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Indigenous People (annotated Bibliography)
Conservations of wildlife in Africa
Barrett, C.B. (1995). Are Integrated Conservation-Development Projects (ICDP's) ustainable on the conservation of Large Mammals in ub-aharan Africa? World Development 23(7): 1073-1084.
Barrett (1995) investigated the link that exists between rural development and species conservation and established that rural development and species conservation has conceptual flaws that limit its appropriateness and sustainability when it is used to protect large African mammals. This came out in the wake of ICDPs broader appeal that it could benefit the local community.
Brockington, D. & Igoe, J. (2006). Eviction for Conservation: A Global Overview. Conservation and ociety 4(3): 424-470.
Relationships between conservationists and the indigenous communities have been turbulent from time immemorial (Brockington & Igoe, 2006). This has partly been prompted by eviction of these people from protected areas. The authorities prosecuting eviction have used the moral high ground that conservation currently enjoys. They have…… [Read More]
This theme is further argued in the last chapter of the book, which presents a perspective into the future, with Queen Cockacoeske as a future Pocahontas, a future representative of her tribe in the relations with the English.
The question that many of the indigenous people asked themselves, and this is extremely well presented in this book, is how to make this transition better and with as many benefits for them. Their territories were a property they would soon dispense of so a peaceful solution seemed like the best way to handle such a delicate problem.
Townsend makes a strong case for historical truth and the constant search for more information in the creation of history. Her presentation of Pocahontas succeeds in making the reader understand the true value of historical research combined with excellent writing skills. She makes the reader understand and better analyze human nature as many of…… [Read More]
indigenous peoples. Bodley notes that these cultures are often small scale -- although not always (e.g. Inca, Maya). Development brings them into a larger world, where they are influenced by other cultures including global culture. Many of the cultures today viewed as indigenous came into contact with larger external cultures during the past five hundred years, a period characterized by a shift towards a global-scale culture. The degree of shock that small-scale cultures experience when encountering global-scale culture is much higher than would have been experienced prior to global culture, as there would have been greater balanced between the size of the cultures meeting.
With development has come modern notions of property and the politicization of non-government entities such as corporations. These concepts being foreign to most indigenous populations, they were unprepared for these changes. As a result, many suffered significant loss of land, loss of cultural artifacts and loss…… [Read More]
European Trade in America
Early European Trade in America
Trade between the Native American tribes has occurred in America for longer than can be recorded, however, the appearance of the Europeans changed the delicate balance that existed. In their attempt to obtain European goods, the Native Americans began to alter the way they lived and traded, and many conflicts arose. But as more and more Europeans colonized the New orld, relations between Europeans and the Native Americans change from trade and cooperation into conflict; especially with the British settlements. As long as the Europeans only wanted to trade and not colonize, like the French in Canada, there were good relations, but in the end the expansion of the British, and later the independent Americans that all but destroyed a system that had existed for centuries.
Historians have discovered that long distance trade networks spanned the North American continent long before…… [Read More]
Environmental Justice and the Environmental Rights of Russian Indigenous People in the Arctic Region
The research proposed in this study is that concerning the legal protection of indigenous peoples and particularly in regards to environmental rights under international and domestic law. The research proposed has a special emphasis on the Russian indigenous peoples of the Arctic region.
The primary goal of the research proposed in this study is to determine and analyze international legal mechanisms, which will assist indigenous people of Russian Arctic region in protection of their environment rights.
The methodology chosen in the proposed research is of a qualitative nature, which is descriptive and interpretive in nature, and such that will involve an analysis of environmental justice on international and domestic levels. Included will be an investigation of whether international environmental law has been incorporated into Russian laws and development policies regarding indigenous peoples, environmental rights of these…… [Read More]
Bartolome De La Casas
Bartolome de las Casas was a Spanish Bishop who spent a sizable portion of his adult life crusading for the rights of indigenous peoples in the Americas, who were generally treated poorly under Spanish colonial rule. He advocated several different solutions to improve the treatment of the indigenous people. These included setting up towns for them, or towns where they could live side by side with the Spanish. He also fought for the abolition of slavery of the indigenous people. His work helped lead to the passage of the New Laws of 1542, which prohibited the enslavement of the native people of the Americas, but his ideas were also met with significant resistance both in Spain and in the colonies (PBS.org, 2010).
To promote his ideas, he undertook several ventures. De las Casas wrote several books that outlined the cruel treatment to which the indigenous people…… [Read More]
The Bank states that every effort is made to ensure that the people subject to resettlement are given the appropriate social tools to restore their ability to function economically and earn an income.
However, the feasibility of full economic compensation is often problematic, given that no area is perfectly 'equivalent' to the place of origin. Furthermore, the issue of cultural 'sustainability' arises, even if the orld Bank provisions are an improvement upon the actions of many national governments in the past: environmentalists contend that both land and endangered animals should be preserved in the interests of sustaining an ecosystem. hy not human beings? hy should traditional ways of life and claims upon the land be sacrificed in the name of so-called progress? hy isn't the sustainability of human cultures a priority? These are some of the questions that arise regarding the orld Bank's and other resettlement policies.
"hat…… [Read More]
Initiation ceremonies could last for weeks, involving singing and dancing, story telling, body decorations and ceremonial objects. Some of the stories are open to all the people of the tribe, while others are secret and meant only for the initiates.
