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Indigenous People Essays (Examples)

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The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Words: 1992 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30375005
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Traditional Custodians of the Land
The local community is heavily influenced by the culture and practices of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. They make up Australia’s indigenous people and comprise several groups that have different languages, traditions, and histories. The history and knowledge of the indigenous communities were passed down from one generation to the next through performance, language, story-telling, elders’ teachings, and preservation of important sites. Indigenous Australians are not just limited to the local community. They can be found all over the nation from the cities to the expansive arid lands. The definition the Australian government gives to Indigenous people is people of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identify with those communities and are accepted by the communities they live in as part of the group. Not all Aboriginal and Torres Islander people willingly identify by the groups of their descent. While the number…

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2018, Profile of indigenous Australians. Available from [26 January 2019].
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2018, Indigenous Australians’ access to and use of health services. Available from [26 January 2019].
Australia Population 2018, Australian population 2019. Available from [26 January 2019].
NSW Government 2018, Places of significance. Available from [26 January 2019].
NSW Department of Community Services 2009, Working with Aboriginal people and communities: A practice resource. Available from [26 January 2019].
State Government of Victoria 2018, Aboriginal cultural heritage of Victoria. Available from [26 January 2019].
Tonkinson, R & Berndt, RM 2019, ‘Australian Aboriginal people’, Encyclopedia Britannica. Available from [26 January 2019].

Indigenous Populations in Republican Rome Ca 500
Words: 1612 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28770495
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Indigenous populations in epublican ome (ca. 500 BCE -- 31 BCE)

Citizenship in colonial era

IV Comparison and Contrast

The issues citizenship of indigenous populations in the oman epublic and during the colonial era in Europe provides comprehensive information regarding how the indigenous populations were treated by Europeans. The right to get justice and to self-determine their politico-social life is the main issues that political philosophy is confronted with (Kabeer, 2002). The internationalization and globalization phenomenon has increased the debate on the issue as the indigenous population demands the rights that only citizenship status grants to individuals. espect and rights are demanded by the indigenous populations and these are accompanied with obligations as well, that being argued by the nation states and expansionist regimes. Citizenship has been regarded as a humane word with plethora of rights and obligation associated to it. The oman epublic is considered as a spearhead of…


Acemoglu, D, Johnson, S & Robinson, J 2003,'The rise of Europe: Atlantic trade, institutional change and economic growth',The American Economic Review, Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 546-579.

Dodds, S 1998,'Citizenship, justice and indigenous group-specific rights-Citizenship and indigenous Australia',Citizenship studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 105-119.

Fantham, E 2005,'Liberty and the people in Republican Rome',In Transactions of the American Philological Association, Vol. 135, No. 2, pp. 209-229. 2013, 'Voting Chain of Events Directions', Viewed on 15 Apr 2013, [ ]

Indigenous Studies Colonization Can Negatively
Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18600663
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In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.

Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.

Government policy and exclusion

According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…

Works Cited

Aboriginal health issues. 

Anderson, I.,&Whyte, D. (2006). Australian Federalism and Aboriginal Health. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2, 5-16.

McCalman, J., Morley, R., & Mishra, G. (2008). A health transition: Birth weights, households and survival in an Australian working class population sample born 1857 -- 1900. Social Science & Medicine, 66, 1070-1083.

McCalman J., Smith L., Anderson I., Morley R., Mishra G. (2009) Colonialism and the health transition: Aboriginal Australians and poor whites compared, Victoria, 1850 -- 1985. History of the Family 14-253 -- 265

Indigenous Culture in Australia Has
Words: 2038 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49992763
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" [Parliament of Australia]

The Future

Australia's aboriginal population is currently estimated around 4,60,000 roughly constituting 2.3% of the national population. [Australian Government] However, the sad fact is that aborigines have higher rates of alcohol and drug abuse and unemployment. Prime minister Rudd declared a state of emergency in the northern territory following high reports of alcoholism and child sexual abuse among the aboriginal communities. Efforts were also taken to restrict the use of welfare money only in stipulated shops so as to ensure that money is not spent on alcohol. Such intervention measures have created controversies but the government persists with these emergency measures citing the acute needs of the aboriginal communities. Prime minister Rudd envisions a future "where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again. A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to close the…


1) Dr. Michael Halloran, 'Cultural Maintenance and Trauma in Indigenous Australia: Paper presented at the 23rd Annual Australia and New Zealand Law and History Society Conference, Perth, Western Australia (2-4th July, 2004), retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, 

2) Reconcili Action Network, (Jul 2007) 'Stolen generations', retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from,

3) UNPO, (2008), 'Aboriginals of Australia', retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, 

4) HREOC, (Apr 1997) 'Bringing Them Home: Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Report', retrieved Aug 24th 2010, from, '

Indigenous Religion in Order to
Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84116340
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To understand an indigenous religion, one must first understand the indigenous way-of-life, which cannot be done once one has an understanding of science and the world at large.

The problem is that, finding indigenous religions inaccessible, members of the dominant culture generally try to eliminate indigenous religions. As a general rule, the major world religions contain a tenet that each one worships the only actual god and that others struggle in darkness. Furthermore, they may also contain admonitions to "save" those who are not yet members of the religion in question. Therefore, when an indigenous population is discovered, members of the dominant culture often try to envelop it into the larger culture. Furthermore, because world religions account for the presence of multiple types of people, while indigenous religions do not, it is easy for the dominant culture to swallow-up the indigenous one, but not for the converse to occur.

