Illegal Aliens Essays (Examples)

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Illegal Immigrant Farm Labor in the U S

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87856392

Illegal Immigrant Farm Labor

In the U.S. today, much of the farm labor is done by illegal immigrants. There are several issues to consider with this type of immigration, and there are definite (and strong) opinions on both sides of the issue. While some people have very little problem with these immigrants, others feel as though they should not be allowed to remain in the country under any circumstances. Using illegal immigrants for farm labor is a practice that has gone on for a number of years, and those who use these types of workers state that the reason they do it is due to the fact that U.S. workers will not do the same job for the same price (Beasley, 2006). The farmers would have to raise their rates quite aggressively if they were going to use U.S. workers, because they would likely have to pay them more (Ngai,…… [Read More]

References

Beasley, Vanessa B., ed. (2006). Who Belongs in America?: Presidents, Rhetoric, And Immigration. TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Borjas, G.J. (1994). "The economics of immigration," Journal of Economic Literature, v 32, pp. 1667 -- 717.

Espenshade, Thomas J. (1995). "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual Review of Sociology, v 21, pp. 195+

Ngai, Mae M. (2004). Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America. NY: Princeton University Press.
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Illegal Immigrant Issue Is Age

Words: 1128 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70584844

Illegal aliens do not pay taxes but loopholes allow them to get benefits on taxpayers' expense. esides, the Republicans might have started the immigration reform, but it was the House Democrats that allowed a provision in the bill passed in December 2005. House Judiciary Committee Chairman F. James Sensenbrenner tried to pass an amendment that would reduce illegal immigration to a misdemeanor, but although two thirds of the House Republicans sustained him, the amendment was defeated. 191 of the 254 votes against it came from Democrats.

As we speak, sanctuary laws ban police officers from initiating police action where the objective is to discover the alien status of a person" (LAPD Policy, 1979). They may not inform the ICE (formerly INS) about an undocumented immigrant" detained for minor violations. The police may only accost a deportee if the latter has given them another reason except for the immigration felony (such…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Kiely, Kathy. GOP leaders oppose immigration felony." USA Today, 12 April 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2006-04-12-immigration-congress_x.htm

Mac Donald, Heather. The Illegal-Alien Crime Wave." City Journal, December 2004 http://www.city-journal.org/html/14_1_the_illegal_alien.html

Wimpf, Peter, and Jennifer Wimpf. Major Immigration Issues. Both Sides of Each Hot Button Political Issue." http://immigration.about.com/od/ussocialeconomicissues/i/EduIllegalIss_2.htm

US Code Collection. Original Jurisdiction," Title 28, part IV, Chapter 81, 1251
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Illegal Immigratiion for Decades Congress

Words: 863 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36989001

For example a study in 1982-83 had found that illegal aliens were contributing more to the economy than the state was spending on them. (Cited in LeMay, ed. 1989, 10)

There is much confusion in connection with the economic impact. Some studies feel that illegal aliens contribute very little considering the fact that they are usually employed in low paying jobs.

Economists have consistently argued back and forth as to whether or not illegal immigrants are actually driving down wages and making working conditions even worse. Some economist saw it from a different angle. They felt that some employers need to fill the low wage niche as they need to make some profit too and this niche can only be filled by illegal aliens who are willing to work at very low wages. If it had not been for those immigrants, some small firms would go out of business. This…… [Read More]

References

Muller and Espanshade 1985, 11-12; LeMay 1987, 73-102; and Stanley Lieberson, a Piece of the Pie (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1980).

LeMay Michael. 1985. The Struggle for Influence. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.
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Illegal Immigrants in the U S

Words: 2196 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39582268



So who is an American and what an America can or cannot do are questions which are critical to the issue of legalizing immigrants. Does being an American mean you cannot show allegiance to any other country? The images of people raising and waving Mexican flag had enraged many but it need not have. It should be accepted that people who come from different countries would forever hold in their hearts a deep respect and love for their homeland. However to put the interests of home country ahead of your adopted country or to work in a way that benefits the home country but not the new country would definitely cause serious concern. It would be definitely foolish to direct or guide the behavior of illegal immigrants regarding countries and allegiance, but they should be expected to not work against the interests of their adopted land. That is fair and…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, Leahy Colleen. Growing Up and Old In Italian-American Families, page 223, 1985

Michael T. Lempres. "Getting Serious about Illegal Immigration." National Review 46.3 (1994): 52.

Ted Hayes. "Illegal Immigration Threatens U.S. Sovereignty, Economy and Culture." Insight on the News 16.36 (2000): 46.

Michelle Malkin. "Dismissing the Dangers of Illegal Immigration." Insight on the News 18.32 (2002): 46.
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Illegal Immigrants

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36112368

Illegal immigrants to the United States [...] reasons illegal immigrants come to America, and the political debate which surrounds these immigrants. Illegal immigrants face many hardships when they come to the United States, and their life here is filled with controversy and difficulties.

The reasons people come to live in the United States illegally are many. Some immigrants come to America because they are fleeing persecution and prosecution in their own country. Unfortunately, many of these illegal immigrants continue to commit crimes once they have entered the United States. The cost of these immigrants to the criminal justice system is quite high. In fact,

The State Criminal Alien Assistance Program (SCAAP) is administered by the ureau of Justice Assistance (JA) of the U.S. Department of Justice in cooperation with the INS. SCAAP provides federal funding to states and localities that are incurring costs of incarcerating criminal illegal aliens convicted of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Do Illegal Immigrants Harm America?" Opposing Viewpoints: Illegal Immigration. Galenet. 4 Sept. 2003.

Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS)." Federal Agency Profiles for Students. Galenet. 8 Sept. 2003.

Introduction." Opposing Viewpoints: Illegal Immigration. Galenet. 4 Sept. 2003.

The Cost of Immigration." Information Plus: Immigration and Illegal Aliens: Burden or Blessing? Galenet. 4 Sept. 2003.
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Illegal Immigrant and the Healthcare

Words: 2313 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6041258

There will be likelihood of lowering costs across the whole of the United States health care system through increasing the risk pool with a population that has proven less likely of utilizing health services, thus lowering the emergency medical care's costs, particularly based on the emergency Medicaid reimbursements, as well as shifting the centre of attention from expensive treatment after progressing of diseases to cheaper preventative and ambulatory care, (Sarita A. Mohanty, et al., 2005). Through extension of coverage, it can as well safe guard the health of the entire populations since there will be timely diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases, hence it will bring a higher health quality throughout the lifetime of illegal immigrants for there will be protection against diseases but not just treating or managing diseases once they crop up.

On the other hand there is argument that there could be a countervailing consideration that might…… [Read More]

References

Dana P. Goldman, et al. Immigrants and the Cost of Medical Care, 25 HEALTH AFF. 1700, 1705 (2006). Retrieved July 7, 2012 from http://www.latimes.com/media/acrobat/2009-01/44771484.pdf

Kathyrn Pitkin Derose, et al. Immigrants and Health Care: Sources of Vulnerability, 26 HEALTH AFF. 1258, 1260 (2007). Retrieved July 7, 2012 from  http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/5/1258.long 

Lawrence O. Gostin, Public health law: power, duty, restraint 415, 2nd Ed. (2008).

Retrieved July 7, 2012 from http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/facpub/609
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Illegal Immigrant Deportation Issues When an Illegal

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42978160

Illegal Immigrant Deportation Issues

hen an illegal immigrant is arrested and imprisoned for a crime committed in the United States, what happens to that immigrant when his time in prison has been served but his home country will not take him back? This paper reviews and critiques that question.

Zadvydas v. Davis

In order to fully expose the legal problem in this case the 2001 U.S. Supreme Court decision, Zadvydas v. Davis needs to be explained. The High Court ruled that Kestutis Zadvydas had served his time but because his home country, Cambodia, has no repatriation treaty with the U.S., Zadvydas he had remained in custody beyond what the legal statute allows. U.S. law allows that once prison time is served there is then a 90 day period after which the immigrant prisoner must be "removed" from incarceration. The High Court ruled that the Constitution is violated when a prisoner…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chicago-Kent College of Law. (2009). Zadvydas v. Davis / Facts of the Case. Retrieved October

2, 2012, from http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2000/2000_99_7791/.

Fagan, Kevin. (2012). S.F. suspect not along in dogging deportation. San Francisco Chronicle.

Retrieved October 3, 2012, from  http://www.sfgate.com .
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Illegal Immigration Amnesty for Illegal

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88949512

Many peoples' lives, destinies, and hopes for the future, and not only American ones, depend and will depend in the future on this taking place sooner rather than later, and now more than ever before in America's history.

orks Cited

Illegal Immigration." ikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.

Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual

Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.

Flores, illiam V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-

http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id=b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d" Love Unites Them, La Migra Separates Them." El observador, 30 Nov. 2006. http://news.newamericamedia.org/news/view_article.html?article_id= b2579269c3c901ad0ae85bd42dd2920d.html>.

Morgan, Edmund S. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Longman 2nd Edition, November 20, 1998.

Snyder, Tanya. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion/oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlinesTo Slow Immigration from El Salvador, Understand its Causes."

Baltimore Sun, 11 Jan. 2007. http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/opinion oped/bal-op.elsalvador11jan11,0,460257.story?coll=bal-oped-headlines.

Young Migrants Risk All to Reach U.S." ashington Post. 28 Aug 2006.

A http:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08

27/AR2006082700771.html>.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Illegal Immigration." Wikipedia. 4 May 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal_immigration.html>.

Espenshade, Thomas J. "Unauthorized Immigration to the United States" Annual

Review of Sociology. 21 (1995). 195-200.

Flores, William V. "New Citizens, New Rights: Undocumented Immigrants and Latino Cultural Citizenship" Latin American Perspectives. 2003. 30(2). 87-
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Educating Illegal Children Is Educating

Words: 1932 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41240298



Officials in border states see the matter as far more than a scholarly legal debate. Pam Slater, a San Diego County supervisor, called the current system "a travesty" that is bankrupting state and local governments. Educating 355,000 citizen-children of illegal aliens cost California taxpayers $1.7 billion in fiscal 1995-96, for example.