During funeral ceremonies, the people of the tribe would often paint themselves white and mourn by cutting themselves. Rituals may involve songs and dances focused upon helping the deceased leave his or her body successfully, and returning to the birth place for late rebirth. The burial occurs in two stages: During the first stage, the deceased is laid on a platform and covered with leaves and branches. After several months, the secondary burial involves collecting the bones, painting them with red ochre, and dispersing them by sometimes carrying them around, or leaving them in a cave shelter.
Since the arrival of the settlers, many injustices have been perpetrated…… [Read More]
Traditional Custodians of the Land
The local community is heavily influenced by the culture and practices of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. They make up Australia’s indigenous people and comprise several groups that have different languages, traditions, and histories. The history and knowledge of the indigenous communities were passed down from one generation to the next through performance, language, story-telling, elders’ teachings, and preservation of important sites. Indigenous Australians are not just limited to the local community. They can be found all over the nation from the cities to the expansive arid lands. The definition the Australian government gives to Indigenous people is people of Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander descent who identify with those communities and are accepted by the communities they live in as part of the group. Not all Aboriginal and Torres Islander people willingly identify by the groups of their descent. While the number…… [Read More]
Indigenous populations in epublican ome (ca. 500 BCE -- 31 BCE)
Citizenship in colonial era
IV Comparison and Contrast
The issues citizenship of indigenous populations in the oman epublic and during the colonial era in Europe provides comprehensive information regarding how the indigenous populations were treated by Europeans. The right to get justice and to self-determine their politico-social life is the main issues that political philosophy is confronted with (Kabeer, 2002). The internationalization and globalization phenomenon has increased the debate on the issue as the indigenous population demands the rights that only citizenship status grants to individuals. espect and rights are demanded by the indigenous populations and these are accompanied with obligations as well, that being argued by the nation states and expansionist regimes. Citizenship has been regarded as a humane word with plethora of rights and obligation associated to it. The oman epublic is considered as a spearhead of…… [Read More]
In addition the Europeans that colonized Australia believed that their culture was superior and the aboriginal culture would somehow disappear in a short period of time. hen this did not occur drastic steps were taken to assimilate indigenous people. These steps included taking aboriginal children away from their families to be raised in white society.
Certainly this type of violent and reckless interaction led to great fear and panic because a way of life that had existed for thousands of years began to vanish. Such stressors were passed down from generation to generation. Stress is a dangerous emotion because it can cripple to immune system and also cause people not to have the will to properly take care of their health.
Government policy and exclusion
According to McCalman et al. (2005) the types of government policies adapted as a result o colonialism has also contributed to poor health amongst indigenous…… [Read More]
" [Parliament of Australia]
Australia's aboriginal population is currently estimated around 4,60,000 roughly constituting 2.3% of the national population. [Australian Government] However, the sad fact is that aborigines have higher rates of alcohol and drug abuse and unemployment. Prime minister Rudd declared a state of emergency in the northern territory following high reports of alcoholism and child sexual abuse among the aboriginal communities. Efforts were also taken to restrict the use of welfare money only in stipulated shops so as to ensure that money is not spent on alcohol. Such intervention measures have created controversies but the government persists with these emergency measures citing the acute needs of the aboriginal communities. Prime minister Rudd envisions a future "where this Parliament resolves that the injustices of the past must never, never happen again. A future where we harness the determination of all Australians, Indigenous and non-Indigenous, to close the…… [Read More]
To understand an indigenous religion, one must first understand the indigenous way-of-life, which cannot be done once one has an understanding of science and the world at large.
The problem is that, finding indigenous religions inaccessible, members of the dominant culture generally try to eliminate indigenous religions. As a general rule, the major world religions contain a tenet that each one worships the only actual god and that others struggle in darkness. Furthermore, they may also contain admonitions to "save" those who are not yet members of the religion in question. Therefore, when an indigenous population is discovered, members of the dominant culture often try to envelop it into the larger culture. Furthermore, because world religions account for the presence of multiple types of people, while indigenous religions do not, it is easy for the dominant culture to swallow-up the indigenous one, but not for the converse to occur.… [Read More]
People's History of the U.S. By Zinn
The responses to the Indian removal campaign were as diverse as the tribes themselves. Some fought, some surrendered, and within some tribes, they did both. For one tribe, the Creek, there were those that chose to fight Andrew Jackson's troops and protect their land. In some cases, this involved aggressive attacks against U.S. encampments. Others within the Creek Nation chose to cooperate with U.S. troops, lured by the promise of friendly relations if they should comply. As such, they joined Jackson's forces in battle against their fellow tribe members. They were rewarded, after the U.S. massacre, with seizure of their land. Some Native American groups chose to sign treaties with the government and believed that they would be relocated to areas that were more secure. This was rarely true, and as a result indigenous people were shuttled from one place to another, often…… [Read More]
The authors go on to say that America has also forced their extreme versions of free capitalism and true democracy on the rest of the world, including into many places where those concepts really do not work. The American corporations that move into those areas control what food is eaten as well as grown there, and the conglomerates in the media bury most of the native culture of these other places under a strong onslaught full of American entertainment.
