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Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners Research Question

Words: 3099 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 52728944

Gender-Specific Therapy for Women Prisoners

ESEACH QUESTION AND JUSTIFICATION

On average, women make up about 7% of the total federal and state incarcerated population in the United States. This has increased since the 1980s due to stricter and more severe laws that focus on recreational drug use, a lack of community programs, and fewer treatment centers available for outpatients (Zaitow and Thomas, eds., 2003). According to the National Women's Law Centers, women prisoners report a higher than statistically normal history of domestic violence in their immediate past, and the fastest growing prison population with a disproportionate number of non-Whites forming over 60% of the population. In fact, over 30% of women in prison are serving sentences for murder involving a spouse or partner. The incarceration of women presents far different cultural and sociological issues than those of men -- issues with children, family, sexual politics and more (NWLC, 2012).

The…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Ethical Research Guidelines. (2012). Marketing Research Association. Retrieved from:  http://www.marketingresearch.org/ 

National Women's Law Center. (2012). retrieved from: http://www.nwlc.org/our-issues

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11

Women in the Criminal Justice System. (2012). The Sentencing Project. Retrieved from:
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Free How the Criminal Justice System Is

Words: 2325 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79452872

Free

How the Criminal Justice System is Dysfunctional according to Paul Butler's Let's Get Free

The American criminal justice system has had a long history of prejudice. From the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision that institutionalized the false concept of "separate but equal" to the Jim Crow laws that followed to the methods of "control" enacted by police in urban communities, criminal justice in the U.S. has seen lots of crime but little justice. Part of the reason for the inherent dysfunction in the way minorities have always been treated in America is that the country was founded on prejudiced WASP (White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) principles: the principle of "manifest destiny" was based on the supposedly "divine right" that WASPs had to "control" the New World and eradicate the "lesser" races (such as the Native Americans and the African-Americans). These prejudiced principles were absorbed into the criminal justice system through lawmakers…… [Read More]

Reference List

Butler, P. (2010). Let's Get Free: A Hip-Hop Theory of Justice. UK:

ReadHowYouWant Publishers.
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Ex-Offenders and the Re-Entry to the Society

Words: 2212 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32197410

Ex Offenders

The United States is regarded as having the world's highest incarceration rate. It has been estimated that the prisons are holding more than 2.3 million people as of now. Due to this reason, overcrowding is a significant issue in the prison system of the country. It is seen that for every hundred thousand population, there are seven hundred and forty eight inmates and this number is expected to increase. Due to the increased incarceration, the state and the federal prisons are made to release a decent number of ex-offenders every year. The trend of releasing has only been a result of the mass incarceration that the country has experienced. It was seen that during the 1972 till the 1997 period, the number of state and federal prisoners increased from 196,000 to a record of 1,159,000 (Mauer, 1999) In 2000, a total of 600,000 ex-offenders were released to the…… [Read More]

References

Beck, A. And Shipley, J. (1989). Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1983. Bureau of Justice Statistics special reports. [report] U.S. Department of Justice.

Burton, V., Cullen, F. And Travis III, L. (1987). Collateral Consequences of a Felony Conviction: A National Study of State Statutes, The. Fed. Probation, 51 p. 52.

Chin, G. And Holmes Jr., R. (2001). Effective Assistance of Counsel and the Consequences of Guilty Pleas. Cornell L. Rev., 87 p. 697.

Clear, T., Rose, D. And Ryder, J. (2001). Incarceration and the community: The problem of removing and returning offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 47 (3), pp. 335 -- 351.
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Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients it May Sound

Words: 2497 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 62620579

Incarcerated Mentally Ill Patients

It may sound unbelievable, but on any given day, scholars estimate that almost 70,000 inmates in U.S. prisons are psychotic; and up to 300,000 suffer from mental disorders like depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorders. In fact, the U.S. penal system holds three times more people with mental illness than the nation's entire psychiatric hospitals (Kanapaux, 2004). Indeed one of the most telling trends, say some sociologists, is to incarcerate the mentally ill in order to remove them from society. This is sometimes the only alternative because public mental health hospitals have neither the space nor the funding to treat this special population. In fact, the very nature of incarceration tends to have a more traumatic effect on the individual, causing additional damage to their fragile psyche. omen, it appears, are especially vulnerable. These women have often been victimized during an abusive childhood and succession of relationships.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Majority of Mentall Ill Inmates Don't Get Treatment. (2010, April 7). Retrieved October 2011, from Physorg.com: http://www.physorg.com/news189882907.html

ACLU. (2007, January 30). Solitary Confinment Called Inappropriate for Mentally Ill. Retrieved October 2011, from ACLU.org:  http://www.aclu.org/prisoners-rights/solitary-confinement-called-inappropriate-mentally-ill-prisoners-indiana 

American Psychatric Assocaition. (2000). Psychiatric Services in Jails and Prisons. Washington, DC: American Psychatric Press.