An offer of financial support to children born in the United States is far too great a lure," she said. "This loophole must be closed (p. 5)."

Educating illegal immigrants' children is reflected in the test scores of the border state public schools, and other school systems with a large population of illegal immigrants. While federal and state law prohibits the collecting of information that would specifically target Hispanic children as the problem behind low test scores, one might conclude that for some school districts the language barrier might contribute to those low test scores.

However, while we cannot…… [Read More]

References

Enforcing Immigration Laws. (2007, March 17). The Washington Times, p. A12. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5019905500 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106216446

Kalmar, T.M. (2000). Illegal Alphabets and Adult Biliteracy: Latino Migrants Crossing the Linguistic Border. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved March 14, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106216448 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001985430

States Pay $7.4 Billion to Educate Illegals; Report Notes Drain on U.S. Children. (2003, August 21). The Washington Times, p. A04. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001985430

'We Are Overwhelmed'; Caring for Illegal Immigrants Taxes Facilities in Border States. (2002, September 24). The Washington Times, p. A01. Retrieved March 13, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000828657
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Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants the

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49478214

Therefore, the state is daily loosing important revenue that could help improve the financial situation of different Departments such as health care, social services, and even immigration policies. However, without this source of money, the federal budget would be forced to allocate funds from other destinations.

Thirdly, there is also the issue of workers' rights. In this sense, it is a rather well-known fact the idea that illegal workers are often exploited by employers by giving them wages that are below the normal tariffs. However, the inclusion of illegal workers as legal immigrants would grant them the rights each worker in the United States has. More precisely, "in past decades, labor unions often saw immigrant workers as the enemy, accusing them of depressing wages and breaking strikes. ut the executive council of the AFL-CIO adopted a more sympathetic approach, contending that too often U.S. immigration rules have enabled employers to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Coalition for the future American worker. An Amnesty by Any Other Name is Still an Amnesty. N.d. 10 March 2008  http://www.americanworker.org/amnesty_handout2.htm 

Greenhouse, Steven. "Unions Urge Amnesty for Illegal Immigrants Legalized workers would be easier for labor to organize." San Francisco Chronicle. 2000. 10 March 2008  http://www.commondreams.org/headlines/021700-02.htm 

Isidore, Chris. Skilled worker shortage hurts U.S. Employers would be hiring more if they could just find the skilled workers they need. 2007. 10 March 2008.  http://money.cnn.com/2007/01/04/news/economy/jobs_outlook/index.htm
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Driver's License to Illegal Immigrants

Words: 7804 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39001357

Proponents advanced that both legal and illegal immigration to California was a concrete and hard reality, which neither legislation nor strict controls could blot out. They envisioned a menial, lowly paid workforce, a source of cheap labor, on which the State would depend. They also held that opponents were racially motivated and too harsh towards non-whites who wanted to flee from poverty and despair. On the other hand, those who opposed illegal immigration blamed it for the country's shortage of social services, which illegal immigrants shared with citizens. These opponents argued that providing healthcare and welfare to these illegal immigrants necessarily infringed the law and made illegal behavior acceptable and legitimate. They denied that their support for legislations, such as Proposition 189, was racially motivated (IGS).

More Arguments for and Against the same vigor and frustration characterized the struggle for driver's licenses in Illinois but which failed to get the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adamson, Erik. Temporary Driver's Licenses Sought for Undocumented Immigrants. Topeka Capital-Journal: ProQuest Information and Learning Company, January 6, 2004

Bender, Kristin. Undocumented Immigrants Aim to Jump-Start Licenses Bill. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers, August 10, 2004

Bulkeley, Deborah. Senate OKs Driving Permit for Immigrants. Deseret News (Salt Lake City): Deseret News Publishing Company, February 22, 2005

Counts, Laura. Illegal Immigrants Make Final Push for Driver's Licenses. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers, August 27, 2004
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Justice Process for Illegal Immigrants

Words: 1868 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51082796

(estore Fairness and Due Process: 1996 Immigration Laws go too far)

Immigration and justice system presently entails overlapping of three distinct issues like "immigrants as crime victims; immigrants as criminals; and the socio-cultural dimension of immigrants." (Immigration and Justice System) the immigrants as crime victims include the issues relating to hate crimes on the basis of nativity status, national origin or race that some sometimes enticed by the economic concerns; and routine victimization, most probably aggravated by immigrant propinquity to urban, high-crime neighborhoods. The immigrants as criminals include terrorists those who aim U.S. Or its allies; organized criminal syndicates like ussian Mafias, Vietnamese Triads; Individual felons who perpetrate extensive variety of crimes; youth criminal groups specially those associated with the gang-related activities; Illegal aliens, irrespective of normally, sincere, law abiding individuals sometimes aggravate the crime of their unauthorized presence by other illegal acts like using fraudulent documents to acquire employment…… [Read More]

References

Immigration and Justice System" (July / August 1997) Research Perspectives on Migration. Volume 1 / Number 5. Retrieved at http://www.migrationpolicy.org/files/RPMVol1-No5.pdf. Accessed on 1 June, 2005

Mac Donald, Heather. (Winter, 2004) "Illegal-Alien Crime Wave" the City Journal. Retrieved at http://www.city-journal.org/html/14_1_the_illegal_alien.html. Accessed on 1 June, 2005

Mann, Juan. "Juan Mann's frequently asked Questions about Immigration and the Law" Retrieved at http://www.vdare.com/mann/faq.htm. Accessed on 1 June, 2005

Restore Fairness and Due Process: 1996 Immigration Laws go too far." (10 July, 2001) AILA InfoNet. Doc. No. 21IP1002. Retrieved at http://www.sackskolken.com/court/Dueprocess.html. Accessed on 1 June, 2005
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Immigration -- the Challenge Illegal

Words: 1132 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48972794

Scores of illegal Latin Americans work in the hospitality industry, construction, meatpacking, agriculture, and landscaping sectors. In fact, in some of the states it is said that almost half of the construction workers are from Latin America. There are arguments that if all these illegal immigrants were removed these jobs would improve the unemployment situation for the American citizens. It is also generally argued that the pay scale for low skilled jobs would also increase. Also, most of the illegal aliens utilize healthcare, education and other services without paying taxes causing significant drain for the government.

The above points are clearly valid but there are both positive and negative effects of illegal immigration. Economists feel that totally eliminating illegal workers would only marginally improve the pay scale for high school dropouts and would not have any significant impact for workers with higher qualifications. Furthermore, illegal immigration contributes positively as Americans…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Michael Barone, 'Living with Illegals', U.S. News and World Report, April 3rd 2006.
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Arizona Illegal Immigrant Law a Good Idea

Words: 1873 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78140919

Arizona illegal immigrant law a good idea?

The Support Our Police force and Safe Neighbourhood Act (enacted as Arizona Senate Bill 1070 and therefore is associated basically as Arizona SB 1070) is really a legal Act within the U.S. Arizona State. This law is currently the widest and most stringent anti-illegal immigration in recent American history (CNN, 2010). This law has acquired considerable local and also global criticism and it has prompted extensive debate (Nowicki, 2010).

United States federal legislation requires all non-citizens older than 14 who reside in the country for more than thirty days to register with the Federal government. Furthermore, they are required to hold and possess registration papers all the time. The Arizona Act, furthermore, makes it an Arizona misdemeanour offence for a non-citizen to be residing in Arizona without possessing the necessary documents. The law articulates that state police force officers try to determine his/her…… [Read More]

References

Archibold, R.C. (2010a). U.S.'s Toughest Immigration Law Is Signed in Arizona. The New York Times: p. 1.

Archibold, R.C. (2010b). Arizona Enacts Stringent Law on Immigration. Accessed February 12, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html

Archibold, R.C. And Thee-Brenan, M. (2010). Poll Shows Most in U.S. Want Overhaul of Immigration Laws. The New York Times: p. A15. Accessed February 14, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/04/us/04poll.html

Blanton, D. (2010). Fox News Poll: Arizona Was Right to Take Action on Immigration. Fox News. Accessed February 14, 2012 from http://www.foxnews.com/us/2010/05/07/fox-news-poll-arizona-right-action-immigration/
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Why Should Children of Illegal Immigrants Be Educated

Words: 1636 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52691004

Education for Immigrant Children

The Importance of Education

The Immigrant Issue

The story of America as seen and known today has been built by immigrants. In fact, the motto of America is that it is a nation of immigrants. Yet many camps within today's society either look down on or fight against immigration. This is because illegal immigration from Central and Southern American nations have affected the way in which America works, and not always in a positive way. Though these individuals are not the only illegal immigrants in this country, they make up a very large population and, for this reason, many have found ways in which to attack this group of immigrants. Needless to say, this is a very 'hot' issue, and this is one of the reasons why it must be discussed and analyzed from an objective standpoint. One of the one hand, this paper will provide…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barnes, E. (2010). Illegal Immigration Costs U.S. $113 Billion a Year, Study Finds. Fox News. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .

Brennan, J. (1982). Plyler v. Doe. Legal Information Institute. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .

Griffee, S.L. (2011). Are Children of Illegal Immigrants Entitled to a Public Education? New York Times. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .

N.A. (2012). Illegal Immigration. U.S. Immigration Support. Retrieved February 4, 2012, from .
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Geopolitics of Illegal Migration in the U S

Words: 938 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67823459

GEOPOLITICS OF ILLEGAL MIGATION IN THE U.S.

Illegal Immigration

Slowing or stopping the flow of immigrants across the U.S. Mexico border has remained a hot political issue for several decades. The events of 9/11 only added fuel to the fire and politicians have repeatedly promised to plug the leaky border. Although the budget and manpower of the Border Patrol has been tripled since 9/11, leaders in congress felt more needed to be done. In 2006 the Secure Fence Act was passed into law, which authorized funding to build 700 miles of fencing along the most troublesome stretches of the Mexico/U.S. border (Ellis, 2011). By the end of 2008 only 120 miles had been completed. In 2006 the Secure Border Initiative awarded a billion dollar contract to Boeing to build a virtual fence along the border and by the end of last year only 53 miles had been completed. The past…… [Read More]

References

Coleman, Matthew. (2008). Between public policy and foreign policy: U.S. immigration law reform and the undocumented migrant. Urban Geography, 29, 4-28.