The authors, Sardar and Davies, address all of these issues with insight and research. The chapters in which they address culture very strongly, however, become somewhat repetitive and almost whiny on occasion. However, the authors are not saying that everyone has to agree with everything that they say. Even without agreeing with them completely, it is very easy to see that there are good reasons why many people do not like…… [Read More]
ancestor veneration and also looks at shamanism in ancient Native American cultures.
Indigenous sacred ways are the religions and spiritual beliefs of native and aboriginal people. These sacred ways often evolved as an attempt by these people to make sense of the mysteries of the universe, and to put the world and the cosmos into some kind of order that they could understand. Their sacred ways were expressed through ceremonies, art, rituals, and the daily practices of life. This paper takes a closer look at two important sacred ways of indigenous people -- ancestor veneration and shamanism.
Ancestor veneration is one of the central sacred practices of many indigenous people. Basically, this is ancestor worship. In indigenous cultures that practices ancestor veneration, the soul is just one more never changing part of the universe. This means that we here on earth have a responsibility to ensure the comfort…… [Read More]
Indigenous Australians and Diabetes
In Adelaide the first case of diabetes in Indigenous people was noted in 1923. The records clearly show that Indigenous people didn't diagnose diabetes at the time as they were fit, lean and in good shape. Apart from that, they didn't have any metabolic ailment at the time. Till the 1960's, the estimates of diabetes in Indigenous people weren't taken and no investigation done until then. Then a connection was found between indigenous population and westernized living in the population as type-2 diabetes was slowly starting to materialize. Since then, type 2 diabetes has been deemed as the most worrying health problems in Australia as the probability of it being in the population is four times (Australian Indigenous HealthInfoNet, 2007a).
Diabetes and the afflicted person
Diabetes can affect a person in many ways as shown below:
Physically (Shaw, 2012)
Physical…… [Read More]
In order to assess Yvonne and her symptoms, the nurse practitioner must show patience and understanding. In the treatment of the symptoms, whether to relieve the fevers or perform scans and tests to find the source of the abdominal pain, the nurse practitioner must give Yvonne and her relatives significant input into the management of the illness. Optimal outcomes can be achieved by providing information to the patient that decreases fear, timely involvement of the doctor in the administration of pain medications and emotional support (McGrath, P. 2006).
eflective practices can have considerable effectiveness in the care of Yvonne. In a paper discussing the benefits of reflective care, Ben Hannigan (2001) argues that reliance on practical knowledge alone is insufficient to solving medical problems as they are rarely abstract in nature. eflection by the nurse practitioner embeds the medical problem into the social context and allows the practitioner to engage…… [Read More]
date 8-11th century, d. stone, e. Currently in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, NYC.
The sculpture depicts a warrior, showing how warrior qualities were essential to survival in the culture. My European friends would think this statue has great symmetry and form because it does.
Inca, b. Gold Llama: https://www.britishmuseum.org/images/llama_m.jpg
c. date: about 1500 C.E., d. gold, e. British Museum
The gold sculpture was likely to be an offering or a burial object. My European friends would think it was beautiful, even though it is simple.
6. a. Inca, b. Textile from Nazca: https://www.britishmuseum.org/images/respro_AT_landing_624x224.jpg
c. date: around 1500 BCE, d. wool textile, e. private collection
The textile may have been decorative or worn. My European friends would think it was beautiful, with interesting faces.
7. a. Java, b. Klana mask: http://museum.cornell.edu/img/mids/indo-klana-mask.jpg
c. date: 20th century, d. wood and paint,…… [Read More]
Health of Indigenous Australian Using Ecological and Holistic Health Paradigm
Patterns of health and illness
Impact of Broader Environments
Health is a basic component of human life that comprises of multiple facets. The description of health has witnessed dramatic change during past few years, as it has become a holistic phenomenon. Previously, it was considered that a healthy person is the one who does not suffer from any ailment or illness. However in recent times, the physical, psychological and communal aspects of human life have been amalgamated to give a broader perspective to human health which is identical to the concept of indigenous communities (Hjelm, 2010).
Numerous organizations are working extensively for providing adequate health care to the world population since many decades. However, it is appalling to notice that discrimination on social, economic and…… [Read More]
Andean Indigenous Interest and Rights regarding the Politics of the Amazon
In today's society, there is a tremendous need for global initiatives to support biodiversity, conservation and the protection of nature, as well as the culture of local inhabitants, especially those living in the Amazon. In recent years, many governments and coalitions have partnered with communities and native leaders to protect biodiversity and culture.
Grass-roots organizations and scientific discoveries have increased awareness about these issues, which include democratic participation by indigenous people, intellectual property rights, and cultural and ethnic identity. Within the context of globalization, the world is shrinking, and the dominant cultures, those of Europe and the United States, are penetrating the local world, including the indigenous groups in the Amazon basin. This paper will discuss the Andean indigenous interest and rights regarding the politics of the Amazon.
