Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
When the English Parliament and Crown enclosed their views with undue fiscal and theoretical restrictions upon the citizens of the North American colonies, the men who would become known as America's Founding Fathers rejoined with a quick, powerful, rhetorical and later military response. These politicians cum philosophers approached the legal authorities with the disdain of an unjust ruler, purporting instead a policy of individual rights protected by a government that allows for the common good. To the leaders at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, the liberties of all men were clear; "They are entitled to life, liberty, and property."
In their actualization of these beliefs, they created a system that mixed the importance of individual liberties with the great need to protect the common good in a careful balance that is the basis of the American political paradigm.
The great thinkers of pre-Revolution America adopted a synthesized political…
Mrs. Peters shows this belief when she says, "But Mrs. Hale, the law is the law." (Glaspell, 16.)
Many of the laws that govern society are based on maintaining society. This includes criminal laws, which are easily justified, they protect everyone's safety. It also includes business laws, which again protect society by clarifying how businesses can operate. Everyone has a responsibility towards society simply because they are part of it. This means that individual freedom is restricted in favor of the freedom of society.
The question that "Trifles" raises, is when is it all right to overlook this responsibility to society in favor of responsibility to an individual. In life, this question is raised often. Stealing is a crime, but is it acceptable to steal food if a child's life depends on it? In the play we see that a criminal crime of 'suppression of evidence' occurs where Mrs. Peters…
..three-fourths of employers monitor their employees' web site visits in order to prevent inappropriate surfing." (Employee Monitoring: Is There Privacy in the orkplace?)
In my own experience I have found that technological innovations like email are an invaluable tool for communications and doing business. However I am also aware that in many ways privacy and individuality can be imposed on by these new technologies. There is also the continual and increasing danger of viruses, malware and spyware than can reside on one's computer and that can comprise personal data and information. One is in effect continually threatened by a wide range of technologies that are actually designed to interfere with individual privacy without one's knowledge. Small programs called cookies can gain entrance to a personal computer while surfing the eb and these can send out personal data and information to advertisers and marketers about your personal life.
In this sense,…
Brand books. 12 Nov. 2006. http://www.brandchannel.com/books.asp?pageno=10
Employee Monitoring: Is There Privacy in the Workplace? 12 Nov. 2006. http://www.privacyrights.org/fs/fs7-work.htm
Miyazaki, Anthony D., and Ana Fernandez. "Consumer Perceptions of Privacy and Security Risks for Online Shopping." Journal of Consumer Affairs 35.1 (2001): 27. Questia. 14 Nov. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000995725 .
S. citizens. In this program designed to help young ones value the freedoms they currently experience:
according to Tyler Barnwell, stands for grievance, as in "to petition the government for a redress of grievances." which denotes religious freedom, Leslie Anne Hill, a Presbyterian, states:
"means you don't have to follow a certain religion." stands for freedom of assembly, Sherri Jones states is "the right to get together with other people peaceably, but not to disturb anyone." which is for freedom of speech, Stephanie Kenfield relates: "means you can say anything you want to say, and nobody can stop you or anything, but not bad words and stuff." stands for freedom of the press, Justin Jolly explains: "You could write and say anything you want on a piece of paper or in a newspaper or anything like that." "Getting a grasp..., 1994)
The ruling for The Alpha Epsilon Pi v. The…
Blankley, T. (2001, March 7). Freedom under Siege. The Washington Times, p. 17.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius. (1996). The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved 12 December 2006 from www.bartleby.com/66/65/12465.html.
COURT THROWS OUT LAW USED TO BAN WEEDSTOCK 4TH DISTRICT COURT OF APPEALS DECIDES SAUK COUNTY'S OPEN AIR ASSEMBLY LAW VIOLATES THE FIRST AMENDMENT.(LOCAL/WISCONSIN)," Wisconsin State Journal (Madison, WI), July 25, 2003.
Individual Knowledge and Power
19th century poet Emily Dickinson is famous for her writing about the sometimes odd quality of being human, or rather the unnatural social norms that humanity has constructed. Dickinson claims that "[m]uch Sense -- the starkest Madness -- / 'Tis the Majority," meaning that most people guide their lives through typical principles of an objective common sense. Despite the best efforts of the philosophers and statesmen who have fostered Western principles of common sense throughout the centuries, people are not mathematical certainties; and while general rules are essential to the well-being of the population, individual lives cannot be dictated by a standardized social formula. True human growth and progress is a journey often taken alone, in which a person has to develop his or her own ideas of right and wrong. This short essay examines three different ways individual knowledge and power is originated, fostered, and…
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
Individuals and Their ights - a book by Tibor . Machan
Machan's view is that libertarianism has a "moral superiority" over other political theories and practices - and hence, that reflects one of the pressing needs for this book to be written.
The essence of the author's arguments in this book is that a comprehensive "moral defense" of the sometimes controversial tenets of libertarianism had not yet been presented - albeit this book was published in 1989, and subsequent to its appearance there have indeed been numerous academic justifications and explanations for the libertarian philosophy herein espoused. The author admits, in the Preface (p. xvi), that he had to choose between a) just "charging ahead" and presenting his arguments (ignoring critics), or b) the path of "looking often at criticisms" and giving readers key rebuttals to those attacks. He chose "b" - because he recognized, in an honest editorial position,…
Machan, Tibor R. Individuals and Their Rights. La Salle, Illinois: Open Court, 1989.
Sonny's brother wakes up and states, "Freedom lurked around us and I understood, at last, that he could help us to be free if we would listen, that he would never be free until we did" (47). Sonny was more free and living a life more true than his brother realized.
The transformation in Sonny's brother is dramatic. Duncan writes, "By the end of the story, the narrator has gained much more than an astute musical ear. He has learned . . . To listen" (Duncan). Throughout the story, Baldwin designates the act of listening as the linchpin of this moral tale; by focusing on an often-overlooked component of communication, this early Baldwin story illustrates how Brother, initially deaf to what Sonny calls "all that hatred and misery and love," opens his ears to his culture, his brother, and himself. and, through Brother's example, readers might also become more willing…
Baldwin, James. "Sonny's Blues." The Norton Anthology of Short
Fiction R.V. Cassill,
W. Norton and Company. New York: 1981. pp. 22-48.
In the fierce amounts of fighting, Ferguson tried to break through the enemy position and was killed. This caused his men to lose faith and surrender.