American Psychiatric Association. (2006, December). The Use of Restraint and Seculusion in Correctional Mental Health Care. Retrieved October 2011, from Pysch.org:  http://www.psych.org/lib_archives/archives/200605.pdf
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Global Criminology and Criminal Justice

Words: 1990 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72819348

Scandinavian prison models are considered to be amongst the most effective in the world. The penal system here, unlike is the case in other parts of the world -- including the U.S. -- is regarded humane and is designed in such a way that prisoners live more or less like regular citizens. With sunbathing facilities, vocational courses, and other amenities being a standard in most settings (unlike is the case in most Western prison settings), some prison systems like those in Norway could be mistaken for plush retirement community centers. How effective such incarceration facilities are in the control of crime is a valid topic for examination and analysis. This is more so the case given that from a "common sense" perspective, prisons conditions should be harsh enough to discourage inmates from committing the same crimes that landed them there in the first place. This seems to be the basic…… [Read More]

References

Delgado, B. (2007). Gangs, Prisons, Parole, and the Politics Behind them. New York, NY: Xulon Press

Grant, S. M. (2012). A Concise History of the United States of America. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Lappi-Seppala, T. (2012). Penal Policies in the Nordic countries 1960-2010. Scandinavian Studies in Criminology and Crime Prevention, 13, sup.1,

Mauer, M. (2003). Comparative international rates of incarceration: An examination of causes and trends: Presented to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, DC: The Sentencing Project.
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Criminal Justice Bootcamp Programs for

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21697054

The sources provided background and reviews of published literature: Holmstrom (1996); Marcus-Mendoza (1995); and Osler (1991). Finally, three reports took on a narrower focus in investigating boot camps: Clark and Kellam (2001); Mueller (1996); and Souryal, Layton & MacKenzie (1994).

Burns and Vito (1995) examined the effectiveness of Alabama boot camps. In Alabama, overcrowded prisons brought on interest at the state level for prison boot camps. State prison boot camps incorporated marching, discipline, physical training, work, classes, and drug and alcohol abuse treatment in three phases. In the first phase, inmates confront their crime and take responsibility for it, ridding themselves of excuses. In the second phase, inmates focus on "self-discovery" by learning about themselves, goal planning, and improving themselves for future release. In the third phase, pre-release, inmates focus on problem solving as the key to their own future success as a lawful citizen upon release. Entry and participation…… [Read More]

References

Ashcroft, J., Daniels, D.J., & Hart, S.V. (2003, June). Correctional boot camps: Lessons from a decade of research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Burns, J.C., & Vito, G.F. (1995, March). An impact analysis of the Alabama boot camp program. Federal Probation, 59(1), 63-67.

Burton Jr., V.S., & Marquart, J.W. (1993, September). A study of attitudinal change among boot camp participants. Federal Probation, 57(3), 46-52.

Christenberry, N.J., Burns, J.L., & Dickinson, G.B. (1994, September). Gains in educational achievement by inmates during the Arkansas Prison Boot Camp program. Journal of Correvtional Education, 45(3), 128-132.
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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Words: 7415 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 92508545

Women in Prison

Major Legal Issues Concerning Female Inmates

Problems in corrections:

Dealing with the unique needs of women in the prison system

The number of female prison inmates in America and internationally is growing. Although men still outnumber women in the prison population, the rates of female incarceration, once considered relatively nominal, have skyrocketed. "In the U.S., where the prison and jail population reached two million in the year 2000, women's incarceration is also spiralling upwards at a greater pace than that of men. While the number of men in U.S. prisons and jails doubled between 1985 and 1995, women's imprisonment during the same period tripled" (Sudbury 2002). These escalating rates are surprising, given that women are far more likely to be the victims rather than the perpetrators of violent crimes. "While their relative proportions are small, the growing numbers of women being sent to prison is disproportionate to…… [Read More]

References

Blitz, C.L., Wolff, N., Ko-Yu, P., & Pogorzelski, W. (2005). Gender-specific behavioral health and community release patterns among New Jersey prison inmates: Implications for treatment and community reentry. American Journal of Public Health, 95(10), 1741-6.

Brewer-Smyth, K., Bucurescu, G., Shults, J., Metzger, D., Sacktor, N., Gorp, W. v., & Kolson,

D. (2007). Neurological function and HIV risk behaviors of female prison inmates. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 39(6), 361-72.

Case, P., Fasenfest, D., Sarri, R., & Phillips, A. (2005). Providing educational support for female ex-inmates: Project PROVE as a model for social reintegration. Journal of Correctional Education, 56(2), 146-157
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The Problems Faced by Families of Prisoners

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 42405920

Incarceration on Prisoners Families

There can be little doubt that incarceration will impact on families as well as the prisoner. ith more than 1 million women and 6 million men within the correctional system in the U.S. (Clarke and Adashi 923), indicating an exponentially large number of family members being impacted. The family members most impacted are the immediate family; partners, and children, as well as parents, as well as impacting on the wider communities (Braman 5). This paper reviews the problems faced by prisoners' families, focusing on partners and children of those incarcerated.

The impact on partners can be far reaching, especially for partners who met their partners prior to any incarceration. The impacts will be tangible and psychological. Firstly, the incarceration of a partner may create financial hardships, this may be due to loss of income, especially where the prisoner was a major wage earner. hen it is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braman, D. Doing Time on the Outside. Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 2007. Print.

