Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Educational institutes throughout the country are seriously considering inclusive education. There are serious limitations in the secluded education system. First of all, specialized education system casts serious limitations on the disabled student. In the long run when the student comes out of the protective environment of a secluded education system he is not equipped with the skills to be successful in the world outside. In most of the cases secluded education systems only shield the disabled student from the practical world rather than equipping him with the skills to hold his place in the world. While laws and court rulings have consistently supported the education of students within the least restrictive environment, there hasn't always been agreement as to what exactly that environment would look like for each child. There has been a great deal of debate regarding the benefits and drawbacks of inclusive, as well as, self-contained…
Freund, M., & Wald, P.J. (1995), "An early education program for children with disabilities. Final report" Washington, DC: Department of Teacher Preparation and Special Education
Debbie Staub, "Inclusion and the Other Kids," Accessed on May 3rd 2004, http://www.inclusiveschools.org/OP_Kids.pdf
Inos, R.H., and Quigley, M.A. (1995). Research review for inclusive practice. Honolulu, HI: Pacific, Region Educational Lab
Hallahan, D.P. And Kauffman, J.M. (1994). Exceptional Children: Introduction to Special Education, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
people find it easy to criticize special education. No matter what special education departments or their staff do, there will always be someone ready to tell them that what they're doing is all wrong. While not all students who have received special education services have done well, certainly other students have been beneficial. However, given the importance of teaching children who have significant educational problems, it is crucial that special educators look at what they do, why they do it, and where those actions could be improved.
The issue of how best to teach students with special needs is an important one: in the United States, although student population has only increased by 2% in the last 25 years, the number of students receiving some sort of special education services has increased by 47%.
Examining the research can be of great help when looking at how to improve special education,…
Atkinson, Ivan. 2002. "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: special education policy and practice in Australia." Australian Journal of Education, June.
Bongers, Joyce. 2001. "Caseload in Special Education: An Integration of Research Findings." Exceptional Children, January.
Cook, Bryan ., and Schirmer, Barbara R. 2003. "What is special about special education?: Overview and analysis." Journal of Special Education, October.
Heward, William L. 2003. "Ten faulty notions about teaching and learning that hinder the effectiveness of special education." Journal of Special Education, January.
Socratic and Didactic Principles of Inclusive Learning
The overarching purpose of inclusive learning is to recognize, value and accommodate the variety of distinctions between pupils that exist within an educational environment. Inclusive learning seeks to meet the needs of all students by considering the vast amount of diversity in learning styles, experience, and skills that each individual student brings to the classroom. As such, two of the most effective means of incorporating practices of inclusive learning into an educational setting are the didactic and Socratic methods of teaching. These two systems are generally contrasted with one another (despite a few minor similarities which exist between them), yet they both enable pedagogues to utilize highly effective means to stimulate and foster the important principles of inclusive learning which are essential to the edification of students in modern education.
The didactic method of teaching strives to accommodate the plethora of…
Isbell, C. (2005). The Inclusive Learning Center Book. Florence: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Warner, L. Lynch, S. Nabors, D.K. Simpson, C.G. (2008). Themes for Inclusive Classrooms: Lesson Plans for Every Learner. Silver Spring: Gryphon House.
Adams, M. Brown, S. (2006). Towards Inclusive Learning in Higher Education: Improving Classroom Practise and Developing Inclusive Curricula. London: Routledge.
Grace, S. Gravestock, P. (2008). Inclusion and Diversity (Key Guides for Effective Teaching in Higher Education). London: Routledge.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
While popularly associated with the advent of web-based technologies, DE is not a new phenomenon (agusa et al. 2009, 679)." The author asserts that during the nineteenth century many universities had correspondence programs. These programs remained popular for many years because they were different from more conventional learning environments. At the current time, distance education is driven by the pace of technological change and such changes are occurring globally in a manner that is rapid and complex. There are currently more than 130 countries in which institutions of higher learning provide students with distance courses (agusa et al. 2009). These courses often have as a foundation new information and communication technologies. The author also explains that
"In Australia, DE has particularly been embraced, at institutional and policy levels, as a means of extending higher education to rural, isolated, and often structurally disadvantaged learners (little or no access to a reliable…
Bradley. Review of Australian Higher Education. Retrieved online from: http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Review/Documents/PDF/Higher%20Education%20Review_one%20document_02.pdf
Filan, G.L., & Seagren, A.T. (2003). Six critical issues for midlevel leadership in post-secondary settings. New Directions for Higher Education, (124), 21 -- 31.
Gray K. & RadloffA. (2010). Higher Education Research & Development
Vol. 29, No. 3, 291 -- 305
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
3. Hispanic, White Communities Forge Ties in Alabama (2003) a UA Center for Public Television and Radi9o Production. Online available at:
4. McDade, Sharon a. (2002) Definition of a Case Study. Faculty Center for Teaching and Learning - North Carolina State. Online available at http://www.ncsu.Edu/fctl/Programs/Instructional- Development/Teaching _Materials / CaseStudies/Materials / Case studyDefintion.pdf# search =%22 CASE%20STUDY % 3A%20DEFINIT ION%20OF %22.
5. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
6. English Language Development and Multicultural Education (2005) University of Alabama. Berkeley University Online available at http://crede.berkeley.edu/tools/directory2-/PDF/esl.pdf#search=%22Alabama%3A%20Elementary%20ESL%20SERVICES%22.
7. English as a Second Language (ESL) (2004) Baldwin County Public Schools; Bay Minette, Alabama. Online available at http://www.bcbe.org/Default.asp?DivisionID='824'&DepartmentID='958'.
8. UAB Wins $389,000 in Grants to Help Teachers Educate Non-English Speaking Children (200) UAB Media Relations. 27 Nov 200. Online available at http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46333.
9. Alabama (2006) KYTESOL Newsletter Vol.…
11. Alabama: Featured Facts (2005) From the SREB Factbook on Higher Education. Online available at http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:Mb3MWbM-0b4J:www.sreb.org/main/EdData/FactBook/2005StateReports/Alabama05.pdf+Alabama+Hispanic+education&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=6
12. Alabama Education Policy Primer: Chapter 2 Achievement (2005) Education Foundation - Online available at; http://www.aplusala.org/primer/ch2.asp
Education for Hispanic Students in the Elementary Schools of Alabama
Symbolic interactionalism thus posits a much more dynamic view of human learning, rather than the rote reception of societal norms in functionalism, or functionalism's belief in education to shape human minds in a pre-determined fashion. But it also is a more positive view of education than conflict theory, because even if there are problematic ideas in the way knowledge is conveyed, human beings may be creative enough to reconfigure preexisting systems of meaning in a liberating fashion. Also it is the individual who chooses how his or her personal liberation and development should take place, not the teacher. "Symbolic interactionalism emphasized several important dimensions of knowledge management through schooling: in school classroom interaction; by the professionalizing of the teaching process; through the bureaucratization of school organization; and, at the cultural level, where the links between the sociology of education and the sociology of knowledge are more immediately visible" (Marshall 1998).…
Four 20th century theories of education." Excerpt from George F. Kneller. Introduction to the Philosophy of Education. 1962. Excerpt available 2 Jan 2008 at http://people.morehead-st.edu/fs/w.willis/fourtheories.html
McClellan, Kenneth. (2000). "Functionalism." Sociological Theories. Grinnell University.
Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 at http://web.grinnell.edu/courses/soc/s00/soc111-01/IntroTheories/Functionalism.html
Marshall, Gordon. (1998). "Sociology of education." Retrieved 2 Jun 2008 from the Dictionary of Sociology
Change in itself is a challenge in the workplace, as this results in a significant amount of uncertainty and stress among workers. The first thing a manager should therefore do is ensure that workers are involved and informed regarding the ensuing changes. In terms of nondiscrimination, the appointment of new workers should also be handled in an inclusive and informative way.
econdly, it is also important that no person be favored or indeed disfavored as a result of their ethnic or minority background. Existing workers should be informed at all times that management employs fair practices in the hiring process. These hiring processes should then be honored, regardless of a prospective employee's ethnic or other background. Management should keep in mind that the law allows neither negative nor positive discrimination on the basis of minority.
Thirdly, once a minority employee is hired, it is important to integrate this person within…
Barmes, Lizzie and Ashtiany, Sue. 2003. "The Diversity Approach to Achieving Equality: Potential and Pitfalls." The Industrial Law Journal, December; 32, 4, pg. 274.
Garvin, Stacey J. 1991. "Employer Liability for Sexual Harassment." HR Magazine, June; 36, 6. pg. 101.
Kohl, John, Mayfield, Milton and Myafield, Jacqueline. 2004. "Human Resource Regulation and Legal Issues." Journal of Education for Business; July/August, 79, 6, pg. 339
Kuhn, Dennis M. And Stout, David E. 2004. "Reducing your Workforce: What you don't know can hurt you. Strategic Finance, May; 85, 11, pg. 40.
Progression from Key Stage 3
For the 2005-year the building on strategy training initiative and material were for the purpose of increasing the rates of progress among students as well as studying how the "core subject departments can enable more pupils to progress two levels across the key stage. In order for formative assessment to occur it is critical that students have a good notion of the intentions of learning for each lesson. The Learning Intention is that which students should know or understand upon completion of the learning of the child.
Stated in the work of, ccallum & Charles (2000) is that, "Overall, teachers feel that their teaching has been positively affected by the strategies and their children are more focused, more confident and more self-evaluative, with, in many cases, noticeable improvement in their progress attributed directly to this project. Our interviews with children indicated that they have…
Macaulay, Kathryn (2005) Lesson Plans Key Stage 2 and Key Stage 3 English, Geography and design Technology Online available at www.bedforhigh.co.uk
Good assessment in secondary schools (Ofsted, March 2003) Online available at http://www.teaching-resource.co.uk/teachers/afl.htm
Education Teaching Methods
These researchers define poverty based on different thresholds and determine the child poverty rates resulting from these thresholds. The researchers found that in the three years studied, about 5.7 per cent of all Australian children were poor in all three years of the study, and this represented between 28 and 41 per cent of those in poverty in the first year. The study also suggested that there may be differences in the characteristics of families of children in persistent poverty and those in poverty in only one of the three years, with the families in persistent poverty representing the greatest problem to be addressed in any reduction effort.
However, as Bradbury (1999) states, the industrialized nations of the world have been more successful in reducing poverty among the aged, but in many countries the last two decades there has been a re-emergence of child poverty. ates vary widely, but evidence…
Abello, a. & Harding, a., 2004, the Dynamics of Child Poverty in Australia, Discussion Paper no. 60, University of Canberra, http://www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/pubs/dps/dp60/dp60.html .[University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia]
Barrile, S., 2993, May, Managing successfully... managing diversity, Business 11(2), pp. 5-7.
Bradbury, B., 1999, Spring/Summer, Child poverty across the industrialized world, Family Matters 54, pp.65-69.
Connell, R.W. & White, V. (1988). Citation missing.
New York: Praeger.
Cohen, M. (2003). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. New York: outledge.
Daniels, H. & Edwards, a. (Eds.). (2004). The outledgefalmer eader in Psychology of Education. New York: outledgeFalmer.
Gielen, U.P. & oopnarine, J. (Eds.). (2004). Childhood and Adolescence: Cross-Cultural Perspectives and Applications. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Gregory, E., Long, S., & Volk, D. (Eds.). (2004). Many Pathways to Literacy: Young Children Learning with Siblings, Grandparents, Peers, and Communities. New York: outledgeFalmer.
Manson, S.M., Bechtold, D.W., Novins, D.K., & Beals, J. (1997). Assessing Psychopathology in American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Adolescents. Personality and Social Psychology eview, 1(3), 135-144.
King, Patricia M. And Kitchener, Karen S. (1994). Developing eflective Judgment: Understanding and Promoting Intellectual Growth and Critical Thinking in Adolescents and Adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
eese, H.W. & Franzen, M.D. (Eds.). (1997). Biological and Neuropsychological Mechanisms: Life-Span…
Allender, J.S. (1991). Imagery in Teaching and Learning: An Autobiography of Research in Four World Views. New York: Praeger.
Cohen, M. (2003). 101 Ethical Dilemmas. New York: Routledge.
Furthermore, he argues
that trying to force all students into the inclusion mold is just as
coercive and discriminatory as trying to force all students into the mold
of a special education class or residential institution. Others argue
against the constant interruptions to the classroom by assistants of
disabled children, who must be there to assist the child in using the
bathroom, and other basic functions. These opponents argue research
studies regarding methods of instruction of the disabled student in the
classroom to support their side. For example, research by Sindelar et
al. (1990), indicates that extended seatwork activities do not work in
comparison to allowing time to socially interact with other students.
Many disabled students are not able to perform seatwork activities for an
extended period of time. This research supports theories that encourage
higher levels of student participation as well as bringing lessons to a
close by providing…
Affleck, Madge, Adams, and Lowenbraun. (1988). Integrated Classroom versus
Model: Academic Viability and Effectiveness. Exceptional Children: 339-
Bandura, A. (1986). The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy
Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 4, 359-373.
Carlberg, C., and Kavale, K. (1980). The Efficacy of Special Versus Regular
promotion of more inclusive education. Up until recently, the practice of separating students with special education needs from general education students was commonplace. However, this practice often resulted in special education students not having access to the same caliber and quality of education as general students. This was recognized by the United Nations Convention on the ights of Persons with Disabilities, which recently published reports and recommendations, demonstrating the merit and value of inclusive education for students with different needs and abilities at all levels (Ernest et al., 2011). Furthermore, the importance of identifying students with special needs early in order to provide appropriate education was suggested through research by Buffum et al. (2010). This is described as the premise underlying esponse to Intervention (TI), and differentiated instruction may be effectively used to provide special needs students with appropriate access to curriculum and support (Buffum et al., 2010).
Buffum, A., Mattos, M., Weber, C. (2010). The why behind RTI. Educational Leadership, 68(2), 10-16.
Ernest, J.M., Heckaman, K.A., Thompson, S.E., Hull, K.M., Carter, S. (2011). Increasing the teaching efficacy of a beginning special education teacher using differentiated instruction: a case study. International Journal of Special Education, 26(1), 191-201.
Fullerton, A., Ruben, B.J., McBride, S., Bert, S. (2011). Evaluation of a merged secondary and special education program. Teacher Education Quarterly, 38(2), 45-60.
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…
Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.
Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.
EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum
Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/curriculum/steps.html .
Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 and the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 (NCLB) "require that students with disabilities have equal access to general education curricula and contexts," (Simon & Black, 2011, p.160). These two laws provide the fundamental backbone of inclusive education. However, educators need support in order to comply with these two federal regulations. The Differentiated Accountability Program (DAP) serves that function. As a federal program, DAP is "designed to support educators in meeting IDEA and NCLB requirements," regardless of state differentiation (Simon & Black, 2011, p. 160). DAP is, however, "designed to afford states flexibility in aligning improvement efforts with individual schools' specific needs according to each school's AYP status, requires schools in needs improvement status (SINI)," (Simon & Black, 2011, p. 160). Specific components of DAP may include professional development programs designed to help educators upgrade their skills related to teaching…
Ethics Extra! Newsletter (2008). Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=SINI+Correct+I&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CCMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fethicallc.com%2Fyahoo_site_admin%2Fassets%2Fdocs%2FEthica_Extra_6.132112300.doc&ei=xLZ9T63pNISw8ATe1tGLDQ&usg=AFQjCNG0SPsmdpjSbsdReNiTFpnq7CBC6g
Florida Department of Education's Bureau of School Improvement (2006). Differentiated accountability. Retrieved online: http://www.flbsi.org/assistplus/index.htm
Simon, M. & Black, W.R. (2011). Differentiated accountability policy and school improvement plans: A look at professional development and inclusive practices for exceptional students. International Journal of Special Education 26(2).
Several community colleges have in recent times shown preference for non-credit post-secondary students as opposed to credit students. This trait is particularly common in the areas of staff tutoring and contractor training. Several of these non-credit courses are quite popular for their flexibility in meeting the demands of the prospective workforce students as well as the demands of their employers. Important questions have been raised about traditional colleges due to the growth of this sector; these questions include the efficiency of colleges in utilizing resources and how well access is being provided for their (colleges) students. Answering the questions raised above will likely challenge state policies and practices at colleges, although analysing the effects of this program may be a herculean task due to the absence of data on activities as basic as admissions and acceptance in community college non-credit workforce education. With increasing states and college investments of resources…
In their study, "Thinking of Inclusion for All Special Needs Students: Better Think Again," asch and his colleagues (1994) report that, "The political argument in favor of inclusion is based on the assumption that the civil rights of students, as outlined in the 1954 decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education, which struck down the concept of 'separate but equal,' can also be construed as applying to special education" (p. 36). According to Mcgregor and Salisbury (2002), since then, the 1997 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, P.L. 105-17, 1997), and the 1994 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (also known as the "Improving America's Schools Act"; ESEA, P.L. 103-382, 1994), mandate the inclusion of supplementary services and instructional supports in the general education classrooms to provide all students with access to challenging and stimulating learning environments (Mcgregor & Salibury, 2002). In addition,…
Allan, J. (1999). Actively seeking inclusion: Pupils with special needs in mainstream schools. London: Falmer Press.
Balfanz, R., Jordan, W., Legters, N., & McPartland, J. (1998). Improving climate and achievement in a troubled urban high school through the talent development model. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 3(4), 348.
Banks, J. (1994). All of us together: The story of inclusion at the Kinzie School. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Bullard, H.R. (2004). Ensure the successful inclusion of a child with Asperger syndrome in the general education classroom. Intervention in School & Clinic, 39(3), 176.
country's public schools are experiencing dwindling state education budgets and increased unfunded mandates from the federal government, the search for optimal approaches to providing high quality educational services for students with learning disabilities has assumed new importance and relevance. In an attempt to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a growing number of special educators agree that full inclusion is the optimal approach for providing the individualized services needed by young learners with special needs. Known as "mainstreaming" in the past, full inclusion means integrating students with special physical, cognitive or emotional needs into traditional classroom setting. Practices that promote full inclusion for students with special needs assist educators in focusing instruction in innovative ways to help meet the educational needs of an increasingly diverse student population with a wide array of specialized needs. Critics of full inclusion argue that in many if not…
Allen, M., Burrell, N., Eayle, B.M., & Preiss, R.W. (2002). Interpersonal communication research: Advances through meta-analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Anzul, M., Evans, J.F., King, R., & Tellier-Robinson, D. (2001). Moving beyond a deficit perspective with qualitative research methods. Exceptional Children, 67(2), 235.
Baskin, T.W., & Enright, R.D. (2004). Intervention studies on forgiveness: A meta-analysis.
Additionally, other students must be educated about disabilities and how to include others that are different. (Dybvik 2004)
Purpose and esearch Questions
The purpose of the proposed research study is to determine the effectiveness of the inclusive classroom and the best methods for increasing the positive outcome of inclusive classrooms. The questions to be answered include:
1. How do educators, parents, and others involved in the education currently view inclusion?
2. How do the views of educators affect the implementation of programs such as inclusion?
3. Are disabled students benefiting from inclusive classrooms compared to non-inclusive classes?
4. Are normal students benefiting from inclusive classrooms?
5. What educational models will be most beneficial to students in an inclusive classroom?
The most destructive expectation of teachers that is harming the inclusion movement is that "Classroom teachers are expected to continue to use the existing curriculum." (King 2003) It is the…
Dybvik, C. (2004) Autism and the inclusion mandate: what happens when children with severe disabilities like autism are taught in regular classrooms. Education Next, Winter.
Hehir, T. (2003, March) Beyond inclusion: educators' 'ableist' assumptions about students with disabilities compromise the quality of instruction. School Administrator.
King, I.C. (2003) Examining middle school inclusion classrooms through the lens of Learner-Centered Principles. Theory Into Practice.
Murphy, T.J. (1994, September 12) Handicapping education - full inclusion of disabled children in classrooms. National Review.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate academic achievement of special education students enrolled in Challenger Middle school's inclusion program and the fidelity measured by student progress in CST/CMA scores in reading/language arts and mathematics and the relationship and efficacy of behavioral support. The evaluation of Challenger Middle school's inclusion program will serve as criteria to determine if any adjustments needed in relation to providing adequate and equitable service for special education students in compliance with the federal mandates and regulations of NCLB & IDEA.
There will be three research questions for this study. The research questions are:
What is the success rate of the special education program of Challenger Middle school students in grades seven on the academic proficiency in writing as measured by California's CST/CMA scores?
What is the impact of the special education program designed for Challenger Middle school students in grades six, seven,…
Education: Inclusion Discipline
The purpose of this work is to research Inclusion Discipline. Recently there has been a push throughout the nation for the placement of Special Education students in the regular classroom environments. This work will examine that which an administrator must do in making provisions of ensuring the students not only receive quality education but also to reflect that the IEPs methods utilized are promoting quality behavior in the regular classroom.
Inclusive education has faced many challenges in the classroom that is so diverse in terms of student's needs and accommodations. The Individuals with Disabilities Act was passed with the intent of protecting and integrating disabled individuals. To complicate matters the passing of the "No Child Left ehind Act" by the present administration brought with it what has the feel of a "conflict of interest" in view of the pre-existing IDEA legislation. Through the evaluation of IEP's,…
Watson, Harry (1999) Southern Cultures 'Gone with the Wind' critique 19993.[Online]http://www.highbeam .com/library/doc3.asp?ctrlInfo=Round9B%3AP%4ADO C%3AP.
Susman, Tina (2001) "Brilliant Parody or Blatant Ripoff? Newsday 2001 April 17.