However, the rebels could not maintain control of these forces. As they were fearful that Cornwallis could counterattack at any moment. This forced them to retreat into the mountains. The battle was significant, because it made Cornwallis abandon his strategy of pacifying the South. As a result, he moved his forces into Virginia (where he was surprised by Washington and the French). This led to his surrender and the subsequent peace treaty. (Bower)
These events are showing some of the parallels that the U.S. is facing with its War on Terror and dealing with non-traditional military forces. What causes their ranks to increase; is the approach that is taken by American officials in different regions of the world. In many cases, this has meant…
Bower, Stephen. Freedoms Warriors. U.S. Army Solider Support, 2005.
The Merriam -- ebster's Dictionary defines "autonomy" as "the quality or state of being independent, free, and self-directing, independence from the ... whole, the right of self-government," and lists as a synonym, "self-reliance" (Autonomy pp). The dictionary defines "Individual" as a "single human ... existing as a distinct entity, separate" (Individual pp). The Declaration of Independence begins by stating the colonies' position on autonomy, saying that at times it is necessary to dissolve connection with another, "and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them" (Declaration pp). The Founding Fathers then went on to justify their separation by listing truths of self-evidence, "that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" (Declaration…
"Autonomy." Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/search?q=autonomy
"The Declaration of Independence of the Thirteen Colonies." Indiana University
School of Law -- Bloomington.
Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.
"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."
The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007
There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…
Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper
Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine, http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.
Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television
From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
3. Comfortable Shelter and Dignified Accommodations. Although everyone would like to remain in their own homes as long as possible and live an independent lifestyle, age-related diseases and infirmities frequently require placement of the elderly in long-term care facilities that vary drastically in their quality of care. Some progressive facilities employ evidence-based interventions such as pet therapy, art therapy and music therapy that have been shown to be effective in promoting quality of life among the elderly, while others simply allow their residents to wither away, neglected, unnoticed and uncared for by family or friends.
4. Reasonable Assurances of Safety (freedom from crime, terrorist attacks, etc.). In the culture of fear that has emerged in the United States and elsewhere following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, older people, like anyone else, want to be assured of their physical safety as they go about their day-to-day lives.
In the older forms, people could live and work in relative independence if they disengaged from politics. Under a modern totalitarian government, people are completely and utterly dependent on, and submissive to, the rule and whims of a political party and its leaders. Older forms of such a government ruled by divine right, while the modern totalitarian state is ruled and run by a dictator who controls a political party. Examples of totalitarian governments are Germany under Adolph Hitler, the U.S.S.R. particularly under Joseph Stalin, the People's Republic of China under Mao Tse Tung, Italy under enito Mussolini and Iraq under Saddan Hussein. The ruling party is the elite and the whole society is subjugated to a hierarchical order wherein an individual becomes responsible to another of a higher position of authority. All social groupings are either destroyed or subjected to the purposes of the ruling party and the state.…
1. Labor Law Talk. Parliamentary System. Labor Law Talk Forum: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2006
2. Lee, Dwight R. Liberty and Individual Responsibility. The Freeman: Foundation for Economic Educatin, 2005. http://www.fee.org/publications/the-freeman/articles.asp?aid=2124&print_view=true
3. MNS Encarta. Totalitarianism. Microsoft Corporation, 2006. http://encarta.msn.com/text_761574819_0/Totalitianism_html
4. Mikuriya H.N. Authoritarianism: a Social Disease. SOHOComp, 2006. http://www.mikuriya.com/sp_authority.html
History has shown that freedom is not inherently a part of society, rather it is something fought hard for and won. When countries fight for freedom, when people rise for liberty, they do so because they feel they must. Whether it is a strict government, a deranged dictator, or a highly religious society, people have seen their freedoms limited to varying degrees. The United States has been built upon the idea that freedom should be a basic right. While the country has seen its fair share of battles, with itself and with outsiders, it has maintained this very ideal throughout its history.
What is freedom and liberty? Why is it so important that people would risk their lives to maintain certain freedoms? To begin analysis of these two words, I will present my own definition of freedom and liberty followed by how others define these two words. First and foremost,…
Mill agrees that the mischief a person does to himself can affect others, and he finds that it is right to bring to bear moral disapprobation,
henever there is a definite damage, the case moves out of the province of liberty and into that of morality or law. ith reference to that which is merely contingent, however, society can afford to bear the inconvenience (Magid 799-800).
Mill in his work on Liberty proposed a simple principle for determining whether society has a right to limit individual freedom, a principle based on utilitarian concepts and applicable to the individual in his or her dealings with society. that principle can be stated as follows:
The only thing of ultimate value is the happiness of individuals, and individuals can best achieve their happiness in a civilized society when they are left free to pursue their own interest with their own talents as these…
Carlyle, Thomas. Past and Present. The Gutenberg Project (27 Sept 2004). July 16, 2007. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/13534 .
Himmelfarb, Gertrude. On Liberty and Liberalism. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 1974.
Kelly, J.M.A Short History of Western Legal Theory. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1992.
Magid, Henry M. "John Stuart Mill." In History of Political Philosophy, Leo Strauss and Joseph Cropsey (eds.), 798-802. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987.
Human rights according to the practice of the UN also imply "the right of everyone to have access to safe and nutritious food" (UNESCO, 2004). Therefore, given this example one of the means used by the UN in its attempt to offer the possibility for the respect of this right has been to give "the mandate to the High Commissioner for Human Rights to better define the body of rights related to food. In 2000 a UN Special Rapporteur for Right to Food was appointed and in 2003 an intergovernmental working group was formed to establish guidelines to promote the progressive realization of the right to food" (UNESCO, 2004).
Indeed there are several types of responses that can be given to the breach of human rights throughout the world. Depending on the type of rights being placed under discussion, there can be several mechanisms set in place. Thus, when there…
General Assembly. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on the Human Rights Council. (2006) http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/a.RES.60.251_En.pdf
Human Rights Education Association. The European Human Rights System. (n.d). http://www.hrea.org/index.php?base_id=143#osce
International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. Submitting Complaints to the Individual Complaint Procedure of United Nations Human Rights Treaty Bodies. (N.d). http://www.iglhrc.org/files/iglhrc/Fact%20Sheet%20-%20Individual%20Complaints%20Mechanisms.doc .