Global interest in ecological issues began in the mid-1980's.…… [Read More]
Indigenous societies existed in North America in the period between 1600s and 1800s. The roles and responsibilities of men and women during this period were clearly identified despite the hundreds of cultures that dominated indigenous societies. Despite the existence of separate cultures, indigenous men in North America were primarily responsible for hunting and warfare while women were mandated with the responsibility of handling the internal operations of the community. In this case, indigenous women were responsible for taking care of households and upbringing of their children. However, indigenous women in North America during this period were mostly considered as slaves to men. Indigenous men had more visible, public roles, while indigenous women served as slaves to men. Indigenous women depended on men for decision-making and had relatively minimal control of their bodies. In this essay, I argue that indigenous women benefitted from the interactions with Europeans who arrived North America…… [Read More]
In 1992 there was a problem with the courts and the land disputes that were occurring between the two cultures.
In the case of Mabo and Others vs. The State of Queensland and the Commonwealth of Australia, decided in 1992, the Australian High Court ruled that the land tenure rights of the indigenous inhabitants of the Murray Islands in the Torres Strait did not extend seaward beyond the high water mark (Sharp, 1997). This decision reflected a Eurocentric bias and ignored the islanders' traditional claims to exclusive use of the reefs and seas surrounding their land territories (Sharp, 1997). Factfinders for the court applied the European conception of sea rights to the case, under which the seas and reefs were considered state property (Sharp, 1997)."
The result of this and other court mandates has been an attitude of Eurocentricism. This attitude has harmed the integration of the two cultures that…… [Read More]
sociology in indigenous populations. Specifically it will discuss what the terms ethnicity and racism mean, and critically examine how these terms apply to Indigenous Australians? Ethnicity and racism apply to Indigenous Australians (Aborigines) throughout their history, sad but true. Since the English first settled Australian in the 1700s, the Indigenous population has suffered greatly, and it is one of Australia's greatest shames that it went on so long.
The Indigenous people of Australia (Aborigines and Torres Straight Islanders) are one of the oldest cultures on Earth. Archaeologists believe their lineage goes back at least 50,000 years, and some believe it could go as far back as 65,000 years ago. They were the original occupants of Australia, and have a deep and abiding respect for the land and its many different environments. An Aboriginal Web site notes, "For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship…… [Read More]
Public Intellectual Essay
The introduction of critical race theory and other anti-colonial approaches to academic discourse has obscured the fact that higher education itself remains embedded in colonial institutions and structures. Higher education is a vestige of colonial means of psychological and social control. The political implications of colonialism in higher education include the perpetuation of hegemony, the suppression and subordination of alternative epistemologies, the ongoing political dominion over what constitutes knowledge, and the use of higher education to promote structures and institutions that serve the dominant culture. Although often an unconscious process, the ways colonial mentalities and processes remain entrenched in higher education are directly harmful to individual students and to society as a whole. Colonialism in higher education promotes a monolithic worldview that inhibits critical inquiry and creative solutions to global problems. By controlling how knowledge is defined, institutes of colonialist higher learning prevent alternative views and inhibit…… [Read More]
In addition, many religious groups are reviving their sacred ways because the westernized Christian religions do not meet their needs or desires. Many indigenous people feel left out or ignored in western religions, and so, they turn to their indigenous sacred ways because they conform to their belief systems and their values better than religions that were founded on European principles and beliefs. Many people, as they explore their pasts, find that their sacred ways seem to speak to them in a way that other organized religions may not. In addition, indigenous people, no matter who they are or where they live, have cultural ties to these sacred ways, and they may simply feel more comfortable with them, as if they are a better fit than other belief systems. It makes sense for a number of reasons, and more people are discovering their roots and sacred ways every year.… [Read More]
film La Otra Conquista captures the complexity of the process of colonialism, as even after he becomes known as Tomas, Topiltzin never loses his Aztec identity. The brutal use of force against the indigenous people of Mexico could not have alone erased the collective memories, dreams, and experiences of the people who survived. Historians have repeatedly pointed out the all-encompassing, major ways the colonial social systems and institutions transformed life for the indigenous people of Mesoamerica. Even the most "basic institutions" such as "family, marriage, and access to property," the issues that affect daily life as well as long-term survival of individual identity and community, would become "Europeanized."[footnoteef:1] Yet it would be impossible for Indian memory to completely end with the conquests. Collective memory is not so easily erased. Moreover, the indigenous people's customs, values, worldviews, and beliefs sometimes permeate and permanently alter those of the conquistadores. As La Otra…… [Read More]
82). He introduced plantations that included potato, cabbage, tomato, chilli and brinjal, and helped the Dongria Kondh create irrigation channels from the streams flowing down the mountains (Sachchidananda, p. 83).
The anthropologist also succeeded in resolving feuds and negotiated trades with the Domb so they could enjoy the benefits of fresh fruit and produce without exploiting the Dongria Kondh. According to Sachchidananda on pae 84, among the benefits of having a person who truly understood and cared about the Dongria Kondh and the Domb was that there was a more peaceful interaction between the two indigenous tribes. A "pragmatic rather than mere humanistic approach" certainly aided in solving development and socioeconomic issues as well (Sachchidananda, p. 84).