Ellis, Ashton. (2011, Jan. 21). Border fence update: Governing elites use promises to ease resistance for illegal immigrants' amnesty. Texas Insider. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from http://www.texasinsider.org/?p=41295

Jackson, Melinda S. (2011). Priming the sleeping giant: The dynamics of Latino political identity and vote choice. Political Psychology, 32, 691-716.

PEW Hispanic Center. (2011). The Mexican-American Boom: Births overtake immigration. Retrieved Oct. 20, 2011 from http://pewhispanic.org/files/reports/144.pdf
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Undocumented Foreign Nationals in the

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11264222

S., and that the world is moving rapidly in the direction of a world community, a global community, and a global economic system. This is an argument separate and apart from the issue at hand, but is peripheral to it in that in order for the world community to grow and to develop an economic that facilitates the population in the world, that it becomes necessary for borders to become invisible and for individuals to have free and unhindered access to other regions of the world. Thomas C. Fischer, in his book, the United States, the European Union, and "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries (2000), discusses borders in relationship to globalization, and helps put into perspective the concept of open borders and globalization.

In conclusion, there is a need to be cautious about the borders as a result of economic and social conditions that exist south of the…… [Read More]

References

Fischer, T.C. (2000). The United States, the European Union, and the "Globalization" of World Trade: Allies or Adversaries?. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Retrieved November 28, 2007, from Questia database:

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27650809

Health and Human Services, Division Immigration Health Services, online, found at    http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5219a3.htm   , retrieved 27 November 2007.

New York Post, http://www.nypost.com/seven/11142007/news/regionalnews/out_of_gas_eliot_putting_the_brakes_on_l_9236.htm, November 14, 2007, retrieved 27 November, 2007.
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Undocumented Students Equity to In-State Tuition Reducing

Words: 8115 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92893549

Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:

Reducing The Barriers

There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…… [Read More]

Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf

Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.

Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476



Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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Illegl Immigrant Labor Be Protected

Words: 3790 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43085232

If the foundations of the NLA are to be supported, the illegal worker will need to be provided with the complete display of NLA solutions. With that said, the tension still remains.

Key Issues

Statistics do show that illegal aliens are accounting for 21% of the foreign born populace in the U.S. In 2000 with that amount snowballing to 30% by 2005(Abraham, 2002). With numbers progressively going up each year, a lot have started asking why. They want to know where are the immigrants coming from and why are there so many of them that are allowed to come into the nation. Statistics display that Mexico is the major distributor of illegal and legal immigrants (http://cis.org/illegal). Statistics show that more than half of the Mexicans that are living in the U.S. In the year 2000 were illegitimate (odriguez, 2006). By 2004, 10.5 million illegal and legal immigrants that were Mexican…… [Read More]

References:

Foreign sourcing decisions under the duty to bargain under the nlra. (1973). The International Executive (Pre-1986), 15(1), 17.

Abraham, S.E. (2002). The supervisory exclusion under the NLRA: Has the Supreme Court gone too far? Working USA, 6(1), 77-77.

Cimini, C.N. (2008). Ask, don't tell: Ethical issues surrounding undocumented workers' status in employment litigation. Stanford Law Review, 61(2), 355-415.

Delaney, J.T., Lewin, D., & Sockell, D. (1985). The NLRA at fifty: A research appraisal and agenda. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 39(1), 46-46.
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Huckabee Mick Huckabee Has Surprised

Words: 2234 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28298855



Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.

Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.

Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing

Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.

Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
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Patrick J Buchanan's Argument for

Words: 1366 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4795034

The other colored groups like the Asian-Americans and African-Americans supported the measure. The changes came when the bill came to the legislature and on that day, 77% of the Latinos voted against the bill along with 53% of the Asian-Americans and African-American voters. (Proposition 187 Lessons)

Yet it still could not stop the bill from being passed as a large majority of the voters were white, and the whites wanted the bill passed to continue enjoying the privileges that they had been enjoying for generations. Passing of the bill got the other groups active as they would like the bill to be stopped anyway as the bill would mean that a major section of the community would be put in trouble if they did not get the benefits that they were enjoying in the past. This pushed the situation where several lawsuits were filed in the California State Court by…… [Read More]

References

Adams, Jan. Proposition 187 Lessons. Z Magazine. March, 1995. Retrieved at http://www.zmag.org/zmag/articles/mar95adams.htm. Accessed on 26 May, 2005.

Equal Protection: An Overview. Legal Information Institute. Retrieved at http://www.law.cornell.edu/topics/equal_protection.html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005.

History of Proposition 187. California Coalition for Immigration Reform. Retrieved at http://ccir.net/REFERENCE/187-History.html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005.

Pat Buchanan. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_Joseph_BuchananAccessed on 26 May, 2005.
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Returning American Born Children to

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The plight of American born children forced to reside outside of the United States because of their dependent and minority age statuses, begs the question of whether or not these children, if raised in third world countries like Mexico, Nicaragua, or Columbia, can ever achieve the promise of the American dream upon return to the United States, which has, in their absence, become foreign to them, and they foreign amongst their peer group?

The subject of immigration, especially that which moves daily across the Mexican-American border, is an emotional and tense issue, and one into which a new breath of life is breathed during every presidential election. There is no denying the economic impact of illegal immigration on the United States; it is a serious problem. This, however, does not make it acceptable to wreak potential economic havoc on a U.S. born citizen that is, on an individual level, just…… [Read More]

Reference List

Rodriguez, Gregory (2008). Mongrels, Bastards, Orphans and Vagabonds: Mexican

Immigration and the . Random House Publishing, New York, NY. Book.

Simon, Julian Lincoln (1999). The Economic Consequences of Immigration, University

of Michigan. Book.
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Immigration and Customs Enforcement the

Words: 2506 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46700134

These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Galuszka, P. (2008). Hispanics bearing the brunt of xenophobia. Diverse Issues in Higher

Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mWMX/is_1_25/ai_n2491956?tag=content;col1

ICE (2008). About ICE. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://www.ice.gov/about/index.htm

Marcucci, M.R. (2007). Marchers call for immigration reform. Oakland Tribune: ANG
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Homeland Security Issue of Immigration

Words: 2233 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96169092

Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.

Illegal firearms.

Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…… [Read More]

References

Cox, A.B., & Posner, E.A. (2007). The second-order structure of immigration law. Stanford Law Review, 59(4), 809+.

Dillin, J. (2006). How Eisenhower solved illegal border crossings from Mexico. Christian Science Monitor.

Green, T.C., & Ciobanu, I.M. (2006). Deputizing - and then prosecuting - America's businesses in the fight against illegal immigration. American Criminal Law Review, 43(3), 1203+.

Headley, B. (2006). Giving critical context to the deportee phenomenon. Social Justice, 33(1), 40+.
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Except for the Indigenous Native

Words: 8783 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72367303

S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.

Rationale of Study

Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of

1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration
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Legalization Program for Undocumented Workers

Words: 2693 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43164128



I can think of few things that could be more dangerous for homeland security than granting amnesty to 8 to 12 million illegal aliens," said Rep Tom Tancredo, R-Colo., an outspoken critic of legalization. "Perhaps the administration ought to dedicate more energy to enforcing our existing immigration laws and less on finding ways to allow millions to skirt them," Tancredo added. (Stern and Kammer) legalization program on the scale Tom Ridge, Secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, suggested would overwhelm his already overburdened department," said Krikorian. (Stern and Kammer)

Principles on Legalization

According to the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), there are key elements that must go along with a legalization program in order for it to be acceptable.

Sacrificing the future wages, labor protections, and working conditions of both U.S. And future foreign workers in order to achieve legalization is too high a price," says a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom. America's Program. 14 November 2008. 18 November 2008 http://americas.irc- online.org/am/5671>.

Brownstein, Ronald. "Immigration Reform on House Democrat's Minds." July 2002.

Agricultural Personnel Management Program. 17 November 2008 http://are.berkeley.edu/APMP/pubs/agworkvisa/earnlegal072302.html.

Camarota, Steven. "Backgrounder." June 2006. Center for Immigration Studies. 15 November 2008  http://www.cis.org /articles/2006/back606.pdf.
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Law Enforcement to Secure the

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In order to fully safeguard the country's borders, it is necessary to take into account that criminals tend to develop as fast as new technology can be implemented. Hence it is important to improve methods for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, analysis and training, and support efforts to deter not only illegal aliens, but also the substances some of them bring into the country. On the other hand, it is also important to recognize the human element inherent in the immigration problem. Some believe they have no choice but to risk their lives in order to have any quality of life at all.

eferences

Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. etrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf

Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. etrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747

The White House (2010). emarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration eform. American…… [Read More]

References

Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved from  http://www.cis.org /articles/2004/fiscal.pdf

Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747

The White House (2010). Remarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration Reform. American University School of International Services, Washington, D.C

U.S. Immigration Support. (2010). Illegal Immigration from Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/illegal-immigration-from-mexico.html
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H-1B Shortage in Today's Society

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To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).

They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).

What…… [Read More]

References

13 MEXUS 45, P52

21 BYE J. Pub. L. 153 P. 157

U.S.C. Section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) (2006

U.S.C. Section 1184(g)(1)(a)(i) (2000
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United States From Its Beginnings

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They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.

The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.

Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.

Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.

Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
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Americans Having to Pay for

Words: 1203 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65863063

S. is that they accept the problem as if there is no solution to it. The government believes that preventing immigrants from entering the country is the only answer to reducing the number of undocumented individuals. However, if they were to carefully analyze the dilemma, they would come to the conclusion that it needs to be stopped from its core. Illegal border-crossings would be reduced if people had been acquainted with the fact that the U.S. government does nothing to support illegal immigrants.

ords such as medievalism, nationalism, and discrimination might spring into one's mind when relating to illegal immigrants in the U.S. not receiving any assistance from the government. However, legislations such as the DREAM Act are only contributing to the increase of the number of undocumented immigrants.