Jane Hearn, "Individual communications under international human rights treaties: an Australian Government perspective." Australian Journal for Human Rights. (1999) http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/AJHR/1999/21.html
America was a wonderful experiment in freedom and democracy which had never before been attempted by any nation. Nations either tried to give power to the people in order to prevent monarchies from rising to despotic power, or they allowed monarchs, despots and other sole figure heads to rise to power. In the case of allowing the people to rule, Europe and European's had learned many times that unbridled power in the hands of the people was no more just than the rule of despots. obs could become just as dictatorial as individual monarchs who sat upon golden thrones. Until America came into existence, nations could only expect to exist for a short time before political turmoil would create change of government, and the nation would start over again.
So as America grew from a fledgling nation to a powerful and economically stable country, those who had watched democracy struggle…
Mill, John Stuart. Dissertations and Discussions. New York: classic Books. 2000.
Madison, James. Federalist paper #10. 1775
De Tocqueville, Alexis. Democracy in America, essays on freedom. 1835. Accessed 21 May 2004. Website: http://www.tocqueville.org
Patient Privacy ights and the elated Scientific esearch
The medical research and the use of data collected from patients is not a strange phenomenon in the medical field across the globe, with most medical trend and infections or disease being handled and controlled based on the information collected from patients. Mr. Oberman found himself in a dilemma since being a medical practitioner, he had the internal and professional urge to do anything that would contribute to the furthering of medical research and well being of the population in general. Yet on the other hand, being an individual from the society which he treated its members, he felt that their right to privacy and concealing of private information when they so wished nodded to be respected. All his colleagues were against the legislation that restricted the kind of questions that could be asked of a patient and wanted the pregnant women…
Salmon D.A. & Omer S.B., (2006). Individual freedoms versus collective responsibility: immunization decision-making in the face of occasionally competing values. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1592474/
Freedom speech guarantees freedom extend disturbing funeral (Armed Forces funerals) support claim, acknowledge claim opponent, find common ground .
There is presently much controversy regarding the concept of freedom of speech and the fact that people are often denied the right to speak when they want to express themselves. Even with this, there are a series of situations when one's right to express his or her position needs to be denied on the basis of common sense. It would surely be absurd to claim that freedom of speech should not be present in every setting regardless of circumstances. However, people should carefully analyze a situation and decide whether or not it would be right for them to speak in a particular environment. Freedom of speech is in some cases rendered ineffective because of a series of reasons that make it possible for individuals to understand that it is more important…
Brouwer, D.l C. And Hess, A. "Making Sense of 'God Hates Fags' and 'Thank God for 9/11': A Thematic Analysis of Milbloggers' Responses to Reverend Fred Phelps and the Westboro Baptist Church," Western Journal of Communication 71.1 (2007)
Conery, B. "Supreme Court upholds protests at military funerals as free speech," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the Washington Times Website: http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2011/mar/2/supreme-court-oks-church-protest-military-funerals/?page=all
Kingsbury, A. "Supreme Court Weighs Free Speech Limits in Military Funeral Case," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the U.S. News Website: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/06/supreme-court-weighs-free-speech-limits-in-military-funeral-case
Liptak, A. "Justices Rule for Protesters at Military Funerals," Retrieved February 12, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/03/us/03scotus.html?pagewanted=all
Individuals Become Terrorists?
As the costly global battle against terrorism continues, the question is constantly begged, "Why do some individuals become terrorists while others do not?" Certainly, there are some generic attributes that distinguish many individuals who are considered terrorists in the eyes of the international community, including being young and male, but the generalities tend to stop there because women and even children have also been involved in terrorist attacks in the past. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the various motivational factors that have been shown to turn ordinary individuals into terrorists. Following a discussion of these issues, a summary of the research and important findings concerning why some individuals become terrorists are provided in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
What is terrorism, anyway? Although a single, universally acceptable definition of terrorism is…
Abrahms, M 2008, 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-terrorism strategy,' International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, 78-105.
Acharya, A 2009, Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes,
New York: Routledge.
Atran, S 2008, 'Who becomes a terrorist today?,' Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.2, No. 5, 1-5.
Western world it appears is slightly alienated from the spiritual world that most people in the east like Hindus take for granted. For an average person in the West, physical and material world is the only world and spirit is only an illusion. For those in the east, like Hindus, physical world is the illusion and spirit is the only truth there is.
Western social, political and economic systems play an important role in the shaping of western concept of freedom. Freedom to choose, freedom of speech, freedom from bondage, freedom to vote, are some of the main ideals upheld by western society and thus freedom has become merely a hollow term used to describe a state of liberation in the physical world. Capitalism has also influenced the development of this concept as freedom to choose what one likes, build what one desires and move as and when one…
Frederic Spiegelberg. Living Religions of the World: Prentice-Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ 1956
Hedebro, Goran. Communication and Social Change in Developing Nations. Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1982.
Peter Heehs. Indian Religions: The Spiritual Traditions of South Asia: An Anthology/edited. Delhi, Permanent Black, 2002
Look at any communist regime in the last 100 years, where religion is considered an opiate of the masses. The government becomes god in that circumstance, and can get away with anything, including mass genocide (the Origin of ights - posted on."
True freedom should be given to individuals who do not harm other members of society.
One classic example of a lack of freedom that does not make sense is teenage curfew. Thousands of cities across the nation impose teenage curfews. The governments of those cities choose an arbitrary time by which teens have to be home or they can be taken into custody and their parents can be charged with contributing to the delinquency of a minor for letting their child be out past curfew.
Curfew laws impose on what freedoms should be allowed. Why is it necessary for teenagers to come in at a certain time? Who…
Enemies of the Future
The Origin of Rights - posted on March 30, 2005 @ 12:12: AM CST
individuals are knowledgeable about macroeconomics. It is a huge and potentially difficult subject to understand, and yet its constructs intimately affect each and every aspect of our lives. To show that this is so, I plan to explain some of the factors of the current state of the U.. macro economy so that we can gain a better understanding of their implications. I will address this topic by posing four of the most popular questions and answering them by connecting them to our situation.
What happens when there is a surplus of imports brought into the U.. Cite a specific example of a product with an import surplus, and the impact that has on the U.. businesses and consumers involved.