Clarke, J G, and E. Y Adashi. "Perinatal Care for Incarcerated Patients." JAMA, The Journal of the American Medical Association 305.9 (2011): 923 -- 929. Print.

Comfort, M. Doing Time Together: Love and Family in the Shadow of the Prison. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2009. Print.

Hairston,. "Prisoners and Families: Parenting Issues During Incarceration." "From Prison to Home" Conference. N.p., 2002. Web. .
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Overcrowding in Prisons

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54169893

Prison Overcrowding

Arguably the most pressing issue facing the field of corrections today is the problem of prison overcrowding. Overcrowding negatively impacts nearly every aspect of running a corrections facility, and even exacerbates problems when inmates are eventually released (Specter, 2010). Overcrowded prisons increase the likelihood of violence against both inmates and corrections officers, and there is evidence tying overcrowding to higher rates of suicide and homicide (Davies, 2004, & Camp, Gaes, Langan, & Saylor, 2003). The problem has only gotten worse over the last few decades, and there is no evidence that policymakers or administrators have plans to do anything soon (Giertz & Nardulli, 1985, & Taggart, 1996). After examining the relevant literature concerning the history, scope, and reasons behind prison overcrowding, it becomes clear that the solution to overcrowding and its attendant costs must come in the form of administrative/institutional reform coupled with a serious reconsideration of the…… [Read More]

References

Camp, S.D., Gaes, G.G., Langan, N.P., & Saylor, W.G. (2003). The influence of prisons on inmate misconduct: A multilevel investigation*. Justice Quarterly: JQ, 20(3), 501-533.

Davies, R. (2004). Deaths in UK prisons are due to overcrowding, says report. The Lancet,

363(9406), 378-378.

Giertz, J.F., & Nardulli, P.F. (1985). Prison overcrowding. Public Choice (Pre-1986), 46(1),
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Race Discrimination Justice Discrimination Race Discimination Criminal

Words: 1518 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91802995

ace Discrimination Justice

Discrimination

ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE

ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System

acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.

Background

acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…… [Read More]

References

Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.

Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.

Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.

Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
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Have Stiff Drug Laws Helped or Hurt the Criminal Justice System

Words: 1901 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 4814440

Drug Laws

The Shortcomings in our Current Drug Law Policy: Research Proposal

As a major policy issue in the United States, the ar on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, America's policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the ar on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the United States has been one of prosecution and imprisonment rather than one of decriminalization, treatment and rehabilitation. As our medical and scientific communities characterize addiction as a disease, the United States government continues to characterize this disease as a crime. And in doing so, it has created an unnecessary criminal class in the United States. The research proposal will set out to prove…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Debusmann, B. (2012). Obama and the failed war on drugs. Reuters.

DeMelo, D. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory.

DeMelo, D1. (2005). Cloward & Ohlin's Differential Opportunity Theory. Criminological Theory.

Eldredge, D.C. (1998). Ending the War on Drugs: A Solution for America. Bridgehampton, NY: Bridge Works.
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Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

Words: 882 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31146808

Criminal Justice System Today

Most Significant Problem Facing the Criminal Justice System

What is the most significant problem facing the criminal justice system today?

The urgency needed in addressing crime issues is a factor that is widely acceptable, the public view crime and fear of crime as among the most vital issues. A number of communities have been converted into war zones with a ring of gunshots being the order of the day and night. The society struggle everyday to bring order but, this is challenged by criminal behaviors that do not adhere to traditional standards. On the other hand are the policy makers and administrators in the criminal justice systems trying to unravel the complex nature of crime. There have been significant changes in how policing, adjudication, sentencing, imprisonment, and community corrections are approached. The existence of pressure from the public and ever changing policies creates the need understand…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Green, B. (2011). "Criminal Justice - What's Ahead? Roadblocks and New Directions."

Criminal Justice, Volume 25, Number 4.

Leipold, A.D. (1995). Why grand juries do not (and cannot) protect the accused, 80 Cornell.

Rev. 260
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Penal Practices Penal Is a Word Pertaining

Words: 2593 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25864503

Penal Practices

Penal is a word pertaining to punishment and the penal system or penal practices are those related to trial of a person to judge if he should be punished or not and if yes, how much and for how long should he be punished. The penal practices are governed by standard penal laws that are similar yet customized in every country. For example, theft is the same crime but punished with imprisonment in USA, cutting of hands in Saudi Arabia and some time ago, punished by being shot in China. Thus the penal practices can vary from country to country and region to region.

Objective of Penal System

The objectives of penal system are evident and clear. There is a party, a person a group or an organization that committed crime and another party that was wronged. The first objective of penal system is to compensate the affected…… [Read More]

References

1. Spivakovksy, C. 2013. 'Chapter 1: The Infalliable Science of Offending Behaviour', Racialised Governance: The Mutual Constructions of Race and Criminal Justice, Ashgate Press, pp. 15-37.

2. Davis, A.Y. 1998. 'Racialised punishment and prison abolition', in J. James (ed.), The Angela Y. Davis Reader, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, pp. 96-107.

3. Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, New York.