Observing that their kin abroad are virtually being provided with help by the American government itself, people from around the world…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Knott, Tom. "Dream Act Begins an American Nightmare." The Washington Times, 11 Oct. 2007.

2. Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).

3. "Public Policy." NASFA: Association of International Educators. 22 Nov. 2009

Porter, Lakeisha. "Illegal Immigrant Should Not Receive Social Services." International Social Science Review. 81 (2006).
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Macroeconomics Sixty Percent of the

Words: 1649 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19813838

In addition to core studies, optional programs are available throughout Alberta, including art, drama, music, career and technology studies, Aboriginal studies, and 16 different languages. Provincial tests tell authorities how well students have progressed in relation to achievement targets. Overall, the tests tell Albertans how well students are learning the Alberta curriculum and which areas of the curriculum need improvement. Provincial tests are designed as one indicator of how well Alberta students are meeting provincial, grade-level standards. They complement the teacher's assessments.

This country has some definite problems with our educational system. One aspect of the Alberta system is measurement and accountability. Students should be required to meet objective standards in order to progress from one grade to another. Teachers should be required to pass standardized test in order to receive a teaching certificate. Continuing education should be mandatory. y holding people accountable for results, the results will improve.

ibliography…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berliner, D.C., and B.J. Biddle. The Manufactured Crisis: Myths, Fraud, and the Attack on America's Public Schools. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1995.

Emergency Room Overcrowding: Hospital implements new procedure." WOWT.com. 1 June 2005. http://www.wowt.com/news/features/2/1492392.html.

Emergency Room Visits Soar." Live Science. 26 May 2005. 1 June 2005. http://www.livescience.com/othernews/050526_emergency_visits.html.

Hospitals Can't Win on Immigrant Health Plan." The Detroit News. 30 August 2004. 3 June 2005. http://www.detnews.com/2004/editorial/0408/30/a08-257287.htm.
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Arizona's New Immigration Law Is a Fundamental

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64076156

Arizona's new immigration law is a fundamental violation of the principles of the Civil Rights Act of 1994, and existing federal non-discrimination legislation. The law enables police to randomly stop and demand proof of citizenship from people who the authorities think are illegal aliens. This law will obviously have a disproportionate impact upon individuals of non-white heritage, particularly Hispanics. The law "would make the failure to carry immigration documents a crime and give the police broad power to detain anyone suspected of being in the country illegally. Opponents have called it an open invitation for harassment and discrimination against Hispanics regardless of their citizenship status" (Archibald 2010).

One of the fundamental rights of all citizens, as codified in the Bill of Rights, is the right not to be illegally searched. hile some exceptions have been made for warrantless searches by the U.S. Supreme Court, such as general traffic stops to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Archibald, Randall C. "Arizona enacts stringent law on immigration." The New York Times.

April 24, 2010. [June 6, 2011] http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/24/us/politics/24immig.html

"Arizona immigration law." NAACP. [June 6, 2011]

http://action.naacp.org/pages/arizona/?source=BSDAds_GoogleSearch_Criminal%20Justice_Arizona_Arizona%20Immigration%20Law_Phrase_6344633113&gclid=CLeB1My1z6kCFUff4Aod2hRWMQ
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Extraordinary Rendition Refers to the

Words: 4875 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23995988

They point out that if a suspected terrorist gets on a plane and gets off at a place like Copenhagen or Toronto and demands asylum, even if he is not granted asylum, he's pretty much got a safe haven to operate in because he can' be deported or extradited back to where ever he came from. They believe that such lenient 'European' laws create a huge gap in security, which need to be tightened and that human rights conventions such as the Convention Against Torture make it almost impossible for states to gain a reasonable and necessary degree of assurance against devastating attacks in an age of asymmetrical warfare against international terrorists.

Former U.S. officials such as Michael Scheuer, who helped to set up the CIA's rendition program during the Clinton administration, are more forthcoming about commenting on the nature and existence of 'extraordinary' renditions. Scheuer has in different statements…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Begg, Moazzam. "Rendition: Tortured Truth." New Statesman 26 June 2006: 19.

Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance.'" Amnesty International Report. April 5, 2006. February 5, 2008 http://www.amnesty.org/en/alfresco_asset/5d82f002-a2d8-11dc-8d74-6f45f39984e5/amr510512006en.html

Charter, David. "Britain accused on secret CIA flights." Times Online. November 29, 2006. February 5, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article653418.ece

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1987. February 5, 2008. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm
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Undocumented Immigrants Deserve Citizenship

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32742429

Immigration can be defined as the voluntary movement of non-native persons into a different country with the goal of settling and living there (Boneva & Frieze, 2001). The major reasons that people immigrate from one country to another is that they want to improve the quality of their lives, improve the future prospects for their families, or to be closer to family or close friends (Boneva & Frieze, 2001; Skrbis, 2008). Illegal immigration has been a problem in large countries like the United States that border on other countries where the standard of living is significantly lower (such as the case of the United States and Mexico). People find these relatively unprotected borders easy to transverse and are motivated to do so by the promise of a better life for them and their families. When large numbers of people legally immigrate to another country barriers are created between the immigrants…… [Read More]

References

Boneva, B.S., & Frieze, I.H. (2001). Toward a concept of a migrant personality. Journal of Social Issues, 57(3), 477-491.

Hoeing, J. (2013). Immigration benefits America. In Capitaistpig. Retrieved on July 1, 2015

from  http://capitalistpig.com/news-media/open-immigration-benefits-america/ .

Ngai, M.M. (2014). Impossible Subjects: Illegal Aliens and the Making of Modern America:
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Trustees' Actions Requiring the Company Plan to

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34731956

trustees' actions, requiring the company plan to pay additional fees to the detriment of the interest of the pensioners, may have been abhorrent and unethical, strictly speaking according to the letter of the law, they were not a violation of the specific terms that are covered under ERISA. First of all, ERISA "does not require any employer to establish a pension plan. It only requires that those who establish plans must meet certain minimum standards. The law generally does not specify how much money a participant must be paid as a benefit." (ERISA, "Compliance Assistance," 2005) Nor does it specify that the pension must be of a certain amount, and is not subject to change, dependant upon the whims of the market and other commercial demands.

If the employer does maintain a plan, ERISA merely requires that the employee who is eligible to become a part of the pension plan…… [Read More]

Work Cited

ERISA. (2005) "Compliance Assistance." Official ERISA website. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at  http://www.dol.gov/ebsa/compliance_assistance.html#section1 

FLSA (2004) Official Website. Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/esa/whd/flsa/

ESA. Final Rule. (2002) "Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection" Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/esa/regs/fedreg/final/2002031525.htm

Immigration and Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) Retrieved 25 Feb 2005 at http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/guide/aw.htm
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Labor Economics the Last Time

Words: 2135 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22846827



It would have repeated the 1986 bill, though on a grand scale -- ten million illegals granted amnesty -- another magnet for yet another increase in the rate of illegal immigration into this country? The purpose of the bill, as with IRCA was to eliminate immigration, but, as with IRCA, no wording or regulations contained in the bill would have accomplished this goal (Rector). There is little reason to believe, based on its contents, that'd. 2611 would have had any different consequences other than to increase federal welfare roles by magnitudes and, due to the enormous scope of the bill, increase poverty in this country (Rector).

Effects Different For Men and Women?

Would the amnesty provision for undocumented foreign workers in the U.S. Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986 affect outcomes in the labor market for those workers, and if so, were the affects different for men and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina, Cynthia Bansak and Steven Raphael. "Gender Differences in the Labor Market: Impact of IRCA's Amnesty Provisions." American Economic Review (2007): 412-416.

Davidson, Adam. "Q&A: Illegal Immigrants and the U.S. Economy." 30 March 2006. npr.org. 23 Nov 2009 .

Fairus.org. "U.S. Legislative Immigration Update." 20 April 2009. Rightsidenews.com. 24 November 2009 .

Orrenius, Pia and Madeline Zavoday. "What are the Consequences of an Amnesty for Undocumented Immigrants." May 2004. Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta. 23 Nov 2009 .
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Immigration - Drawing the Line

Words: 7210 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49580604

There is no question, however, that immigration issues will remain in the forefront of our national policy debates.

Deportation Factors and Crimes Involving Moral Turpitude

Research indicates that since the late 1980s, Congress had been tightening the substantive provisions of the immigration laws, to make it far less likely that a convicted criminal alien can find a way to be relieved of expulsion. For many years the basic statutory pattern was that a crime involving moral turpitude rendered a person deportable, if it was committed less than five years after the person's entry and resulted in a sentence of one year or more confinement. A later-committed crime or one that drew a lighter sentence did not result in deportation. If the person committed two such crimes that were not part of a single criminal scheme, they could render the person deportable no matter when they were committed. A drug offense…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Calavita, Kitty. Immigration, law and marginalization in a global economy: Notes from Spain. Law and Society Review (1998).

Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/chinex.html (26 Apr. 2005).

Immigration Act of 1907. http://www.multied.com/documents/immigrationact.html (26 Apr. 2005).

Levinson, Peter. The facade of Quasi-Judicial Independence in Immigration Appellate Adjudications.      http://www.rightsworkinggroup.org/files/peter_article.pdf     .(26 Apr. 2005).
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Law Enforcement Priorities and Public Sector Leadership

Words: 5421 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96700535

Undocumented Immigrants in Gainesville

The city of Gainesville has a population of about 54,000 and of these, approximately 3,200 are illegal aliens. The law enforcement community in this city is charged with protecting these undocumented aliens on the one hand and enforcing illegal immigrant laws on the other. To the extent that undocumented residents are afraid that the police will enforce the latter may be the extent to which they are discouraged from seeking help from the law enforcement community when they need it, exacerbating existing crime levels. Conversely, the extent to which law enforcement authorities fail to enforce illegal immigration laws may be the extent to which they are viewed as being malfeasant in the prosecution of their official duties. To determine the optimal course of action for law enforcement authorities faced with these conflicting priorities, this paper reviews the relevant literature including a discussion of so-called "sanctuary cities"…… [Read More]

References

Armajani, B. (2007, August). What transformational leaders do. Government Finance Review, 23(4), 79-83.