People's History of the US by Zinn
Words: 642 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99300093
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People's History of the U.S. By Zinn

The responses to the Indian removal campaign were as diverse as the tribes themselves. Some fought, some surrendered, and within some tribes, they did both. For one tribe, the Creek, there were those that chose to fight Andrew Jackson's troops and protect their land. In some cases, this involved aggressive attacks against U.S. encampments. Others within the Creek Nation chose to cooperate with U.S. troops, lured by the promise of friendly relations if they should comply. As such, they joined Jackson's forces in battle against their fellow tribe members. They were rewarded, after the U.S. massacre, with seizure of their land. Some Native American groups chose to sign treaties with the government and believed that they would be relocated to areas that were more secure. This was rarely true, and as a result indigenous people were shuttled from one place to another, often…

2. In general, the history of indigenous-white relations is a story of oppression and mistreatment. While a lot of violence occurred on both sides of the several Indian-U.S. government wars, there is little question that the government were the aggressors in their relentless removal campaign. Before this removal campaign, however, white settlers had to rely upon the Natives' knowledge of the land upon which they were now making a home. This reliance created peace. But once the itch of capitalism set in and the use of land for mass farming was necessary, relations changed. Speckled Snake felt, in short, that the white man was a father, who had been nourished by the Indians' kindness and now became large and powerful. He went on to say that the "father" only wanted his "sons" to stay away now, while he swallowed up the resources of the land. In a certain sense, he is correct. The white man did become great on the back of the Indian, but had grown more powerful and was using that power to move the Indian further and further afield.

3. The negotiations between the U.S. And the First Nations were more or less one-sided in favor of the government. Some of the treaties may have seemed kind, but on closer look changed the culture and fabric of the Indian lifestyle, eroding their power. One example is Jackson's 1814 treaty which created individual ownership of land, as the Indians had shared a more communal attitude toward the Earth and this created competition. Other treaties were simply ways to make Indian removal official and did not provide for any advantages to the Native people. They gave over land to the government upon threat of violence if the Natives resisted. Even more of an insult than the general unfairness of the treaties was the fact that the government did not always abide by them.

4. American foreign policy is marked by imperialism and paternalism and these are the same attitudes that were exhibited toward the Indians. Because of raw greed, the government chose to subject the Native people to actions that were not in their best interest (in this case, removal from their land). In cases when they resisted, the government declared war. Often, this was couched in a claim of self-defense. This happens even today, when the U.S.'s business interests (particularly in the hunt for oil) lead them to foreign nations to try to conquer foreign people. Beyond this, the government generally has an interest in the assimilation of foreign people into the American way of life. Democracy, capitalism, and materialism are promoted. The Natives who thrived did so only because they chose to go into business, to run their own farms, and to govern themselves to the extent they were allowed. These actions all ran counter to their old lifestyle.

People Hate America At the
Words: 3072 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35074848
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The authors go on to say that America has also forced their extreme versions of free capitalism and true democracy on the rest of the world, including into many places where those concepts really do not work. The American corporations that move into those areas control what food is eaten as well as grown there, and the conglomerates in the media bury most of the native culture of these other places under a strong onslaught full of American entertainment.

The authors, Sardar and Davies, address all of these issues with insight and research. The chapters in which they address culture very strongly, however, become somewhat repetitive and almost whiny on occasion. However, the authors are not saying that everyone has to agree with everything that they say. Even without agreeing with them completely, it is very easy to see that there are good reasons why many people do not like…


Sardar, Ziauddin & Davies, Merryl Wyn. (2003). Why do people hate America? Icon Books Ltd.; 2 Rev ed.

Indigenous Sacred Ways
Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46329910
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ancestor veneration and also looks at shamanism in ancient Native American cultures.

Indigenous Ways

Indigenous sacred ways are the religions and spiritual beliefs of native and aboriginal people. These sacred ways often evolved as an attempt by these people to make sense of the mysteries of the universe, and to put the world and the cosmos into some kind of order that they could understand. Their sacred ways were expressed through ceremonies, art, rituals, and the daily practices of life. This paper takes a closer look at two important sacred ways of indigenous people -- ancestor veneration and shamanism.

Ancestor veneration is one of the central sacred practices of many indigenous people. Basically, this is ancestor worship. In indigenous cultures that practices ancestor veneration, the soul is just one more never changing part of the universe. This means that we here on earth have a responsibility to ensure the comfort…


Christie, Michael. "Rivalries Brew in Mexico Witchcraft Capital." (1999). RickRoss.Com. Retrieved on October 18, 2003 at  / reference/wicca/wicca37.html.

Nyamiti, Charles. "Ancestor Veneration in Africa." (n.d.). Afrikaworld. Retrieved on October 18, 2003 at .

Shamanism: General Overview." (1995). Deoxy. Retrieved on October 18, 2003 at

Diabetes and Indigenous Australians
Words: 2524 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25859858
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Indigenous Australians and Diabetes

In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).

Diabetes and the afflicted person

Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:



Daily life



Physically (Shaw, 2012)



Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2006) The health and welfare of Australia's Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples 2006. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007a) Review of diabetes among Indigenous peoples. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from 

Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet (2007b) Background information on Diabetes. Retrieved June 7, 2014 from 

Bhattacharyya et al. (2002). Inpatient management of diabetes mellitus and patient satisfaction. Diabetic medicine: A journal of the British Diabetic Association, 19 (5), 412-416.

Indigenous Australian Patients Evidence-Based Discussion
Words: 1054 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14666361
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In order to assess Yvonne and her symptoms, the nurse practitioner must show patience and understanding. In the treatment of the symptoms, whether to relieve the fevers or perform scans and tests to find the source of the abdominal pain, the nurse practitioner must give Yvonne and her relatives significant input into the management of the illness. Optimal outcomes can be achieved by providing information to the patient that decreases fear, timely involvement of the doctor in the administration of pain medications and emotional support (McGrath, P. 2006).

eflective practices can have considerable effectiveness in the care of Yvonne. In a paper discussing the benefits of reflective care, Ben Hannigan (2001) argues that reliance on practical knowledge alone is insufficient to solving medical problems as they are rarely abstract in nature. eflection by the nurse practitioner embeds the medical problem into the social context and allows the practitioner to engage…


1. Mununggirritj, D. Yolngu Healer's Medicine: Plants used by the women healers of North-East Arnhem Land. [Online] Available at:  [Accessed 3 September 2011].