4. Bird, G., Martin, G. & Nielsen, J. (eds.) 1996. Majah: Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Federation Press, Sydney.
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Caught Up in the System One Get

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54107851

Caught Up in the System

One get tough policy in particular that has had lasting effects in contemporary times is related to measures designed to keep sex offenders from pursuing more criminal transgressions of the law. Specifically, some of these measures occurred in the final years of the 20th century when laws were implemented (such as the Jacob Wetterling Act and Megan's Law, respectively) to get sex offenders to register in statewide databases that are available to the general public. Additionally, restrictions about residency requirements (where sex offenders can live and go) has had a significant effect on crime victims for a largely unintended outcome, which is that the stringent regulations (which may be violated if an offender needs to pick up a prescription or fails to register with a state agency because he or she is homeless) can oftentimes create levels of stress that causes offenders to either not…… [Read More]

References

Davey, J.D. (1998). The Politics of Prison Expansion: Winning Elections by Waging War on Crime. New York: Praeger Publishers.

Hannah, J. (2011). Experts: Sex Offender Laws Flawed. Retrieved from:

http://www.cfcamerica.org/news/news/3081-experts-sex-offender-laws-flawed

Tewksbury, R. And D. Dabney (2009). Prisons and Jails: A Reader. Boston: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
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New Jim Crow Michelle Alexander's the New

Words: 998 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18324830

New Jim Crow

Michelle Alexander's The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness offers a scathing and disturbing portrait of institutionalized racism in the United States. In an article written for the Huffington Post that supplements her book, Alexander states plainly: "There are more African-Americans under correctional control today -- in prison or jail, on probation or parole -- than were enslaved in 1850, a decade before the Civil ar began." Beginning with this central fact, Alexander discusses the use of incarceration as a new form of slavery and segregation. African-Americans have been systematically excluded from access to social and cultural capital, excluded from access to economic and political empowerment. The election of Barak Obama has not changed much for the majority of African-Americans who contend with institutionalized racism and systematic poverty and disenfranchisement. "As of 2004, more African-American men were disenfranchised (due to felon disenfranchisement laws)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alexander, Michelle. "The New Jim Crow." Huffington Post. Feb 8, 2010. Retrieved online:  http://thenewpress.com/index.php?option=com_title&task=view_title&metaproductid=1617 

Alexander, Michelle. The New Jim Crow. The New Press, 2010.

The Justice Policy Institute. "Race and Imprisonment in Texas." Retrieved online:  http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=texas%20incarceration%20rates%20black&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CCUQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.justicepolicy.org%2Fimages%2Fupload%2F05-02_REP_TXRaceImprisonment_AC-RD.pdf&ei=0gHZTvq0Aabh0QG7_tzlDg&usg=AFQjCNEC-QjktNxEsvOrDq4CSAc7V6F7xA&cad=rja 

"The New Jim Crow." The New Press. Retrieved online:
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Convicted Felons Return to the

Words: 2672 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 20169695



Productivity-Education/Craft/Trade -- a key to being able to stop the return to the penal system is to provide training necessary to allow the individual to find work after leaving prison. Not only is it extremely tough to get a job as a convicted felon, but the skills necessary to get a job that will afford a decent living are tough to get in prison. Earning a degree either online or through continuing education; earning a trade certificate (automotive, plumbing, wood working, etc.) will provide an occupation for the felon after leaving prison, and a focus for their energy and attention while in prison.

Consequences -- Many rehabilitation programs fail because the consequences are unrealistic. Allow people to be human, while still requiring that in order to receive the gift from society of living in society, there are consequences if the rules are broken (Clear, et.al., 2011).

How then, can Maslow's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Facts About the U.S. Prison System." (October 2007). Retrieved from: http://webb.senate.gov/pdf/prisonstwopager.html.

Project Return -- Breaking the Cycle of Crime. (2009). Retrieved from:  http://www.projectreturn.com/index.php?name=results_and_impacts 

Total U.S. Correctional Population. (2010, December 11). Retrieved from:

Office of Justice Programs: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
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Rtf Rich Text Format File Extension Reflection

Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 714552

rtf (ich Text Format) file extension eflection Paper 4 (Module/Week 7) After completing reading study week, alternative methods incarceration.

Alternative methods of incarceration: How would you reduce cost and overcrowding while maintaining a system of justice?

Concerns about prison overcrowding and the spiraling costs of incarcerating inmates, some of whom may have committed nonviolent offenses, have precipitated many states to consider alternative methods of punishment. For example, in New York, "the Nathaniel Project provides 24 months of extra-intensive supervision for felon-indicted individuals who are seriously and persistently mentally ill. The program offers comprehensive mental health and integrated substance abuse treatment, rehabilitation, case management, court advocacy and reporting, and monitored linkages to housing and social services" (Alternatives to incarceration program, 2012, NYS). Although inmates may not be legally 'insane' and are considered responsible for their actions, this program treats some of the root causes that can cause inmates to turn to…… [Read More]

References

Adult drug court programs. (2012). New Jersey Courts. Retrieved:

 http://www.judiciary.state.nj.us/criminal/crdrgct.htm 

Alternatives to incarceration programs. (2012). New York State. Division of Criminal Justice.

