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Command System (ICS)
Acceptance and Utilization of the Incident Command System in first response and allied disciplines: An Ohio Study
United States integrated common and uniform command structures for the application by the nation's first responder organizations and generally accepted disciplines in assisting first responders in the case of major disasters or incident. This was in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001. This led to the issuance of the National Incident Management System (NIMS) applied by the United States Department of Homeland Security in 2004. The main objective of this research article was to examine a single component of the NIMS (Incident Command System) with the aim of measuring its acceptance and utilization by the first responder organizations and selected allied disciplines in the case of Ohio (Decker, 2011). The research was significant because of the tendency by the federal government to reduce budgets in relation to…… [Read More]
Command System and Emergency Crisis: Handling Unanticipated Situations
How can crisis managers and those in the roles of general staff within the incident command handle the situation with the news media that may be presenting conflicting information?
Media coverage of natural disasters or emergency crisis situations is expected to give the audience a constant flow of information to facilitate their preparedness, and also to give an accurate account of what is happening. However, when the mainstream media does cover these events, more often than not they provide conflicting information that may frustrate response and rescue operations. For instance, hurricane Floyd in Florida received a lot of criticism due to what was termed as unnecessary evacuation procedures. The Division of Emergency Management had thought their plan to carry out large scale evacuation in all areas that were perceived to be in extreme danger was practical (Husock and Howitt, 1). Public shelters…… [Read More]
Introduction to the Incident Command System (ICS)
The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized organization model or method for incident response and management during disasters. The system is made up of standard management and leadership hierarchy procedures, including processes meant to support various types of incidents. It does not just respect jurisdictional and agency authority, but also supports synchronized efforts among different disaster response and management teams and agencies. ICS supports fast, effective and efficient development of universal planning processes and management of facilities, personnel, communication, and equipment within a common structure of organization and operations. Based on pre-determined standards that involved authorities agree upon, personnel are trained in a common language and processes, and tasks assigned to each. The ICS system ensures that disaster response teams experience increased organization from the initial phases of a disaster all the way to its conclusion (Lutz and Lindell, 2008).
The ICS…… [Read More]
Any incident command system (ICS) must be created and executed for the specific problem that is at hand. In the scenario of the violent storms, that reach and destroy so many people and resources throughout Australia every year, an ICS for this example must also be designed to this very specific problems and the key features of this system should reflect this adaptation and implement general principles to the unique circumstances of this situation.
Any ICS will have several key features. The most primary and important of these key principles is establishing some form of command and control. The first arriving authority that is at the place of the storm disaster, should immediately begin the ICS. An command post, with communications and in a centrally located designation would be beneficial in this case. The command post should be located as close to ground zero as logistically possible.
Another key…… [Read More]
command system (ICS) as defined by Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is 'a standardized, on-scene, all-hazards incident management approach' used by all governmental levels in any type of incident however complex.
Features of an Incident command system
ICS integrates a number of management features that add up to the efficiency and strength of the system as a whole. The incident commander creates needed sections and delegates operations to other personnel. Features of an ICS include:
Standardization- since communication is absolutely critical, use of a common terminology will assist in defining organizational functions, position titles, resource description and incident facilities would be quite relevant. Plain English is the standard way to communicate; codes and jargon should not be allowed. It would be extremely hard for one to relate to someone from Japan who does not understand English to convey information that is relevant in helping curb a particular incident; this mission…… [Read More]
National Incident Management Systems
Duty esponsibilities of Commander
National Incident Management System (NIMS) (PAT 1)
As the commander of the National Management System (NIMS), I have viewed the situation in a considerable amount of attention. The situation at hand needs to be carefully monitored and put into effect a counteractive method of operation. I and my unit's mission are to conduct this operation in the best way possible in order to rescue the hostages and apprehend the said terrorists who have no place in this kind of our society.
The NIMS occasionally deals with domestic incidents, but the situation at hand involves terrorists and Israeli citizens making this event a matter of international interest. My command structure will have the incident command system (ICS) which comprises of five major functional areas, the command, operations, logistics and finance/administration. The situation at hand being a complex situation has led to the need…… [Read More]
(Jones, Kowalk and Miller, 2000) The following is an example of these classifications.
isk Assessment Matrix
Source: Jones, Kowalk and Miller (2000)
III. PUBLIC SECTO'S ESPONSIBILITIES
The critical incident management plan is important in the community response provided and this includes the response of emergency responders, police officers, the fire departments as well as others who are involved in such plans. The first duty of the public sector is to maintain community safety. (Jones, Kowalk and Miller, 2000) It is important that the critical incident management plan "define situations where public policy or legal mandates require public sector intervention even though the private sector has ample resources to handle the event." (Jones, Kowalk and Miller, 2000)
IV. THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM (ICS)
The incident command system (ICS) has been adopted by many jurisdictions and endorsed by law enforcement and fire services. ICS is stated to establish "an organized…… [Read More]
They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).
Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.
Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…… [Read More]
ICS and WMD
ICS Procedures during a Chemical Attack
The Incident Command System (ICS) is a an approach to all-hazards incident management that is standardized and on-scene, and can be used for incidents of any scope, type, or complexity. This system allows for the integration of personnel, equipment, facilities, communications, and procedures that operate within a common organizational structure. When established, the ICS will coordinate responses from among various public and private jurisdictions and agencies, establishing a common system for planning and managing resources. ("Incident Command System") ICS is usually structured into five areas: Command, Operations, Planning, Logistics, and Administration, with a sixth area: Intelligence/Investigation being an option that can be used when appropriate. ("Incident Command System")
The system makes use of what are known as Incident Management Teams (IMTs) which are described as a "comprehensive resource to either augment ongoing operations,… or to include all components/functions of a Command…… [Read More]
disaster centric phases: This is a way of looking at a disaster from the perspective of the disaster as opposed to looking at how it affects mankind. The nine disaster centric phases are: Pre-existing conditions (prior to any forces or change on existing conditions), evolving conditions (nature gradually increases hazard), prodrome (signs of disaster onset), initial event (first clear sign of a disaster), contributing forces (natural or man made additional force), impact (point where disaster affects life), associated disaster (impact after main impact), residual impacts (secondary impact) and restoration of equilibrium (disaster moves out).
Describe the Command and Control Process: The command and control process is an exercising of authority by designating an individual or a team as commander over specific forces to accomplish a stated mission or goal. Command and control functions are executed by properly designation the use of people, assets and resources, communications and facilities though planning,…… [Read More]
Evolution of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Out of concern for the lack of a uniform protocol for emergency management, the concept of the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed in combined effort by Federal, State, and local governments during the 1970s (Dudfield, 2008, p. 31). This system was developed in response to the catastrophic wildfires that occurred during 1970 in South California by fire agencies at the federal, state, and local levels (Cardwell, 2000, p. 10). The intent of ICS is to provide an organizational structure to use to coordinate response efforts to incidents of any scope ranging from minor to large-scale incidents such as natural disasters, fires, accidents, or attacks. The original ICS system has evolved into what is known today as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that still utilizes the tenets of ICS.
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
ICS is a standardized, on-scene,…… [Read More]
When an emergency situation arises, quick action is imperative in order to protect assets and minimize losses. A security supervisor bears the burden of ensuring that a disaster management plan is effectively carried out, but he or she cannot act alone. The supervisor must coordinate with state and federal agencies that become involved in larger disasters. Special events may also necessitate coordination and collaboration with other groups that are involved in the organization and administration of the event (Innace, 2008). Security directors can effectively manage emergencies by developing a plan ahead of time in conjunction with others that may be involved in the case of such an emergency. They should also implement the incident command system and media relations.
In preparation for an emergency, the security supervisor should identify priorities including minimizing the number of victims and extent of harm that comes to them and protection of the…… [Read More]
Disaster Preparedness Plan:
Georgia has been an area threatened by some of form of natural disaster that has a huge negative impact on the well-being of its residents and the personnel and financial resources of the emergency response agencies. The most common natural disaster that occurs in this area is tornadoes that have terrorized both the rural and urban areas while making everyone in danger of their perils. In the recent years, Georgia experienced deadly tornadoes that caused harm, damages, and deaths in approximately 15 counties within the state. Give the nature of these tragedies, residents of this state need to be prepared and planned on how to respond to such emergencies.
Tornadoes in Georgia:
Tornadoes are regarded as nature's most violent storms since they can generate wind speeds of over 250 mph and appear from nowhere with little warning ("March Marks Start of Active Tornado," n.d.). These natural disasters…… [Read More]
The Aurora theater shooting incident is the largest shooting incident in the history of the U.S. in terms of the number of casualties. Perpetrated by one James Eagan Holmes, the 20th July 2017 incident left 12 people dead and 58 people critically injured. Overall, response to the incident was commendable, with the police and fire personnel arriving within five minutes after the shooting. The Aurora Police Department, the Aurora Fire Department, hospital-based emergency departments, and Emergency Management Services (EMS) worked together to manage the crisis. The agencies collaborated in evacuating victims, apprehending the suspect, searching the theater building, providing emergency medical care, transporting victims to hospitals, and assisting families of victims. Nonetheless, similar to other previous incidents, inter-agency coordination and communication difficulties were experienced. These difficulties provide crucial lessons for leadership within the field of emergency management.