Goss, Fred (2001) "The Wind Done Gone" (2001 Sep 9)
"Gone With the Wind" (1998) Memphis Flyer
They will not have to sit through lessons that are not meant for them. Every lesson would be targeted towards that particular group of students.
Special education is a highly specialized field making teacher retention an even more important issue than in the general population of teachers. Teaching a diverse array of students with specialized needs increases the workload of teachers more than those who only have to concentrate on a single subject. When teachers become overwhelmed, they are likely to experience higher amounts of job related stress. This stress translates into job dissatisfaction and can lead to lower teacher retention (Greiner & Smith, 2006). The proposed strategy would reduce teacher workload by allowing them to concentrate on the needs of only one group of students. They could become more proficient in the needs of this particular group of students, resulting in fewer job related stresses.
Greiner, C. & Smith, B. (2006) Determining the Effect of Selected Variables on Teacher Retention.
Education, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3673/is_200607 " Summer 2006. Retrieved December 21, 2007 at
Managing the Transition of Starting Primary School in England - Policies and Practices
Education for the English child is compulsory from the age of five through the age of sixteen. This compulsory primary education consists of two cycles (i.e., 'stages') which are identified as key stages.
Key stage 1 includes children in Years 1 and 2 of compulsory education (ages five to seven), and key stage 2 includes children in Years 3, 4, 5, and 6 (ages seven to eleven).
Throughout England, these key stages are the same; regardless the local school's organization or transfer ages.
The statutory requirements of the compulsory National Curriculum are laid down by central government, via the Department for Education and Skills (DfES). Generally, all publicly-funded primary schools must provide the National Curriculum to their students.
The National Curriculum does not, however, constitute the whole curriculum for schools, even though it…
Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Susan L. Dauber. 1994. On the Success of Failure: A Reassessment of the Effects of Retention in the Primary Grades. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Alexander, Karl L., Doris R. Entwisle, and Susan L. Dauber. 1996. "Children in Motion: School Transfers and Elementary School Performance." Journal of Educational Research 90:3-12.
Baker, David P. And David L. Stevenson. 1986. "Mothers' Strategies for Children's School Achievement: Managing the Transition to High School." Sociology of Education 59:156-166.
Catterall, James S. 1998. "Risk and Resilience in Student Transitions to High School." American Journal of Education 106:302-333.
attitude of regular education and regular education teachers toward inclusion students. The writer explores the factors that come into play when implementing full inclusion of students with special education needs into a regular education classroom. The writer used six sources to complete this paper.
Years ago, special education students were shuffled down to the end of the hall in a classroom that was far away from the mainstream students of the school. They not only had separate classrooms but often had different lunch periods and recess, which meant they never co-mingled with the regular education population (Cawley, 2002). In the 1960's the federal government declared such practice illegal and mandated that special education students were to be educated in the least restrictive environment. For the past four decades educational systems have scrambled to figure out exactly what that means and then comply with it. The end result has been the…
Equifinality: parents' and students' attitudes towards a student-centered approach to integration (1).(the inclusion movement)
Including students with disabilities into the general education science classroom.
A road less traveled: creating a community where each belongs.
Barriers and facilitators to inclusive education.
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
Fiscal eporting in Special Education
The element of fiscal reporting constitutes a key component of special education program delivery. It plays a vital role in the acquisition and supplying (after completing centralized accounting) valuable information for supporting decisions and justifying financial resource utilization. The value of information may be proven through its content: i.e., resources' nature and the means adopted for raising them, resource allocation according to approved budget provisions, and their utilization (Cenar, 2011)
Successful special education management necessitates effective information utilization. Information pertaining to special education spans from student and staff data to program- and school- level financial data. An inclusive education data system will be able to offer the following benefits:
Data can be utilized in the decision-making process;
It can used for targeting particular improvement areas;
Disaggregated data can be utilized for examining wide-ranging aims;
Data can be employed for timely evaluation of special education program;…
Allison, G. S., Honegger, S. D., & Johnson, F. (2009). Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems: 2009 Edition. NCES 2009-325. National Center for Education Statistics.
Board, J. (n.d.) Accounting Public School Budgeting and Auditing-Budgeting, Accounting, Auditing, Future Trends. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2342/Public-School-Budgeting-Accounting-Auditing.html
Cenar, I. (2011). Financial Reporting in Education Institutions the Implications of the Transition to Accrual Accounting. Annales Universitatis Apulensis: Series Oeconomica, 13(1), 22.
Ellerson, N. (n.d.) American Association of School Administrators School Budgets 101. Retrieved May 3, 2016 from https://www.aasa.org/uploadedFiles/Policy_and_Advocacy/files/SchoolBudgetBriefFINAL.pdf
inclusion" is not part of the law; instead, it states that each student must be educated in the least restrictive educational environment (LRE). Analyze all sides of "inclusion," (1. full inclusion; 2. inclusion in special classes like physical education, art, or lunch; and 3. inclusion in all classes except for reading or math).
The term 'inclusion' means complete acceptance of every student which leads towards sense of acceptance and belonging in the classroom. Over the years, there has not been any fixed definition of inclusion, but different groups and organizations have provided their own definitions. The most basic definition of 'inclusion' states that every student with special needs are supported in 'chronologically age appropriate general education classes' in schools and get the instructions specialized for them by the Individual Education Programs (IEPs) within the general activities of the class and the main curriculum. The idea of 'inclusion' is to…
Cologon, K. (2013). Inclusion in Education. Children with Disabiliity Australia.
Constable, S., Grossi, B., Moniz, A., & Ryan, L. (2013). Meeting the Common Core State Standards for Students With Autism. Council for Exceptional Children.
Evers, T. (2011). Common Core State Standards for Literacy in all subjects. Madison: Wisconsin Department of Public Intrusion.
FDDC. (2012). What is Inclusion? Florida: Florida State Univeristy Center for Prevention and Early Intervention Policy.
Inclusive Environment in the Classroom
As the country continues to diversify, our schools are challenged with more than teaching. It is their role to create an environment that fosters learning, respect, problem solving, and instill confidence.
Like the effects of bullying, an individual's race and religion can attribute to how they are treated in society. Bullying has escalated in the United States, due in part to cyber bulling. Statistics show that about 77% of students today claim that they have experienced some type of bullying. This increase has created an alert in the classroom that affects teaching and a student's ability to learn.
In that the world is a melting-pot and immigration has expanded in the United States, incorporating teaching methods that include a fair and equal education is important. esearch claims that, traditional teaching methods are seldom successful for students outside of the majority culture. It is noted that…
Bullying Statistics (Anonymous, 2009).
Harris, Ray, Miske, Shirley and Attig, George. (2007, May). Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for Creating Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environments, Retrieved March 23, 2011 from Ebscohost database.
Miller, Regina and Pedro, Joan. (2006, April). Creating Respectful Childhood Environments. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(5), p 293-299. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from Ebscohost database.