 http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/opca/ati_description.htm
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Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6388164

Boot Camp's Program Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate

Addressing a Boot Camp's Program's Claim of a 0% ecidivism ate

The Claim: A Boot Camp Program un by a Local Sheriff's Department Claims a ecidivism ate of 0%

My assessment on the accuracy of the above statement and this discussion in general, will make use of a number of fundamental terms: corrective boot camp program, recidivism and shock incarceration. A corrective boot camp program, to begin with, refers to a facility that makes use of the techniques applied during military training sessions, to instill a culture of 'doing what is right' in youthful first-time offenders. ecidivism, according to the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013), is the tendency to repeat criminal activities, leading to re-arrest, during the three-year duration following release from a correctional facility. Finally, shock incarceration, like the name suggests, is a program used on first time offenders, to…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G.F., Smith, C.E. & DeJong, C. (2012). The American System of Criminal Justice (13th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). The American System of Criminal Justice (5th ed.). Belmont: Cengage Learning

Government Bureau of Justice Statistics (2013). Recidivism. Retrieved from  http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=17 

Jones, J.A. (2012). A Multi-State Analysis of Correctional Boot Camp Outcomes: Identifying Vocational Rehabilitation as a Complement to Shock Incarceration. Student Pulse, 4(9), 1-3. Retrieved from  http://www.studentpulse.com/articles/689/a-multi-state-analysis-of-correctional-boot-camp-outcomes-identifying-vocational-rehabilitation-as-a-complement-to-shock-incarceration
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Intermediate Sanctions Over the Last Decade There

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63236093

intermediate sanctions?

Over the last decade there have been rising overcrowding in prisons and other correction facilities making them costly and dangerous for the inmates. There has been also a need to better manage the crime levels in the community as well as reduce crime, and give fair sentencing to adult offenders. These are the main factors that led to development of intermediate sanctions (Caputo G., 2004).

Discuss the evolution and use of boot camps. What are the purposes of shock incarceration?

The increased crime rates among the juvenile in the late 70s and early 80s led to the development of the boot camps with first being set in 1980. They are owned by the government or by private sector. It is estimated that there are almost 100 boot camps in the U.S.A. today. Shock incarceration is the alternative to incarceration which leads to earlier liberation from confinement. They are…… [Read More]

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New Jim Crow When Considering the Introduction

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 73553649

New Jim Crow

When considering the introduction and chapter three of Michelle Alexander's book The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, arguably the most important conceptional foundation to remember is the notion of social oppression, and particularly the fact that social oppression can occur with or without the knowledge or intention of the dominant social group. As Hardiman, Jackson, and Griffin note in their contribution to eadings for Diversity and Social Justice, social oppression that occurs on the institutional level is oftentimes the product of oppressive beliefs and behaviors on the level of the individual and society, making it extremely difficult to pinpoint, and thus challenge, the roots of institutional oppression. Chapter three of Alexander's book highlights this difficulty in its discussion of the Supreme Court's inability or unwillingness to confront qualitatively obvious discrimination in favor of the near-impossible task of identifying specific, individual cases of…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, M. (2010). The new jim crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York, NY: The New Press.

Hardiman, R., Jackson, B., & Griffin, P. (2010 ). "conceptual foundations." In M. Adams (Ed.),

Readings for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.
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Huckabee Mick Huckabee Has Surprised

Words: 2234 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28298855



Meanwhile, Huckabee supports local political jurisdictions passing laws that punish undocumented immigrants, and he asserts those laws "protect the economic well-being, physical safety, and quality of life" for citizens in those communities. By using "physical safety" Huckabee frames this issue in the context that immigrants are criminals out to harm people. But the Immigration Policy Center (IPC) (Rumbaut, et al., 2007) reports that "Foreign-born Mexicans" had an incarceration rate" of 0.7% in 2000, "more than 8 times lower than the 5.9% of native-born males of Mexican descent." And while the "undocumented population has doubled to 12 million since 1994," violent crime in the U.S. has declined 34.2%, the IPC reports.

Moreover, according to the American Immigration Law Foundation (Esbenshade, 2007) local ordinances such as the ones Huckabee believes in (that make it illegal to rent to undocumented immigrants, for example) - if they conflict with federal immigration law - are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dougherty, Michael Brendan. "The Audacity of Huck: The Religious Right roils the Establishment by backing one of its own." The American Conservative 7.2 (2008): 6-8.

Esbenshade, Jill. "Division and Dislocation: Regulating Immigration through Local Housing

Ordinances." American Immigration Law Foundation. Retrieved 7 February 2008, at http://www.ailf.org/ipc/special_report/sr_sept07.shtml.

Guidelines for Writing a Rhetorical Analysis. "The Guidelines." Retrieved 6 February, 2008 from http://core.ecu.edu/engl/snyderh/1100/raguide.html
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Goals of Corrections the Objective

Words: 2380 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19065395

Just as clearly no individual who is logical would consider Charles Manson or Theodore undy as eligible profiles for the restorative justice program or even for rehabilitation program or indeed of any other than imprisonment or death by execution There are however, very potentially productive, useful, and worthy individuals who are shuffled into the correction system due to their inability to hire a lawyer or lack of knowledge concerning their rights to having representation appointed to them that with education and knowledge or skills acquisition can be successfully rehabilitation or restored to society and within the community. Recently there has been documented an additional strategy in criminal justice corrections which is described as a 'transformational' process and is a cognitive-behavioral approach in treatment.