Background/Summary of the Incident
The 20th of July 2017 was a sad day…… [Read More]
Local, State and Federal Partnership: Terrorism
National Response Framework (NRF)
National Response Framework is a document that guides and presents an integrated national rejoinder to emergencies and disasters stipulating how all hazardous responses are conducted by nations (Alperen 2011). It deals with the large catastrophes and the smaller incidences. A comprehensive approach is established to respond to domestic incidences with the framework spelling out key responses that are principle, as well as the structures and roles that organize national response. Clear description on how States, private sector, Federal Government, nongovernmental organizations or partners and communities use these principles for an effective and coordinated national response are included. Moreover, the NRF shows specific circumstances whereby the Federal Government exercises a larger role involving federal interests and catastrophes where significant support is required by the state. Therefore, the NRF provides mechanism and structure for the National-level policies in regards to incidents management…… [Read More]
Two years prior to the devastating and tragic landfall of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast, President George W. Bush
Issued Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5) directing the Secretary of Homeland
Security to: create a comprehensive National Incident Management System (NIMS) to provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, and local governments to work effectively together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity (George W. Bush White House.gov. N.D.P.1).
Later adopted in 2004, the NIMS provided a dedicated strategic initiative to prevent the very chaos and confusion which erupted out of Katrina's fury. Yet, the system proved desultory, unwieldy, and ineffective in its response to the disaster; the vivid portraits of New Orleans citizens trapped in the Superdome "amid a frightening scene of filth, violence and despair" (MSNBC.com. September 3, 2005). Since 2005, efforts have focused on ensuring that…… [Read More]
Origins of the NIM
John D. Rockefeller once quipped that, "I always try to turn every disaster into an opportunity." Through studying the nature of disasters and disaster preparedness, the student of government and organizational management can take the opportunity to learn from the mistakes of the past and assist in establishing more effective institutions for the future. This brief paper will cover the origins of the National Incident Management ystem (NIM), the National Response Plan (NRP) and tackle whether such entities assist in mitigating disaster or only contribute bureaucracy and obstacles to the relief of those most in need.
On February 28, 2003, President Bush enacted the Homeland ecurity Presidential Directive which ordered the ecretary of Homeland ecurity to create NIM. The NIM is intended to provide a consistent, flexible, and adjustable national framework to enable Federal, tate and local governments and private sector and nongovernmental organizations to work…… [Read More]
Emergency services personnel are required to perceive to include an accountability system which is standard. Systems may change as per the circumstances, however there is required to be certain fundamental principles which are to be followed so as to promote compatibility among systems. There are several varying systems of accountability out there. Each asserts to be superior. Some are very costly, and some are cheap. When perceiving for an accountability system, each of the individual agency is required to first assess their requirements. What kind of incidents do you react to? How many personnel are required to be liable for? What is your economic position? Do you desire to adopt an electronic system or that of a manual system? (Yaccich, 2002)
It is an established truth that freelancing is a much unsecured practice. Freelancing might give rise to injury or death. ("Public Fire Safety Guidelines," 2000) Old timers,…… [Read More]
Emergency Terror Response
Roles and Responsibilities of Terror Response Incident Commander
In the event of an emergency incident such as the terrorist attack described in the case scenario, the National Response System (NRS) is immediately invoked. This places a previously designated Incident Commander at the helm of all efforts to control, contain and respond to a terrorist attack. In the present case, as the Incident Commander, it is incumbent upon me to employ the NRS and the resources which it has placed under my control in order to bring order to the chaos of a terror attack.
ith the initiation of the incident, my first priority is to gather together an assembly of delegates and representatives from concerned agencies. This would include personnel from local law enforcement (police, municipal personnel, HAZMAT teams), the Department of Defense (NORAD, NORTHCOM, etc.), Homeland Security and various affiliated and subordinated intelligence agencies as…… [Read More]
Homeland Security, NIMS, and ICS
Through initiatives designed to continually improve the procedures integral to the operations of state-level Homeland Security, the agency may review the fit between the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) models and the desired outcomes of its own operations. These reviews can result in closer alignment across the three organizations, an objective with the potential to substantively increase overall cross-agency operational effectiveness. The key operational and procedural areas discussed in this review include common communication and information management systems, the management of resources, and multi-agency coordination. In the 10 years since NIMS was established, the country has experienced several natural disasters that have provided opportunity for refining the components of NIMS and ICS. This discussion provides insight into the benefits to be derived by state-level Homeland Security agencies from the NIMS and ICS models.
Nested Design and edundancy
A first point…… [Read More]
September 11, 2001 have had a significant impact on the way people view security. A recent study has indicated that there are two major tendencies that people experience after a major traumatic event like the terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers and Pentagon: "a long-term lasting search for security…and a medium-term risk avoiding behavior in the loss domain." (Sacco, 2003, p. 1113) In other words, terrorist attacks can alter the way people view security as well as the way people behave afterwards. And it is not only the people directly involved in the incident that are affected, but it has been demonstrated that the emotional and psychological effects of terrorism are have spread across the nation as whole. (Silver, 2004, p. 47) Therefore it is important to study the effects on 9/11 on the decision making of local emergency responders in response to the attacks and see what changes were…… [Read More]
GIS: Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
Based on the oskin article how does decision-making affect span of control during a disaster or emergency?