University of Virginia. (Ed.). (2003). Teaching a Diverse Student Body: Practical Strategies for Enhancing our Students' Learning. Retrieved March 23, 2011, from University of Virginia Publications Web site: http://trc.virginia.edu/Publications/Diversity/I_Create_Classroom_Environment.htm
Description of the Classroom
The observation took place in an eighth grade level social studies classroom consisting of twenty-one students from diverse backgrounds. The teacher is Latina. Not wanting to make any assumptions about ethnicity or culture, I asked the teacher about the demographics. The teacher stated that of the 20, 8 were female and 12 male. Three students were African-American, two were Vietnamese-American, two Indo-American, five students were Hispanic, two were Jewish, three were from mixed backgrounds, and four were white. Two of the students had IEPs, one of them was an African American boy and the other a white student. Each of the students with IEPs had specific learning and developmental disabilities. One of the Vietnamese-American students had been recently diagnosed with audio processing disorder, and accommodations were being made to move the student to the front of the classroom. The IEPs provided for specific accommodations and modifications…
Spiritual Development of Children and Education
Ruth Wilson (2010) in the work entitled "The Spiritual Life of Children" writes that there is an expanding body of evidence which "indicates that children have spiritual capacities and experiences which shape their lives in powerful and enduring ways." (p. 24) Included in these capacities and experiences are those of: (1) wonder; (2) wondering; (3)relational spirituality; and (4) wisdom. (p. 24) It is suggested in the theories relating to development of cognition that young children do not have the necessary "intellectual capacity for meaningful reflection and thus cannot have a genuine spiritual life." (Wilson, 2010, p. 24)
In countries such as England, Australia, the United States and New Zealand there is a growth in the interest of ensuring that "spirituality is addressed within the curriculum of both primary and secondary education in both state and church related settings." (Hyde, 2008, p. 16)The National Curriculum…
Grajczonek, J. (2010) Spiritual Development and Religious Education in the Early Years: A Review of the Literature. Queensland Catholic Education Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.qcec.catholic.edu.au/upload/publicsite/Education/Final_Spiritual%20Development%20%20Religious%20Education%20in%20the%20Early%20Years_A%20Review%20of%20the%20Literature.pdf
Hyde, B. (2008) Children and Spirituality: Searching for Meaning and Connectedness. Jessica Kingsley Publishers. 15 Jan, 2008. Retrieved from: Jhttp://books.google.com/books?id=dcPuw2pwqQgC&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Myers, Joyce Eady (nd) Children's Spiritual Development: Analysis of Program Practices and Recommendations for Early Childhood Professional. Early Childhood Education.
Richardson, R. (2010) Spirituality and Education. Mills River Educational Cooperative. Italy, Jan 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.campcaravan.org/d_about_us/ed_and_spirituality.html
Culture and education are inherently linked (Adams, 1992; Gay, 2000, Jones 2004; Wlodkcowski & Ginsberg, 1995 in: Guo and Jamal, 2007) In order to understand impact of diversity in the educational setting, Guo and Jamal write that it appears necessary to "first define some key terms, including culture and cultural diversity. Culture can be defined as a dynamic system of values, beliefs and behaviors that influence how people experience and respond to the world around them. For many, cultural diversity can be referred to as 'distinctions in the lived experiences, and the related perception of and reactions to those experiences that serve to differentiate collective populations from one another." (Marshall, 2002, p. 7)
Culture plays a key role in forming the manner in which students learn and communicate,"…how they relate to other students and instructors, their motivation levels, and their sense of what is worth learning." The extent…
Adams, M. (1992). Cultural inclusion in the American college classroom. In L.L.B. Border & N.V. Chism (Eds.), Teaching for diversity. New Dire
Banks (Eds.), Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives (pp. 229-250). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Banks, C.A.M. (2005). Improving multicultural education: Lessons from the intergroup education movement. New York: Teachers College Press.
Banks, J.A. (1997b). Approaches to multicultural curricular reform. In J.A. Banks & C.A.M.
The objective of this study is to discuss theoretical foundations for collaboration within the framework of a K-12 educational system within the United States. Included will be two theories for effective parent and family involvement in K-12 learning environments and research of two organizations at the state, local, regional or federal level that supports or organizes parent and family involvement. In addition, this study will discuss how the theories are utilized and suggestions will be given on the methods an educational leader can use the theories in furthering the collaborative efforts in the K-'12 educational system.
It is reported that a change in the conception of "the very nature of what it means to know and learn....drives the interest in collaborative learning." (Williams, 2009, p. 3) Traditionally, knowledge is conceptualized to be "something that is acquired." (Williams, 2009, p. 3) Within this theoretical framework it is held that the…
National Association for Parents Involvement in Education (2015) NCPIE. Retrieved from: http://www.ncpie.org/aboutncpie/familyedorg.cfm
Book Review -- Collaborative Learning: Two perspectives on theory and practice (2008) The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/497/1043
The Impact of Collaborative, Scaffolded Learning in K-12 Schools: A Meta-Analysis (2011) The Metri Group. Retrieved from: https://www.cisco.com/web/about/citizenship/socio-economic/docs/Metiri_Classroom_Collaboration_Research.pdf
Pullman, M. Wiggins, E. And Bruns, E (2011) THEORY, PROGRAMS, AND
family probably feels occasional loneliness and isolation due to the parents being migrant workers. To strengthen family and community bonds in a way that respects the family's privacy, I would first approach them to offer a warm welcome gift. If the family seemed receptive to socializing and integrating with the community, then I would be able to take the relationship a step further. Otherwise, it would be wrong to assume that the family is interested in immediately engaging in social activities that are artificial, structured, and potentially of no interest to them. It is important to understand the cultural variables that are at stake too. If the family speaks different languages than the ones already spoken in our community, it might be helpful to find some way of learning about that family's language and culture. The children should be encouraged to talk about their background, their way of life, and…
National Education Association (2014). Code of ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.nea.org/home/30442.htm
"Twelve Principles of Child Development and Learning that Inform Practice," (n.d.). NAEYC. Retrieved online: https://www.naeyc.org/dap/12-principles-of-child-development
Considering your analysis of your audience, how do you plan on gaining their confidence and respect and touching their emotions, and what style choices will you make in order to do so?
My audience will consist of college students and professors. Therefore, the audience will be an academic one, concerned about issues related to academia and scholarship. I plan to gain the confidence and respect of the audience with the rhetorical foundations of pathos, ethos, and logos. First, I will offer background information about myself to establish personal credibility. I will relay anecdotal evidence from people that I know. This way, I will be creating ethos and bolstering my argument. Next, I will create an emotional connection with the audience by relating my topic to their personal lives. I will inspire and motivate my audience to make meaningful changes based on the information I will present. The information will…
Bruinsma, Marjon. Effectiveness of higher education: Factors that determine outcomes of university education. Universal 2003.
Roen, DH & Willey, R.J. The effects of audience awareness on drafting and revising. Research in the Teaching of English 22(1).
Education and Bullying -- Argumentative esearch Paper
Bullying and Education
Education and Bullying
Argumentative esearch Paper
The purpose of the research in this work is to answer the question, "Does bullying effect an individual's education? First bullying will be defined in the perimeter of the educational environment. The author of this work takes the stance that bullying does most positively affect an individual in terms of their quality of education and in fact does continue to affect the individual who receives and even the one who perpetrates the bullying behavior. Inclusive in the research will be the stated 'signs' of bullying behavior taking place, preventative measures that are stated to be effective, types of bullying behavior, and common myths surrounding those who are bullies. Some important facts about violence in schools are stated to be that first, that 1/3 of all injury death that occurs in the United States are…
Rigby, Ken (1997) What Children Tell Us About Bullying in Schools Children Australia (1997) 22, 2, 28, 34. University of South Australia. Online at: http://www.educa tion.unisa.edu.au/bullying/childtelus.htm
The emotional cost of bullying Mental Health and Growing Up, Third Edition. Factsheet 18, for parents and teachers. Online available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.k/info / mhgu/newmhgu18.htm.