When imports are greater than exports, the United tates is said to have a balance of trade deficit. An example may be of the surplus of ony electronics that are…
Scissors, MJ et al. (2012) Trade Freedom: How Imports Support U.S. Jobs
The Heritage Foundation
For instance, the U.S. can use drones with the purpose of filming exact instances involving Assad's men violating human rights.
Considering that "the Syrian government isn't just fighting rebels, as it claims; it is shooting unarmed protesters, and has been doing so for months" (Sniderman & Hanis), it is only safe to assume that immediate action needs to be taken in order for conditions to change. Children are dying at the moment and the world appears to express lack of interest in their suffering. In spite of the fact that rebels are determined to bring Assad now, the Syrian president has successfully used the armed forces with the purpose of destroying rebel efforts up until this moment.
Assad continues to dominate Syria as outside forces sit and watch as innocent revolutionaries are being murdered. There is no limit to what Syrian armed forces are willing to do with the purpose…
Barnard, Anne, "Syrian Insurgents Accused of Rights Abuses," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/21/world/middleeast/syrian-insurgents-accused-of-rights-abuses.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
Koettl, Cristoph, "How Many More Syrians Have to Die Before the UN Acts?," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the Human Rights Now Website: http://blog.amnestyusa.org/justice/how-many-more-syrians-have-to-die-before-the-un-acts/
Neville-Morgan, Allyson, "Pressure on Syrian Regime Increases as Violence against Civilians Continues," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the United to End Genocide Website: http://blog.endgenocide.org/blog/2011/11/28/pressure-on-syrian-regime-increases-as-violence-against-civilians-continues/
Stobo Sniderman, Andrew and Hanis, Mark, "Drones for Human Rights," Retrieved March 31, 2012, from the NY Times Website: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/31/opinion/drones-for-human-rights.html
Intellectual Freedom in Libraries
In today's academic world intellectual freedom is a very important issue. In this paper various factors which are affecting intellectual freedom have been discussed along with efforts that need to be made in order to make the access of information possible for all. The issues being faced mainly by the librarians regarding the protection of confidential information of the library users have also been discussed in this paper. Furthermore the paper focuses on the important roles that can be played by the librarians in guiding and educating the people regarding the proper use of information.
Intellectual freedom is the liberty to express opinions in the academic world, the freedom of access to the information and the freedom of using that information (in a legal manner) without the fear of your confidential information being exploited. Intellectual freedom is very important for the academic growth of any society…
American Association of School Librarians. (2009). Empowering learners: Guidelines for school library media programs. Chicago: American Association of School Librarians.
American Library Association (ALA). (2007). Office for Intellectual Freedom: intellectual freedom and censorship Q & A. http://www.ala.org/ala/oif/basics/intellectual.htm
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2004). The role of libraries in student-centred learning: the case of students from the disadvantaged communities in South Africa. The International Information and Library Review 36(3):263 -- 271.
Arko-Cobbah, A. (2011). Intellectual Freedom and Academic Freedom: Some Challenges and Opportunities for Academic Libraries in Africa. Mousaion, 28 (2) 2011 pp. 76 -- 95
Jean Paul Sartre and Simone De Beauvoir on Freedom, Being-for-Others, And Sartrean Despair
Simone de Beauvoir and JP Sartre were two famous existentialists that converged and diverged on various concepts. These included the existentialist concepts of freedom, being-for-others and transcendence or despair. Their converged and divergences will be addressed in this essay.
Sartre was one of the most famous existentialists of all times. For him, existence did not base itself on an ethos of God-ordained morality nor did it have any transcendental meaning. ather meaningfulness of life -- or liberty / freedom -- depended on the meaning that one arbitrarily accorded life and he claimed that man is "what he makes of himself," or in other words "in the end one is always responsible for what is made of one" In this way, Sartre's philosophy integrated both optimism and despair: optimism in the belief that one can resolutely make something…
Fullbrook, Kate & Edward. Simone de Beauvoir and Jean-Paul Sartre: The Remaking of a Twentieth-Century Legend. New York: Basic Books: 1994.
Jean-Paul Sartre mythosandlogos.com/Sartre.html
Vintges, Karen. Philosophy as Passion: The Thinking of Simone de Beauvoir. Translated by Anne Lavelle. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996.
de Beauvoir, Simone. The Ethics of Ambiguity. New York: Citadel Press, 1976. Print.
Freedom and Liberty to the Founding Fathers
The founding fathers of the United States of America were a product of the Enlightenment. The "Enlightenment" was the 18th century's attempt to break out of the self-imposed restrictions of society and create something better. (osner 2000, 251-253) Beginning with the writings of John Locke in the mid-1600's, a new idea had begun to take root: that man could, through his reason, create better social structures. In other words, man had the ability to create a more perfect form of government, one more in line with the rights of the people. This idea, by its very nature, is an attempt to transfer authority over society from a select few, to the masses of people. The idea of taking power away from Kings, and other rulers, and creating governmental system that would be created and responsible to the people is what the…
Locke, John, and Peter Laslett (ed.). Two Treatises of Government. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988. Print
Rosner, Lisa, and Theibault, John. 2000. A Short History of Europe, 1600-1815. New York: M.E. Sharpe
"Africans in America Narrative: Part 2, The Revolutionary War." PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part2/2narr4.html
MacPherson goes on to point out how different seventeenth century theorists -- Leveller, Hobbes, and Locke, to name a few -- included these ideas in their philosophies. MacPherson further illustrates that a main similarity in these philosophies was the belief that human society was a series of market relations (266). At this point, these theories have "failed" liberal-democratic theory (MacPherson 270) because it has made impossible a valid theory of obligation. As such, MacPherson poses the question whether liberal-democratic theory and Hobbsian can be realigned and made to not be mutually exclusive (277). In relation to Western human rights, these theories recognize the certain aspects of freedom (unsurprising, as we have seen from Halcoff's piece) 'create' a man, in a sense. As such, it might be argued that these seventeenth century philosophers were some of the first to recognize, implicitly, a Western notion of human rights.
In their article, Bunch…
Bunch, Charlotte & Frost, Samantha.
Halcoff, George. Whose Freedom? The Battle Over America's Most Important Idea. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux, 2006. Print.
MacPherson, C.B. The Political Theory of Possessive Individualism, Hobbes to Lock. Oxford U. press, 1962. Print.
