There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive life and contributing to benefit our society? c) Because of the current economic hardship in the U.S., is it fair to allocate money for college students face Issues/barriers includes finances, lack of leadership/institutional support, finding job and residence problem. With regard to strategies for institutional change, networking, leadership lobbying, education, and direct challenges emerged as main themes. The researcher suggest that The United States cannot maintain its global position if they do not utilize all the talent that is available, which includes undocumented students. I do think that the rules should apply to all U.S. citizens given the fact that taxes local and federal are paid by the people. So why would an immigrant who has only been paying taxes for a few years have an advantage of lower tuition cost than a person who has paid all their lif
Table of Contents
Chapter-I Introduction 6
Purpose of the Study 8
Importance of the Study and Research Problem 9
Research Questions 9
Institutional Theory 11
Critical Race Theory 13
Chapter-2 LITERATURE REVIEW 14
U.S. History of Immigration 14
Ethnic Identity 16
Federal, State, and Institutional Undocumented Student Policies Federal Actions 18
The Dream Act 19
State Actions 21
Chapter-III Methodology 25
Research Design 25
Grounded Theory Research 25
Data Collection and Analysis 25
Validity Considerations 26
Chapter-IV Results and Discussions 27
Institutional Actions 27
Undocumented Student Experiences 28
Policy/Legal Analyses 29
I graduated [high school] with honors. I was so happy that I asked my counselor to help me go to college. She told me that I was just another undocumented girl and that she could not help me. I insisted she help, but she only wrote on my school records on red ink, "She is undocumented." I thought my dreams would not end here. I knew that school was the only way for me to be successful. I went to a local college and was initially told I could not enroll because I was undocumented; but God was with me and he provided an angel willing to help me fulfill my dream. (Harmon, Carne, Lizardy-Hajbi, & Wilkerson, 2010)
These are the words of "Sara," a now legal immigrant who first arrived in the U.S. As an undocumented 12-year-old child. Her story is one of personal tragedy and determination in the struggle to achieve an education that she believed would change her life and create opportunities far beyond her imagination. Today, Sara possesses two associate degrees and owns a successful business. In Sara's mind, her accomplishments are a result of both personal persistence and the willingness of an "angel," a higher education administrator that she was able to form a relationship with, to work on her behalf and grant Sara access to a college education. Sara's story is not an uncommon one. Educators, both within the realms of K-12 and postsecondary education, have continued to assist undocumented students who come to them seeking information about college options, available financial resources, clarification on current immigration laws, and overall support.
According to the American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers (2009), the term undocumented student refers to "a non-citizen who does not hold an immigration or visa status that would permit the student to be lawfully present in the United States" (para. 2). Through the Supreme Court ruling of Plyler v. Doe (1982) that granted undocumented children equal right and access to public K-12 education, an estimated 50,000 to 65,000 undocumented students graduate from high schools or receive their GED each year (Morse & Birnbach, 2010).
Although no federal laws prohibit undocumented students from applying to and attending U.S. colleges and universities (The College Board, n.d.), these laws do not address the issue of financial access to higher education and the provision of legal paths to residency in any consistent manner. Ambiguities at the federal level and, as a result, variations in policies at state and institutional levels have created particular effects for both undocumented students and the higher education professionals who seek to assist these students in obtaining higher education. In particular, higher education professionals are not only unable to decipher the intent and application of these policies that exist at varying levels, but are also frustrated by the lack of training and education that they receive in handling the unique issues that undocumented students present in the college setting (Oseguera, Flores, & Burciaga, 2010).
Because of these instances the United States is currently evaluating an immigration law reform act.
The Dream Act was established in 2006 by Senator Dick Durbin democrat of Illinois and he presented the DREAM Act (S.729) in the Senate and Representative Howard Berman a democrat from California who introduced the American Dream Act (H.R.1751) in the House. (Palacios pg. 2) The In-state resident tuition legislation act that will benefit undocumented students is a significant policy to provide access to immigrant college students to four-year institutions, the military and eventually the right to citizenship.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as review key elements of showing the correlation of ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. And to illustrate there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. In most states undocumented students whose family are long time residents of the area and pay state and local taxes are considered a resident of that particular state. The realization for many first-generation, undocumented students is that they cannot attend a college/university of their choice because they are not documented. Moreover, after graduation they will have even more difficult than their peers finding a job because they don't have the proper documentation. Undocumented, underrepresented students are at a disadvantage to receive learning opportunities and achievements than their peers. Moreover, immigrant families need greater access to accurate information about college in a consistent manner.
The Dream Act has established standards for the promotion of success for all undocumented students to attend a university of choice being a four-year or community college. However, with the present new legislation that makes it a crime to be in Arizona without legal status and requires police to check for immigration papers many immigrants who have lived here illegally for many years and lead productive lives will be subjective to racial profiling. Besides Arizona, there are other states that are contemplating initiating this policy. I think that this will have a negative impact on the public school systems as well as universities and colleges in enrolling undocumented students because they already face many, cultural, social, and economical challenges. These stigmatisms could create difficulties in undocumented students identifying their self-worth, and may develop inferior beliefs.
Importance of the Study and Research Problem
To date, there is no study that examined the policy issues and identified policies that can help student in access and success in higher education. For this reason, the results of this study can construct a new area of dialogue regarding individuals who are indirectly affected by undocumented student policies. Once the challenges and strategies for change that higher education professionals have utilized are revealed, there exists an increased potential for individuals to inform policy changes at institutional, state, and national levels.
The need for change is evident, reforms for better immigration laws for public education to create opportunities, access, and respect for undocumented students is imperative. Undocumented high school students need to have the accessibility to secondary learning and know that laws were created to employ citizenship and in-state tuition eligibility for residents who contribute to our society and social order.
Based upon current research gaps surrounding in light of policy ambiguities and inconsistencies at institutional, state, and federal levels, about undocumented students the study seeks to answer the following research questions:
1. Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a…