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Many college students have strong opinions about whether they should be able to download music for free from the Internet. The issue was brought to a head when musicians sued Napster for providing the means to violate their copyright by distributing their music for free, which meant that the musicians would get no royalty for the music. Napster designed an application that made it easy for people to share MP3 files. Napster claimed that they only provided the medium and that those sharing the music were the ones violating copyright law (usiness Wire, 2000).
Universities, most of whom provide Internet connections for their students, have two concerns over the practice of downloading music. First, they recognize that the students are breaking the law by acquiring, without payment, copyrighted material they should have paid for. ut possibly more important to the universities, the high rates of downloads clogged the…… [Read More]
However, there are certain actions the university can take on which would help deter students from committing such crimes in the future. Opening up potential contracts with legal music downloading programs can help curb the tie of illegal downloads, while still keeping prices for legal music at a minimum for already struggling college students, (Burk 2007). Another recommendation which would prove effective is limitations on certain types of downloading programs used by students on campus internet connections. If a student is then found to use certain programs, they may be subject to removal from the campus connection for the duration of the semester. Such actions have been proven useful in the past by other Universities (College Publisher 2008). And so, this administration should, and will, take similar measures to curb illegal downloading of music by the student body.
Burk, Jennifer. (2007). Colleges look to steer students away from illegal…… [Read More]
..for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research" was a more important right to protect under Fair Use Doctrine (Liebowitz, 1985, p.4). Freedom of access to information was more important, and creating an unregulated market environment of ideas. Granted, file sharing is not always used for such a legitimate purpose, but then again, neither were 'taped' VHS movies and programs.
hile on the surface it would seem because intellectual property law that "provides the copyright holder an exclusive right to copy the intellectual product," is necessary because "the lack of competition in the reproduction of the intellectual product allows greater remuneration to the copyright holder than would otherwise be the case," the right to profit off of one's product is not absolute, and the consumer also has a right to fair use and access (Liebowitz 1985). Furthermore, even if Grokster…… [Read More]
Downloadable, inexpensive music gives more power to listeners they had during the CD age, in which CDs were getting increasingly expensive, and consumers felt forced to purchase them, even if they liked only a few songs on the album. Technology can be empowering.
The music industry did have a point: the nature of downloadable music is not like a cassette tape or VHS, given the ease of recording and mass distribution. Its actions prosecuting individual violators in retrospect, however, were a public relations disaster and accomplished no social good. From a utilitarian standpoint and in terms of the general good, monitoring and legally sanctioning suppliers rather than focusing on the demand side of the industry seems to be the best way to ensure that file sharing is conduced in an ethical manner.
Violations will likely continue to occur, given that many nations, especially in the developing world, have a less…… [Read More]
The ethics of free downloads has been tested in research and shows it won't stop without some threat of punishment (Taylor, 2004).
One of the ways this problem can be addressed is for the government to implement laws that increase the fines for free sharing while providing benefits by way of reduced taxes to companies that offer downloading for a reasonable cost. Paying the artists a portion of each sale is not as difficult as it sounds. Each time a particular song from an artist is downloaded the computer software can generate that the funds paid get divided between the artist and the site and a monthly check gets sent to the artist.
If this is not done and the downloading from free sites continues music as society knows it will change forever. A world without new music is a world without joy. How many songs do you know that…… [Read More]
Arguably the deficiencies in processes and technologies throughout the distribution channel enable the unethical sharing of digital property by consumers in the first place. it's as if the incompetence of these channel partners' platforms, either from a website standpoint with the support of DM technologies or the reliance on faulty, often poorly designed DM systems, technologies and techniques create much opportunity to take digital and intellectual property and repurpose it illegally across P2P sites that seek to make all music egalitarian (Lysonski, Durvasula, 2008). it's as if the mid-tier of the distribution channel is leaving the door open wide enough from an intellectual property standpoint to allow for individuals to selectively choose which songs, digital products of all sort, and what platforms they want to repurpose them on (Levin, Dato-on, Manolis, 2007).
When the music distributors, both in the form of traditional forms including music stores selling CDs and non-traditional…… [Read More]
There is one platform that supports the downloaders, however. Studies have indicated that downloading music for free actually helps sell music in the long run. The music industry cites fallen revenues for the last four years as evidence that illegal downloading is cutting into their profits. However, a study by two academic researchers finds that some people who download music illegally eventually purchase the music they have downloaded. A reporter writes, "In fact, illegal downloading may help the industry slightly with another major segment, which Oberholzer and Strumpf call 'samplers' -- an older crowd who downloads a song or two and then, if they like what they hear, go out and buy the music" (Silverthorne, 2004). However, the researchers also discovered that the majority of downloaders are teens and college students who have plenty of time to download, but do not always have the resources to eventually buy the music…… [Read More]
Ilbo, Hankook, "Illegal Distribution of Movies Bleeding the Film Industry,"
Korea imes, 7 December. 1999 uesday, Pg. 1. LexisNexis. Orange Coast College, Costa Mesa, CA. 20 Apr. 2017.