Pollis, Adamantia & Schwab, Peter. Human Rights: Literal and Ideological Perspectives.
freedom and rights are valued, it can be observed that the most oppressed members of societies in our world today are the women. Treated as subordinate individuals and subject to abuse and exploitation, women are continually perpetuated as "objects of possession" instead of human beings through the rampant sex trade industry. In a report presented by the United Nations Population Fund, they addressed the continuing problem of sex trafficking, which is defined as, "the recruitment... harboring or receipt of persons... For the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include...prostitution..." (United Nations Convention Against Transactional Organized Crime). At present, sex trafficking is estimated to have 700,000 to 2 million women trafficked internationally. This number could grow up to 4 million women if the estimates shall include the number of trafficked women domestically.
The reasons why women are forced to enter the sex trade industry are poverty and inequity. Domestically, women are forced…
Freedom and bondage are two concurrent Themes that run throughout the period of history. In the reform movement that arose in the 19th century those two themes coexisted side by side. how can this be ?
And, in what ways was the language of freedom used to subvert and undermine the hard cold facts of slavery and bondage in the United States? Look at the cases of African American and women in comparison to white men in the United States.
The two items, freedom and bondage, existed side-by-side in the 19th century. How so?
Harvard professor and history scholar Henry Louis Gates, Jr., writes (in a PBS article) that while many assume after the 13th Amendment (freeing slaves), free blacks headed north just as soon as they could, right? (Gates, 2007). It is remarkable, Gates explains, to learn that in 1860, there were 226,152 free blacks living in…
policy makers underestimate internet independence?
YouTube independence of positing video content
The internet moderated terrorism
egulating the internet for anti-terrorism
Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet
The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.
The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.
Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.
Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.
Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.
Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
Colin Kaepernicks political activism and his symbolic taking the knee have sparked a fierce debate over the power, potential, and possible limitations on freedom of speech. According to an article in The Washington Post, survey after survey has shown that too many students at all levels including in college dont understand free speech and dont know that it is guaranteed by the First Amendment, (Strauss, 2017, p. 1). The reason why I am writing about freedom of speech in relation to the reaction to Kaepernick is that the First Amendment encompasses the fundamental rights and freedoms fundamental to democracy. The goal of the paper is to explain the facts of the case through the lens of both ethics and constitutional law. Ultimately, I want to demonstrate to the audience why a democracy cannot function without freedom of speech. I also want to show why protesting something symbolic like…
Ethical Issues and Therapy
In the caring professions, codes of ethics are particularly important in terms of a focus on the relationship between professionals and clients. Centuries of development have culminated in an ethical code where boundaries are considered to be an important component of this relationship. Indeed, a therapist is expected to maintain an appropriate relationship with clients in terms of maintaining very specific physical boundaries. However, these boundaries can also become somewhat murky, especially where non-sexual contact is concerned. Most critics appear to suggest that the best approach is to maintain as much physical distance as possible between therapists and clients, especially in the light of unforeseen damage that can occur to both the client and the therapist, especially when a supposedly innocent gesture meant to comfort can be misunderstood or misconstrued.
One critic for the opposite position is Totton (2011), who appears to believe that too many…
Bonitz, V. (2008). Use of Physical Touch in the "Talking Cure": A Journey to the Outskirts of Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy Theory, Research, Practice, Training, Vol. 45, No. 3. Retrieved from: http://www.laboratoriosilesia.com/upfiles/sibi/p_006_use_of_physical.pdf
Eichenberg, C., Fischer-Becker, M. And Fischer, G. (2010). Sexual assaults in therapeutic relationships: prevalence, risk factors and consequences. Health. Vol. 2, No. 9.
MacMahon, B.D. (2010). What's the Harm? Looking at the Effects of Psychology Doctoral Student-Educator Sexual Relationships (Master's thesis, Pacific University). Retrieved from: http://commons.pacificu.edu/spp/118
Pope, K.S., Tabachnick, B.G. And Keith-Spiege, P. (2006). Sexual Attraction to Clients: The Human Therapist and the (Sometimes) Inhuman Training System. American Psychologist, Vol. 41, No. 2. Retrieved from: http://kspope.com/sexiss/research5.php#copy
Individual and Society
Relationship between Individual and Society
As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements, numerous facets have been changed over time, and the relationship between the individual and society is one of the elements that have also changed over the course of period, which cannot be overlooked. Conformity and traditional values were considered the most significant aspect for the people in the earlier times, however, currently; individualization has been witnessed as the latest attempt that defines the current nature of this relationship.
Numerous investigations from the post modern, modern and late modern eras have been carried out in order to identify and determine the root cause of the changes in the relationship over time. However, amongst the numerous researches, few of it are highlighted that can measure the reasons behind the changing forms of integration and differentiation amongst the people and society.
Furlong, Andy and Cartmel, Fred. Young People and Social Change. 2nd Edition. Poland: McGraw-Hill International, 2006.
Jeffs, T. And Smith, M.K. "Individualization and youth work," Youth and Policy, volume 76, (2002).
Leccardi, Carmen and Ruspini, Elisabetta. A New Youth?: Young People, Generations And Family Life. Great Britain: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006.
Rury, John L.. Education and Social Change: Contours in the History of American Schooling, 3ed Edition, New York: Routledge, 2012.
Conceptions of American Freedom
Freedom is an extremely important aspect of American culture, history, and identity. The European settlers that sailed to what would later become the United States of America, came for key reasons, one of which was freedom of religion. The concept of freedom was in one way very important to the people of the United States. Certainly, the concept of freedom in America is fraught with conflict, tension, and paradox. It is common knowledge that the freedoms of one particular group of Americans was increased with the elimination of the freedoms of other groups in the United States. While white males enjoyed the most freedoms, and declared to have build a country heavily predicated on guaranteed freedoms, the freedoms of women, enslaved Africans, and the indigenous tribes of natives who lived in the country for thousands of years did not have many freedoms relative to theirs.
Democracy Web -- Comparative Studies in Freedom. 2012. The Idea of Freedom. Web, Available from: http://www.democracyweb.org/young/young1.php. [footnoteRef:3]2012 November 15. [3: ]
Maier, P. 1998. Sparring for Liberty. The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/books/98/11/01/reviews/981101.01maiert.html . 2012 November 18.
Shipley, C. 2012. Power to change -- What is True Freedom? Web, Available from: http://powertochange.com/students/truefreedom/ . 2012 November 16.
Spease. 2012. What is Freedom in America. Web, Available from: http://spease.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-Freedom-in-America . 2012 November 15.