Bahn, S. (2013, April 1). Transformational leaders? The pivotal role that supervisors play in safety culture. International Journal of Training Research, 11(1), 17-21.

Bambale, A. & Jaafaru, S. F. (2012, May 1). Servant leadership as employee-organization approach for performance of employee citizenship behaviors in the Nigeria's electric power sector. Journal of Marketing and Management, 3(1), 1-5.

Berger, T. A (2014, Fall). Servant Leadership 2.0: A call for strong theory. Sociological Viewpoints, 30(1), 146-150.
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Minuteman in the Opinion of the Reporter

Words: 3392 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71623298

Minuteman

In the opinion of the reporter George Putnam, while one fights for freedom somewhere else in the world, one could at that moment be in fact losing one's own freedom. He also states, on air as well as in other media that the United States of America is being invaded by an inordinate number of aliens, and unless this is controlled, the citizens of America could well lose their own freedom. He goes on to emphasize on the fact that being a Californian, and sharing a common border with Mexico, has meant that he has been suffering both economically as well as culturally, in the hands of foreign illegal invaders, who have been completely responsible for violating the very sovereignty of the state. This in turn has led to the miserable state of affairs present in the 'Immigration and Naturalization Services Department', and, in the opinion of the reporter…… [Read More]

References

Activists say Minutemen causing fear, ACLU offers training in El Paso. Associated Press. 28

August, 2005. Retrieved From

http://www.chron.com/cs/CDA/ssistory.mpl/metropolitan/3328782

Accessed 31 August, 2005
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Circles Is That of 'Immigration'

Words: 1356 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38883900

(Heer, 22)

What need to be understood is the fact that the immigration problem today is a part of the general environment in which it is found, and that the traditional immigration law enforcement strategies are actually encouraging an increase in the immigrant population, rather than discourage it. When a citizen of the U.S.A. thinks of an illegal alien, with images provided by the media, in previous years, it was that of a hardworking laborer. However, after the September 11 debacle, more people than ever before see an illegal alien as a prospective terrorist. The official policy of the INS now called the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement or the BICE is to target the employers of illegal aliens. This is in order to understand and act upon the reason as to why the illegal aliens come to the United States, because it is a well-known fact that many…… [Read More]

References

Cullingworth, Barry J; Cullingworth, JB; Caves, Roger W. Planning in the U.S.A., policies, issues and processes. Routledge (UK). 2003.

Heer, David M. Undocumented Mexicans in the U.S.A.

Cambridge University Press. 1990.

House passes Bill to tighten Immigration Laws. USA Today. 17 December, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2005-12-15-immigration-usat_x.htm. Accessed 2 August, 2006
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Presenting for the Future Public Administration

Words: 3931 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23443609

Public Administration: Presenting for the Future

Immigration Policy eform

The term "immigration reform" is used to collectively refer to all efforts that have been undertaken by a country to amend abuses and reduce faults in its immigration policy. These efforts could be geared at either promoting and encouraging immigration or reducing and even eliminating the same. A perfect example of the former is the UK's promotion of the absorption of foreign-educated health specialists in its National Health Service (Dodds, 2012). The U.S. has, however, almost consistently run an anti-immigration policy. As this text will demonstrate, numerous reform efforts have been undertaken since way back in the 18th century to reduce the number of aliens illegally or legally crossing into the U.S. through the country's border points. Most of these efforts were particularly speeded up after the 9/11 tragedy; however, the successful implementation of these has been hampered by a number…… [Read More]

References

Baker, B. & Rytina, N. (2012). Estimates of the Unauthorized Immigrant Population Residing in the United States: January 2012. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/ois_ill_pe_2012_2.pdf

Camayd-Freixas, E. (2013). U.S. Immigration Reform and its Global Impact: Lessons from the Postville Raid. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan

Carens, J.H. (2013). The Ethics of Immigration. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

DHS. (2015). About DHS. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Retrieved 17 March 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/about-dhs
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Healthcare Propsal Are Immigrants Left

Words: 2880 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45935050

Unless the physicians can succinctly argue their case for care and services, the managed care entity will, for reasons of medical necessity, deny access to care and services.

What Cost-Added atio Based on Illegal Immigrant Population?

The argument by opponents that loopholes exist that would allow illegal immigrants to access Obama's proposed legislation on healthcare services is rendered moot in lieu of the fact that those illegal immigrants are currently receiving healthcare services Medicaid and through Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS). The Federal eimbursement of Emergency Health Services Furnished to Undocumented Aliens states:

"Section 1011 of the (Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act (MMA) (P.L. 108-173)) MMA appropriated $250 million dollars in FY 2005 through 2008 for payments to eligible providers for emergency health services provided to undocumented aliens and other non-specified citizens who are not eligible for Medicaid (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 2009, found online, p.…… [Read More]

Reference List

Birenbaum, A. (1997). Managed Care: Made in America, Praeger Publishers, Westport,

CT.

Birenbaum, A. (2002). Wounded Profession: American Medicine Enters the Age of Managed Care, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Uninsured Americans: Newly
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Trafficking Victims Protection Reauthorization Act

Words: 11509 Length: 42 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 356695

Government

The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act

Final Project / Dissertation

Degree: Juris Doctorate Specialized

Major:

Specialization: Constitutional Law

Full Address:

The Trafficking Victims Protection eauthorization Act

This paper reviews the rights and protection that a state and federal government official provides to citizens that have been the subject of human trafficking crimes. Citizens need the protection of the police and other law enforcement officials to report human trafficking crimes and to protect and assist those that need their assistance. This paper will seek to explain the definition of human trafficking, how it works, victim support, issues with upholding and implementing legislature and the solutions which can be used to satisfy the public.

Table of Contents

Introduction

eview

Elements of Human Trafficking

Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000

TVPA (2008)

Mann Act

Travel Act

Alien Smuggling, Harboring and Transportation

United States

New York State's Human Trafficking Law…… [Read More]

References

1. The Crime of Human Trafficking: A Law Enforcement Guide to Identification and Investigation. (n.d.). http://www.vaw.umn.edu/documents/completehtguide/completehtguide.pdf

2. Trafficking in Persons Report. (2006). Washington, DC.: U.S. Department of State.

3. United States Constitution Bill of Rights. (n, d.). http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/billofrights

4. 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). (n.d.)
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Arizona the Federal Preemption of

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78295233



They point out that neither the Constitution nor the Supreme Court has precluded the States or localities from enforcing the criminal provisions of immigration law.

Because the enforcement of the criminal provisions of Federal Law has not been expressly prohibited by the Constitution, it would be reserved to the states respectively. According to the Tenth Amendment of the .S. Constitution, "The powers not delegated to the nited States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."

This is interpreted to mean that the states have implied powers in addition to the powers explicitly enumerated to them in the Constitution.

With this understanding of the Constitution, proponents argue that the disputed SB 1070 provisions are not immigration law provisions, but criminal law provisions.

For example, the provision making it a state crime for an alien to be in Arizona…… [Read More]

United States v. Arizona, No. 10-16645, Brief of Amici Curiae State Legislators for Legal Immigration, 7-10 (2010).

Laura Sullivan and Beau Hodai, How Corporate Interests Got SB 1070 Passed, November 9, 2010, available at http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=131191523

Gabriel J. Chin, et.al., a Legal Labyrinth: Issues Raised by Arizona Senate Bill 1070. Arizona Legal Studies Discussion Paper No. 10-24, 3 (2010).
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Immigration and Nationality Act INA

Words: 2750 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17235579

The 'euniting Families Act' would also try to increase the current per country limit of 7% to 10% for the issuing of green cards. This bill, if passed, would also permit widows, widowers and children of those persons who die before the completion of the immigration process to get LP status. (Shank, Michael Honda to Announce Key Component of Comprehensive Immigration eform: euniting Families); (euniting Families Act-2009); (Honda, The euniting Families Act (H.. 2709))

euniting Families Act also attempts to stop discriminatory clauses in other immigration rules which prevent permanent same-sex partners to reunite with their families. From the perspective of illegal immigrants, section 245(i) would be more suitable as they will not have to return to their home country before filing a petition for a change of status because if they do return, they might face a possible ban ranging from 3 to 10 years barring them from entering…… [Read More]

References

Butterfield, Jeanne A. AILA on 245(i) Provisions.



Dinan, Stephen. Senate Democrats propose amnesty for some illegals. The Washington Times, 10

May, 2002. p. A4.
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Does United States Immigration Policy Harm Domestic Workers

Words: 1487 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49903486

United States immigration policy and how it impacts the domestic workers. The writer explores the policy and the issue of immigration in the United States. There were six sources used to complete this paper.

Does United States immigration policy harm domestic workers?

America has long been know for being the land of opportunity. For many years immigrants have flocked to the U.S. borders to begin new lives and build lives for their children. Millions of immigrants have come to America and started new lives living off of the fruits of their labor from working. In recent decades however, concern has developed about the number of jobs the immigrant workers perform. There have been many debates and discussions about the U.S. immigration policy and how it impacts domestic workers in this country. America is currently facing a dilemma. It has to decide whether its willingness to embrace immigrants is going to…… [Read More]

References

IMPACT OF GUEST WORKERS ON AGRICULTURE:STUART ANDERSON

Congressional Testimony; 1/28/2004

Congressional Testimony

CONFRONTING IMMIGRATION; WE CAN FIND WAYS TO MODIFY OUR LEGAL IMMIGRATION SYSTEM SO THAT IT WELCOMES NEW ARRIVALS WHILE STILL SERVING OUR SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND SECURITY INTERESTS.(IDEAS)
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Anti-Immigration Policies

Words: 2898 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10045978

Sociology: Anti-Immigration Policies

-California Proposition 227 and Proposition 187-

The purpose of this paper is to research Anti-immigration policies in the United States and to further discuss California's Propositions 227 and 187 and in the critique of the literature to compare and contrast these policies while at the same time to interject originally and critical thinking from the perspective of underlying assumptions, potential weaknesses in the argument of methodological approach and further to analyze their potential value in really grasping an understanding in the immigration issue as to "second generation."