2. McGrath P., 2006. 'The biggest worry..': research findings on pain management for Aboriginal peoples in Northern Territory, Australia. Rural Remote Health 6(3), p.549

3. Aboriginal Resource and Development Services (ARDS) [Online] Available at: . [Accessed 3 September 2011].

4. Cass A, Lowell A, Christie M, Snelling PL, Flack M, Marmganyin B, Brown I., 2002. Sharing the true stories: improving communication between Aboriginal patients and healthcare workers. Mad J. Aust 176(10), pp.466-70

Indigenous Art
Words: 318 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47953202
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Indigenous Art

North America




date 8-11th century, d. stone, e. Currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.

The sculpture depicts a warrior, showing how warrior qualities were essential to survival in the culture. My European friends would think this statue has great symmetry and form because it does.

outh America

Inca, b. Gold Llama:

c. date: about 1500 C.E., d. gold, e. British Museum

The gold sculpture was likely to be an offering or a burial object. My European friends would think it was beautiful, even though it is simple.

6. a. Inca, b. Textile from Nazca:

c. date: around 1500 BCE, d. wool textile, e. private collection

The textile may have been decorative or worn. My European friends would think it was beautiful, with interesting faces.


7. a. Java, b. Klana mask:

c. date: 20th century, d. wood and paint,…

Sub-Saharan Africa

9. a. Dogon, b. Figures with Xylophone: 

10. a. Dogon, b. Standing Man:

Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and
Words: 2500 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72970397
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Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm

Patterns of health and illness

Physical Health

Mental Health

Spiritual Health

Social Health

Impact of Broader Environments






Critical eflection

Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).

Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2012, Australia's health 2012, AIHW, Australia.

Biddle, N & Yap, M 2010, Demographic and Socioeconomic Outcomes Across the Indigenous Australian Lifecourse: Evidence from the 2006 Census, ANU E. Press, Australia.

Caltabiano, ML & Ricciardelli, L 2012, Applied Topics in Health Psychology, John Wiley & Sons, Great Britain.

Carson, B, Dunbar, T & Chenhall, RD 2007, Social Determinants of Indigenous Health, Allen & Unwin, Singapore.

Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights Regarding the Politics of the Amazon
Words: 2759 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99636182
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Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon

In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.

Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.


Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…


Davis, S. (1993). Indigenous Views of Land and the Environment. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 188.

Davis, S. Partridge, W. (2002). Promoting the Development of Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. Retrieved from the Internet at

Fraser, Barbara. (October 26, 2001). Indigenous groups seek self-determination. Latin America Press.

Moran, E. (1993). Through Amazonian Eyes: The Human Ecology of Amazonian Populations. Univ. Of Iowa Press.

How European Interactions Benefitted Indigenous Women
Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75476332
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Indigenous societies existed in North America in the period between 1600s and 1800s. The roles and responsibilities of men and women during this period were clearly identified despite the hundreds of cultures that dominated indigenous societies. Despite the existence of separate cultures, indigenous men in North America were primarily responsible for hunting and warfare while women were mandated with the responsibility of handling the internal operations of the community. In this case, indigenous women were responsible for taking care of households and upbringing of their children. However, indigenous women in North America during this period were mostly considered as slaves to men. Indigenous men had more visible, public roles, while indigenous women served as slaves to men. Indigenous women depended on men for decision-making and had relatively minimal control of their bodies. In this essay, I argue that indigenous women benefitted from the interactions with Europeans who arrived North America…

Interaction Between the Indigenous and
Words: 2421 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32873646
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In 1992 there was a problem with the courts and the land disputes that were occurring between the two cultures.

In the case of Mabo and Others vs. The State of Queensland and the Commonwealth of Australia, decided in 1992, the Australian High Court ruled that the land tenure rights of the indigenous inhabitants of the Murray Islands in the Torres Strait did not extend seaward beyond the high water mark (Sharp, 1997). This decision reflected a Eurocentric bias and ignored the islanders' traditional claims to exclusive use of the reefs and seas surrounding their land territories (Sharp, 1997). Factfinders for the court applied the European conception of sea rights to the case, under which the seas and reefs were considered state property (Sharp, 1997)."

The result of this and other court mandates has been an attitude of Eurocentricism. This attitude has harmed the integration of the two cultures that…


Citizenship, history and indigenous status in Australia: back to the future, or toward treaty? Journal of Australian Studies; 1/1/2004; Bradfield, Stuart

Australia: The Complete Guide to Aboriginal Australia; To experience 'real life' down under, try exploring an Indigenous community. CHARLOTTE HINDLE looks at one of the most remarkable cultures in the world.(Features)

The Independent (London, England); 9/21/2002; Hindle, Charlotte

Finding common ground: Indigenous and Asian Diasporic cultural production in Australia. Hecate; 10/1/2001; Stephenson, Peta

Sociology in Indigenous Populations Specifically it Will
Words: 1953 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46381443
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sociology in indigenous populations. Specifically it will discuss what the terms ethnicity and racism mean, and critically examine how these terms apply to Indigenous Australians? Ethnicity and racism apply to Indigenous Australians (Aborigines) throughout their history, sad but true. Since the English first settled Australian in the 1700s, the Indigenous population has suffered greatly, and it is one of Australia's greatest shames that it went on so long.