Vedanta Resources' mining proposal
Meantime, a proposed mining project that was conceived by the Vedanta Resources (of London, UK) -- owned by Indian tycoon Anil Agarwal -- created a major controversy over the…… [Read More]
Interactivity With One's Culture
The concepts of literature and history as identified in the excerpt from the Potiki that is referenced in this assignment is one of continuous interaction. Moreover, they underscore the degree of continuity that these people have with their past, which is quite at variance with conventional Western perceptions of the past. These facts are demonstrated throughout the manuscript that this excerpt stems from. Still, they are indicated perhaps most poignantly in the subsequent quotation "But our main book was the wharenui which is itself a story, a history, a gallery, a study, a design structure and a taonga. And we were part of that book along with family past and family yet to come."
What this particular section means is that the indigenous people have a deep rooted connection to the wharenui and to their background that transcends mere heirlooms and symbols (which is typically how…… [Read More]
Finally, each branch of Christianity decides which books to include in the Bible, which can greatly alter meaning and intent. That does not mean that the Bible lacks authority. One need only see how societies have generally incorporated the tenets of the Ten Commandments into codified laws to see that the Bible has weight and authority. However, it does mean that a Christian must consult his own thoughts and beliefs and do some outside study, not just rely on information in the Bible.
I understand that my conclusions differ from the conclusions reached by many Christians. Some people simply cannot conceive of Christianity where Mary's virginity is irrelevant, good works are part of being Christian, and the Bible is not the ultimate authority. This is largely due to the emphasis that Christianity places on Jesus and Christian authority, and the fact that so many Christian denominations minimize the role…… [Read More]
Aborigines and the State in Australia," by Jeremy Beckett one is able to gain insight into how the Aborigines were viewed by the Australian society. Jeremy Beckett goes to great lengths to explain how commercialized the whole aborigine society became. Throughout the work, he discusses how "Aboriginality" became a novel concept used to lure tourism, and how all that really remained were a few artifacts in a museum. Jeremy Beckett also delves deeply into the conflicts that took place over land rights in Australia. When attempts were made to appease the Aborigine people, the land for the most part was small and worthless (not conducive of sustaining any crops). This article maintains a neutral view and goes above and beyond to give a vivid depiction of what was going on with the struggle of the Aborigines to get aid in Australia. Through this article, you could also see the political…… [Read More]
This suggests another realm from which I might be able to draw, using both design elements and textures. Clothing, whether truly traditional or the modern degradations of the older textile traditions, could also prove to be a source of materials for my own work.
My research will involve both academic research into contemporary and past art and craft practices in Saudi Arabia as well as an artistic exploration into the incorporation of unconventional materials into works relevant for today's society. I plan to use unconventional materials in my sculptures such as waste and discarded materials, leather, wood, plastic, and glass. This is the new point in my work, using materials that many people will not see as being properly the building materials of art. Making art that reclaims discarded materials will be one by which I will make work that is -- especially within the realm of Saudi…… [Read More]
People feed themselves?
Why was subsistence agriculture a problem from the perspective of European colonizers?
From the point-of-view of the European colonizers, subsistence agriculture was a 'problem' because it was a source of empowerment for the individuals they desired to oppress. It was cast as primitive in European literature, but this 'primitive' form of agriculture had nourished people for centuries. The real aim of the Europeans was to render colonial peoples useful to the Mother Country. Subsistence agriculture was also problematic for the Europeans because it was primarily designed to sustain people, rather than to generate profits. The agriculture produced only what was needed for a small group of people, rather than crops for the mass marketplace.
An excellent example of this can be seen in the West Indies. Before Europeans came to the region, Africans had a vibrant, rich, and diversified system of agriculture, which provided many forms of…… [Read More]
The proposed study will be guided by the following research questions:
1. Can a set of best practices be identified from the existing body of literature concerning implementing and administering a special curriculum for young indigenous non-native speakers of English? If so, how can these best practices best be applied to Malaysia's young indigenous non-native speakers of English?
2. What cross-cultural factors need to be taken into account in developing such a special curriculum?
3. What are some of the common obstacles, challenges and constraints that have been experienced in other countries in general and in Malaysia in particular in implementing English as a second language curricular offerings?
The Design -- Methods and Procedures
Data Collection. The proposed study will draw on both secondary and primary sources to achieve the above-stated purposes and answer the above-stated research questions, an approach that is highly congruent with the…… [Read More]
The Bushmen reached advanced age despite living under harsh conditions caused by periodic famine and untreated illness. Some of the Bushmen coding alleles have been associated with disease. The results of the present study may help to reevaluate these earlier reports. They may also help to identify potential population-specific incompatibilities of drugs that are prescribed globally.