According to government agencies of the film industry, illegal downloading of movies online has expanded recently. Ilbo states that when movies come out online a few weeks after the movie has come out in theaters affects the film industry financially. hese damages are not just to the film production company but also to the director and actors, because when the industry as a whole makes less money so do the people who earn their livelihoods from producing films. It is a serious issue for the film industry now to be able to provide people with a superior movie theater experience in order that they are willing to purchase a ticket instead of illegally downloading to watch at home.
Espejo, Roman, "Copyright Infringement,"…… [Read More]
A current movie industry trend has been to offer viewable videos online, through a more traditional recent development of DVD ordering online. The emphasis has been on expanding services to match the convenience of cable on demand programming as well as fill the void of access in legitimate ways to stem the effects of the illegal resources. Software to decode codecs, as well as to download all forms of media online are available 24 hours a day and are unlikely to decrease in popularity or demand. The current logical argument is that most people who do download such illegal fares are still likely to go seek legitimate forms of the media to obtain better quality and in the traditional forms, such as DVDs, Music CDs and even program software when they find that exposure to such illegitimate forms is favorable. (Garland 24)
In conclusion, the most logical argument is not…… [Read More]
Illegal file sharing has cost the recording industry thousands of jobs. Musicians are denied millions in royalties. This does not even consider illegal file sharing of movies, television shows and software. As with any crime, the only winner is the criminal. Thieves take the property of others without permission, and use it for their own gain. Nobody else wins with illegal file sharing. The negative consequences of illegal file sharing demand that action to be taken to curtail it.
In order to stop such criminal behavior, an effective deterrent is required. The actions of the recording industry have reduced illegal file sharing, but it has not stopped it. People are still sharing files illegally. They do so through file-sharing services like Soul Seek or Limeire or through BitTorrent sites. Clearly, the current approach of dealing with the issue through civil lawsuits is not acting as a deterrent to a degree…… [Read More]
Vargas outlines a broader pattern in the consumer world which informs the proposal here, indicating that there is a splintering of all marketplaces between online and retail outlets which is changing the way that the latter must conduct business. These are ideas that direct the strategy here suggested for Midwest University.
Accordingly, key terms which will be considered in the proposal are those of 'file-sharing,' 'intellectual property,' and 'online piracy.' In the current online file-sharing context, everyday university students have essentially become bootleggers, according to legal research and assertion by both the music industry and the United States Congress. These are sources which appear to favor the music industry institutions, but in actuality, take a narrow perspective that is damaging to compromise for all parties. The program proposed here will be informed by a desire to overcome this hindrance to cooperation through a carefully constructed mediation whereby the university determines…… [Read More]
Microsoft has not yet taken a stand on DRM issues nor have the defined their strategies for dealing with the intricacies of RIAA and NARAS as it relates to the content purchased. As a result, consumers vary of the RIAA and NARAS are taking a much more cautious approach to adopting the Microsoft digital music store as a result. There is a very good chance however that Microsoft will concentrate on an aggressive strategy to eventually attain DRM-free status of their downloads while also appeasing the legal entities that dominate this industry. Their challenges and the series of efforts they will need to make in order for this entire strategy to be successful will be fascinating to watch evolve over the coming years. Yet these two examples illustrate a fundamental fact about the future of Internet-based distribution of music and digital media, and that is only larger, more vertically oriented…… [Read More]
Society Bring Law
There is a fair amount of veracity in the assumption that major changes in society frequently account for changes in laws. The relationship between these two occurrences appears fairly direct and even logical. Major changes in society ultimately result in different types of behavior in people. When people begin acting differently, their actions tend to produce different consequences than before whatever change was made in society. Not all of these consequences are favorable. Some are dangerous, and many times, they are unforeseen and can have a significant impact on society in a way that was not intended due to whatever sort of change was initiated. Therefore, there are frequent occurrences of alterations in the law to accommodate for these unforeseen occurrences, and to attempt to preserve the original spirit and safety of the law.