RECOMMENDATIONS for FUTURE CORRECTIONS

Cognitive behavioral approaches are being used in transforming the dysfunctional thinking of the individual. The work of Mahoney and Lyddon (1988) relate approximately…… [Read More]

Bibliography

MacKenzie, DL and Hickman, LJ (1998) What Works in Corrections? An Examination of the Effectiveness of the Type of Rehabilitation Programs Offered by Washington State Department of Corrections. Submitted to: The State of Washington Legislature joint audit and review committee. Crime Prevention effectiveness Program - Dept. Criminology and Criminal Justice. Online available at  http://www.ccjs.umd.edu/corrections/What%20Works%20In%20Corrections.htm 

Van Ness, DW (nd) Restorative Justice in Prisons. Session 204: The Practice of Restorative Justice in Prison Reform. PFI Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Prison Fellowship International. Online available at  http://www.restorativejustice.org/editions/2005/july05/2005-06-21.9036003387 .

Complexity of the Social Contract (2001) Prisoner Life Online available at  http://www.prisonerlife.com/s_writings6.cfm .

Erikson, Kai. Wayward Puritans. New York: John Wiley, 1966.
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Conference Theories to Support Conference

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89997042

A more long-range vision related to a transformation of drug laws will also prevent the staggering numbers of women who encounter the criminal justice system. Theories related to role integration can inform programs designed for role modeling and coaching, which will go a long way toward promoting future community and personal health.

eferences

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. eview of Public Policy esearch 21(1). etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKinOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8yw-dfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbOjWa5vU-Cordw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWScZuXra2PExdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. etrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_Shx7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbeyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA

Fletcher, B.., Shaver, L.D. & Moon, D.G (1993). Women Prisoners: A forgotten population. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Martinez, D.J. (2010). ole accumulation theory and…… [Read More]

References

Bloom, B., Owen, B. & Covington, S. (2004). Women offenders and the gendered effects of public policy. Review of Public Policy Research 21(1). Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Qx8Zf7qTlCYJ:cooley.libarts.wsu.edu/schwartj/pdf/bloom.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjdkZ0qzVgoMeOkxN_ylkKlthKiRnOficQx_QNfbXxiJnSWFVpcexlY4fekDBrNW1TsKK3OTVz8Ph7PJqqIW8P6AZ7_3DHeLLBqZfwdT75GFga8Ryw-RdfyDDPE77wwcsok_ced&sig=AHIEtbROjWa5vU-CorRdw1sOx2rrIhPJcQ

Bonta, J., Pang, B. & Wallace-Capretta, S. (1995). Predictors of recidivism among incarcerated female offenders. The Prison Journal 75(3): 277-294.

Covington, S.S. (1998). The relational theory of women's psychological development: Implications for the criminal justice system. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:IzpJVCQisyAJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/14.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShMi1zxp51XEKWRScZuXra2PExRdCe99H2YYt3cvPUtvm8vYxswqFa9zAHjEgCYKYzfRl83Y6rf-alcMjCF8eD565m1fscAianN1Z9uwImmqDiZqQYnHrrsxZ5rNWaNyxr22BOr&sig=AHIEtbSWo_ivZrhu-c4vlRIUDHqnfiObow

Covington, S.S. (1998). Women in prison. Retrieved online: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:_XJIn_-dwTYJ:www.stephaniecovington.com/pdfs/15.pdf+&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESjOFr-tbjzcD1I16sbZX07sDOIfzDJCXkS-WCIXPp4JwiDQ2992lXRvuillpAs-T2H-ksCWaLiQhc_ShxR7bBKFqNdZKqc53vsmHniit_M2WGmxnvQIyXT7mZjpzQnTNzEFtpjB&sig=AHIEtbReyTi4bj3vJxT_gcvCOy1Q5-QIZA
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Community Supervision Sanctions

Words: 633 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28618667

community supervision sanctions compare with incarceration in terms of their ability to meet the goals of punishment?

Community supervision sanctions offer up a significant alternative to incarceration regarding their effectiveness in meeting the objectives of punishment. Because there is so much overcrowding in prisons community supervision has become an alternative which has been used more and more heavily and with some success (Cole & Gertz, 2012). Community supervision offers a viable alternative to the prison system in that it is able to return prisoners to their families while keeping watch over their activities, while offering up some form of rehabilitation. The prison industry is simply too costly to keep all prisoners under lock and key, particularly with state prisons collectively containing 1.2 million people (Cole & Gertz, 2012). Thus, community supervision can't help but be a natural outgrowth of this phenomenon, as prisons have their limits. Furthermore, this is a…… [Read More]

References

Cole, G. & M. Gertz (eds.) (2012). The criminal justice system: Politics and policies, 10th ed. Belmont, CA: West/Wadsworth

Worrall, J. (2008). Crime control in America: What works? 2nd ed. Boston: Pearson Chapter 10, 11.
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Weight Lifting in Prison

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60286550

weightlifting program in correctional institutes. It has 4 sources in APA format.