Decision making affects span of control directly during a disaster or emergency. How effective decision making is depends on the ability of the decision maker to adequately assess a threat and determine what forces or equipment must be utilized to moderate or defeat the threat before explosive damage can occur (Smith, 1997). A decision maker is more likely to maintain control during a disaster or emergency if his team of subordinates is well trained and well motivated. Such a team is more likely to respond in a positive and efficient manner when under the direction of a commander.
The decision-maker must adjust the level of control necessary during a disaster or emergency based on the severity of the emergency and the likelihood that widespread disaster will result.…… [Read More]
Safety and Health Considerations in Fire Incident esponse
The issue of safety during emergency response by the fire fighters has been discussed and severally emphasized. In as much as the responders are out to save lives and property, they too need to be safe so that they do not add to the count of the victims, if any be, as well as avoid injuries in the process of saving others. There are manuals that have been developed in various states and even counties all with the aim of streamlining response to emergencies and reducing the number of deaths of both the victims and the responders. Hundreds of fire fighters die in the line of duty each year with most of the death being from the exposure to rapid fire, getting trapped by objects and collapsed buildings. It can be said that there are sufficient safety regulations and guidelines concerning the…… [Read More]
The exercises and training divisions work with similar divisions in Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, a Continuity of Operations department designed to work with the federal Department of Homeland Security, and an Office of Domestic Preparedness and Law Enforcement Liaison work with local and federal authorities to coordinate comprehensive disaster planning efforts. (Maryland Emergency Management Homepage, 2006, Official Website)
Different organizations that are involved, how the organizations interact with or are apart of the EOC/What is the responsibilities of each member to the EOC
The federal government, including FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Authority), the Department of Homeland Security, and the state Emergency Management offices of Delaware, Virginia, and Pennsylvania are all involved, as is the National Guard. These organizations do not have specifically delineated legal responsibilities to the state of Maryland's EOC, other than to serve the citizens of the U.S. In the case of the federal government. (Maryland Emergency Management…… [Read More]
(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)
CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…… [Read More]
Homeland Security Written
Approach to Situational Assessment?
egardless of what I -- or others -- may believe is a good approach to situational assessment, it is critical that any response to be utilized fall within the guidelines provided by the Incident Command System (ICS). The ICS is defined by the United States Center for Excellence in Disaster Management & Humanitarian Assistance as "a set of personnel, policies, procedures, facilities, and equipment, integrated into a common organizational structure designed to improve emergency response operations of all types and complexities" ("ICS," 2004). The Incident Command System is a subcomponent of the National Incident Management System (NIMS). One key reason for relying on the ICS framework is that is a scalable, adaptable agency that establishes a familiar hierarchy that enables people from diverse areas and disciplines to conduct efficacious responses to disaster events, and to function collaboratively within initiatives directed at homeland security…… [Read More]
If the worst case scenarios should ever unfold and terrorists have released materials into the air that are radioactive, the SOD works with the New York City's Department of Health so that officers have proper training in the use of air-monitoring "meters" (Holden, p. 5).
New York City's Department of Health has in place a program called "Biowatch" that is designed to alert the SOD when any calls come in reporting the presence of a biological substance. As mentioned previously in this paper, during the crisis of September 11, 2001, one of the major obstacles to effective first responder action was the breakdown in communication technologies and in lines of authority. However the NYPD's Operations Division (OD) is now trained to be the communications link between the executive command and the police officer on the street. The OD coordinates all personnel specifics and directions; in fact the OD is referred…… [Read More]
For example, the company could consider placing the data recovery system in the desert between West Texas and Nevada. In general, these areas are not subject to tornados or hurricanes. You could then choose, to place the location for all backup servers in a facility that will protect it against the weather such as: placing it underground. Once the facility is complete, you want to ensure that there is key staff to monitor and address any kind of issues that arise. Using such a system, will allow you to reduce the overall amounts of lost data that can occur at a particular location (due to weather / terrorist related activity).
Emergency Operations Center
The next issue that is going to be faced by the company / location is: establishing an Emergency Operations Center (EOC). In general, an EOC will serve as a place where the company can effectively coordinate a…… [Read More]
Emergency Plan for San Diego State University
Evaluation of Emergency Plan of San Diego University
San Diego State University has set out "emergency preparedness, response, and recovery guidelines for students, faculty, staff and campus auxiliary organizations so that the effects of campus emergency situations can be minimized." (San Diego State University, Division of Business and Financial Affairs, 2014, p. 1) San Diego State University has placed emergency numbers across the campus and on its webpage and includes the following:
(1) SDSU Policy (police/medical/fire) 9-1-1
(2) Environmental Health and Safety (chemical spills/toxic fumes) 46778 or [HIDDEN]
Also placed for information is the Emergency Operations Information Line 1- [HIDDEN] .