Numerous examples can substantiate this thesis. Virtually any aspect of technology…… [Read More]
Innovative Strategy at Apple
Apple Inc. is a company that is known worldwide as one of the most visionary and innovative companies in existence. This reputation is in spite of the near failure of the company during the mid-1990s, after its founding in 1976. hat sets Apple apart from its competitors is the unique CEO and founder, Steve Jobs, who set a path for Apple that was based on excellence in both technology and design. The mission statement of Apple is surprisingly simple; saying "Apple is committed to bringing the best personal computing experience to students, educators, and creative professionals and consumers throughout the world with its innovative hardware and software offerings. The visionary statement of Steve Jobs, however, is more telling of the principles that guide Apple. It goes, "Man is the creator of change in this world. As such he should be above systems and structures,…… [Read More]
One study by the ePolicy Institute found that 85% of employees admit to recreational surfing at work and seventy percent of employees admitted to receiving or sending adult-oriented personal e-mails at work, while 60% admitted to exchanging e-mail that could be considered racist, sexist or otherwise "politically incorrect" (Griffaton pp). In fact most traffic to Internet pornographic sites occurs during regular business hours, probably because Internet connections usually are faster in the workplace (Griffaton pp). Companies have taken note of these statistics and have adopted e-mail and Internet usage policies that contain provisions for continuous or random monitoring of usage (Griffaton pp).
The ePolicy Institute study reports that 77% of employers monitor employees' e-mail and Internet use, in fact, 10% of workers with e-mail and Internet access, roughly 14 million people, are under continuous online surveillance (Griffaton pp). Approximately two thirds of employers have disciplined or terminated employees for violating…… [Read More]
The impact of Microsoft's Mission, Vision, and Primary Stakeholders on its Success
The Mission and Vision statement of Microsoft express its strategic directions and priorities to its prime stakeholders. These two statements have a significant importance for the company's success as all its strategic moves and efforts are aligned according to what these statements entail. They show Microsoft's true concern for the key stakeholders as well as for the community in which it operates. The prime stakeholders of Microsoft include customers, investors, regulatory authorities, employees, suppliers, distributors, and business development firms. Each of these stakeholders has a significant role to play in the company's success and sustainability in its industry. For example, the suppliers provide it the required raw material to produce highest quality of technological products whereas distributors deliver it to the potential retailers and final customers. Similarly, employees act as an intellectual capital of the company and…… [Read More]
Communications networks can be used as a source of profitability, but not according to the traditional model of selling songs, when they are so easy to copy.
espite the existence of pay-for-music services like iTunes, industry insiders confide that they have become convinced that iTunes in the long run will never generate as much profits as Cs. "Worldwide music sales fell about 7% last year...growth in downloads from iTunes, the biggest legitimate digital service, came to a halt" (Pfanner 2009). "At the end of the day, we are not going to stop piracy, so let's embrace it," said one executive (Pfanner 2009). Internet companies, which had once resisted the music company's efforts to police their customers, also now have an interest in ensuring that the use of such unlimited databases remains legitimate, as they are part of the new profit model.
Pfanner, Eric. (2009, January 18). "Music industry…… [Read More]
Legal Aspects of Health Care Administration
Please answer the question below:
Give and support two arguments for and two arguments against Euthanasia. (Note: Pages 430 to 433 in Pozgar's textbook will provide some background on the issue).
In modern medical practice the meaning of euthanasia is an action that assists dying in someone who has requested it and countries such as Belgium, where it is a legal practice, require that the person must be older than 18 years, be in unbearable physical or psychological pain that is medically permanent and without hope of recovery, the request must be made by his or her own self-will, and the person must have thought about it and made the request several times (Gulsah, Gursel, & Nazan, 2007). These requirements by themselves imply the kinds of arguments that can be made for the practice.
The obvious argument for euthanasia is to alleviate…… [Read More]
In the face of current economic slowdown, no industry is likely to survive if it sticks with its old business models and refuse to adapt to change. Besides economic problems, there are some other factors, which are forcing corporations to adopt new and better business strategies and discard old ones since they are not producing positive results. These factors include political conditions in the country, global rise in terrorist activities and rapid development of technology, most specifically the Internet. With American households and corporations getting wired at lightening speed, it is only logical to incorporate this technology in a new business model to make business strategies produce desired results.
Apart from technological change, companies are also required to focus more on pricing models. It has been noticed that with consumer spending shrinking, only those corporations that have a viable pricing model are likely to stay afloat.…… [Read More]
Workplace enforcement includes the scrutiny of the I-9 form and the attached documents, in an attempt to discover identity fraud, fraudulent documents, and illegal workplace activities.