The Indigenous people of Australia (Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders) are one of the oldest cultures on Earth. Archaeologists believe their lineage goes back at least 50,000 years, and some believe it could go as far back as 65,000 years ago. They were the original occupants of Australia, and have a deep and abiding respect for the land and its many different environments. An Aboriginal Web site notes, "For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship…


Adams, M. (2006). Raising the profile of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander men's health: An Indigenous man's perspective. Australian Aboriginal Studies, 2006(2), 68+.

Author not Available. (2006). Indigenous Australians. [Online] Available at: .

Clarke, F.G. (2002). The history of Australia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Editors. (2008). Australian Indigenous cultural heritage. [Online]. Available at: / [Accessed 17 June 2009].

colonialism in higher education indigenous
Words: 1562 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49996447
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Public Intellectual Essay

The introduction of critical race theory and other anti-colonial approaches to academic discourse has obscured the fact that higher education itself remains embedded in colonial institutions and structures. Higher education is a vestige of colonial means of psychological and social control. The political implications of colonialism in higher education include the perpetuation of hegemony, the suppression and subordination of alternative epistemologies, the ongoing political dominion over what constitutes knowledge, and the use of higher education to promote structures and institutions that serve the dominant culture. Although often an unconscious process, the ways colonial mentalities and processes remain entrenched in higher education are directly harmful to individual students and to society as a whole. Colonialism in higher education promotes a monolithic worldview that inhibits critical inquiry and creative solutions to global problems. By controlling how knowledge is defined, institutes of colonialist higher learning prevent alternative views and inhibit…

Religion Sacred Ways Indigenous Sacred
Words: 355 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85725362
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In addition, many religious groups are reviving their sacred ways because the westernized Christian religions do not meet their needs or desires. Many indigenous people feel left out or ignored in western religions, and so, they turn to their indigenous sacred ways because they conform to their belief systems and their values better than religions that were founded on European principles and beliefs. Many people, as they explore their pasts, find that their sacred ways seem to speak to them in a way that other organized religions may not. In addition, indigenous people, no matter who they are or where they live, have cultural ties to these sacred ways, and they may simply feel more comfortable with them, as if they are a better fit than other belief systems. It makes sense for a number of reasons, and more people are discovering their roots and sacred ways every year.

The Preservation of Indigenous Mexico
Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63425191
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film La Otra Conquista captures the complexity of the process of colonialism, as even after he becomes known as Tomas, Topiltzin never loses his Aztec identity. The brutal use of force against the indigenous people of Mexico could not have alone erased the collective memories, dreams, and experiences of the people who survived. Historians have repeatedly pointed out the all-encompassing, major ways the colonial social systems and institutions transformed life for the indigenous people of Mesoamerica. Even the most "basic institutions" such as "family, marriage, and access to property," the issues that affect daily life as well as long-term survival of individual identity and community, would become "Europeanized."[footnoteef:1] Yet it would be impossible for Indian memory to completely end with the conquests. Collective memory is not so easily erased. Moreover, the indigenous people's customs, values, worldviews, and beliefs sometimes permeate and permanently alter those of the conquistadores. As La Otra…


Katz, Friedrich. "Rural Uprisings in Preconquest and Colonial Mexico." In Riot, Rebellion, and Revolution, Princeton University Press, 1988.

Medrano, Ethelia Ruiz. "Indigenous Negotiation to Preserve Land, History, Titles, and Maps: Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries." In Mexico's Indigenous Communities. University Press of Colorado, 2010.

Villella, Peter B. "Pure and Noble Indians, Untainted by Inferior Idolatrous Races." Hispanic-American Historical Review 91, no. 4 (2011): 633-663.

Dongria Kondh Peoples of India
Words: 2696 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89410283
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82). He introduced plantations that included potato, cabbage, tomato, chilli and brinjal, and helped the Dongria Kondh create irrigation channels from the streams flowing down the mountains (Sachchidananda, p. 83).

The anthropologist also succeeded in resolving feuds and negotiated trades with the Domb so they could enjoy the benefits of fresh fruit and produce without exploiting the Dongria Kondh. According to Sachchidananda on pae 84, among the benefits of having a person who truly understood and cared about the Dongria Kondh and the Domb was that there was a more peaceful interaction between the two indigenous tribes. A "pragmatic rather than mere humanistic approach" certainly aided in solving development and socioeconomic issues as well (Sachchidananda, p. 84).

Vedanta Resources' mining proposal

Meantime, a proposed mining project that was conceived by the Vedanta Resources (of London, UK) -- owned by Indian tycoon Anil Agarwal -- created a major controversy over the…

Works Cited

Bedi, Rahul. (2010). India vetoes mining in tribal region. Irish Times. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2010,

From EBSCOhost (an 9FY3606474806).

Economic Times. (2010). Vedanta's Orissa mining project under govt. scanner. Retrieved Dec. 4, 2010, from EBSCOhost (an 2W61621100201).

Hopkins, Kathryn. (2010). Indian Tribe appeals for Avatar director's help to stop Vedanta.

Cultures and Histories of People
Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42394004
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Interactivity With One's Culture

The concepts of literature and history as identified in the excerpt from the Potiki that is referenced in this assignment is one of continuous interaction. Moreover, they underscore the degree of continuity that these people have with their past, which is quite at variance with conventional Western perceptions of the past. These facts are demonstrated throughout the manuscript that this excerpt stems from. Still, they are indicated perhaps most poignantly in the subsequent quotation "But our main book was the wharenui which is itself a story, a history, a gallery, a study, a design structure and a taonga. And we were part of that book along with family past and family yet to come."

What this particular section means is that the indigenous people have a deep rooted connection to the wharenui and to their background that transcends mere heirlooms and symbols (which is typically how…


Calleja, P.F. (2000). An interview with Patricia Grace. Atlantis. 25(1), 109-120.

Stanford, J. A. (1996). Responding to Literature (2nd. Ed.), pp. 12-13. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.