Early roots in anti-immigration sentiment were expressed in the two-dollar a head tax of immigrants in 1903 and in 1997 moving upward to four-dollars a head. "Anti-immigrant sentiment is a result of ignorance of the value of immigrants throughout the history of the United States," pointed our Michael Lin, National President of the Organization of Chinese-Americans (OCA)

During the year…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Griswold, Daniel T. (2002) Trade Policy Analysis no. 19, 2002 Oct 15 Key Points: "Willing Workers: Fixing the Problem of Illegal Mexican Migration to the United States" http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/tpa-019es.html

Moore, Kenneth

Reyhner, Jon (1993) American Indian Language Policy and School Success

The Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students, Volume 12, Special Issue III, Summer 1993, pp. 35-59.
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Tortilla Curtain - By T Coraghessan Boyle the

Words: 3755 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57661518

Tortilla Curtain - by T.Coraghessan Boyle

The much-talked-about "American Dream" - that elusive dream of being able to own a house, raising educated and successful kids, earning middle class money, and most of all being accepted as a functioning part of the great diverse U.S. economic and social structure - is but an "American Myth" to many immigrants arriving in this country. It's certainly a myth for many thousands of Mexicans coming to the U.S. And attempting to carve out a better life for themselves. The Boyle novel offers readers a close-up, graphically realistic view of the hardships that confront those immigrants - juxtaposed with the "good life" of an affluent family living behind stylish walls.

This review of The Tortilla Curtain will compare and contrast the main characters in the novel - Delaney Mossbacker (and his wife Kyra) and Candido incon (and his wife America) - in order to…… [Read More]

References

Boyle, Coraghessan T. The Tortilla Curtain. New York: Viking, 1995.

Brzezinski, Steve. "The Tortilla Curtain." The Antioch Review. 54 (1996): 113-114.

Hicks, Heather J. "On Whiteness in T. Coraghessan Boyle's The Tortilla Curtain."

CRITIQUE: Studies in Contemporary Fiction. 45 (2003): 43-65.
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Sean Hannity's Let Freedom Ring

Words: 3984 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20006624

So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.

Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:

This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
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How to Catch Human Smugglers

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93922736

violation of the immigration laws to "bring" an illegal alien into the United States. Can a defendant who does not essentially or technically cross the border with an illegal alien be found guilty under these laws? What must the prosecution prove?

It is definitely a violation to "bring" an illegal alien into the United States. This is typically referred to as human smuggling and can carry serious consequences. In the United States the primary organization responsible for regulating and prosecuting individuals who are associated with human smuggling is the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). ICE defines human smuggling as:

"Human smuggling is the importation of people into a country via the deliberate evasion of immigration laws. This includes bringing illegal aliens into a country, as well as the unlawful transportation and harboring of aliens already in a country illegally. Some smuggling situations may involve murder, rape and assault (Enforcement,…… [Read More]

References

Enforcement, U.I. (N.d.). Human Smuggling. Retrieved from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: http://www.ice.gov/human-smuggling

UNODC. (2010). Basic training manual on investigating and prosecuting the smuggling of migrants. Retrieved from UNODC: https://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/Basic_Training_Manual_e-books_English_Combined.pdf
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Legal Migration Benefits of Allowing

Words: 1705 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58780785

Allowing more legal migrants from Mexico will not only save lives, it will decrease the terrible practice of smuggling, and it will free up the Border Patrol to concentrate on more important issues, such as drug smuggling and national security. Legal migration is an important issue that needs to be addressed by Congress, so that more people can enjoy the freedom and prosperity of living in America - legally and without fear of reprisal or deportation.

eferences

Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.

Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.

Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human ights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.

Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican elations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April…… [Read More]

References

Annerino, John. Dead in Their Tracks: Crossing America's Desert Borderlands. New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1999.

Borjas, George J., and Eric O'N. Fisher. "Dollarization and the Mexican Labor Market." Journal of Money, Credit & Banking 33.2 (2001): 626.

Dunn, Timothy J. "Border Militarization Via Drug and Immigration Enforcement: Human Rights Implications." Social Justice 28.2 (2001): 7+.

Ladik, Steven M. "On Strengthening U.S./Mexican Relations: The Unfinished Agenda." American Immigration Lawyers Association. 16 April 2002. 24 Nov. 2004. http://www.aila.org/contentViewer.aspx?bc=9,576,2199,579
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Compensations and Benefits Issues Inequities

Words: 3157 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11611785

The IRS may also impose a 10% excise tax or a maximum of $10,000 on an officer who knowingly entered into a transaction (Samuels and Shoretz).

When this happens, the official endeavors to enter a rebuttable presumption that the compensation and benefits are reasonable (Samuels and Shoretz 2002). The board of directors or trustees must approve the three criteria for the rebuttal. In the first, the board must be composed entirely of members unrelated to and not beholden to the officer in question. In the second, the board must possess reliable data, comparing its compensation level with those of other organizations in similar situations. This is intended to lead the board to make sure the officer's compensation has comparable fair-market value with others in the geographical area. The data may be secured form reputable and independent surveys and the third requires the adequate documentation of the fixed compensation as its…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Auld, H.M. (2002). Better salaries, master's degrees and competition. 2 pages. Library Administrator's Digest: BCPL Foundation. Retrieved on September 24, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3850/is_200212/ai_n9154776?tag=content;col1

Dagan, D. (2005). Lawyers required in claims disputes. 3 pages. Central Penn Business

Journal: Journal Publications, Inc. Retrieved on September 24, 2008 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa5295/is_200502/ai_n24294898?tag=content;col1

DeCarlo D.T. (2001). Illegal employment. 2 pages. Risk Insurance: Axon Group.
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Particularly on How it Has

Words: 1818 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35807706



eforming any major national policy such as the immigration policy can be tedious at best. The current policy may not be perfect, but it is certainly working in any number of areas, as many studies indicate. These writers note, "We must recognize that in a multicultural, multiethnic, multi-perspective American society, the immigration debate must not be submerged in a unicultural, labor-economic perspective only, it must be examined multidimensionally" (Asumah and Bradley). Thus, reform may not be the answer. Instead, creating a new entity to deal totally with illegal immigration may be the best way to deal with the problems it entails. Immigration has always been the backbone of our country, and it must remain in place. Controlling illegal immigration, in all areas, is a better solution to the immigration policy dilemma, but it will not be easy.

eferences

Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration…… [Read More]

References

Asumah, Seth N., and Matthew Todd Bradley. "Making Sense of U.S. Immigration Policy and Multiculturalism." The Western Journal of Black Studies 25.2 (2001): 82+.

Briggs, Vernon M. "Immigration Policy and the U.S. Economy: An Institutional Perspective." Journal of Economic Issues 30.2 (1996): 371+.

Delaet, Debra L.U.S. Immigration Policy in an Age of Rights. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000.

Editors. "Immigration Impact - Texas." Federation for American Immigration Reform. 2002. 15 Nov. 2004. http://www.fairus.org/Research/Research.cfm?ID=1511&c=9
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Immigration and Crime in the

Words: 1336 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11295087

To put a price tag on the problem for reader, Indiana University economist Eric Rasmusen claims in figures from a 2005 GAO report on foreigners that were incarcerated in Federal and state prisons calculated that illegal immigrants commit 21% of crime in America. This cost America more than $84 billion (Kingsbury).

Claim Three:

Illegal immigration from Mexico is a major funnel for terrorist groups such as Al-Qaeda. This is stated in the groups own words. In a 2009 video, an al Qaeda recruiter threatened to smuggle a biological weapon into the United States. He claimed that the organization would do this via tunnels under the Mexico border. The video aired on Al Jazeera and was later posted to several web sites. These show Kuwaiti dissident Abdullah al-Nafisi telling supporters in Bahrain that terrorists in al Qaeda were observing the U.S. border with Mexico to figure out how to send terrorists…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Al Qaeda eyes bio attack from Mexico." Washington Times 3 June 2009: Web.

24 Oct 2010. .

"Al-Qaida Operative Nabbed Near Mexican Border." News Max.com. News Max.com,

20 Nov. 2005. Web. 24 Oct 2010. .
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Immigration the Impact of Immigration

Words: 10109 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4946572

e can see that minority status has far less to do with population size, and instead seems very much to be inclined by race, ethnicity and political power instead. This label of minority status is in many ways used as a tag by which certain groups are detained from political unity or effectiveness.

To a large degree, this is a condition which relates to the nature of the Hispanic demographic, which in spite of its cultural diversity, is typically perceived by the larger American public as a single unified entity. This is both untrue and reflects the ethnocentric qualities of the white American political body that have tended to relegate the Hispanic population to representation that is not proportional to its true presence here. Indeed, "although Mexican-Americans continue to be the largest group within the Latino population, increasing immigration from other Latin American means they are perhaps the most culturally…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Agencia EFE. (2009). Hispanics ask Obama for More Key Government Posts. Hispanic Business. Ret. Feb. 13, 2010 at http://www.hispanicbusiness.com/politics/2009/4/30/hispanics_ask_obama_for_more_key.htm

Auerbach, a.J. & Oreopoulos, P. (1999). Analyzing the Fiscal Impact of U.S. Immigration. The American Economic Review, 89(2).

Bernstein, R. (2008). U.S. Hispanic population surpasses 45 million now 15% of total. U.S. Census Bureau News.

Borjas, G. (1995). The Economic Benefits from Immigration. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 9(2).
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Los Angeles Preface Introduction

Words: 2637 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82147973

This is her suffering.