Another aspect of illegal immigration is weapons. Illegal immigrants bring guns and other weapons across the border, but there is also a growing trade in illegal firearms, obtained in the United States, traveling back into Mexico and being used in criminal activities there, especially by powerful drug cartels. The annual report states, "ICE launched Operation Armas Cruzadas in FY08 to provide a targeted law enforcement focus on arms smuggling between the United States and Mexico" (Torres, 2009). The problem has gotten so bad that the U.S. issued warnings to travelers to stay away from the country during the recent spring break season. The agency has had some success with stopping cross-border smuggling activities, but they have not had as much success as…… [Read More]
They will be able to get and enjoy music for free. They will be able to share music to their friends without limits or boundaries. However, the fact remains that copying or downloading music from the internet is piracy. It is copying without proper consent from the real owners. It is copying and reproducing without notifying the people who have shed great efforts in producing such music. Thus, honor, credibility and integrity of the consumer is being wage.
Music Downloading: Why is it Illegal?
There has been various ways that different countries do to prevent music piracy. In Canada, for example, the government of this country has allowed for the downloading of copyright music from peer-to-peer networks, but uploading the same file to any other software is not. Even recording music and sounds to blank CDs is illegal in this country, and anyone who would be caught will be fined…… [Read More]
Making the punishment for such offenses an inability to access the Internet, however, begins to deprive citizens of their rights. The Internet may hold access to illegal movies and music, but it also holds a wealth of information, including blogs, news, educational information, and personal information. Depriving a person of the use of the Internet is essentially depriving him or her of access to libraries, to free speech, and to freedom of information. People who steal money from houses are not barred from living in them, nor are those who steal books forbidden from libraries. The punishment for copyright crimes via the Internet should be the same as these crimes have ever been, a fine. If one person steals another's property, the thief should have to pay; he or she should not be deprived of the right of speech and information.
"Trois strikes and you're out." (2009, April 16).…… [Read More]
Next, firewalls capable of blocking IP addresses need to be installed and used (Becker, Clement, 2006). The focus on these efforts is just the first phase; there needs to be a monthly audit of IP addresses in the departments where P2P file sharing has occurred to make sure it isn't happening again. This an be accomplished using a series of constraint-based configuration tools that will trap on P2P known client footprints or digital signatures and immediately block them (Hosein, Tsiavos, Whitley, 2003). This technology will also work to isolate any inside IP addresses which attempt to reach P2P client-based download sites and immediately log and block all IP activity for the address. This will make a given IP address inoperable and immediately delete it, which will make any subsequent hacking attempts of the system useless. This is precisely the strategy the U.S. Government is using today to ensure a very…… [Read More]
This is in part due to the fact that they have more control over this income than they do the income from CDs. For most artists, CDs are a means to increase exposure, driving revenues from these other streams. There is a growing body of anecdotal evidence that file sharing builds exposure (Ian, 2002).
Essentially, file sharing is replacing much of the function of the recording industry. Artists are able to control their marketing programs online. File sharing, along with social networking websites and other Internet tools, allows artists to control exposure of their music. Previously, the recording industry performed this function in concert with large radio companies such as Clear Channel. This left most artists without significant exposure. File sharing closes the exposure gap between the big name artists and the lesser known ones.
At the outset of the file sharing controversy, the recording industry had purported to speak…… [Read More]
This makes it easier for investigators to identify connections by clicking on a particular item in the three-dimensional link.
The difficulties of this process of proving such a chain indicates the importance of creating steps that can help companies simplify the task of conducting a computer forensic investigation, should one ever be required. The article stresses that the most important step is to ensure that network logging devices are turned on, even though these devices use disk space and processor time. If they are turned off, investigations can become impossible. Closing any unneeded ports on the company firewall and patching systems regularly, are also helpful.
This article paints an overall benign portrait of law enforcement, zealously protecting user privacy and safety. It demonstrates how an apparently invisible crime can be rendered visible through the use of technology, and both the law and law enforcement's attempts to stay one step ahead…… [Read More]
Del O'Conner, head of the British chapter of the Hammerskins, carried out a nail-bomb attack on a gay pub in England that injured several; he was hidden for years in Texas by his Hammerskins brethren (Reynolds, 2002).