San Diego State University's Home Page is located at www.sdsu.edu and it is reported that in the event of an emergency on the campus that this webpage is updated. San Diego State University has developed a check list for what should be…… [Read More]
The problem with the response to Hurricane Katrina was not that a National Response Plan (NPR) was not in place or that a National Incident Management System (NIMS) did not exist. It was that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an effective response to a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina (Lewis, 2009; Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina,2006). This paper will 1) describe 3 major examples regarding the leadership demonstrated in regard to preparing for and responding to Hurricane Katrina, give an assessment of each and explain why each was pivotal in the response’s outcome. It will also give an assessment of how each could have been improved. 2) It will describe…… [Read More]
9/11 Terrorism and EMS
On 11th September, 2001, a total of nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists took control of four sky-borne airplanes, using them to carry out suicide attacks aimed at American targets. Two planes were guided directly towards the New York World Trade Center's twin towers, one struck the U.S. defense department's headquarters (the Pentagon), and one crashed into a Pennsylvanian field. Known worldwide as the 9/11 terror attacks, this day's events led to large-scale destruction and death, sparking numerous important projects on the federal government's part, aimed at battling terrorism; these efforts defined George Bush's presidential term. More than 3,000 individuals lost their lives to the Pentagon and Twin Towers attacks. Of these, over 400 were firefighters and law enforcement officials.
The invaders were identified as Arab (chiefly Saudi Arabian) Islamic terrorists said to be funded by Saudi Arabian runaway bin Laden's terror group, al-Qaeda. The attacks were apparently retribution…… [Read More]
egulations in Fire Departments
Of all the institutions in the country, those dealing with fire safety are probably among the most important. Maintaining a standard of operations is of vital importance in order to ensure the health and safety not only of those receiving disaster management services, but also of those receiving them. For this reason, health and safety, training, standard operating procedures, and record keeping are important components of fire departments across the country.
Safety and Health Policy
Occupational health and safety play an important role, particularly in the lives of fire fighters, who strive to ensure the safety of others. For this reason, it is important to establish an Occupational health and Safety Committee (Breede Valley, 2005). The task of the Committee is then to ensure that all items of safety and health are addressed within the department buildings and also within the vehicles and equipment used during…… [Read More]
Loss of local control in emergency management is a legitimate concern. Yet access to state and federal resources is critical for effective emergency response. The most effective emergency response involves carefully coordinated roles between local, state, and federal agencies. Local agencies are always first responders, and therefore have a great deal of authority and responsibility in emergency management. States may have significant resources and distinct responsibilities to work with local officials. Yet the primary role of state agencies is “to supplement local efforts before, during, and after incidents,” (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2008, p. 6). States in many ways play the least visible role in emergency management, often working as liaisons between local governments requesting additional support and the federal government needing more information about the situation. Not all incidents require state or federal intervention and assistance, and city councils should not be concerned about losing control. Compliance…… [Read More]
Norfolk Virginia is a medium sized city, and like many other local communities, has had to adapt to the new reality that the events of September 11, 2001 have forced the nation to accept. In the wake of the attacks a federal Commission was charged with exploring the causes, events, and lessons to be learned from the tragedy. This commission recommended a dual path approach to keeping the nation safe: firstly confronting terrorism outside the United States and improving and then maintaining adequate defenses against potential terrorist attacks. In the years following the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Virginia, the city of Norfolk, in conjunction with both the state of Virginia and the federal government has implemented a number of new policies to deal with the threat faced by the community.
The events of September 11, 2001 have had a significant…… [Read More]
Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida
Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…… [Read More]
isk Analysis and the Security Survey
The following risk analysis and security survey report will be centered on the hospital as an organization. Vulnerabilities can be classified as crime opportunities, opportunities for breaking rules and regulations, opportunities for profiting and also for loss. By definition, vulnerability can be a gap or a weakness inside a security program that might be exploited by opponents to acquire unlawful access. Vulnerabilities include procedural, human, structural, electronic as well as other elements that offer opportunities to damage assets (Vellani and Owles, 2007).
A vulnerability assessment can be classified as a systematic method utilized to evaluate an organization's security position, assess the efficiency of current security infrastructure, as well as, recognize security limitations. The basic approach of a Vulnerability Assessment (VA) first measures what precise assets require protection. Subsequently, VA recognizes the protection measures previously being used to protect those assets, as well as what…… [Read More]
ICS in New Orleans and Toronto
In both the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and the outbreak of SAS in Toronto, the Incident Command System (ICS) had to implemented, yet both instances presented challenges to its implementation. In the former, the convergence of disparate agencies fueled an already chaotic situation, as few of the agencies were ICS prepared. In the latter, the outbreak was fueled by intensive, fear-causing media coverage, which ICS had to counter with education, patience, and endurance. In each case, the need for central command was essential but so was the ability of all agencies and workers to be "on the same page." This paper will compare and contrast both of these incidents and show how ICS was affected and had an impact.