People and Many Churches That
Words: 1522 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14409695
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Finally, each branch of Christianity decides which books to include in the Bible, which can greatly alter meaning and intent. That does not mean that the Bible lacks authority. One need only see how societies have generally incorporated the tenets of the Ten Commandments into codified laws to see that the Bible has weight and authority. However, it does mean that a Christian must consult his own thoughts and beliefs and do some outside study, not just rely on information in the Bible.


I understand that my conclusions differ from the conclusions reached by many Christians. Some people simply cannot conceive of Christianity where Mary's virginity is irrelevant, good works are part of being Christian, and the Bible is not the ultimate authority. This is largely due to the emphasis that Christianity places on Jesus and Christian authority, and the fact that so many Christian denominations minimize the role…

Indigenous Rights
Words: 358 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11188470
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Aborigines and the State in Australia," by Jeremy Beckett one is able to gain insight into how the Aborigines were viewed by the Australian society. Jeremy Beckett goes to great lengths to explain how commercialized the whole aborigine society became. Throughout the work, he discusses how "Aboriginality" became a novel concept used to lure tourism, and how all that really remained were a few artifacts in a museum. Jeremy Beckett also delves deeply into the conflicts that took place over land rights in Australia. When attempts were made to appease the Aborigine people, the land for the most part was small and worthless (not conducive of sustaining any crops). This article maintains a neutral view and goes above and beyond to give a vivid depiction of what was going on with the struggle of the Aborigines to get aid in Australia. Through this article, you could also see the political…

People Define Themselves in Many
Words: 2991 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42372492
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(oss, 1998).

This suggests another realm from which I might be able to draw, using both design elements and textures. Clothing, whether truly traditional or the modern degradations of the older textile traditions, could also prove to be a source of materials for my own work.

My research will involve both academic research into contemporary and past art and craft practices in Saudi Arabia as well as an artistic exploration into the incorporation of unconventional materials into works relevant for today's society. I plan to use unconventional materials in my sculptures such as waste and discarded materials, leather, wood, plastic, and glass. This is the new point in my work, using materials that many people will not see as being properly the building materials of art. Making art that reclaims discarded materials will be one by which I will make work that is -- especially within the realm of Saudi…


Facey, W. Building on the past. Retrieved 24 April 2010 from 

McNiff, J. (n.d.) Learning with and from people in townships and universities. A paper presented at the American Educational Research Association Annual Meeting, as part of the symposium Communicating and testing the validity of claims to transformational systemic influence for civic responsibility.

Nawaab, N.I. (1998). The suqs of 'Asir. Retrieved 24 April 2010 from 

Ross, H.C. The fabric of tradition. Retrieved 24 April 2010 from

Why Can't People Feed Themselves
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82181745
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People feed themselves?

Why was subsistence agriculture a problem from the perspective of European colonizers?

From the point-of-view of the European colonizers, subsistence agriculture was a 'problem' because it was a source of empowerment for the individuals they desired to oppress. It was cast as primitive in European literature, but this 'primitive' form of agriculture had nourished people for centuries. The real aim of the Europeans was to render colonial peoples useful to the Mother Country. Subsistence agriculture was also problematic for the Europeans because it was primarily designed to sustain people, rather than to generate profits. The agriculture produced only what was needed for a small group of people, rather than crops for the mass marketplace.

An excellent example of this can be seen in the West Indies. Before Europeans came to the region, Africans had a vibrant, rich, and diversified system of agriculture, which provided many forms of…

Special Curriculum for Young Indigenous
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esearch Questions

The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:

1. Can a set of best practices be identified from the existing body of literature concerning implementing and administering a special curriculum for young indigenous non-native speakers of English? If so, how can these best practices best be applied to Malaysia's young indigenous non-native speakers of English?

2. What cross-cultural factors need to be taken into account in developing such a special curriculum?

3. What are some of the common obstacles, challenges and constraints that have been experienced in other countries in general and in Malaysia in particular in implementing English as a second language curricular offerings?

The Design -- Methods and Procedures


Data Collection. The proposed study will draw on both secondary and primary sources to achieve the above-stated purposes and answer the above-stated research questions, an approach that is highly congruent with the…


Charles, M. (2006, October). Language matters in global communication. The Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), 260-262.

Crismore, a. (2003). An American woman teaching in Malaysia: Remembering the obstacles and successes. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(5), 380-382.

Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.

Dovring, K. (1999). English as lingua franca: Double talk in global persuasion. Westport, CT:

Genetic Structure of the Indigenous Hunter-Gatherer
Words: 1366 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 67395590
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The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.

Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…

Native Peoples of the Aleutian Island Chain Specifically the Aleute Alutiiq
Words: 2861 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78213401
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Native Americans

The Aleutian Islands run from the Peninsula of Kamchatka in the Asiatic portion of Russia to Alaska. All the islands are bare and mountainous and the coasts rocky and surrounded by crashing waves and enormous breakers. (Larkin, unpaged) Some believe the Aleutians offer the worst weather in the world: eather fronts originating in the South Pacific create storms hundreds of miles long and many weeks in duration (Sipes, unpaged) that pick up the frigid moisture of the waters and air as they move northward. It would seem that anyone desirous of living there would need some overwhelming reasons to do so. The Russians and Scandinavians who first 'discovered' the area for non-natives, and later the Americans, did have good reasons to be there. As for the Aleuts and Alutiiq, an abundance of fish and sea mammals might have been the attraction if, as some theories surmise, they arrived…

Works Cited

Aleut International Association Web site. Retrieved May 10, 2004 at 

Aleutian Islands." Retrieved May 9, 2004 at

Crowell, L. Aron. "Maritime cultures of the Gulf of Alaska." Revista de Arqueologia Americana, July 1, 1999. Retrieved May 9, 2004 from

Diamond, Jared. "Speaking with a single tongue." Discover, February 1, 1993. Retrieved May 10, 2004 from

Except for the Indigenous Native
Words: 8783 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 72367303
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S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.