All of these crimes by Hammerskins leaders meet the definition of terrorism for the following reasons: the violence was repeated; the violence was criminally and politically motivated (the crimes were committed against groups like gays and blacks that the Hammerskins politically oppose); and the victims were targets of opportunity or symbolic, such as black or gay people who happened to be using a park or having a drink at a pub at the wrong time. Further, the acts of terrorism committed by Hammerskins leaders have the effect of encouraging terrorism among rank-and-file members. The average member would be right to deduce that those who practiced violence would be protected by the group and…… [Read More]
At stake in the long run is the global agora: the universal library- movie theater-television-concert hall-museum on the Internet. The legal and social precedents set by Metallica v. Napster -- and half a dozen other e-music lawsuits-are likely to ramify into film and video as these, too, move online. hen true electronic books, e-magazines, and e-newspapers become readily available, their rules of operation may well be shaped by the creation of the heavenly jukebox. Music, according to a National Research Council report released last November, is the "canary in the digital coal mine." (Mann, 2000, p. 39)
The initial response of the entertainment industry has been negative, in that the music and video industry responded to fears that demonstrated a lack of willingness to alter marketing and outlet options to electronic forms, as technology had not quite met the expansion, but now things are changing and technology has created a…… [Read More]
The initial MP3 founders backed by the open source model coded the MP3 software that speeded up the recognition of the MP3 audio format. (Behind the Files: History of MP3) at the time of writing the code for MP3 format, an array of compression intensities can be programmed. To take an example, an MP3 made with 128 Kbit compression intensity will have enhanced sound reproduction quality and bigger file size compared to a 56 Kbit compression, hence indicating that lesser the compression intensity, the lesser the reproduction of sound quality. (What is MP3, How does it work, what is (MPEG)
This accounts for growing acceptance of the MP3 format music files with the Internet devoted music enthusiasts since it is the perfect medium for receiving music files through the Internet compared to WAV/AIFF files with takes much longer time to get downloaded. (What is MP3, How does it work, what…… [Read More]
Edward MacCoyd, for example, the director of digital policy for the Association of American Publishers, is "troubled" by the "striking" findings. His company regards the problem as so serious that they hired the law firm Covington & Burling to search for sites offering pirated textbooks and send requests to remove the content.
According to the firm's officials, and notably Peter Anaman, substantiates the general consensus regarding the seriousness of the problem. Although only a small percentage of the student sample have declared their success in downloading pirated books, Covington & Burling find thousands of sites per month that offer illegal material to students and any other interested parties.
Young (2008) also notes that the company Audible Magic is a sign of the increasing significance of the piracy problem. Audible magic manufactures software for the purpose of identifying illegal file sharing particularly on campuses. The newest version of the software includes…… [Read More]
NAPSTE INC. SHUTDOWN
For few years, Napster.com was every music lover's favorite site. This was where they could do download their favorite music and share MP3 files with other online users. Napster Inc. was the brainchild of a college dropout Shawn Fanning. Being highly ingenious, he utilized his computer skills to develop a file sharing software and named it Napster. This software enabled users to share music files with each other and thus for sometime they were glad to have found an economical way of listening to their favorite songs. Little did they know that this file sharing would lead to a major lawsuit against Napster, which would result in the closure of the company. Napster was nothing but great software, which made use of compression technique known as MP3, facilitating economical transfer of music files from one computer to another.
The problem arose when groups like Metallica, Dr. Dre…… [Read More]
Music is something that reaches the soul. In other more pragmatic words we could state that its role is to answer psychological needs. From this pint of view the greatest opportunity that the artist benefits from is the one of making good quality music. Normally the high quality product should sell itself. In reality it will need a bit of promotion and advertising to achieve its purpose of becoming successful abroad.
Now that we have taken into consideration a multitude of strong points and opportunities, we should probably underline the fact that there are important threats that one must take into consideration. The first threat that we must analyze is represented by the competition. It is true that being a male could be an advantage on the international music market.
One may become the idol of the boys and a desired partner for the girls. Especially under the circumstances in…… [Read More]
Record companies have been seeking to agree on a common industry standard to make such broadcasts secure and able to be recorded." (" Sony Launches Internet Music Sales" BBC News)
Simply generating a simple, strict technological standard could shut out smaller, cheaper, and better manufactures of particular technological products. "The consequences of launching competing systems was most famously seen in the battle between the Betamax and VHS videotape systems, which were launched almost simultaneously. Video shops often stocked Beta and VHS tapes of the same films" but individuals chose the "more widely available VHS format despite a widely held belief that Beta technology was superior." Consumers will almost always go for the more easily accessible and technologically popular systems, almost regardless of quality, a phenomenon also witnessed in computer technology with the dominance of Microsoft indows. If the standards set by the industry are too rigid, it could lock consumers…… [Read More]
Each onion router removes a layer of encryption to uncover routing instructions, and sends the message to the next router where this is repeated. This prevents these intermediary nodes from knowing the origin, destination, and contents of the message.
The predicted solution of the problems related to e-government administration depends on answering the following questions as brainstorming ideas to solve the problem and the features provided by the system or application.
1. An important step for processing of e-Government.
2. To ensure the confidentiality of information such as contracts for military weapons and other by Providing a high level of security as it is based on singing the data by combining multiple key values like user id, date stamp and transaction id which produce an encrypted key utilized and used only internally by the system for authentication and validation of user privileges. This procedure would make it…… [Read More]
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]
Copyright Infringement & the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) of 1998
This paper looks into the issues of copyright infringement and circumvention of technology with reference to Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998. The author of this paper has carefully studied the law in question and has focused on various issues connected with this legislation. DMCA is a highly controversial law that has been staunchly opposed and actively supported by different section of the public and it has managed to attract great deal of media attention because of various lawsuits that emerged in this connection. The paper looks into some important Court cases for impartial and objective study of the law.