Furthermore, the results of this study have implications of admixtures that may be determined from further research. Population-wide PCA defines the Bushmen as distinct from the Niger-Congo populations as from Europeans. Within-Africa analysis separates the Bushmen from the divergent western and southern population, although ABT is within the southern Bantu cluster. However, variable relatedness of the Xhosa to Yoruba may suggest past admixture and/or historical diversity within this population. Within the Bushmen group, the authors predict that the Ju/' admixture and HGDP are essentially the same population. Divergence of KB1 and MD8 may be…… [Read More]
The Aleutian Islands run from the Peninsula of Kamchatka in the Asiatic portion of Russia to Alaska. All the islands are bare and mountainous and the coasts rocky and surrounded by crashing waves and enormous breakers. (Larkin, unpaged) Some believe the Aleutians offer the worst weather in the world: eather fronts originating in the South Pacific create storms hundreds of miles long and many weeks in duration (Sipes, unpaged) that pick up the frigid moisture of the waters and air as they move northward. It would seem that anyone desirous of living there would need some overwhelming reasons to do so. The Russians and Scandinavians who first 'discovered' the area for non-natives, and later the Americans, did have good reasons to be there. As for the Aleuts and Alutiiq, an abundance of fish and sea mammals might have been the attraction if, as some theories surmise, they arrived…… [Read More]
S. citizenship (Bloemraad 2002). Given the ongoing need for qualified recruits by the U.S. armed forces, it just makes sense to determine the extent of enlistment in the armed forces by immigrants to identify their personal reasons for doing so. To the extent that these reasons are directly related to their desire to obtain American citizenship rather than a sense of patriotic responsibilities is the extent to which military service may represent a viable alternative to more time-consuming, expensive and complication naturalization procedures. It is important, though, to ensure that these immigrant recruits are provided with accurate information concerning how military service will affect their naturalization status and efforts to secure ultimate citizenship.
Rationale of Study
Military recruiters typically experience increases in enlistments during periods of economic downturn because of limited employment opportunities elsewhere in the private sector. Nevertheless, recruiting adequate numbers of high-quality and motivated service members is more…… [Read More]
indigenous people were conquered and colonized. The writer will focus on the Incas and discuss their many evidences of colonization and being conquered. The evidence the writer will present will be in religious, economic and social discussion to illustrate the writer's belief that they were indeed conquered against their will and then later colonized. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Spanish were interested in development and growth in the 16th and 17th century and to that end they examined areas of the world that they believed would provide them with natural resources and power and they took the land over (Schwartz PG). Often times there were already indigenous people living there and the Spanish would forcefully conquer and colonize those people (SPANISH DEVELOPMENT (http://www.econ.org/octlessons/ushistory3,2-3.htm).One of the most interesting cases of the Spanish conquering and taking over an indigenous people was the Incas conquer. It was most…… [Read More]
Hence, all of these festivals, occasions and other rituals that indigenous Taiwanese celebrated prove that the Indigenous Taiwanese were full of life and were true cultural people who celebrated all their occasions with enthusiasm and ebullience.
Languages: Official language of Taiwan is Mandarin though other local languages were also spoken in originally indifferent tribes. Mandarin is the language that is used for everyday communication in Taiwan but the origin of Mandarin started from Ching dynasty. Mandarin and other languages that were spoken in Taiwan were basically derived from Chinese language families. Indigenous people had their own languages which have survived to date. "From Taiwan to New Zealand and Madagascar to Easter Island, the Austronesian language family is made up of more than a thousand languages and dialects. (Estimates vary from 900-1200 according to how dialects are distinguished from languages)" (Austronesian Expansion).
Other languages that were spoken in Taiwan included Halo…… [Read More]
The first tactic the groups used was to intimidate the local inhabitants with a show of military force and then introduce domesticated animals that often used up a disproportionate amount of the local food resources for their needs.
Since the Californian Indians lived in highly fragmented tribes it was difficult for the missionaries to bring the religion to them; rather they attracted to Indians to the "faith." The Californian Indians were hurdled into guarded Mission compounds which completely disrupted any of the local tribe's daily activities (Mcilliams, 1973, p. 29). Once the natives were converted they basically became slaves and as such were separated from their former affiliations by force. After being baptized, California Indians were no longer allowed to make contact with any of their tribes unless those members became slaves as well. This was strictly adhered to as the missionaries wanted the natives to adopt the new culture…… [Read More]
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…… [Read More]
This is when insurance companies will charge more for premiums based upon someone coming from a particular ethnic group. In the past, many of these practices were utilized to give some kind of advantage to people who were from non-indigenous backgrounds. This focus is taking a similar approach, by showing how someone is a higher risk because of their ethnicity. These views are not considering the lifestyle choices they are engaging in such as: physical activities, their diet, if the person is a smoker or drinks alcohol. (Bombak 2012)
Instead, they will use this category to automatically rate indigenous people higher largely based upon this variable. From an ethical perspective, one could argue that insurance companies are discriminating against this segment of the population without taking into consideration other factors. This makes it difficult for this demographic to locate and obtain affordable life insurance because of these views. When this…… [Read More]
( Achterberg 21) The man then proceeds to chop up the rest of his shaman's body, which he then boils in a pot for three years. After three years the body is reassembled by the spirits and covered with flesh. This means that in effect the ordinary man is now, through the process of initiation and dismemberment, resurrected as a shaman who has the capability to communicate with the spiritual world and who can acquire the knowledge to help and heal numerous illnesses. As the research by Achterberg notes, he now has the ability to, "…read inside his head…" (Achterberg 22) In other words, he now has the ability to see in a mystical sense without the use of his ordinary vision. (Achterberg 22) The initiation process also refers to the view that the shaman acts and perceives in a way that is different to ordinary human beings.
The world…… [Read More]
Global Law and Politics:
Political and legal institutions and communications have played an integral role in the development and provision of legitimacy in contemporary societies. This has been through the development of obligatory collective decisions, general legal principles, exercise of political power, and resolution of conflicts. In the new global system, these legal and political institutions have created and conveyed social values, political power, and social meaning in every sector of the society. Both of the institutions are considered as legitimate because they have been established on core values that are related to essential freedoms, the rule of law, and democracy.