Pre-Katrina, ICS in New Orleans was only being used for fire-related incidents. The emergency operations center (EOC) was not trained in ICS, thus…… [Read More]
Crisis administrations have one or more committed crisis phone numbers saved for basic crisis calls. In other countries, one number is utilized for all the crisis administrations. However, every crisis administration has its own defined crisis number in very few countries (Whyte, 2002).
In the same way as Emergency Service, firefighter experts are vital to groups everywhere in the country. They are crucial to the principal mission of any Navy. In boats, submarines, airplane and weapons of numerous sorts, risk is a characteristic part of the occupation. If it is ordinary work or continuous missions, conditions might be unpredictable and valuable lives and unreasonable gear are always at stake (egehr & Bober, 2007). As part of the emergency response group, an emergency responder will be there to forestall mishaps and to stabilize the scenario in case of an incident. No professional is obliged to wind up part of the…… [Read More]
Case Study: The Minnesota Bridge/ I-35W Collapse of 2007
The Minnesota Bridge/ I-35W rumbled with high traffic during the rush hour when it dropped 60 feet down (or more) into Mississippi River in 2007, August 1st (Sander & Saulny, 2007). More than 50 vehicles went into the river with the passengers inside. According to Jim Clack from the Fire Department of Minneapolis, more than seven people got killed while an excess of sixty suffered injuries. The State patrol department was quoted as reporting 20 missing people (Sander & Saulny, 2007). Most people were rescued within one hour of the said collapse according to Jim Clack (Sander & Saulny, 2007). The 8 lane bridge served as the 35W interstate bridge serving the north-south route that passed through Minneapolis. The bridge was undergoing repairs when it collapsed. Witness testimony indicated that a jackhammer was at use on this bridge moments before…… [Read More]
DHS and the NP
The National Preparedness eport was structured in a strategic manner by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). There was a great deal of scrutiny and assessment which occurred when this report was put together as much of it represented the most recent work of DHS, their theories, objectives and recent discoveries. Thus, the structure of the report was incredibly important.
One aspect of the report appears to be structured around optimism. For instance, planning is a big aspect of where the attention of the report goes. The report indeed spends time looking at ways in which the foundation of the nation could be made stronger, particularly in emergencies and in ways to better enmesh the scaffolding which is in place so that its more comprehensive. This section of the report also discusses the partnerships present for finishing the National Planning Frameworks across the preparedness mission arenas…… [Read More]
training in the field of emergency management is particularly complicated. The reason for the complication is the astonishingly broad latitude of situations for which emergency services and personnel might ultimately be required. Now obviously there are certain limitations that are based on simple geography: emergency management personnel in California may be called upon to deal with mudslides or earthquakes, and emergency management personnel in Kansas will be summoned for tornados. But a large-scale terrorist incident could conceivably occur anywhere that is populated. Meanwhile certain types of disaster almost perfectly defy any attempt at preparation altogether -- the example of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, which killed over two hundred thousand people, is particularly pertinent, because there existed no detection system for such an event. Tsunamis are rare events, but common enough in the Pacific Ocean that a detection system existed there -- but they are so rare in the Indian…… [Read More]
Hurricane Katrina and the Plan Efforts to educe elated Disaster Impacts in Future
The hurricane Katrina is one of the deadliest hurricanes to occur in the United States. The hurricane hit Louisiana, Florida, and New Orleans amongst other places. It led to losses, evacuation of people, loss of lives and many businesses came to stand still. New Orleans had flood preparedness systems, which did not help, and floods persisted for weeks. The tragedy was contributed to by the lack of risk preparedness systems. Scientists have estimated lower storm surges and small coverage of wetlands in the 20th century. The winds, surges, and wetlands help to weaken the powerful winds. The areas are still vulnerable to hurricanes and storms in the future due to the geographic location. New Orleans city is also sinking geologically rapidly. Lessons learned from the hurricane Katrina should be used for disaster preparedness.
Federal…… [Read More]
Planning Across Levels of Government: Federalism and the Planning for the esponse to Emergencies
This paper will be in the form of a governmental response plan to the natural disaster: Hurricane Katrina.
Early morning, on the 29th of August, 2005, USA's Gulf Coast was hit by the Hurricane Katrina. When it reached land, it was identified as having "Category 3" intensity, on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale, bringing continuous winds of speeds between 100 and 140 miles/hour and stretching across for about 400 miles (Hurricane Katrina - Facts & Summary - HISTOY.com, n.d). While the storm was damaging enough by itself, the aftermath was utterly devastating. Firstly, massive flooding resulted from levee breaches. Furthermore, a large number of individuals claimed that the government didn't respond in a timely manner to take care of victims' needs. Several thousands of Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi inhabitants suffered displacement from home. It has been…… [Read More]
US Disaster Preparation and Lack of with Regards to the Hurricanes and US Administration
The health policy relating to U.S. disaster preparation or lack thereof with respect to hurricanes is one that must include a better system of communication between the U.S. disaster response teams and the hospitals in the affected regions. As Hurricane Katrina showed, the U.S. was not prepared to handle the level of response needed in the wake of the catastrophe the hurricane produced. The problems with the response to Hurricane Katrina were numerous: there was no National Response Plan (NPR) in place and there was no National Incident Management System (NIMS) in existence. Additionally, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was virtually ineffective: it had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an…… [Read More]
Changing environment and Communities
It is the intention of the various agencies of the government to help their employees to be able to in an environment that is suitable for the optimum performance in order to offer the best service to the public. In an effort tom achieve this, the different organizations and agencies have prepared their employees in various ways that help them approach the contemporary society with the diverse population therein. This paper will hence look at the various ways that the agencies prepare their employees to adapt to the fast changing environment in terms of technology and the workforce as well.