When a person is serving term in a correctional institution he ceases to exist for the society and he cannot carry out activities which otherwise would have been considered to be normal. However, the reality is that the American correctional system provides almost all aspects of life as much as possible to its inmates and recreation is one of them. ecreation in the form of sporting activities, in-house cable TV, arrangement for competitive events, championships etc. are some attempts.

Among the sporting activities, weightlifting in the recent years have become quite popular for the reason being that recreation correctional officials believe in the value of sports for the inmates while the inmates considers it to be satisfactory activity to channel their frustrations (Telander 1988). Apart from that, the National Correctional ecreation Association (NCA) which upholds and promotes this…… [Read More]

References

Author not available (2003). Fit in Prison? Pumping Iron on The Mainline. 24 Fitness available at  http://www.24hourfitness.com/html/fitness/articles/prison/ 

StrengthTec Official Website: www.strengthtec.com

Telander, R. (1988). Sports behind the walls. Sports Illustrated, October Issue.

Little S (1995). Recreational programs in correctional settings. Parks and Recreation.
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Women's Issues in the Criminal

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94196627



Studies indicate that there are more poor women in prison than ever before, and this puts women at risk to become mothers younger, and to have more instability in relationships and family life as their relationships progress. Authors Travis and Visher continue, "Imprisoned offenders are disproportionately from impoverished backgrounds, which places them at greater risk for early and nonmarital parenthood. Early transitions to parenthood are clearly linked to later instability in marriage and relationships and welfare dependency (Travis and Visher, 2005, p. 222-223). Thus, incarcerating more women is putting more families at risk, and creating a vicious circle of poverty, despair, and hopelessness that can simply lead to more criminal activity and incarceration. In addition, this leads to overcrowding of prisons and higher costs for the criminal justice system that must now administer and support more females in prison, rather than on probations, which is what many received before the…… [Read More]

References

Pope, a.E. (2002). A feminist look at the death penalty. Law and Contemporary Problems, 65(1), 257+.

Travis J. And Visher, C.A. (2005). Prisoner reentry and crime in America. New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Attitude and Behavior Developmental Task

Words: 13216 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93148396

" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)

The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at  http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf 

ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at  http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm 

Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.

Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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Nklenske Courts the Dual Court

Words: 1432 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65433844



More people are currently incarcerated than at any other time.

In fact, prisons are so over crowded that it is now common practice for judges to simply use deferred sentences and probation as a means of sentencing. Further, the costs of housing so many criminals is one that many states simply cannot afford. As a result, much of the prison industry is being outsourced to private corporations.

The net effect of the incarceration boom is two fold. First, there's the lack of meaningful punishment, or justice, due to the fact that there is not enough room in the jails and not enough money in the budgets to build more space. The result: criminals are given less severe sentences and, in many cases, remain a threat to the public. Further, there is no deterrence factor when one knows that the worse they will get for a relatively small crime is a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bohm, Robert M., Keith N. Haley. Introduction to Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Origins of the Federal Judiciary. Maeva Marcus (editor). New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Turrow, Scott. Ultimate Punishment: A Lawyer's Reflection on Dealing with the Death Penalty. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2004.

United States Constitution: First Amendment. www.findlaw.com,2007.
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Criminal Justice Process a Felony

Words: 2551 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52581112

A plea-bargain is frequently attained at this time in order to circumvent a trial. In the event that a plea-bargain is reached, the case does not move forward to a trial but failure to offer enough evidence to establish a plea bargain will mean that the case goes on to trial (Criminal Justice System Handbook, 2009).

The trail

Trials consist of a sequence of proceedings where the prosecutor presents evidence which will be used to prove the defendant guilty beyond a reasonable doubt. In felony cases, the defendant is given chances to admit their innocence but there are also times where they are presented that they may dispute the validity of evidence that has been presented by the prosecutor. Felony cases normally entail the services of a jury who listen to the case proceedings together with the judge and then after careful assessment of the evidence that is presented; they…… [Read More]

References

Criminal Justice. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/migrated/publiced/practical/books/famil  y_legal_guide/chapter_14.authcheckdam.pdf

Criminal Justice System Handbook. (2009). Retrieved from  http://www.nycourts.gov/litigants/crimjusticesyshandbk.shtml 

Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retrieved from  http://www.courtwatchflorida.org/uploads/Training_-_Criminal_Justice_Process.pdf 

Steps in the Criminal Justice Process. (n.d.). Retreived from http://sao.co.sarasota.fl.us/legal.htm
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Future of Corrections According to

Words: 323 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5415202

According to the Correctional Programs Division for the state of Nevada, another program sponsored by the NDOC is Casa Grande, a re-entry transition center opening in December 2005 and "will house up to 400 non-violent offenders in a dorm-like setting, during their last four to six months of incarceration. This will enable them to live in the community, obtain employment and receive family counseling."