DIGITAL MILLENNIUM COPYIGHT ACT
INTODUCTION TO DMCA
There has been a long-standing debate on the issue of freedom of speech in the United States. While the Constitution of the country explicitly grants American citizens the right to share information…… [Read More]
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…… [Read More]
In addition electronic purses can be reloaded using ATM machines or traditional tellers (if the card is connected to a banking account).
Additionally, electronic purses are usually based on smart card technology and necessitate a card reader to fulfill a transaction. Equipment including point of sale (POS) terminals, ATMs, and smart card kiosks can be outfitted with card readers (Misra et al., 2004). Every time the user utilizes the card reader to complete a transaction; the card reader will debit or credit the transaction value from or to the card.
The author further asserts that Smart cards can be utilized for various purposes.
In most cases they are used as stored value cards (Misra et al., 2004). Stored value cards can be utilized at the time of purchase and are preloaded with a certain amount of money. These cards can be discarded after they have been used; however, most stored…… [Read More]
These kinds of compulsive behaviors are observed on a daily basis. It has been highlighted by the authors that there is an acceptable use policy implicated on the students in academic institutions and on the daily basis, without regarding the restrictions placed by these policies, students work against the policy. According to the policy, computers within the universities can only be used for academic purposes only. The policy has highlighted that computers in an academic environment should not be used for online sharing, downloading, social networking and gaming (Nykodym, Ariss, & Kurtz, 2008, p. 7). But in the campuses and academic institutions, it is seen that the students usually sit in for social networking and gaming. Thereby, from here it can be seen that either the students don't want to follow the policies or they don't want to understand the restrictions placed in the policies.
The authors have highlighted that…… [Read More]
(Vander Ploeg, 2003)
Key findings stated in the report of Vander Ploeg include the following:
Unlike the overall indications of municipal infrastructure needs, which identify water and wastewater infrastructure as having the greatest investment needs, western cities biggest needs exist in the transportation sector. In each of the cities except Vancouver, roads, bridges, interchanges, sidewalks and public transit make up at least half of the annual infrastructure deficit;
This may be related to the relative youth of western Canadian cities with respect to their eastern counterparts, and suggests that maintenance and repair of existing systems should remain a priority in order to prolong the useful lifespan of water delivery systems and sewers;
Also, environmental services in most western cities are self-financed through user fees, which makes it much easier to finance infrastructure improvements to municipal utilities as opposed to general infrastructure which relies on the tax base for funding. Western…… [Read More]
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…… [Read More]
This particular employee is left with less time to perform his professional tasks. This translates into a delay in the project delivery schedule. Additionally, the project delays could generate major customer dissatisfactions, or the breakage of contractual terms, which could easily materialize in more severe organizational losses. Nevertheless, considering that the employee works overtime to reduce the chance of project delays, this time has to be remunerated; virtually, it translates into increased financial costs for the company. Then, the mobile telephone could be used to make quick telephones to competitors and as such sabotage the company's efforts and success chances.
3. Opponents of an IT Policy
Despite the validity of the arguments presented in favor of implementing a strong IT policy, fact remains that there exist also some reasons which make a strong IT policy less favorable within the context of the modern workplace. These are succinctly described below.
3.1.…… [Read More]
That is because where customers copy art from CDs and DVDs, in most cases, at least the original copy is purchased legitimately. However, in the vast majority of cases of illegal file sharing online, hundreds and sometimes many thousands of copies are transferred from each original. Even worse, in most cases, even the original file is an illegitimate copy, meaning that the artist who provided the work to all those consumers never benefits from even a single sale.
Whereas both types of copyright infringement are equally wrong from a moral principle, the online file sharing version is capable of completely destroying the entire music and movie industries by making it impossible to generate a profit or even to recoup the expenses of works produced by artists at…… [Read More]
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…… [Read More]
Operational implications iPod and iTunes downloads iPod must be an internet-based application. When the customer is online, the iTunes software is automatically tied to the iTunes store in such a way as to ensure that the user is up-to-date. The cover page of the iTunes site is the "store," which assures that any special promotions are immediately visible to the user.
From an operational standpoint, that means that iTunes and Apple need back-end intelligent customer recognition software -- similar to that pioneered by Amazon.com (Moser 2007). The customer's choices, demographics and other elements are gathered and used in order to help suggest additional purchases that the customer will enjoy.