The idea of human freedom transcends the spectrum of most subjects worthy of academic discussion. The purpose of this essay is to investigate, describe and discuss the concept of human freedom as it specifically relates to sociology and the social landscape. In order to accomplish this I will highlight some of aspects of human freedom to demonstrate the complexity and necessity of understanding this ideal. Political, religious and economic factors will be included to give this broad issue context and to further broaden the discussion and descriptions of this important subject.
Society could be described as a qualitative manifestation of human freedom. Differing cultures residing in various national landscapes appear to hold varying views on what is allowed or not allowed in these areas. Freedom is therefore rationally based upon the local and domestic traditions and practices of given areas. ar and conflict appears as the process where…
Carlisle, C. (2012). Evil, part 3. does freedom make us evil? The Guardian, 29 Oct, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/oct/29/does-freedom - make-us-evil
Greenwell, A. (2011). Catholic Social Teaching and Authentic Human Freedom. Catholic Online, 27 Dec, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.catholic.org/hf/faith/story.php?id=44188
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The United Nations Web Site. Viewed 20 November, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml
Americans generally think that they are one of the most free nations in the world regardless of whether their thoughts are the truth or illusory. hese thoughts are fueled by the consideration of freedom as a fundamental topic and issue that touches the sense of individuality and nation. However, the history of American freedom is characterized by struggles, disagreements, and debates. Actually, freedom has never been a fixed concept for Americans because of its ubiquity and the fact that the country's history does not have a series of evolutionary narrative towards the achievement of a pre-determined objective or goal. As a result, American freedom consists of events that most encouraged freedom since 1865 and those that most diluted or detracted freedom during the same period.
One of the events that most encouraged freedom since 1865 to present is the Civil War that was a by-product of the Supreme…
The third event that encouraged freedom is the aftermath of the 9/11 terrorist attack, which made the language of freedom to take center stage in the public discourse of the United States. The issue of freedom took the center stage once again because it was highlighted as an all-purpose explanation for the 9/11 attack and the resultant fight against terrorism. President Bush encouraged freedom in the aftermath of this attack by stating that freedom itself was under attack. The presidential invocation of freedom in the aftermath of the attack eventually became a powerful popular rallying call for freedom.
On the contrary, there are events in the history of the United States that have detracted or diluted freedom since 1865. The first event that detracted freedom is the reconstruction period, which overturned significant gains that had been made by African-Americans with regards to freedom. Actually, reconstruction failed to safeguard freedom of black people and was followed by a prolonged period of inequality for black Americans. This was despite of attempts to promote freedom by enacting abolitionist principle of birthright citizenship and equal protection into the Constitution. The second event occurred at the end of Reconstruction, which was brought by the withdrawal of federal troops. During this period, African-Americans experienced eradication of their nascent freedoms as black codes severely restricted their freedoms. In addition, the subsequent Supreme Court decisions culminated in the final blow to hopes of freedom and equality for black people for nearly a century. The third event is the enactment of the Search and Seizure Law and the U.S. PATRIOT Act after the 9/11 attack. These legislations were enacted to help in the fight against terrorism and enhance the security of all Americans. These laws have diluted freedom by raising concerns on the balance between security and freedom, particularly in the face of potential serious violations at home. The laws detract freedom by enhancing chances for compromising or curtailing equality and freedom.
Generally, the concept of freedom remains a central issue to the American culture and politics to an extent that it has been increasingly contested among policymakers and the general public. As evident in the country's history from 1865 to present, the issue of American freedom will forever remain unfinished. Consequently, debates and controversies regarding the issue will undoubtedly continue as new definitions emerge based on the challenges and issues in the modern world. However, freedom is a reality in the modern American culture and politics based on the significant challenges and gains that the country has made on that front. While the complete and ideal picture of freedom is yet to be realized and will probably not be realized, freedom is a reality in the current American culture. The seeming inability to realize ideal freedom in America is attributed to evolution of this concept and its meaning.
Communication Islamic Countries
Freedom in all its forms is a highly contested topic across all areas of politics, not only in countries where freedom has been traditionally repressed, but even in the most democratic of states, such as the United States and the UK. When freedom extends to the press, the contestability of the topic gains an extra dimension. Some critics, for example, advocate freedom of the press only to such an extent as its ability to promote a peaceful existence and harmony among citizens and their government. Others, however, would see the press gaining complete freedom, regardless of its consequences for personal and collective peace. In Muslim countries such as Indonesia and the United Arab Emirates, freedom extended to the press and the media is yet further muddied by the importance of religious and state rule in these countries. In both environments, Islam remains the main ruling force in…
Article 19. (2005, Dec.). Freedom of Expression aand the Media in Indonesia. Alliance of Independent Journalists. Retrieved from: http://www.article19.org/data/files/pdfs/publications/indonesia-baseline-study.pdf
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates Profile: Media. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14704229
BBC News Middle East. (2012, June 15). United Arab Emirates: Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-14703998
El-Baltaji, D. (2009, Fall). Emirates Press Law. Arab Media & Society, Iss. 9. Retrieved from: http://www.arabmediasociety.com/?article=727
So, the rightness of the claim that the CIA needed more money cannot be supported by the fruition of terrorist attacks.
Hannity moves on into a discussion regarding immigration and the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service -- or INS. Essentially, Hannity feels that the Immigration Act of 1965 makes it entirely too easy for illegal immigrants to exploit loopholes in the present legislation. In particular, he mentions how illegal immigrants are able to overstay their visits here in the United States and to obtain legal certifications like drivers' licenses in the process. Hannity believes that the INS is altogether too soft on illegal immigration and that this softness, created by the Clinton administration, has resulted in numerous social problems and contributed to the terrorist threat. He states:
This system that absolutely must be fixed before terrorists use such loopholes to strike us again. Illegal aliens must be incarcerated, not allowed…
Hannity, Sean. Let Freedom Ring. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2002.
"In eloved, Morrison allows the reader to share the legacy of slavery as the characters Sethe, Paul D, and Denver attempt to make a new life in freedom. However, they cannot put the past, lived in slavery, behind them; they must reveal it to themselves, to each other, and to the reader in 'digestible pieces.'" (Nigro) The traumatic events which were experienced by slaves cannot be wiped clean, and the past will continue to have an effect on the future. Today, the concept of post-traumatic stress disorder -- the psychological consequences of experiencing traumatic events -- would perhaps be identified in Morrison's characters. (Feldspar) Nightmares, flashbacks, irritability, emotional detachment, and other distress are common symptoms, and certainly experienced by Sethe and others in eloved, all of which are a kind of continued mental slavery.