Aspects of a New Global System:
Modern societies across the globe are faced with critical issues and problems that are dealt with at the global level by the establishment of laws and policies, which are developed in various institutions. Global law and politics has had a significant impact on…… [Read More]
CANADA'S ABOIGINAL PEOPLE
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.
The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…… [Read More]
The artistic authenticity of a particular object is determined, in part, by the objects provenance -- its history that helps us to understand the significance and original cultural context of the object. ithout this context it becomes complicated to identify certain tribal cultural artifacts as artwork or not.
But let's imagine that there exists an institutional framework or bureaucratic organization with the resources to undertake such a monumental task of artistic identification. There would still be additional problems to consider. In Indonesia, for instance, there are numerous political and cultural obstacles facing the emerging push for preservation. Communication in the nation is lackluster. Identifying and controlling all potential tribal art among the indigenous people is a task best left to the imagination. The infrastructure simply does not yet exist to properly compensate indigenous artists and craftsmen, let alone stem the tide of black-market deals and random destruction. Yet this is…… [Read More]
Ceremonies of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Indigenous Peoples
People have been living along the Pacific Northwest Coast for more than 11,000 years, and while the tribes and nations that developed differed in their customs and cultures, they shared some common ceremonial practices including most especially those involving their most important beliefs and natural resources such as salmon and the white deer. This paper provides a description of the different types of ceremonies used by the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coastal regions, including the Potlatch, Salmon Ceremony, the White Deerskin Dance and the Jumping Dance, followed by an analysis concerning how the scholarly or ethnographic records can be engaged in ways that contribute to building solidarities with and among indigenous people and what the ethnography of North American indigenous people can contribute to a critique of non-indigenous culture. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the…… [Read More]
Paul Keating's edfern Speech
Paul Keating's speech at edfern Park provides examples of rhetoric that are discussed below. The speech uses of and the three modes of persuasion: pathos, ethos, and logos. The use of epiphora, particularly in tricolon format, lends both cadence and emphasis. The word imagine is used in this manner and in epiphora convention, as the word is repeated in successive clauses. The connotation of the word confident is made more powerful by its proximity to the word imagine. Further, antithesis is threaded throughout by deliberate distinctions between non-Aboriginal and indigenous Australians, and presumably to use the favored terms of reference for every member of the audience -- as it is a political speech. There is a great divide between the experiences and treatment of the privileged primarily white non-indigenous citizens of Australia and the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island people. Keating does not shy away from…… [Read More]
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…… [Read More]
Aboriginal Education in Canada
GOVERNMENT ROLE IN ABORIGINAL EDUCATION IN CANADA
What do you believe was the goal of the Canadian government and church in planning and running residential schools? Why?
Schooling is considered one of the key aspects that bring about change in any society. Even before the establishment of the residential schools, schooling was something that was taking place in the country of Canada. As the only process that can change the structure and capacity of the human intellect and exposure, schooling is vital in Canada. Initially, the indigenous Canada was facing myriad challenges in accessing education. Schooling became a weapon that was also used by the Christian movement in a bid to reinforce the prospects of reaching out to many people with the gospel of Christianity. As with the Canadian indigenous people, much was needed to reinforce the spread of this Christianity that came with schooling (Regan,…… [Read More]
However, it is not culturally sensitive and says nothing about the desire to work with in cultural norms and traditions.
This article does not attempt to portray the aboriginal people in any particular way. It attempts to remain neutral in its portrayal of the Torres Strait Islanders. This article recognizes that Islanders in rural areas have different needs than those living in urban areas. The government will provide funding for implementing this plan. It is an excellent plan, but could be made better by the inclusion of cultural sensitivity within the programs that it outlines. The plan promises to give aboriginals better access to public programs. This suggests that access is inadequate at the current time.
acisimnoway (2008). Australian Communities: Torres Strait Islander People. etrieved February 28, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/classroom/factsheets/53.html.
This article explains the language and cultural traits of the Islander, both on and off the island. It…… [Read More]
Penal is a word pertaining to punishment and the penal system or penal practices are those related to trial of a person to judge if he should be punished or not and if yes, how much and for how long should he be punished. The penal practices are governed by standard penal laws that are similar yet customized in every country. For example, theft is the same crime but punished with imprisonment in USA, cutting of hands in Saudi Arabia and some time ago, punished by being shot in China. Thus the penal practices can vary from country to country and region to region.
Objective of Penal System
The objectives of penal system are evident and clear. There is a party, a person a group or an organization that committed crime and another party that was wronged. The first objective of penal system is to compensate the affected…… [Read More]
3. Who are the various groups of indigenous people? What are some of their customs? How did they receive the Spaniards? What marks of 'civilization' does de las Casas note?
The author refers to the indigenous peoples as Indians, and also as Cacics. De las Casas respects the great diversity among the indigenous people he encounters, even if his impressions seem ethnocentric. For example, the author claims that the indigenous people of Hispaniola are innocent and childlike, and trust the Spanish overlords. He also notes they do not like to work very hard. At times, de las Casas describes the religious idols and practices of the peoples, and also games like juggling.