Consequence of Bullying in Schools Online available at: htttp://www.educationworld.com / searchnew/adv_results.jsp
Youth Violence: A Public Health Concern (nd) CSPV School Violence Fact Sheet. Center for the Study of Violence Online available at; http://www.colorado.edu/cspv/p blications/factsheets/schoolvioleence/FSSV02.html.
Inclusion, Special Education
Inclusive Classrooms -- How Literature Helps
Making meaning in Literature: A Workshop for Teachers, Grade 6-8 -- Workshop 5: Student Diversity. (2011). Retrieved December 14, 2011, from Annenberg Learner: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1832
Education -- Multimedia Questions
Reflections on Videos and eb Sites
Open Society Foundations: Early Childhood Intervention: The Power of Family
I was surprised by: the comment that the first 3 years of knowledgeable family involvement are especially important and that plasticity (the ability to change) is mostly in the first 3 years; and that waiting for diagnosis and conscious family involvement in helping the "delayed" child could mean loss of the critical first few months, which could mean actually waiting too long to most effectively help children (Open Society Foundations, 2013). The web site featuring this video is at https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/videos/early-childhood-intervention-and-power-family.
Center for Parent Information and Resources website on Parent Participation in the Early Years
In reviewing this web site, I was surprised that seeking an evaluation for possible early intervention is readily available in the community and can sought through contact with several sources, including: the local hospital's pediatrics branch…
CEN Videos. (n.d.). Early Years and Parent Involvement. Retrieved from vimeo.com: https://vimeo.com/25770266
Center for Parent Information and Resources. (2014, March). Overview of Early Intervention. Retrieved from www.parentcenterhub.org: http://www.parentcenterhub.org/repository/ei-overview/
Colorin colorado. (n.d.). Assessment of English Language Learners. Retrieved from www.colorincolorado.org: http://www.colorincolorado.org/webcast/assessment-english-language-learners
Corwin. (2009, September 14). Morgo Gottlieb - Assessing English Language Learners. Retrieved from www.youtube.com: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HSJcRd1cDoA
Self-Monitoring in Education
Putting individuals with "intellectual disabilities" and "challenging behaviors" into regular classrooms is clearly a good idea - the educational literature supports this. But what happens once they are in the classroom? How does one then improve the social behavior and learning opportunities of these students? One idea, cooperative learning (also called peer tutoring), does show some promise; however, another idea based around the technique of self-monitoring/self-recording is specifically highlighted in the article under discussion. This method (which trains a student to identify, record and modify inappropriate behavior) was introduced to a certain thirteen-year-old girl named Pauline who had lived in a Romanian orphanage for ten years and had suffered "severe deprivation and abuse." The specific behaviors targeted in Pauline were stereotypic in quality (body-rocking and hand gazing) as well as consistent in quantity (they occurred consistently throughout the school day).
This "targeting" of behavior took the form…
search "students with disabilities in higher education" consist of themes that focus on the need to assist learning disability students in universities by extending their test taking time (Spenceley, Wheeler, 2016; Hadley, 2011), by identifying their disability and providing extra assistance and resources (Budd et al., 2016; Callens, Tops, Brysbaert, 2013; Diez, Lopez, Molina, 2015; Kimberley, Laurie, 2011), and by applying programs designed to assist students with learning disabilities in particular classes in which they consistently struggle (King-Sears et al., 2015; Sachs, Schreuer, 2011; yan, 2011; Hutcheon, Wolbring, 2012).
Spenceley and Wheeler (2016) find that extending the test times for students with disabilities is one way in which universities can help such students work towards graduating college. Hadley (2011) likewise identifies the need for universities to extend more welcoming and favorable conditions to students with disabilities in order to facilitate their academic aims. This theme is essentially supported by the…
Budd, J. et al. (2016). Postsecondary students with specific learning disabilities and with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder should not be considered as a unified group for research or practice. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(4): 206-216.
Callens, M., Tops, W., Brysbaert, M. (2012). Cognitive profile of students who enter higher education with an indication of dyslexia. PLoS ONE, 7(6): e38081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038081
Diez, A., Lopez, R., Molina, V. (2015). Students with disabilities in higher education: a biographical-narrative approach to the role of lecturers. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(1): 147-159.
Hadley, W. (2011). College students with disabilities: A student development perspective. New Directions for Higher Education, 154: 77-81.
S. Office of Education (Osgood 1999).
Each federal act preceding the Education for All Handicapped Children Act freed up funds for special education training programs and for special education programs themselves. Moreover, the legislation raised awareness about the breadth and diversity of the disabled community and helped to reduce stigma. President Johnson followed well in the footsteps of his predecessor by establishing the Committee on Mental etardation and helping to pass Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA, PL 89-10). The Act opened up funds to be used at the state level for special education and lead to the creation of the Bureau of Education of the Handicapped. Although focused on the needs of the mentally disabled community, the Johnson era legislation was integral in providing precedent for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
Osgood (1999) also suggests that impetus for the Education for All Handicapped Children Act came from…
Ford, Gerald. (1975). Statement on Signing the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/750707.htm
Osgood, R.L. (nd). The History of Inclusion in the United States. Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/bookpage/HIUSbookpage.html
Raschke, D. & Bronson, J. (1999). "Inclusion." Excerpt from "Creative Educators at Work: All Children Including Those with Disabilities Can Play Traditional Classroom Games." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://www.uni.edu/coe/inclusion/philosophy/benefits.html
Special Education Laws and Legislation." Retrieved Mar 11, 2009 at http://atto.buffalo.edu/registered/ATBasics/Foundation/Laws/specialed.php
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
special education has changed dramatically. Gone are the days of the special classroom down the hall where special education students were hidden away and kept from the general student population. Gone are the days when special education students were given comic books to read and passed because they were there. Civil rights mandates of the 1960's turned the world of special education inside out and today, four decades later, special education students are fully protected by federal law. Special education students are now educated in the least restrictive environment which many times means they are mainstreamed into regular education classrooms, with a variety of peer abilities. This blending of abilities is commonly referred to as inclusion, and it is so named because of the idea that it includes students of different abilities in one educational setting. Inclusion is practiced throughout the nation, and in all grade levels at this point…
Preparing Teachers for the Inclusion Classroom:
understanding assistive technology and its role in education
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…
Special education as a concept is historically shrouded in controversy. (Seligmann, 2001, p. 1) Additionally the demand for special education funding and implementation has only increased as the number of students recognized as needing special services has continued to grow exponentially within the past forty years. (Macht, 1998, p. 1) The cultural awareness of the challenges and concerns of developmentally delayed students has also increased exponentially since the time when such people were secluded from society at home or institutionalized in inappropriately severe and clinical settings. Questions wavering between the mainstreaming of special needs students and insolating them in systems designed specifically to meet their needs seem to be eternal. The fundamental answers to these quests, as with most things must lie in the middle ground, where partial inclusion offers both challenged and less challenged learners the opportunities of social and educational interaction in a balanced and positive formulation.…
Crockett, J.B., & Kauffman, J.M. (1999). The Least Restrictive Environment Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crockett, J.B. (2002). Special education's role in preparing responsive leaders for inclusive schools. Remedial and Special Education, 23(3), 157+..