LUIS J. RODRIGUEZ, THE REPUBLIC OF EAST LA (2002)

"Unfortunately, Rosalba endured many scary nights staying in dingy hotel rooms with other migrants, mostly women, in downtown Los Angeles. She not only didn't have a man to help but no obvious skills except what she learned on the rancho. She had to survive being cast into a peculiar universe of neon and noise. This was a place where women sold themselves for sex or get stoned, and where people on city buses never say anything to you unless they happen to be drunk or crazy" (229).

In this extract, several things become clear about the nature of Los Angeles and its inhabitants. The migrant, whose group Rosalba joins, represents the suffering of poverty. The "peculiar universe of neon and noise" shows just how far Rosalba feels removed from this artificial, seemingly wealthy world. She has nothing…… [Read More]

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Waves in the Mass Immigration

Words: 1596 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74717418

For instance, most illegal immigrants earn a living that is below the poverty threshold. Towns and cities can enforce legal policy created due to the economic incentive of protecting local schools and hospitals from financial ruin. Therefore, if there is a large population of illegal immigrants living in a town/city and are below a minimal level of income, the most effective policy is to build additional schools and hospitals designed to cater specifically to these populations.

The idea is to create facilities where illegal immigrants can learn and understand how to become an assimilated immigrant into American life. Additionally, these facilities will house programs that enable immigrants to become American citizens through the legal process of obtaining citizenship. The creation of additional schools and hospitals will increase jobs in the community, which can be funded in part through a number of federal programs that provide direct and indirect monetary resources…… [Read More]

References

Joch. (2010). "Immigration in the United States." New Presence: The Prague Journal of Central European Affairs. July 1, 2010. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=7&sid=79b0dbd3-39a3-42cd-9251-b89bc3234568%40sessionmgr13&vid=1

Independent Review. January 1, 2010. Retrieved from: http://web.ebscohost.com.rlib.pace.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=7&sid=9e5d9f48-ef82-40e2-b0da-de96f7c9b839%40sessionmgr15&vid=1

Independent Review. 2010
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Padilla v Kentucky and Immigration What Does the Future Hold

Words: 4247 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48812001

Padilla v. Kentucky: Implications for U.S. Immigration

This paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning the case, Padilla v. Kentucky,[footnoteef:1] discussing citizenship, and similar predicaments in other countries. It is this paper's thesis that the decision in Padilla has significant implications for defense lawyers who must now become familiar with the complexities of immigration law or retain counsel to assist them in this area. Established in Strickland v. Washington, the test for ineffective assistance of counsel is comprised of two parts: (1) defendants must first show that their counsel was constitutionally deficient and (2) show that the deficiency prejudiced the result of their case.[footnoteef:2] In addition, cases involving guilty pleas require defendants to demonstrate that in the absence of deficient counsel, they would have insisted on a trial.[footnoteef:3] Furthermore, defendants also enjoy the Due Process Clause protections that require judges and defendants to engage in a conversation concerning…… [Read More]

References

Atkins, K. (2010). Defense Counsel's Duty to Warn About . . . Everything? Lawyers Weekly USA, November 8.

Borden, Jeremy Immigrants Take Guilty Pleas without Lawyers, Face Deportation, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, A-6, (February 3, 2013).

Brief for States of Louisiana et al. 2009: 9; Padilla v. Kentucky.

Brink, Malia A Gauntlet Thrown: The Transformative Potential of Padilla V. Kentucky. 39 Fordham Urban Law 1, 39 (November 2011).
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Legislation Transformation

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40989665

authority to legislate is derived. Determine whether or not Congress has unreasonably and unlawfully expanded upon an identified source's authority to legislate. Provide a rationale for your response.

Congress is one authority which has the ability to legislate. The executive branch of government (the President) is another authority to legislate. These authorities have the ability to move a bill which has been proposed for legislation forward or backward.

One arena where congress has been accused of unlawfully and unreasonably expanding upon a source's authority to legislate was via immigration amnesty. "The Immigration eform and Control Act of 1986 (ICA) was enacted by Congress in response to the large and rapidly growing illegal alien population in the United States. The final bill was the result of a dramatic compromise between those who wanted to reduce illegal immigration into the United States and those who wanted to "wipe the slate clean" for…… [Read More]

References

Numbersusa.cpm. (n.d.). Dictum. Retrieved from numbersusa.com:  https://www.numbersusa.com/content/learn/illegal-immigration/seven-amnesties-passed-congress.html 

Silman, J. (2014, June). Killer Gets Maximum Sentence. Retrieved from tampabay.com:  http://www.tampabay.com/news/courts/criminal/killer-gets-maximum-sentence-as-story-fails-to-sway-judge/2159595 

USAv.Pressley. (1996). UNITED STATES of America, Plaintiff-Appellee, v. Dewayne PRESSLEY, Defendant-Appellant. . Retrieved from findlaw.com:  http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-7th-circuit/1368169.html
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Future of Eurasian Organized Crime

Words: 7401 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30485101

Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division of the FI relates that in 1991: "...the U.S. Attorney's office in Los Angeles charged 13 defendants in a $1 billion false medical billing scheme that was headed by two Russian emigre brothers. On September 20, 1994, the alleged ringleader was sentenced to 21 years in prison for fraud, conspiracy, racketeering, and money laundering. He was also ordered to forfeit $50 million in assets, pay more than $41 million in restitution to government agencies and insurance companies victimized by the scheme." (2003) Ashley relates that the first Eurasian organized crime investigation of a significant nature involved a major underworld figure in the United States and specifically, Vyacheslav Ivankov who is a powerful Eurasian organized crime boss. Ashley states that Ivankov "...led an international criminal organization that operated in numerous cities in Europe, Canada, and the United States, chiefly New York, London, Toronto, Vienna, udapest,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albini, Joseph L. And R.E. Rogers. "Proposed Solutions to the Organized Crime Problem in Russia." Demokratizatsiya Winter 1998: p. 103.

Crime Without Punishment." (1999) the Economist August 28, 1999 the Makings of a Molotov Cocktail. The Economist 344, no. 8025.

Edward H. Sutherland (nd) Differential Association Theory. Online Criminology FSU.EDU available at http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Eurasian, Italian and Balkan Organized Crime (2003) Testimony of Grant D. Ashley, Assistant Director, Criminal Investigative Division, FBI Before the Subcommittee on European Affairs, Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate. 30 Oct. 2003. Federal Bureau of Investigations. Online available at http://www.fbi.gov/congress/congress03/ashley103003.htm
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Validity of the Two Official U S Government

Words: 973 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58883742

validity of the two official U.S. government reasons: 1) military necessity and 2) protection of the Japanese-Americans, for the imprisonment of Japanese-American and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. Be specific in your reasoning and examples.

One of the most shocking decisions in the history of American injustices is the official, legalized internment of Japanese-Americans and Japanese Issei during orld ar II. hile Americans fought a war abroad for democracy, against the racist tyrant Adolph Hitler of Germany, back home Japanese-Americans and legal Japanese resident aliens were deprived of their liberty and property, simply because of their racial and ethnic heritage. The official reasons given for the internment were military necessity and the protection of the Japanese-Americans. The first statement of 'military necessity,' or national security, as a justification for internment, implied that Japanese-American and Japanese Issei was more 'suspect' than other Americans. It was assumed these Asian-Americans had divided…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Jones, Jacqueline Peter Wood, Thomas Borstelmann, Elaine May, and Vicky Ruiz. (2005) Created Equal: A Social and Political History of the United States. New York: Pearson Education.

Martis, Nancy H. (1994) "Illegal Aliens. Ineligibility for public services." California Journal#187. Retrieved 29 May 2005 at  http://www.calvoter.org/archive/94general/props/187.html 

Takaki, Robert. (1998) Strangers From a Distant Shore: A History of Asian-Americans. Boston: Little & Brown.
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Immigration Lawyer Interview Assessment Every

Words: 3895 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91364789

From the statements Cruz makes about this, there is no doubt that Cruz knows how to handle his self when these occasions come up. This is probably why Cruz can make the statement that he has never found his self in a compromising situation.

Cruz does not take cases where he believes the client is going to cause harm to another individual(s). Cruz has made the statement, too, that most of his clients are not violent, but victims of a system and structures, on both sides of the border, hat do not facilitate the human needs. Cruz is a humanitarian, and we see this in his work. He is a member of many humanitarian organizations within the community, and he says he usually has at least two to three pro bono cases going on at the same time.

If Cruz finds that it would facilitate and validate a client's case…… [Read More]

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Sociological Research and Undocumented Labor

Words: 3088 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29987220



esearch Caveat - esearch surrounding undocumented workers can often be problematic and unreliable. Primarily this is due to the nature of the subject matter -- individual on both sides of the issue are unwilling to talk because of the volaltility of the subject, language barriers, legal issues, access issues, fear of anything that even remotely feels governmental, and the validity of responses. Briefly, we can view these issues and the mitigating circumstances:

Language barriers -- Any viable research study will need to be dual language based; therefore it must be translated into the appropriate lanage and level (typically Spanish), with an emphasis on clarity, removal of hidden meanings or linguistic variations. In addition, the person or persons administering any research questionnaire would likewise need to be bilingual.

Mistrust -- Undocumented workers are often reluctant to particpate in any project that has a written component; they are mistrustful of the system,…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Effects of Immigration on Natives' Earnings. (1995, December 11). Retrieved from Immigration - the Demographic and Economic Facts: http://www.cato.org/pubs/policy_report/pr-immig.html#contents

Difficult Moral Questions Surounding Undocumented Workers. (2006, March). Retrieved January 2011, from twotj.org:   http://www.twotlj.org/G-3-171.html  

U.S. Immigration Debate. (2007, June 28). Retrieved from BBCNews.com:   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4850634.stm  

Immigration Act of 1924. (2009, December). Retrieved from United States History.com:   http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1398.html
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Research on Terrorism

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32040451

Terrorist Threat to California through Mexican Drug Trafficking

The immigration challenges across all the United tates borders often invoke varied responses from both the average citizens and the law enforcement agencies. The cross border migration that has been of greatest concern is the Mexico to UA migration due to the myriad challenges this migration presents to the U..A. The Mexican population residing to the outh of the U.. has had a strained relationship with its northern neighbor over a long period of time owing to the inconsistency of its immigration policies, the distinctly lower socioeconomic status afforded to Mexicans on both sides of the border and the ravages afflicted upon both sides of the border by the U.. sponsored War on Drugs. Though all of these aforementioned factors are relevant, it is the war on drugs that forms the central concern of this research proposal since it has proven persistent…… [Read More]

Sources:

Astorga, L. (2003). Drug Trafficking in Mexico: A First General Assessment. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Online at  http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm 

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at < http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html>

Imperial Valley News (IVN). (2008). Mexican Drug-Trafficking Organization Members Indicted in Operation Money Train. Imperial Valley News.