A iPod purchase
Steve Jobs insists that the entire customer experience be stylish, easy and transparent. This extends to the packaging used by iPod: simple, elegant, and ready to use. While there is an instruction manual, everything is done on the…… [Read More]
Internal Policies egarding the Creation of Business Contracts and Electronic Communications
First and foremost, the most important aspect of business contracts is to have them. "In our experience, it's mostly been the buddy-to-buddy or 'bro deal' projects that take a turn for the worse due to a lack of professionalism" (eeve & Payne 2009). Before the start of any project, a contract must be drafted defining the deliverables and scope of the project. After the contract is signed, "be sure to keep it handy. efer to the contract to manage your internal team" and to deal with any issues that arise during the completion of the project (eeve & Payne 2009). While sometimes changes are necessary because the project's time and budget expands beyond the original parameters of the contract, the contract is the ultimate 'anchoring point,' of the enterprise. Contracts should be specific, but also contain clauses which make…… [Read More]
IT Ethics -- Annotated Bibliography
Bowie, Norman E. (2005). Digital Rights and Wrongs: Intellectual Property in the Information
Age. Business and Society Review, 110(1), 77-96.
Norman Bowie takes great pains in his peer-reviewed article to point out what is legal an what is not legal when it comes to recording / taping from television and from the Internet. In fact Bowie uses an illegal issue (downloading music from the Internet)
to present a moral issue: young people and students know it is illegal to download copyrighted music and movies, but they don't see it as immoral.
While Bowie zeros in on students and young people for their lack of morality vis-a-vis getting copyrighted music for free, his overall argument goes further than that copyright laws are justified when protecting "artistic creativity." He points to the fact that between
1999 and 2005, "...downloaders…reduced industry revenues by at least $700 million" and…… [Read More]
music (attachment)) 1. Overall Case overview 2. Answer question Case discussion questions Thanks and send mail, ([email protected]
Case overview: "Time to face the music"
The popularity of CDs is on the decline. The ability of consumers to 'burn' CDs make it very easy for them to create their own high-quality music recordings in a manner very different from the traditional, poor-quality cassette mix tapes so popular in the 1990s. CD piracy and illegal Internet music downloading is likewise on the rise. Many music consumers delight in peer-to-peer music sharing and regard it as a social event. They can obtain music for free or nearly free, cutting both the artist and the record companies out of the profitability equation. The number of unlicensed tracks is growing as a result of a confluence of these factors.
Additionally, CD burning allows consumers to 'pick and choose' what tracks they select from a particular…… [Read More]
To offer an information security awareness training curriculum framework to promote consistency across government (15).
Security awareness is needed to ensure the overall security of the information infrastructure. Security awareness programs is the can help organizations communicate their security information policies, as well as tips for users, to help keep systems secure, and the practices the entire organization should be utilizing. However, as Kolb and Abdullah reiterate, "security awareness is not about training but rather designed to change employee behavior" (105).
A program concerning security awareness should work in conjunction with the information technology software and hardware JCS utilizes. In this way, it mitigates the risks and threats to the organization. Security awareness is a defensive layer to the information system's overall security structure. Although not a training program, per se, security awareness does provide education to the end users at JCS, regarding the information security threats the organization faces,…… [Read More]
IT Security Implementation
Provide a summary of the actual development of your project.
Because small corporations have to work under conditions of conflicting information technology in many instances, the requirement of maintaining these systems details entails far too many time-consuming processes that have to be carried out. This allows for the business to work in a logical order and promotes a more logical approach to the making of business decisions. The end result is organizational progress and consistent profitability. Thus, the lack of having an IT Security Policy Plan in place may keep the organization from reaching its organizational potential. This project's main objective and expected outcome entails designing a network security plan for implementation and then detailing the process of implementing the program. The purpose is to address the various aspects of having a written and enforceable technology security policy as well as describing an overview of the…… [Read More]
However, the researchers can visualize the 'holistic' strategies even involve wide scope for utilization of computing resources as the basic instruments for collection and analyzing the data. (Willis; Jost, 2000)
The usage of computers has played a significant role in quantitative research; likewise they have the ability to offer considerably to qualitative research. The quantity of data that is regularly gathered is the main restriction in carrying out successful qualitative research, as researchers tend to be intimate to a phenomenon of interest. The quantity is such that it can lead to data asphyxiation, restricting the accomplishment of a central purpose of qualitative research, the close participation of a researcher with his/her data such that all related data affects analysis and successive summarization. With the text volume, there is an exponential raise of the variety of construct classifications and of patterns of constructs, which can come out from qualitative data. The…… [Read More]
("Supreme Court ejects..." 2002) More constitutional problems have been encountered in the law's battle against child pornography as a federal court in September 2004 outlawed a Pennsylvania State law that required internet service providers (ISPs) to block websites containing child pornography. The Court considered the technology used in the blocking of such sites as clumsy that could cause "massive suppression" of constitutionally protected speech.