Rationale of Study

Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…

Works Cited

Anbinder, Tyler, 2006. "Which Poor Man's Fight? Immigrants and the Federal Conscription of

1863." Civil War History 52(4): 344-345.

Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.

Bloemraad, Irene, 2002. "The North American Naturalization Gap: an Institutional Approach to Citizenship Acquisition in the United States and Canada." The International Migration

Latin America History
Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32221883
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indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.

The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…


Victors and Vanquished: Spanish and Nahua Views of the Conquest of Mexico by Stuart B. Schwartz Hardcover: 272 pages; Dimensions (in inches): 0.77 x 8.58 x 5.77

Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; (March 2000)

ISBN: 0312228171


Taiwan & Its Origins the
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Hence, all of these festivals, occasions and other rituals that indigenous Taiwanese celebrated prove that the Indigenous Taiwanese were full of life and were true cultural people who celebrated all their occasions with enthusiasm and ebullience.

Languages: Official language of Taiwan is Mandarin though other local languages were also spoken in originally indifferent tribes. Mandarin is the language that is used for everyday communication in Taiwan but the origin of Mandarin started from Ching dynasty. Mandarin and other languages that were spoken in Taiwan were basically derived from Chinese language families. Indigenous people had their own languages which have survived to date. "From Taiwan to New Zealand and Madagascar to Easter Island, the Austronesian language family is made up of more than a thousand languages and dialects. (Estimates vary from 900-1200 according to how dialects are distinguished from languages)" (Austronesian Expansion).

Other languages that were spoken in Taiwan included Halo…


Austronesian Expansion - Taiwan 4,000 BC' Retrieved from Website: 

Taiwan Aboriginals' Retrieved from Website:

Taiwan Year Book' Retrieved from Website:

Destruction of Native California 1
Words: 1350 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18083855
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The first tactic the groups used was to intimidate the local inhabitants with a show of military force and then introduce domesticated animals that often used up a disproportionate amount of the local food resources for their needs.

Since the Californian Indians lived in highly fragmented tribes it was difficult for the missionaries to bring the religion to them; rather they attracted to Indians to the "faith." The Californian Indians were hurdled into guarded Mission compounds which completely disrupted any of the local tribe's daily activities (Mcilliams, 1973, p. 29). Once the natives were converted they basically became slaves and as such were separated from their former affiliations by force. After being baptized, California Indians were no longer allowed to make contact with any of their tribes unless those members became slaves as well. This was strictly adhered to as the missionaries wanted the natives to adopt the new culture…

Works Cited

Castillo, E. (1998). California Indian History. Retrieved from California Native Americans: 

Daritt-Newton, D., & Erlandson, I. (2006). Little Choice for the Chumash. American Indian Quarterly, 416-432.

McWilliams. (1973). Southern California: An Island on the Land.

Wilson. (1999). The Earth Shall Weep: A History of Native America.

American West and Brazil the
Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61778658
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The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.

The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.

The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…


An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction.

This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.

Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International.

Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.

Shaman as a Spiritual Specialist
Words: 2131 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 85190069
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( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.

The world…

Works Cited

Achterberg J. Imagery in Healing: Shamanism and Modern Medicine. London:

Shambala Press. 1985.

Berlo J. And Phillips R. Native North American Art. New York: Oxfors University

Press. 1998.

Global Law and Politics Political and Legal
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Global Law and Politics:

Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.

Aspects of a New Global System:

Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…


Concannon, T (2004), Chapter 5 - Resource Exploitation in Nigeria, Pambazuka News, viewed

27 December 2011,

Ejimeke, A (2010), The Oil Spills We Don't Hear About, The New York Times, viewed 27

December 2011,

Eradicating Suicide Canadian Aboriginal Youth
Words: 3080 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28505221
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Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People

Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People

The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.

The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…


Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.

Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.

Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.

Halifax: Fernwood Pub.

False Claims of Cultural Ownership
Words: 2497 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69233953
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The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.

But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…

Works Cited

Barbier, Jean-Paul. "The Responsible and the Irresponsible: Observations on the Destruction and Preservation of Indonesian Art."

Duffon, Denis. "Authenticity in Art." In the Oxford Handbook of Aesthetics. Ed. Jerrold Levinson. (NY: Oxford University Press, 2003). 18 Dec. 2006 .

Hamlin, Jesse. "How de Young Is Handling New Guinea Art Question." San Francisco Chronicle (4 May 2006): E1. 18 Dec. 2006 .

Lehmann, Karl and Lehmann, Andrew. "Tribal Art of Papua New Guinea." Lost World Arts. (Maui, Hawaii: 2004). 18 Dec. 2006 .

Pacific Northwest Coastal Region Indian Ceremonies
Words: 2477 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99263030
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Ceremonies of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Indigenous Peoples

People have been living along the Pacific Northwest Coast for more than 11,000 years, and while the tribes and nations that developed differed in their customs and cultures, they shared some common ceremonial practices including most especially those involving their most important beliefs and natural resources such as salmon and the white deer. This paper provides a description of the different types of ceremonies used by the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coastal regions, including the Potlatch, Salmon Ceremony, the White Deerskin Dance and the Jumping Dance, followed by an analysis concerning how the scholarly or ethnographic records can be engaged in ways that contribute to building solidarities with and among indigenous people and what the ethnography of North American indigenous people can contribute to a critique of non-indigenous culture. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the…


Bredin, Marian (1993), "Ethnography and Communication: Approaches to Aboriginal Media," Canadian Journal of Communication, Vol. 18, No. 3, pp. 37-39.

Finkbeiner, Ann (2015, September 14), "The Great Quake and the Great Drowning,' Hakai Magazine. [online] available: .