There are programs called "street readiness" which teaches life-skills such as time and money management, parole requirements and job seeking skills. For the inmates who are ordered to pay restitution, the inmates should have a program to help with the opportunity to work in the community during their last few months of incarceration and earn money to pay back their victims.

orks Cited

The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php

ilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Correctional Programs Division. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2005, at http://www.doc.nv.gov/programs/index.php

Wilkinson R.A., The future of adult corrections. Reducing Crime in America: The Agenda for the 21st Century, December, 1997.
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Halfway House Programs Community Resistance and Possible

Words: 1055 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77511519

Halfway House Programs: Community esistance and Possible Solutions

Halfway houses are Community-Based esidential Facilities or Community esidential Centers. Additionally, volunteers or correctional officer's head this halfway house programs in a community-based setting. Halfway house programs provide an important role between institutional care and the community (Sechrest, 1991). This is because they offer rehabilitative and residential services to the designated community. In addition, they provide a chance for exceptional and creative programming aimed at solving the needs of the community and its residents at large.

In addition, the use of these programs is not a new idea because most of the offenders under observation, they are supervised in the community. Some of the offenders who receive community supervision include offenders under probation, those who receive a conditional sentence, and people who are gradually in the process of release into the community through a parole or a statutory release (Lindsay, 1991). It…… [Read More]

References

ICCA. (2010). Siting Community Corrections Facilities. ICCA. Retrieved 29 September, 2013

from  http://iccalive.org/icca/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=95&Itemid=554 

Krause, J.D. (n.d) Community opposition to correctional facility siting: Beyond the "NIMBY"

explanation. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations, 17(1&2), 239-262.
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Offender Re-Entry Program Proposal

Words: 1780 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65355003

Offender Reentry Program Proposal

The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)

It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…… [Read More]

Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.

Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.

Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.
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War Against Drugs in America

Words: 1157 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1519902

Society answer is to throw them back behind bars for even the smallest infraction of the law. This is why examining the policies for drug crimes needs to be carefully examined. There is no one size fits all in these situations and each needs to be judge separately.

Some say that the mandatory minimum sentences for illegal drug offences is fair while critics say that these sentences are too harsh, especially for first time offenders whose crimes are of low severity. Proponents say that if the sentences are too lenient it has the effect of increasing the crime rate (Thompson, 1998). Again, each case needs to be looked at on an individual basis. The severity of the crime as well as the perpetrators past record should play a large factor in the punishment handed down. Also, rehabilitation efforts should play a factor in the sentencing. Instead of putting these individuals…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bobo, L. And Thompson, V. (2006). Unfair by design: The war on drugs, race and the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. Social Research, 73(2), 445-472.

Hemmens, C., & Walsh, a. (2010). The Law and Social Control. Law, Justice, and Society: A Sociolegal Introduction (2 ed., pp. 211-240). New York: Oxford University Press, USA.

Pettit, B. And Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: Race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69(2), 151-169.

Thompson, S.P. (1998). Which policies are working in the war on drugs? The war on drugs: Opposing viewpoints (pp. 102-141). San Diego, Calif.: Greenhaven Press.
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Absence of Paternal Involvement and

Words: 5319 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7397251

" (ean, 2006) ean notes that a "dramatic decline in the influence of father involvement has been shown to be correlated with fathers' maintaining a residence other than that of their children." (2006)

According to the work entitled: "Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency" developmental pathways of adolescent delinquency has been examined by researcher "through both longitudinal research and meta-analyses." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) Resulting from these empirical investigations are "numerous insights...key indicators and predictors of behavior of those youths who engage and those who persist in delinquent behavior." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) According to this work there have been a number of studies which had made identification of characteristic patterns of parent-child relationships that are strongly associated with juvenile delinquency." (Theoretical Models of Juvenile Delinquency, nd) the work of Juby and Farrington (2001); Patterson and Stouthamer-Loeber (1984); and Steinberg (1987) state that "evidence clearly demonstrates the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, Sarah; and Daly, Kerry (2007) the Effects of Father Involvement: An Updated Research Summary of the Evidence Inventory. FIRA-CURA Centre for Families, Work & Well-Being University of Guelph, Ontario Canada. Online available at  http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:9pJUiihSv0YJ:fira.ca/cms/documen  ts/29/Effects_of_Father_Involvement.pdf+CORRELATION+BETW EEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=26&gl=us

Bean, Matthew (2006) Understanding Father's Roles: An Evidence-Based Practice Guide for Family Therapists. Kansas State University 2006. Online available at  http://64.233.169.104/search?q=cache:R_K1C-afXJ8J:krex.k-state.edu/dspace/bitstream/2097/314/1/MatthewBean2007.pdf+CORRELATION+BETWEEN+the+ABSENCE+of+PATERNAL+INVOLVEMENT+and+SEXUAL+RISK+TAKING+BEHAVIOR+in+ADOLESCENT+FEMALES&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=37&gl=us 

Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf

Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.) (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Brooks, Constance M. (2007) Environmental Risk Factors and Risky Sexual Behavior Outcomes: Attitudes as a Mediating Factor. Online available at http://edt.missouri.edu/Winter2007/Dissertation/BrooksC-051107-D6584/research.pdf