In addition to freedom being a myth because of legal and psychological reasons, there are also…
Davis, Kimberly Chabot. "Postmodern blackness': Toni Morrison's 'Beloved' and the end of history." Twentieth Century Literature. Summer, 1998. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0403/is_2_44/ai_53260178/print
Elliott, Mary Jane Suero. "Postcolonial Experience in a Domestic Context: Commodified Subjectivity in Toni Morrison's Beloved." MELUS, 2000. 181. http://www.geocities.com/tarbaby2007/beloved4.html
Feldspar, Antaeus, et al. "Post-traumatic Stress Disorder." Wikipedia. 28 July 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PTSD
JW1805, et al. "Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution." Wikipedia. 12 August 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirteenth_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution
Value More Freedom or Security
Which do you value, more freedom or security?
This is a debate that has been going on for some time now especially in America with some advocating for freedom while others security. I value security as compared to freedom since there are a lot of threats to our security. These threats include terrorist attacks, natural disasters, cyber attacks, and gang activities. It is certain that when these threats are not addressed and well managed then even with freedom we can do very little. For instance, when there is enough freedom without security, would one settle and feel secure? I believe not, for everyone to be calm and happy there is need for security. It should be noted that in as much as everyone would like to be free, security is a pre-requisite. People need to be free from fear, free from arbitrary attacks and threats,…
Due to the forgiveness that is extended to every Christian by their faith in Christ as pronounced in the New Testament, Luther argues, all Christians are free to act in any way they please. When they continue to behave according to God's law as it is written in the Bible, they do so of their own free will; acts of charity and kindness are nto something that is required in order to receive forgiveness, but rather is an outgrowth of the charity and kindness that exists in people's hearts regardless of the status of their salvation, which is already assured so long as their faith is pure and strong. This quite obviously limits the power of the Church as far as condemning acts of any kind is concerned; even one found guilty of heresy would, according to Luther's argument, still receive salvation through their faith in Jesus Christ as the…
WHIGS vs. DEMOCATS
Slavery, Freedom, crisis Union 1840-1877 Democracy America: The Whigs Democrats Many Americans half nineteenth century a powerful federal government a threat individual liberty supported sovereignty state local government.
Slavery, freedom, and the crisis of the Union 1840-1877: Considering economic policies and the balance of power between national and local government, how did Whigs and Democrats differ in their definitions of American freedom and its relationship to government authority? Use two examples from both the Democrats and Whigs to support your claims.
Ever since the birth of America, two competing strains of thought ran through the American consciousness. The first was the Jeffersonian idea that the government which governed best, governed least and that a relatively weak central government was a facilitator of liberty. The contrasting Hamiltonian notion stressed that a strong federal government was required to protect individual liberties and the state as a whole. These tensions…
Baker, William D. (2007). Whig Party. Encyclopedia of Arkansas. Retrieved:
Democrats v. Whigs. (2012). Tennessee 4 Me. Retrieved:
However, in principle, the rules and laws of society merely ensure our freedom from unwanted behavior of others. In many cases, in fact, the particular rules themselves are purely arbitrary, such as the simple rules of the road about stopping on a red signal and going on a green signal because the reverse rule would be just as good. The purpose of the rules of the road are simply to protect us from accidents. Likewise, acquiring a drivers' license as a condition of driving is intended to ensure that anybody who drives a heavy vehicle capable of maiming and killing is competent to do so without exposing others to risks.
Other rules of society are much harder to justify because they regulate conduct that affects nobody else. For example, prohibiting driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs have a legitimate purpose of protecting others. On the other hand, prohibitions…
Russell, B. (1992) the Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. (Edited by Egner & Denonn). London: Routledge
Thus, free will -- as demonstrated by moral choice -- is in actuality a series of discrete and connected choices, each dependent on those preceding it as they shape the individual's attitude.
De Beauvoir then describes the sub-man, who wishes he did not exist. Yet he is the very consciousness that is willing this non-existence, and is thus self-defeating. To escape his subjectivity, he immerses himself in the object, and Lives fro a Thing rather tan for himself. She derides nihilist thought, too, claiming that though neither the world nor the individual have inherent and objective justifications, as the nihilists claim, it is the individual's responsibility to create that justification. Several other attitudes, given archetypal names like "the adventurer" and "the passionate man" are described, along with their mistaken takes on morality and free will. The truly free will, de Beauvoir claims, is in understanding and accepting -- indeed, actively…
Though scholars debate if this is a credible technique to help individuals overcome certain issues in their lives, it certainly has contribute to the person's self-awareness. For instance, if a person has battled obesity all of their lives and has a negative self-esteem and perception because of it, then ETF forces the individual to identify the core of their self-esteem issues. If a person is becoming increasingly obese and they do now know why, they need to back track to find out. If the person has a negative self-esteem, and uses that as their crutch to continue eating and then gets the more negative about them, ETF forces them to identify the core problem. In this case, it would be the negative self-esteem caused by overeating. From that point, ETF can be used to address the issue. That critical transition from identifying the issue or problem at hand to the…
movie elements power, vengeance freedom. Explain chose movie specific references Mill / Norton's arguments.
Finding parallels between Steven Spielberg's 1993 motion picture Schindler's List and John Stuart Mill's theory of utilitarianism.
This proposal's goal is to determine whether or not the film's protagonist was guided by moral principles in his struggle to free a large number of individuals from Nazi authority. It is very probable that Schindler acted on account of his moral thinking, as he acknowledged the fact that he was among the only individuals who could actually have a say in the critical conditions in Nazi-dominated Europe.
y looking at how the character of Oskar Schindler manages to abandon his previous convictions with the purpose of helping others viewers are likely to observe his moral attitude. The fact that he is no longer interested in physical forms of pleasure demonstrates that he virtually reached a whole new level…
Mill, John Stuart. "Utilitarianism," (Forgotten Books, 1939)
Dir. Steven Spielberg. Schindler's List. Universal Pictures, 1993.