Hines, Rebecca A. "Inclusion in Middle Schools: ERIC Digest." 2003 http://search.epnet.com/direct.asp?an=ED459000&db=eric&tg=AN .
Jenkins, A.A., Pateman, B., & Black, R.S. (2002). Partnerships for dual preparation in elementary, secondary and special education programs. Remedial and Special Education, 23(6), 359+.
Based on these findings, a number of assessment tools are used to evaluate students' abilities and the most appropriate level of participation in general educational settings (A Parent's Guide, 2002).
Early childhood education programs in District 75 have been affected by other federal mandates, including the Governmental Performance eporting Act (GPA) and the Program Assessment ating Tool (PAT); both of these initiatives require that all federal programs (e.g., Head Start, childcare, and programs for children with disabilities) must provide performance data concerning the progress that has been made toward meeting the goals of the program, which in turn are used to formulate federal budget allocations (ous et al., 2007). Current performance data for District 75 is presented at Appendix A.
Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP). In those cases where the District 75 assessment committee finds that children require services and a special education setting, they are provided with an Individualized…
About us. (2011). New York City Department of Education. Retrieved from http://schools.nyc.
Annual yearly progress. (2011). New York State Department of Education. Retrieved from
For the teachers working with the 6.6 million students in special education classes this is a nearly impossible task. As the pressure increased for schools to meet "Adequate Yearly Progress" (AYP), and administrators see that their special education classes are dragging their schools down, that will cause administrators to put more pressure on special education teachers and the result will likely be more special education teachers changing fields or quitting their positions (Thornton, p. 234).
Factors that could help reduce the special education shortages. Meantime, Thornton offers suggestions for improving the situation in schools across the U.S. with regard to special education teacher shortages. For example, politicians, education leaders and policy makers "can take measure to alleviate, or at least minimize, the crisis" by increasing the pool of candidates for teaching certification. In other words, meet the demands of the existing special education teachers and offer incentives for teaching candidates…
Billingsley, Bonnie S. (2004). Special Education Teacher Retention and Attrition: A Critical
Analysis of the Research Literature. The Journal of Special Education, 38(1), 39-55.
Boe, Erling E. (2006). Long-Term Trends in the National Demand, Supply, and Shortage of Special Education Teachers. The Journal of Special Education, 40(3), 138-150.
Kaufhold, John A., Alverez, Velma G., and Arnold, Mitylene. (2006). Lack of School Supplies,
Inclusion is thought to be a best practice. Under this philosophy most students with mild disabilities spend the greater part of their day in the general education setting with their peers. Students may be allocated an instructional assistant to help them with their work. Some students with learning disabilities often spend time in a resource room in order to receive direct instruction. The special education team may decide that this is not the right path for a student and try a more restrictive setting known as partial inclusion. Partial inclusion refers to when a student partakes in the general education setting for part of the day but receives the bulk of their academic instruction in a resource room. Due to the severity of some student's disabilities, they may be assigned to a self-contained classroom in where they will spend at least 60% of their school day working directly with the…
Cortiella, C. (2009). The State of Learning Disabilities. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from New
York, NY: National Center for Learning Disabilities Web site:
Godovnikova, L.V. (2009). The Conditions for the Integrated Education of Children with Impaired Development. Russian Education & Society. 51(10), p.26-39.
In addition, this article also emphasizes the use of the faculty scholars model. This model is dependent upon a distributive leadership framework which places the focus on leadership instead of individual leaders. identifies four key factors to be addressed: "building trust; redesigning jobs; changing organizational structures; and creating a learning culture" The authors further explain that in congruence with the distributive leadership framework there are certain principles of learning including "authentic contexts and tasks, multiple roles and perspectives, the collaborative construction of knowledge, coaching and scaffolding [by a mentor], and evaluation (Lefoe et al., 2007)."
According to a book entitled Turnaround for Higher Education Leadership, turning academic people into effective leaders is a serious task and challenge. However, when such leaders exist they can be a valuable to an institute of higher learning because they understood the learning environment that students need to succeed. In addition, they have the capacity…
Caldwell, C. Shapiro P.J., Gross S.J. (2007) Ethical Leadership in Higher Education Admission: Equality vs. Equity. Journal of College Admission. 195 p14-19
Davies J.; Hides M.T.; Casey S (2001).Leadership in Higher Education.
Total Quality Management, 12( 7-8), pp. 1025-1030
Fullan, M., Scott G.(2009) Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education. Wiley Publishing.
" (Stevens, 2006) While the pay of education staff has been lowered, tuition fees have been raised and yet public spending."..on higher education in the UK is one of the lowest in the industrialized world." (Stevens, 2006) Currently ritain is stated to spend only 1.1% of its national income on higher education, compared with the EU average of 1.2%." (Stevens, 2006; paraphrased) the U.S. spends 2.6% of its national income on higher education according to Stevens. The Labour and Conservative parties in ritain are conspiring to bring about an increase of private funding for higher education "but only to encourage the social stratification that has taken place." (Stevens, 2006) the proposal is for the establishment of a system in which a "select group of 'world class' universities would be established, with the majority of universities left to compete amongst themselves for ever dwindling public funding." (Stevens, 2006) Oxford and Cambridge…
Smith, Liz (2007) Report reveals UK youth abandoned by education system. WWS News 25 June, 2007. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2007/jun2007/educ-j25.shtml
Stevens, Robert (2006) Britain: Poorer Student Numbers Fall as Tuition Fees are Hiked Up. 27 Dec 2006. World Socialist Web Site. WEWS.org News and Analysis. Online available at http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/dec2006/univ-d27.shtml
School Leaving Age to be Raised to 18 (2007) Evening Standard 1 Jan 2007. Online available at http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23381446-details/School+leaving+age+ 'to+be+raised+to+18'/article.do
Capital Support for the Expansion of Successful and Popular Secondary Schools (2007) Teachernet. Online available at http://www.teachernet.gov.uk/management/resourcesfinanceandbuilding/FSP/successfulandpopular/
.." (Fluker, 2006). According to research, 90% of faculty and 75% of students enrolled in doctoral religious studies programs in the United States and Canada are Caucasian (American Academy of eligion, 2003). Fluker argues (and rightfully so), "Without racial and ethnic diversity, schools fail to create a positive institutional climate in which students from all backgrounds can succeed. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students fail to meet and learn from role models and mentors they can emulate in their own vocations. Without racial and ethnic diversity, students of all races fail to learn how to relate to the diverse world in which they will live and work after graduation..."
The fourth article "Education Groups Push for Greater Diversity in Teaching Force" defends the fact that "a lack of racial and cultural diversity among teachers is hurting the chances of success for minority students..." (Cox, Matthews & Associates, 2004). esearch suggests…
Cherwitz, R.A. (2004). Capitalizing on unintended consequences: Lessons on diversity from Texas (Reality Check). Peer Review 6 (3), 33-36.
Fluker, S.W. (2006). Diversity delayed, excellence denied. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, 23 (4), 59-60.
Noteworthy News (2004). Education groups push for greater diversity in teaching force. Black Issues in Higher Education, 21(21), 14-15.