Apart from conducting a legal "balancing act" between the protection of children from sexual exploitation against the protection of free speech and free thought by the law makers, the campaign against child porn on the Internet is also hampered by its "borderless" characteristics. In order to counter differences in porn laws of different countries that prevented prosecution of child porn offenders, the United Nations General Assembly adopted an Optional Protocol on the ights of the Child, on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography…… [Read More]
Archaeological finds show that prehistoric man had already played music. Music and dance are the humans' most natural and original forms of expression. Berendt said of modern generations: "Nada brahma - all is sound," in nature. Stones, bones, pieces of wood, hollow vessels and cups make sounds when pushed, beaten or rubbed together. Stretched hides bang, the buzz of the arrow whizzing off the bow can be imitated with fingers and the murmuring, roaring and whistling of the wind can be caught in reeds, bone pipes or hollow branches.
Today, numerous types of different forms of music are played across the world. Because humans are so diverse, it comes as no surprise that people like different types of music. For example, there are many adults, many of them older, who do not particularly appreciate hip hop and rap. Part of this has to do with the slang language,…… [Read More]
LAUNCH OF MICOSOFT'S ZUNE MP3 PLAYE
Dear Sir/Madam, I analyze development launch Microsoft's Zune MP3 player provide logic product unsuccessful. The paper sections: • Introduction - In section outline purpose paper introduce product concept.
Development and Launch of Microsoft's Zune MP3 Player
This paper discusses the development of Microsoft's Zune MP3 player a digital potable media targeting to rival Apple's iPod market. The application was launched in the market in 2006 and it performance in the market was poor owing to iPod's popularity in the market Wingfield, 2008()
Zune is a product in the digital media owned and branded under Microsoft Corporation used for purposes of storing potable media. The product aimed at creating a platform for social ecosystem around product of Microsoft. The portable media has similar functions as an iPod with streaming for X-box via a Zune software and music, TV, media software and movies under a Windows…… [Read More]
Public dialog in a network age can cover a lot of topics. The network age is filled with a plethora of varying interests, ideas, subjects, and issues. Some of which relate to privacy, piracy, and even technology. People often forget what an impact the Internet has made in the last couple of decades, even in just 8 years. ANON came into existence, social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter came into popularity, and the recent concept of content creators has shaped the way people view and accept media. ith all these innovative ideas that came out, what kind of impression has it left on the public? hat were the origins of some of these topics? And moreover, has the Internet shaped the identity of people in the last decade?
Several events within internet history have made public dialog important. People need to discuss and analyze things in order to fully understand…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation as ZXY Corporation where a new building has been procured. This building will be the site of the new information technology (IT) and other infrastructures. However, the current setup is very raw and unfinished and this obviously needs to change. The facets of the information technology setup that will be addressed in this report will include a plan to provide secure access for all users, a viable password policy in terms of complexity and other important factors, a cryptography method to ensure that vital data is encrypted, a remote access plan to ensure that remote access to the network is done in a viable, functional and secure way and a thorough plan to protect the network from malware and various other types of malicious attacks such as phishing, social engineering and so forth. While the overall facets…… [Read More]
An employer should monitor technology usage because it will cut down on waste, in particular of employees wasting time when they should be working.
Employers should also monitor technology to reduce their liability risk as well. There is the risk that employees will do things online that are illegal (such as downloading) or could otherwise perform tasks that create liability when company resources are used in the act. If the company monitors usage, then it can argue that it has done its best in terms of trying to reduce this risk.
One reason that employers should not monitor technology use is because it could represent an invasion of privacy of the worker. The worker could need to use that technology for things like answering emails or doing banking online, and if this is being monitored the company could record things like passwords and codes.
Another reason why employers…… [Read More]
" Turkle claims that "our fragile planet needs our action in the real," which is exactly what the little girl was trying to point out. Her appreciating the animatronic animals more than the real ones is a product of technology saturation.
Technology has become an annoyance: we all experience the "sense of encroachment of the device" on our personal time and it is difficult to cut ourselves off from the world. Yet technology is a blessing. Turkle points out that the shy and inhibited are hiding behind their virtual selves. Indeed they are: to their advantage. Many readers would agree that technology has allowed the shy and socially awkward to engage socially with others without having to sweat or take anxiety medication.
Being constantly connected with the world is a choice we make. Technology is not deadening us to the world, as Turkle implies. Quite the opposite: technology is enhancing…… [Read More]