Since the onset of globalization, one defining feature has been the rapid shift in technology and information technology. The workforce has had to contend with the challenge of this fast changing technological advances, unfortunately there is no sign of the reliance on technology relenting hence it…… [Read More]
Ethics in Organizational Culture
The National Park Service (NPS) is a government agency that was established in the early 20th century and based upon the ideas and plans of the 19th century frontier and public leaders to conserve the parks and lands that were full of beautiful wonders like Yellowstone (Kurtz, 2003). The organizational culture that emerged out of the ambitious and "can-do" mentality of the early founders of the NPS promoted a cultural sense of pride that was not always linked to ability, as the Exxon Valdez oil spill and the NPS's response to it showed. While the NPS's mandate from the government is to preserve and maintain the ecological environments entrusted to its oversight, it was not the best organization prepared to handle the oil spill that spread to devastate numerous parks and national treasures of the U.S. (Kurtz, 2003). By refusing to communicate with the Incident Command…… [Read More]
Emergency Readiness Annotated Bibliography
Biochemical terrorism, nuclear or other terrorism is everyone's nightmare since the anthrax scares in Washington D.C. In September of 2001 and the Al-Qaeda attacks on September 11, 2001. The purpose of this annotated bibliography is to document the effectiveness of emergency management and readiness in Connecticut. It has been more than 5 years since the TOPOFF 3 emergency exercises in 2006 and literature published since then needs to be annotated and review for homeland security studies.
Petersen, R.E., Lindsay, B.R., Kapp, L., Liu, E.C., & Peterman, D.R. Congressional Reporting
Service, United States Congress. (2008). Homeland emergency preparedness and the national exercise program: Background, policy implications, and issues for congress. Washington, D.C.:
Government Printing Office.
In the CRS report, the series of ongoing TOPOFF exercises is documented in detail, including the 2006 exercise in Connecticut as well as other exercises are documented in detail. The…… [Read More]
Exxon Valdez and Ethics
egarding the Exxon Valdez oil spill, the organizational culture of the National Park Services (NPS) influence ethical decision making in the disaster because the leaders in the NPS had a "can-do" spirit infused in them over generations of story-telling about how they were the leaders of the campaign to protect the parks and they did not want to cede control to other organizations that might have more effective strategies for helping to prevent an oil spill form spreading (Kurtz, 2003, p. 310). The problem was that the organizational culture did not reflect the reality of the situation -- the NPS was not able to properly address the situation and required help; the egoistic mentality its leaders had cultivated in the organizational prevented it from adequately preventing the oil spread.
The ethical issues involved in this situation stemmed from a lack of communication, as the Incident Command…… [Read More]
Protecting Vital Resources
Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems
IDPS and Components
Intrusion from the outside world, for good or bad, is serious concern in the networked global arena (Ierace et al., 2005). The loss of data and important and confidential business information can be utterly disastrous. Network systems that will detect and prevent such intrusions, therefore, are a necessity of the first order among enterprises. Intrusion attacks can come from hackers, malware or other old or new malicious creations from other sources. Intrusion detection is performed by monitoring computer systems and networks to sense indications of potential threats or violations on an organization's security policies. Another added feature is thwarting these threats before they can occur. Together, these are the components of an intrusion detection and prevention system or IDPS (Ierace et al.).
There are four classes of IDPS according to their functions and the methods they use (Ierace et…… [Read More]
Gender and Critical Incident Management
In general, Critical incidents are those situations that have the potential to cause injury or loss of life, property damage, and can threaten the organization's standing, public image, or ability to perform its duties. Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM), is an intervention protocol that is developed for dealing with traumatic events, especial for use with military combat personnel who are typically first responders to stressful and serious situations. Of course, within any military action or organization, there will be situations that are often violent, chaotic, and unpredictable. From a command and control perspective, though, there are four major attributes that any critical incident response plan should have:
Anticipate and outline the means of detecting the emergency, collecting preliminary intelligence, assessing the seriousness of the situation (attack, systems affected, damage, protection, etc.).