Valentin, S. (2006). Addressing diversity in teacher education programs
One of the most difficult and fundamental problems this presents is a language barrier, as many of the minority students are from Hispanic households and some only recently arrived in the country. In contrast, we only have 2 Hispanic employees, both of whom work in food service, and two teachers, one of whom is the ESL teacher, who speak Spanish. If we were to have a diversity-centered recruitment program, these children may find themselves more accurately represented by the teacher population, and would also have more options for expressing themselves clearly and being understood correctly.
The need for training is also clear, though there is some resistance to it among the longer-serving teachers. While all of the teachers have the best intentions to be non-biased and inclusive in their teaching and evaluating, there is a lack of information about cultural differences that sometime hinders them. For instance, Victor Hernandez (2010)…
Parker, W. (2003) Teaching democracy: unity and diversity in public life. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.
Cole, D. And Ahmadi, S. (March/April 2010) Reconsidering campus diversity: an examination of Muslim students' experiences. The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 81, No. 2, 121-139.
Shudak, N. (Sept 2010) Diversity in teacher education: a double helix. Academic Questions, Vol. 23, Issue 3, 348-355.
Lee, J. (June 2010) Students' perceptions of and satisfaction with faculty diversity. College Student Journal, Vol. 44, Issue 2.
Thus for students to reap the maximum benefit from the distance education more particularly over the cultural obstacles, these elements are to be taken into account prior to designing of the courses. (Global Distance Education Initiative: Principles and Practices of International Distance Education)
To supplement, only one in 20% of people worldwide are online and most of those about 60% reside in North America having only five percent of global population. Only 14 million telephone lines exist in the whole of Africa which is quite lesser than that exists in Manhattan or Tokyo. It is not possible in case of a particular agency or nation to meet the huge costs of extending universal Internet access. However, most of the organizations, companies, and individuals are engaged in devising the methods to bridge the gap one connection at a time through targeted and cost-effective efforts. Devoid of electricity and phone lines, the…
Forster, Peter. The effect of distance learning on tertiary education in the pacific region: A discussion article. Retrieved at http://www.blue-oceans.com/psychology/docs/globalisation_pac_edu.pdf . Accessed on 24 December, 2004
Lee, Inkyung; Do, Joonho. Global Distance Education Initiative: Principles and Practices of International Distance Education. Occasional Paper 97-01. Institute for Public Policy and Social Research Michigan State University. October 1997. Retrieved at http://www.ippsr.msu.edu/Documents/gdei.pdf. Accessed on 24 December, 2004
Strehle, Glenn P. Distance Learning in America: How Institutions and Corporations are Stimulating Growth. September 26, 2000. Retrieved at http://caes.mit.edu/headquarters/report-20000926.html. Accessed on 24 December, 2004
Van Hook, Steven R. Distance Education: Will Global Learning Get Online? Jones International University. August 26, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.west.net/~wwmr/distance.htm. Accessed on 24 December, 2004
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
Teaching Special Education Students
In the classroom, teachers are primarily responsible for ensuring that special education students are provided with equal opportunities for education. While instructors should not lower academic standards in the classroom, they should make every effort to make reasonable accommodations for students with disabilities. y making simple adjustments, such as allowing students to record lectures or changing the format of a test, teachers can make sure that special education students do not have academic or social disadvantages.
Setting up the Classroom
In the classroom, simple changes can make a great difference for special education students. For example, by arranging desks in a manner where each student has his own personal space, as opposed to sitting in groups, special education students have less chances of being distracted.
There should be various centers in the class that provide a space for students to go when they are finished with…
Klinger, J., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Students' perceptions of instruction in inclusion classrooms: Implications for students with learning disabilities. Exceptional Children.
Polloway, E., Bursuck, W., Jayanthi, M., Epstein, M., & Nelson, J. (1996). Treatment acceptability: Determining appropriate interventions within inclusive classrooms. Intervention In School and Clinic.
Brattlan, Lee. (2002) Brief Reference of Student Disabilities:...with Strategies for the Classroom.
Adult Education and the Internet
Higher Education, the Internet, and the Adult Learner
The concept of using the Internet in the pursuit of higher education is not exactly new. Indeed, the institution of "distance learning," has been in full swing since the heyday of late night Sally Struthers correspondence-school commercials. What has changed, however, is the increasing legitimacy and widespread use of the Internet in the pursuit of higher education -- from the research of traditional college students, to the complete education of students enrolled in "online universities" and courses.
Adult students face unique challenges when they utilize the Internet as part of their education in ways that mirror the issues they face within other instructional modalities.
In seeking to understand just how adults learn, these issues must be viewed collectively, for general adult learner/adult education studies must be considered as a whole along with the added factors arising out…
Kerka, Sandra. Distance Learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed395214.html
Imel, Susan. Ethical Practice in Adult Education. http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed338897.html
Brockett, R.G. "Ethics and the Adult Educators." In ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADULT EDUCATION, edited by R.G. Brockett. New York: Teachers College Press, 1988a.
Social trends in Education / the next 5 years
With societal establishments and school structures, we can carry the most important task of providing youths with the necessary education which will provide them opportunities to thrive in our community. A simple casual glance at the comparative mode of lifestyle in our country would make it obvious that these establishments performed in an excellent manner for the greater part of this century. But the universe is transforming in manners that radically remodels the suppositions, customs and guiding principles, which catered the American people earlier. Besides, the pace of transformation is gearing up at an amazing speed, requiring in many customs and establishments the need to progress in certain spheres. To look forward to modifications, to a certain extent than acting in response to it, schools are spotting developments and scrutinizing their probable connotations.
ather than guessing what the coming years has…
Anglin, John. S. Educational Trends for the Future. Handbook of Theory and Research in Higher Education: Volume: 8; pp. 115-121. New York: Agathon, 2002
Carter, Holly. Implementation of International Competence Strategies: Faculty. In Bridges to the Future: Strategies for Internationalizing Higher Education, pp.191-203. Ed. Charles Klasek, Carbondale, Illinois: Association of International Education Administrators, 1992.
Corson, David. Language Diversity and Education. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2001.
Morrison, J.L. Higher-Education Trends and Indicators. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Volume: 46, No: 3; September 10, 1999; p. A54
principals who are equity-oriented, marginalized dynamics may crop up in schools that are changing demographically at a rapid pace (Cooper, 2009). This essay reflects upon how educators may play the role of transformative leaders by way of carrying out cultural work that tackles inequity, addresses and/or attempts to remove socio-cultural limits, and promotes inclusion. The theories of Cornel West on 'the new cultural politics of difference' appraise the topic, as do literary works on transformative leadership to promote social justice.
Highlighting the ever-changing policy responses in the history of educational leadership, along with their contextual settings, explains the necessity for another glimpse at the manner in which educational leadership should be considered in recent times. Gale & Densmore (2003) found that educational leaders are now faced with contradictory pressures -- on the one hand, to favor some student groups over others, yet, on the other hand, to ensure that disadvantaged…
Appiah, K.A. (2006). The politics of identity. Daedulus, 135(4), 15-22.
Barrett, A. (2012). Transformative leadership and the purpose of schooling. Unpublished dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Bell, D.A. (1987). Neither separate schools nor mixed schools: The chronicle of the sacrificed Black schoolchildren. In D. Bell (Ed.); And we are not saved: The elusive quest for racial justice (pp. 102 -- 122). New York: Basic Books.
Brown, K.M. (2004). Leadership for social justice and equity: Weaving a transformative framework and pedagogy. Education Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 77-108.