” in order to succeed in the foreign country that they move to (p. 151). However, when that foreign country is determined to address immigration issues—not only illegal immigration but also legal immigration—it can become a difficult problem for both sides of the political aisle. For a nation like the United States, that is especially true. After all, America was founded by immigrants. The early Spanish and French missionaries came in the 16th century seeking converts to Christianity. The Puritans and English followed. The Germans and Italians and Irish and Polish all came to America in the wake of Industrialization. Over time, America was host to so many different populations and groups of people that it was referred to as the melting pot in 1909 (Higgins). However,…
Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…
Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.
Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.
Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html
Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
validity of the two official U.S. government reasons: 1) military necessity and 2) protection of the Japanese-Americans, for the imprisonment of Japanese-American and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. Be specific in your reasoning and examples.
One of the most shocking decisions in the history of American injustices is the official, legalized internment of Japanese-Americans and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. hile Americans fought a war abroad for democracy, against the racist tyrant Adolph Hitler of Germany, back home Japanese-Americans and legal Japanese resident aliens were deprived of their liberty and property, simply because of their racial and ethnic heritage. The official reasons given for the internment were military necessity and the protection of the Japanese-Americans. The first statement of 'military necessity,' or national security, as a justification for internment, implied that Japanese-American and Japanese Issei was more 'suspect' than other Americans. It was assumed these Asian-Americans had divided…
Jones, Jacqueline Peter Wood, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine May, and Vicky Ruiz. (2005) Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States. New York: Pearson Education.
Martis, Nancy H. (1994) "Illegal Aliens. Ineligibility for public services." California Journal#187. Retrieved 29 May 2005 at http://www.calvoter.org/archive/94general/props/187.html
Takaki, Robert. (1998) Strangers From a Distant Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little & Brown.
esearch Caveat - esearch surrounding undocumented workers can often be problematic and unreliable. Primarily this is due to the nature of the subject matter -- individual on both sides of the issue are unwilling to talk because of the volaltility of the subject, language barriers, legal issues, access issues, fear of anything that even remotely feels governmental, and the validity of responses. Briefly, we can view these issues and the mitigating circumstances:
Language barriers -- Any viable research study will need to be dual language based; therefore it must be translated into the appropriate lanage and level (typically Spanish), with an emphasis on clarity, removal of hidden meanings or linguistic variations. In addition, the person or persons administering any research questionnaire would likewise need to be bilingual.
Mistrust -- Undocumented workers are often reluctant to particpate in any project that has a written component; they are mistrustful of the system,…
Effects of Immigration on Natives' Earnings. (1995, December 11). Retrieved from Immigration - the Demographic and Economic Facts: http://www.cato.org/pubs/policy_report/pr-immig.html#contents
Difficult Moral Questions Surounding Undocumented Workers. (2006, March). Retrieved January 2011, from twotj.org: http://www.twotlj.org/G-3-171.html
U.S. Immigration Debate. (2007, June 28). Retrieved from BBCNews.com: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4850634.stm
Immigration Act of 1924. (2009, December). Retrieved from United States History.com: http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1398.html
Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking
The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…
Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm
DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html >
Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.
Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
Further the illegal aliens in the country are more than one quarter of the country's population. The controversy is mostly on illegal immigration, with over 11 million illegal residents in the U.S. Over 7 million legal migrants are recruited into important professional specialties. They also bring their relatives in, as in the case of Indians. (Swain, 16)
Though the Indian government does not give any special status to immigrants to the U.S. from India, there has been a spurt of immigrants from India to the Silicon Valley -- California. These immigrants are mostly selected for special skills and there are other immigrants who fill positions in services like nursing and doctors. The immigrants from India are mostly centered at Silicon Valley, the hub of computing and inventions. This is because immigrants from India come from some of the biggest and best electronics and engineering schools from India notably the IIT.…
Hardin, Garrett. The ostrich factor [electronic resource]: Our population myopia. Oxford University Press: New York, 1999.
Parekh, Bhikhu C; Singh, Gurharpal; Vertovec, Steven. Culture and Economy in the Indian
Diaspora: Transnationalism. Taylor & Francis: New York, 2003.
Government Performance esults Act
The General Accounting Office (GAO) may be one of most essential agencies in the federal government, because of its investigative oversight, but to the average American citizen, it may also be among the lesser known agencies. That is because the average hard-working nine-to-five person - whose contact with "news" is a few sound bites on television after work - might never dig into newspapers deep enough to read up on how taxpayer dollars are spent in Washington D.C. It's regrettable that the average person complains loudly about taxes, and "politicians" - yet knows little of the GAO's pivotal work. Meanwhile, this paper will focus upon the GAO report on the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), titled, "Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges" - which is clearly a wise use of taxpayer monies, whether taxpayers know about the GAO or not.
American Civil Liberties Union (2003). "ACLU Demands Truth From Justice
Department: New Report Details False Claims about SCOPE, Impact of PATRIOT Act." http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=13100&c=206 .
Kast, Sheila (2001). "Terror probe raises concerns about civil rights." CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2001/U.S./10/22/inv.civil.rights/
Perry, Tony (2002). "Immigration Attorney for 7 Detainees Lashes Out At INS:
Arizona SB 1070: Over Enforcement of Borderlands
In an era where terrorism and international turmoil continues to plague the news, it is no wonder that so many Americans would be scared enough into wanting to amp up border security. However, Arizona has taken these concerns way too far. Arizona SB 1070 is much too extreme and thus violates the constitutional rights of legal immigrants, while also making economic and environmental efforts in the region much harder to fulfill. Overall, Arizona SB 1070 clearly stands against the philosophy that the United States was originally built on.
Arizona Senate Bill 1070 is a controversial border protection law that has been raising concerns all over the nation. Essentially, it is a "law requiring state and local law enforcement officers to check the immigration status of suspected 'illegals'" (Olsen, 2011). Not only does this mean that anyone who looks Hispanic must carry around proper…
Fair Federation for American Immigration Reform. (2010). Support Out Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act. Legislative Analysis. Web. http://www.fairus.org/site/DocServer/ariz_SB1070_summary.pdf-docID
Kraehenbuel, James A. (2011). Lessons from the past: How the antebellum fugitive slave debate informs state enforcement of federal immigration law. University of Chicago Law Review, 78(2011), 1466-1503.
Olson, Alexander. (2011). El Grito and the Tea Party. Boom, 1(4).
York, Abigail M. & Schoon, Michael L. (2011). Collaboration in the shadow of the wall: Shifting power in the borderlands. Policy Science, 44(2011), 345-365.