Jeffrey, T.P. (2009). Drug Cartels Control Crossings. The Washington Times.
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Value of Immigrants in the

Words: 946 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95878254

Further the illegal aliens in the country are more than one quarter of the country's population. The controversy is mostly on illegal immigration, with over 11 million illegal residents in the U.S. Over 7 million legal migrants are recruited into important professional specialties. They also bring their relatives in, as in the case of Indians. (Swain, 16)

Though the Indian government does not give any special status to immigrants to the U.S. from India, there has been a spurt of immigrants from India to the Silicon Valley -- California. These immigrants are mostly selected for special skills and there are other immigrants who fill positions in services like nursing and doctors. The immigrants from India are mostly centered at Silicon Valley, the hub of computing and inventions. This is because immigrants from India come from some of the biggest and best electronics and engineering schools from India notably the IIT.…… [Read More]

References

Hardin, Garrett. The ostrich factor [electronic resource]: Our population myopia. Oxford University Press: New York, 1999.



Parekh, Bhikhu C; Singh, Gurharpal; Vertovec, Steven. Culture and Economy in the Indian

Diaspora: Transnationalism. Taylor & Francis: New York, 2003.
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Government Performance Results Act

Words: 2370 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81263864

Government Performance esults Act

The General Accounting Office (GAO) may be one of most essential agencies in the federal government, because of its investigative oversight, but to the average American citizen, it may also be among the lesser known agencies. That is because the average hard-working nine-to-five person - whose contact with "news" is a few sound bites on television after work - might never dig into newspapers deep enough to read up on how taxpayer dollars are spent in Washington D.C. It's regrettable that the average person complains loudly about taxes, and "politicians" - yet knows little of the GAO's pivotal work. Meanwhile, this paper will focus upon the GAO report on the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), titled, "Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges" - which is clearly a wise use of taxpayer monies, whether taxpayers know about the GAO or not.

The GAO…… [Read More]

References

American Civil Liberties Union (2003). "ACLU Demands Truth From Justice

Department: New Report Details False Claims about SCOPE, Impact of PATRIOT Act." http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=13100&c=206.

Kast, Sheila (2001). "Terror probe raises concerns about civil rights." CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2001/U.S./10/22/inv.civil.rights/

Perry, Tony (2002). "Immigration Attorney for 7 Detainees Lashes Out At INS:
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Federal Courts

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93222908

S.B. 1070, ACA, AND FEDEAL PEEMPTION

1070, the ACA, and Federal Preemption

S.B. 1070, the ACA, and Federal Preemption

Tenth Amendment

The Tenth Amendment was intended to limit the scope and power of the federal government, thereby preserving some measure of state autonomy (Lash, 2006). The Tenth Amendment accomplishes this by stating explicitly that the federal government can only exercise those powers enumerated within the U.S. Constitution. All other powers are left to the states. In James Madison's words, a Federalist, the "… powers delegated by the proposed Constitution to the federal government are few and defined. Those which are to remain in the State governments are numerous and indefinite." (p. 166). The Tenth Amendment therefore allows states to retain their freedom, sovereignty, and right to self-determination, as long as it does not conflict with the powers conferred to the federal government by the Constitution.

Madison, however, never viewed the…… [Read More]

References

Arizona et al. v. United States, 567 U.S. ____ (2012).

Lash, Kurt T. (2006). James Madison's celebrated report of 1800: The Transformation of the Tenth Amendment. George Washington Law Review, 74, 165-200.

LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010a). Supremacy Clause. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2013 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/supremacy_clause.

LII (Legal Information Institute). (2010b). Preemption. Legal Information Institute, Cornell University Law School. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2013 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/Preemption.
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Arizona SB 1070

Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86453779

Arizona SB 1070: Over Enforcement of Borderlands

In an era where terrorism and international turmoil continues to plague the news, it is no wonder that so many Americans would be scared enough into wanting to amp up border security. However, Arizona has taken these concerns way too far. Arizona SB 1070 is much too extreme and thus violates the constitutional rights of legal immigrants, while also making economic and environmental efforts in the region much harder to fulfill. Overall, Arizona SB 1070 clearly stands against the philosophy that the United States was originally built on.

Arizona Senate Bill 1070 is a controversial border protection law that has been raising concerns all over the nation. Essentially, it is a "law requiring state and local law enforcement officers to check the immigration status of suspected 'illegals'" (Olsen, 2011). Not only does this mean that anyone who looks Hispanic must carry around proper…… [Read More]

References

Fair Federation for American Immigration Reform. (2010). Support Out Law Enforcement and Safe Neighborhoods Act. Legislative Analysis. Web. http://www.fairus.org/site/DocServer/ariz_SB1070_summary.pdf-docID

Kraehenbuel, James A. (2011). Lessons from the past: How the antebellum fugitive slave debate informs state enforcement of federal immigration law. University of Chicago Law Review, 78(2011), 1466-1503.

Olson, Alexander. (2011). El Grito and the Tea Party. Boom, 1(4).

York, Abigail M. & Schoon, Michael L. (2011). Collaboration in the shadow of the wall: Shifting power in the borderlands. Policy Science, 44(2011), 345-365.
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US Government Should Limit the Level of Immigration

Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50031092

Immigration to America

An Introduction and Claim

Over the years, the issue of immigration in America United States has raised complex demographic issues. Elements of population increase and cultural change on the native societies in the United States are evident characteristics of immigration. The social, political, and economic components of immigration cause controversies on issues of employment, settlement patterns, ethnicity, and economic benefits for non-immigrants. The government works on developing social mobility, reducing crime, and controlling voting behavior. This paper intends to outline the negative issues surrounding immigration in the U.S. The United States has fewer immigrants on per capita consideration comparable to half the OECD countries. Policies had developed before 1965 focused on establishing a working formula for limiting naturalization and immigration opportunities for persons without native claim.

Background

The exceptional economic status of America makes it a haven for immigrants (David & Okazaki 887). However, globalization is fast…… [Read More]

Works Cited

David, Richards, and Okazaki Stephens. Activation and automaticity of colonial mentality. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40.4(2010), 850 -- 887. Print

Mossakowski, Kilchenmann. Are immigrants healthier? The case of depression among Filipino Americans. Social Psychology Quarterly, 70.3(2007), 290 -- 304. Print

Picot, George. Hou, Farou., & Coulombe, Silva. Poverty dynamics among recent immigrants to Canada. The International Migration Review, 42.2(2008), 393 -- 424. Print

Stickels, Jackie. The Victim Satisfaction Model of the Criminal Justice System, Criminology and Criminal Justice Research and Education, 2.1 (2008), 1-19. Print
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Government Aid to Undocumented Workers

Words: 2126 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85828414



Currently children and families who are in this country illegally are entitled to the following programs.

Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition program: Agency workers do not ask for a client's immigration status"(Benefits, 2006).

Outpatient medical care: Only at clinics designated as federally qualified health centers - those helping needy communities - where clients receive medical care if they demonstrate financial need "(Benefits, 2006).

Prenatal care: Only at federally qualified health centers"(Benefits, 2006).

Emergency medical care: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need"(Benefits, 2006).

Labor and delivery care in hospitals: Paid by Medicaid if patient shows financial need (Benefits, 2006)."

Immunizations: Health departments and clinics generally do not ask for immigration status. They prefer to vaccinate as many people as possible to prevent disease outbreaks (Benefits, 2006)."

Business license: The state does not ask for proof of immigration status.

Public defender: equired by the U.S. Constitution for those charged…… [Read More]

References

____. Benefits off-limits to illegals Undocumented can get only limited range of taxpayer-funded services." Denver Rocky Mountain News (2006)

Brinkley, John. "ILLEGAL IMMIGRANT NUMBERS UP STATE'S UNDOCUMENTED POPULATION GREW BY 28.6% FROM 1992-96" Denver Rocky Mountain News (2007)

Cohn, Dvera. "Report Details Growth in Illegal Migration; Undocumented Immigrants Outnumbered Legal Ones From 2000 to 2004, Study Says." The Washington Post; (2005)

Fears, Darryl. "For Illegal Immigrants, Some Aid Is Too Risky; Fears Abound as Government Won't Promise Immunity From Deportation." The Washington Post; (2005)
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Prevention of Obesity

Words: 3241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94190461

Obesity in Los Angeles County

The United States, while being one of the most technologically developed countries in the world, is not a healthy nation. Typically, when we think of disease pandemics we think of things like Swine Flu, Ebola, Lyme disease, etc. However, in the 21st century, we have a new pandemic that affects our children, adults, and eventually the whole population. Because of a more sedentary lifestyle, a proclivity for fast food, a high-fat diet, and hundreds of sugary drinks, obesity is now statistically so rampant that it is having a serious effect on American's health. Almost every researcher, whether medical or academic, as well as the public health sector, agree that there are statistical links between what we ingest and the consequences to our overall health profile. Certainly, all we need to is walk down any grocery store aisle, open up most magazines and newspapers, or watch…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

About Health People. (2012, December 17). Retrieved from HealthyPeople.gov: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/about/default.aspx

Executive Order on Physical Fitness. (2010, June 22). Retrieved from The President's Council on Physical Fitness: http://www.fitness.gov/about/order/index.html

Overweight and Obesity, (2008) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Retrieved

from: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa / obesity / economic_consequences.htm