Gingrich, Jennifer (2003, Winter), "The Power Source of a Tribe Seeking to Achieve World Renewal and the Protection of Its Natural and Cultural Resources," Environmental Law, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 215-221.

Lightfoot, Kent G. and Otis Parrish, California Indians and Their Environment: An Introduction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009.

Paul Keating's Redfern Speech
Words: 1031 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80622887
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Paul Keating's edfern Speech

Paul Keating's speech at edfern Park provides examples of rhetoric that are discussed below. The speech uses of and the three modes of persuasion: pathos, ethos, and logos. The use of epiphora, particularly in tricolon format, lends both cadence and emphasis. The word imagine is used in this manner and in epiphora convention, as the word is repeated in successive clauses. The connotation of the word confident is made more powerful by its proximity to the word imagine. Further, antithesis is threaded throughout by deliberate distinctions between non-Aboriginal and indigenous Australians, and presumably to use the favored terms of reference for every member of the audience -- as it is a political speech. There is a great divide between the experiences and treatment of the privileged primarily white non-indigenous citizens of Australia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people. Keating does not shy away from…


Cockcroft, R. And Cockcroft S.M. (2005). Persuading people: an introduction to rhetoric. (2nd ed.). Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave MacMillan.

Keating, P. Australian Launch of the International Year for the World's Indigenous People. Redfern Park, Sydney, Australia. December 10, 1992

____. (2011). Communication: rhetoric and reasoning. [Course readings]. Magill, SA: School of Communication, International Studies and Languages, University of South Australia.

Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility CSR
Words: 1964 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72742291
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The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.

WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…

Residential Schools in Canada for the Aborigines
Words: 989 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60780150
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Aboriginal Education in Canada


What do you believe was the goal of the Canadian government and church in planning and running residential schools? Why?

Schooling is considered one of the key aspects that bring about change in any society. Even before the establishment of the residential schools, schooling was something that was taking place in the country of Canada. As the only process that can change the structure and capacity of the human intellect and exposure, schooling is vital in Canada. Initially, the indigenous Canada was facing myriad challenges in accessing education. Schooling became a weapon that was also used by the Christian movement in a bid to reinforce the prospects of reaching out to many people with the gospel of Christianity. As with the Canadian indigenous people, much was needed to reinforce the spread of this Christianity that came with schooling (Regan,…

Torres Strait Islanders Torres Island
Words: 2927 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45682052
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However, it is not culturally sensitive and says nothing about the desire to work with in cultural norms and traditions.

This article does not attempt to portray the aboriginal people in any particular way. It attempts to remain neutral in its portrayal of the Torres Strait Islanders. This article recognizes that Islanders in rural areas have different needs than those living in urban areas. The government will provide funding for implementing this plan. It is an excellent plan, but could be made better by the inclusion of cultural sensitivity within the programs that it outlines. The plan promises to give aboriginals better access to public programs. This suggests that access is inadequate at the current time.

4. Culture

acisimnoway (2008). Australian Communities: Torres Strait Islander People. etrieved February 28, 2008 at

This article explains the language and cultural traits of the Islander, both on and off the island. It…


Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2006). The 2004-05 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey (NATSIHS). Retrieved February 27, 2008 at .

Ban, P., Mam, S., Elu, M., Trevallion, I. & Reid, a. (1993). Torres Strait Islander family life. Family Matters. No.35 August 1993, pp.16-21. Retrieved February 28, 2008 at .

Batrouney, T. & Soriano, G. (2001). Parenting Torres. Family Matters. No. 21. Winter 2001.

Commonwealth of Australia (2007). National Strategic Framework for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health 2003-2013. Department of Health and Aging. Publication Number: P3-2106., Retrieved February 27, 2008 at$File/nsfatsihimp2.pdf .

Penal Practices Penal Is a Word Pertaining
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Penal Practices

Penal is a word pertaining to punishment and the penal system or penal practices are those related to trial of a person to judge if he should be punished or not and if yes, how much and for how long should he be punished. The penal practices are governed by standard penal laws that are similar yet customized in every country. For example, theft is the same crime but punished with imprisonment in USA, cutting of hands in Saudi Arabia and some time ago, punished by being shot in China. Thus the penal practices can vary from country to country and region to region.

Objective of Penal System

The objectives of penal system are evident and clear. There is a party, a person a group or an organization that committed crime and another party that was wronged. The first objective of penal system is to compensate the affected…


1. Spivakovksy, C. 2013. 'Chapter 1: The Infalliable Science of Offending Behaviour', Racialised Governance: The Mutual Constructions of Race and Criminal Justice, Ashgate Press, pp. 15-37.

2. Davis, A.Y. 1998. 'Racialised punishment and prison abolition', in J. James (ed.), The Angela Y. Davis Reader, Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, pp. 96-107.

3. Alexander, M. 2010. The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness, The New Press, New York.

4. Bird, G., Martin, G. & Nielsen, J. (eds.) 1996. Majah: Indigenous Peoples and the Law, Federation Press, Sydney.

De Las Casas Based on
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3. Who are the various groups of indigenous people? What are some of their customs? How did they receive the Spaniards? What marks of 'civilization' does de las Casas note?

The author refers to the indigenous peoples as Indians, and also as Cacics. De las Casas respects the great diversity among the indigenous people he encounters, even if his impressions seem ethnocentric. For example, the author claims that the indigenous people of Hispaniola are innocent and childlike, and trust the Spanish overlords. He also notes they do not like to work very hard. At times, de las Casas describes the religious idols and practices of the peoples, and also games like juggling.

4. List various specific things that de las Casas uses as examples of Spanish barbarity.

The entire tome is devoted to examples of Spanish barbarity. De las Casas does not hold back when he refers to the brutality…


De las Casas, B. A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indes. Retrieved online:

Empire an Global Race Relationships
Words: 1702 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73475654
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The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.

Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…

references to the Cold War. However, the main gist is related to the theme of global apartheid.

The strengths of this article in relation to the theme is that it is about global apartheid, linked thematically to other analyses thereof. Moreover, this article has a strong sense of time and place, which is important for a reliable and valid historiography. The weakness of the article is that it is not inclusive of gender issues.

Analyze strengths and weaknesses for essay themes, see above each book.

gender and sexuality how is related to citizenship (violence, abuse, immigration)

2. meaning of citizenship in the U.S. Empire (immigration laws change culture)

Trade from the End of the Axial Age to 1500 C E
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Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…

Afrikaners Are the Descendants of
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Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.

The Afrikaans Language

Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…

Works Cited


Statute of Limitations These Are
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This seems to be serious, but most of the people committing the crime are being released by the courts. (Understanding White Collar Crime)

Question 3a: What is a FOIA request and is it likely to be granted?

The request is under the Freedom of Information Act, and it is targeted to the United States Department of Justice, and there is no reason to think that the Department of Justice will refuse to reply. The question is of political interference occurring affecting the trial in the last stages of the trial against the cigarette industry. Let us not assume that the Department of Justice is now being totally controlled by the politicians, and that is why they will stop from replying. At worst, there will be the appointment of a committee to investigate and look into the matter. Even that will help the cigarette industry as they will get more time,…


About Southern Research. Southern Research Institute. Retrieved at . Accessed on 17 June, 2005

About Us: A lasting partnership... born of dedication and cooperation. Retrieved at . Accessed on 17 June, 2005

Indicator Species. Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved at,1607,7-153-10370_22664-60298  -- ,00.html. Accessed on 17 June, 2005

Moral Hazard. Retrieved at . Accessed on 17 June, 2005

Natures Healing Powers the Power of Nature
Words: 1933 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40272370
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Natures Healing Powers

The Power of Nature in the healing process has been known for centuries by the various civilizations of the world. The process of engaging nature in the healing process is done in a variety of way. It can be through the action of some herbs, performing meditation on mountains, relaxing in a windflower terrain/field or even by strolling by a slow flowing stream.

In this paper however, we are going to critically focus on the psychological, emotional and culturally healing power of nature as seen by indigenous peoples of the world-including Native Americans, Inuit, and Inughuit, African, Aboriginal, Asian cultures

The Native American nature healing process comprises of several beliefs and practices which make part of the life of the native tribesmen, women and children. The process is made up of several elements. These elements include religion, herbal medicines, spirituality and several other rituals that are all…


Durkheim, E. (1912) The Elementary Forms Of The Religious Life.

Gateley.E in God's Womb: A Spiritual Memoir

Gennep, A. (1960) The Rites of Passage. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Grimes, R (1994) The Beginnings of Ritual Studies. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina

Alexis De Tocqueville Democracy in
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At the same time, democracy allows people ith different views come together on a particular subject they share an opinion, state their mind and make a positive change.

Q6. What does De Tocqueville mean by 'artificial solidarity'?

Artificial solidarity resembles a tailored feeling of solidarity based on a foundation that is not real and one which was applied to a society without real background that would support it in a true manner. It resembles an individual that is pious in clothes and behavior, but his house is full of luxurious belongings.

Q7. Why should democrats remember the 'utility of forms'?

Forms are tools through which barriers are set and rules are created. In a system that allows people to use their rights to freedom, it is important to have such forms and to respect them.

Q8. What is 'self-interest rightly understood'? Where does De Tocqueville derive this idea from? Why…

Republic of Fiji
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epublic of Fiji

Multiculturalism and Globalization in the epublic of Fiji

In an increasingly global society, multiculturalism is becoming important for businesses and individuals that want to advance. There is an increasing need to understand and relate to others, and people who are unable or unwilling to do so are finding that they are being left behind in business. They are also finding their growth stunted financially and culturally, because they do not permit themselves to be open to other people and to continue to learn what they can from people who are different from them. While that is unfortunate, how significant multiculturalism is in the life of a particular person can depend greatly on where that person lives and the culture that he or she is exposed to on a daily basis. Some people need to be more multicultural than others, just based on where they reside.

More cities…


Derrick, R.A. (1957). A History of Fiji. Suva, Fiji: Government Printer.

Routledge, D. (1985). Matanitu - The Struggle for Power in Early Fiji, Suva, Fiji: University of the South Pacific.

Scarr, D. (1984). Fiji: A Short History. Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Waterhouse, J. (1998). The King and People of Fiji. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Disparities Original Medicine Chest Clause Aboriginal Treaties
Words: 2533 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27607330
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disparities original "medicine chest" clause Aboriginal Treaties Canada, failure Canadian government meet health care Aboriginal people today

Policy Change for Improvement

The aboriginals of Canada comprise of the indigenous people who are within North America, but dwell in the boundaries of Canada. Nevertheless, people have continuously view them discriminatively. This is what has led to the formulation of numerous policies, which will favor the aboriginals and make them feel part of the Canadian society. Although this is the case, the policies, some of which are applicable, have not yielded much success. Owing to this, there is a need for policy improvement in an effort to attain some of the essential needs such as healthcare (Walkerman and Humphreys, 2002).

In so doing, the aboriginals will access healthcare, and subsequently feel as part of the society. Notably, aboriginals are present in many other parts of the Western world, and the treatment is…


Government of Ontario (1994). Aboriginal health policy -- Executive summary. Toronto, ON:

Aboriginal Healing & Wellness Strategy. Retrieved 17 December, 2013 from 

Kinsley, C. (2002). Rural health in rural hands: Strategic decisions, remote, northern and aboriginal communities. Retrieved from 

Lavoie, J.G., Forget, E., Prakash, T., Dahl, M., Martens, P., & O'Neil, J.D. (2010). Have