Planning must include a means to easily contact all relevant employees and outside resources.…… [Read More]
The terrorist incident in New York on September 11, 2001 woke many individuals and organizations to the realities of vulnerabilities within the airline industry. The particular problems seemed to be that crucial training for individuals who wished to work as commercial airline pilots had very little monitoring. Of course, security on flights was the most critical oversight as people within the industry believed that inflight incidents would not happen. Other transportation industries also realized the immediacy of the need for change, and have been implementing new protocols also. It may seem that the most vulnerable are those that travel in international waters or skies, but dangers exist within the United States because of a reliance on rail transportation of people and goods also. The United States could face significant problems if a major rail transportation system was interrupted due to terrorist infiltration. The research into this system proves…… [Read More]
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…… [Read More]
Strategic Information Systems'?
A strategic information system is a system that enables an organisation to alter the structure of its business strategy so that it can achieve a competitive advantage over others. This system also helps organisations in fastening the time it takes to react and adapt to several environmental changes that take place and makes the overall business structure more efficient. Within a strategic information system there exists a decision support system that helps align business goals and strategies with information systems and technologies.
Write down the various business models of internet.
The various business models of the internet include:
Advertising, Blogging, Affiliate, Community, Utility, Subscription, Brokerage, Merchant, Manufacturer.
Question 3: What is 'Network Bandwidth'?
The amount or volume of data which is being transmitted through a particular network at a given point in time is referred to as a network bandwidth. Network bandwidth's can be affected by software…… [Read More]
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…… [Read More]
Knowing in advance the terrain, the vegetation, and the water sources prepares the mission teams with the knowledge to confront the elements associated with the geographical conditions of the site. Analysis provides information for determining in advance the best sites to set up base camps, where the terrain is less vulnerable to hostile advances. t demonstrates in advance how supplies will most efficiently and expeditiously be delivered to the site. The GS can indicate to military coordinators how many helicopters, ground armored vehicles, and other military transport vehicles the use of which is dependent upon conditions of terrain. Whether or not supplies can be delivered via ground or air is an important consideration in planning and supplying a military exercise or event. GS is a valuable tool for military logistical purposes.
f we look at the layered data GS is capable of delivering, we find that the information is essential…… [Read More]
Airport Security System
The secure operation of the aviation system across the globe is one of the most significant factors in the security and economic development of the United States. The use of the world's airspace should also be secured because aviation has become a major target for criminals. Actually, criminals, terrorists, and hostile nations increasingly consider aviation as a major target for exploitation and attack. An example of the security threats facing this industry is the 9/11 terror attacks, which highlighted the desire and ability of enemies to generate considerable harm to the United States. Therefore, aviation security is increasingly important in order to protect the country and its citizens from such attacks. According to Federal of American Scientists (2007), aviation security is realized through combination of private and public aviation security activities across the globe. These activities are then coordinated to detect, prevent, deter, and defeat threats that…… [Read More]
There are several incidents contained within the various Gospels in which Jesus performs a miracle and cures someone; and John 5:1-9 recounts one of these stories. The incident happens on an unnamed holy day in the city of Jerusalem, which also corresponds to the Sabbath. The place is a pool with five pillars, or colonnades, near a spot commonly known as the "sheep market," sometimes the "sheep gate," or "Bethesda" in Hebrew, and it is here that Jesus cures a man who had been infirmed for thirty-eight years. The pool was famous for curing the first person to enter after it had been disturbed by an angel who occasionally entered the pool. But because the man had no one to help him enter the pool, he never had been the first to enter, and thus never cured. After asking the man "would thou be whole?," Jesus instructs the…… [Read More]
Predators has led to Decrease in Road-Side ombings in Afghanistan
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started firing drones missiles in Afghanistan in order to reduce civilian casualties and reduce roadside bombings. These missiles known as Predators incorporate accuracy, wide efficient surveillance and precision target meant to reduce roadside bombings. To minimize civilian casualties, the Predator targets mobile insurgents as opposed to focusing on residential areas. The use of Predator has minimized roadside bombings and civilian as a result of increased surveillance.
Roadside bombing casualties represent a reduction from a 10% casualty level in 2009, 7% in 2011 to almost 3% in 2012. In line with this, rook (2012 ), adds that improvised explosive devices were a major cause of troop deaths untill the introduction of the Predator.
The most important feature of the predator is the detection of all types of improvised explosive devices. Data indicate that from January through…… [Read More]
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…… [Read More]
National Incident Management System issued by the federal government and the St. Leo University's synthesis of this proposal. In this essay, critical definitions of key terms are explored to understand the specific context of their usage. Once a common understanding of these terms are explored, the paper will delve into the specific ways the system correlates to the core value of "Community" St. Leo University wishes to espouse. Next the paper will explore the more relevant points dealing with the economic, social and legal implications of this relationship. The essay will conclude with a summary and generalization of the past performance of this relationship and speculate on future endeavors related to the topic.
The 21st century was ushered in the estern hemisphere with violence, confusion and anxiety as seen in the events and aftermath of the violent attacks occurring on September, 11 2001. The military tactic known as "…… [Read More]