4. List various specific things that de las Casas uses as examples of Spanish barbarity.
The entire tome is devoted to examples of Spanish barbarity. De las Casas does not hold back when he refers to the brutality…… [Read More]
The theme of gende and sexuality is elated to social powe. In Repoducing Empie: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Impeialism in Pueto Rico, Biggs shows how ace, class, gende, and powe ae inteelated and inteconnected. Pueto Rican cultue has been sexualized, and the sexualization of Pueto Rico has been lagely o exclusively the pojection of white Anglo-Saxon Potestant values placed upon a dake-skinned, Catholic populace. The esult has been the conceptualization of an exotic otheness, coupled with a simultaneous fea. Pueto Ricans have been citicized as developing a cultue of povety in the United States, and Pueto Rican families ae blamed.
Regading the theme of gende and sexuality and how it is elated to citizenship and immigation, Biggs shows that white Ameicans have pojected the cultue of povety on Pueto Rico by blaming Pueto Ricans, athe than acknowledging the sociological oots of the poblem that can be taced to…… [Read More]
Trade and imperialism brought all the societies of the Near East into contact with one another during the Axial Age so that networks were established and goods and services flowed from society to the other. These networks also facilitated the dispersal of ideas, both religious and philosophical. By the end of the Axial Age, the foundations of Western thought had been laid by the classical philosophers in Greece: Socrates, Plato and Aristotle—and their ideas rooted in the observance of Transcendentals, or ideals, that individuals pursued through the cultivation of good or virtuous habits in their daily lives, spread to the next dominant empire in the West—the Roman Empire. This paper will discuss the transmission of technology, ideas (religious and philosophical), consumer goods, and germs from the end of the Axial Age to 1500 CE. It will also examine the treatment of indigenous people by expanding empires and conquerors as…… [Read More]
Having been prosecuted in Europe, they were inclined to severe all ties with the continent and considered Africa their homeland. Since most other immigrants in Cape were also Calvinists -- members of the Dutch Reformed Church, the French Haguenots were readily accepted as part of a common community and were soon integrated into settler society by intermarriage. Their emphasis on a 'pure' form of Calvinism and self-sufficiency, however, influenced the development of the Afrikaner culture and way of life.
The Afrikaans Language
Afrikaans is the language of the white South Africans that was largely derived from the 17th century Dutch language. It is estimated that about seven million people in South Africa and Namibia speak some form of Afrikaans, although 'standard' Afrikaans is spoken mainly by the whites. Until the end of the "apartheid" in 1994, Afrikaans was the official language of government and education. It is now one of…… [Read More]
This seems to be serious, but most of the people committing the crime are being released by the courts. (Understanding White Collar Crime)
Question 3a: What is a FOIA request and is it likely to be granted?
The request is under the Freedom of Information Act, and it is targeted to the United States Department of Justice, and there is no reason to think that the Department of Justice will refuse to reply. The question is of political interference occurring affecting the trial in the last stages of the trial against the cigarette industry. Let us not assume that the Department of Justice is now being totally controlled by the politicians, and that is why they will stop from replying. At worst, there will be the appointment of a committee to investigate and look into the matter. Even that will help the cigarette industry as they will get more time,…… [Read More]
Natures Healing Powers
The Power of Nature in the healing process has been known for centuries by the various civilizations of the world. The process of engaging nature in the healing process is done in a variety of way. It can be through the action of some herbs, performing meditation on mountains, relaxing in a windflower terrain/field or even by strolling by a slow flowing stream.
In this paper however, we are going to critically focus on the psychological, emotional and culturally healing power of nature as seen by indigenous peoples of the world-including Native Americans, Inuit, and Inughuit, African, Aboriginal, Asian cultures
The Native American nature healing process comprises of several beliefs and practices which make part of the life of the native tribesmen, women and children. The process is made up of several elements. These elements include religion, herbal medicines, spirituality and several other rituals that are all…… [Read More]
At the same time, democracy allows people ith different views come together on a particular subject they share an opinion, state their mind and make a positive change.
Q6. What does De Tocqueville mean by 'artificial solidarity'?
Artificial solidarity resembles a tailored feeling of solidarity based on a foundation that is not real and one which was applied to a society without real background that would support it in a true manner. It resembles an individual that is pious in clothes and behavior, but his house is full of luxurious belongings.
Q7. Why should democrats remember the 'utility of forms'?
Forms are tools through which barriers are set and rules are created. In a system that allows people to use their rights to freedom, it is important to have such forms and to respect them.
Q8. What is 'self-interest rightly understood'? Where does De Tocqueville derive this idea from? Why…… [Read More]
epublic of Fiji
Multiculturalism and Globalization in the epublic of Fiji
In an increasingly global society, multiculturalism is becoming important for businesses and individuals that want to advance. There is an increasing need to understand and relate to others, and people who are unable or unwilling to do so are finding that they are being left behind in business. They are also finding their growth stunted financially and culturally, because they do not permit themselves to be open to other people and to continue to learn what they can from people who are different from them. While that is unfortunate, how significant multiculturalism is in the life of a particular person can depend greatly on where that person lives and the culture that he or she is exposed to on a daily basis. Some people need to be more multicultural than others, just based on where they reside.
More cities…… [Read More]