Many reasons for the war were offered by both the United States and British governments at various times. In the months leading up to the war, there were a plethora of reasons offered that made it difficult to rationalize and understand exactly why the war was necessary. The argument regarding weapons of mass destruction was one of the most argued points; however, there was much debate as to whether these alleged weapons of mass destruction even existed (Iraq Survey Group 2004). Another point of contention with the war in Iraq was whether or not there were right intentions. According to many scholars and lay persons, reiterated by Fishar and Biggar, there was serious opposition because the disarmament of Iraq seemed only the beginning of a larger agency established by the U.S., UK and their allies. Reasonable belief that weapons of mass destruction existed, for many, was not enough to…
American Unbound: the Bush Revolution in foreign policy. Washington DC. Web. 2003.
Biggar, N. "Invading Iraq: what are the morals of the story?" International Affairs, 87.1
(2011): p. 29-30.
Davies, N. Blood on our hands: the American invasion and destruction of Iraq. Web. 2010.
In fact, when actual harm seems imminent, the government has more leeway to restrict the speech. Fighting words or words likely to result in harm to an individual fall into this category. The most notorious example is shouting "Fire" in a crowded theater. A more realistic example is the criminalization of terroristic threats.
) in an essay of at least two well-developed paragraphs, explain how laws related to capital punishment have changed since the early 1970s
At the beginning of the 1970s, capital punishment was legal throughout the United States, though execution rates varied tremendously by state. However, in 197, in the case of Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 38 (197), the Supreme Court suspended capital punishment throughout the states. The Court found that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. However, it is important to realize that the violation did not come from the…
2) in an essay of at least two well-developed paragraphs, explain how laws related to capital punishment have changed since the early 1970s
At the beginning of the 1970s, capital punishment was legal throughout the United States, though execution rates varied tremendously by state. However, in 1972, in the case of Furman v. Georgia, 408 U.S. 238 (1972), the Supreme Court suspended capital punishment throughout the states. The Court found that capital punishment violated the Eighth Amendment's prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. However, it is important to realize that the violation did not come from the actual executions, but from the way that the states carried out their capital punishment procedures. Therefore, beginning in 1976, many states retooled their capital punishment laws and, once again, began sentencing defendants to death.
Since 1976, the capital punishment statutes of many states sought to address the Court's concerns that capital punishment was arbitrary. Some states adopted mandatory capital punishment statutes for certain types of murder, though those were later found to be unconstitutional. Other states adopted bifurcated proceedings, where guilt and punishment were established in separate stages. To determine whether or not to impose the death penalty, juries were called upon to consider aggravating and mitigating factors. In 1977, the Court determined that the death penalty violated the Eighth Amendment if imposed for rape, setting the standard that only murder could be a capital offense in state tribunals, though treason, espionage, and certain military crimes may still be capital offenses. There have been various challenges to the means of execution, so that executions must be carried out in as painless and humane manner as possible. The rules surrounding executions remained fairly consistent from the late 1970s until the early 2000s. However, in the early 2000s, two cases placed major restrictions on capital punishment, which brought the United States more into alignment with international humanitarian standards. First, the Court prohibited the execution of mentally retarded individuals. Next, the Court prohibited the execution of those who were minors at the time of commission of the offense. While all of these changes have not eliminated the death penalty and have been based on the premise that state-sanctioned executions are not unconstitutional, they shown an increasing awareness of the human rights issues
To cultivate genius when it does appear, a society must be free for all, not just the recognized geniuses. or, as Mill more eloquently puts it, "it is necessary to preserve the soil in which they [geniuses] grow. Genius can only breathe freely in an atmosphere of freedom...If from timidity they consent to be forced into one of these moulds [of conformity]...society will be little the better for their genius" (on Liberty, 9). Mill uses the extreme example of genius to illustrate the general principle he has devoted this entire book to; namely, that individual liberty is essential for the progress of a society. In this particular facet of his argument, he uses the archetypal vision of the genius to add a concrete incarnation of what otherwise might be an abstract and abstruse concept. Instead, Mill's view of liberty is rendered strikingly clear by his use of logic and example.…
The success of PPACA, and its provisions for people who are currently or chronically uninsured, will depend on reform of public programs as well as private insurance practices to create "new pathways to coverage (Gulley) and address the problematic link between employment and insurance coverage. In other words, employment should not be the only viable option for securing affordable insurance, nor should there be "significant work disincentives for people with disabilities" (Gulley). The law should help "reduce disparities in [healthcare] access (Gorin, 2010).
A number of provisions of PPACA have already taken effect. Beginning January 1, the law provided for a 50% discount on covered brand-name drugs. This provision was designed to close the coverage gap in Medicare Part D coverage, the so-called "Donut Hole." There is a 7% discount on generic drugs. The coverage gap will be completely eradicated by 2020, according to PPACA, making it even easier for…
Cobb, K., & Davis, C. (2007). The faces of the uninsured: One in four Texans has no medical coverage, posing dire physical risks for them and consequences for the state. Houston Chronicle 4/15/07.
Doheny, K. (1999). Filling a Health-Coverage Gap. WebMD. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/features/filling-health-coverage-gap
Gorin, S.H., Gehlert, S.J., & Washington, T.A. (2010). Health care reform and health disparities: Implications for social workers. Health & Social Work 35(4), pp. 243-247.
Gulley, S.P., Rasch, E.K., Chan, L. (2011). Ongoing coverage for ongoing care: Access,
Promoting Dignity in Individual Care
Dignity is something everybody has a right to. I have actually picked this topic due to the fact that it is a fundamental part of nursing because in order to meet the duty of a registered nurse, the first objective is to appreciate the individual you are looking after. Dignity is a sensation of being valued, appreciated, having actual self-respect, sustained sense of pride and having the ability to reveal empathy and compassion for individuals that the registered nurses take care of. So for me it's essential to lay out the concepts in dignity and regard when caring for individuals who are prone to illnesses.
First of all we will look at principles in nursing concerning dignity and regard, dealing with an individual as a specific entity, who, when in individual healthcare setup can be a fundamental part of any clients recovering procedure. Allowing…
Barrett, D., Wilson, B., and Woollands, A. (2009). Care Planning. A guide for Nurses. Harlow: Pearsons Education
Birrell J., Thomas P. And Alban Jones C. (2006). Promoting privacy and dignity for older patients in hospital. Nursing Standard. Vol. 20, Iss. 18, pp. 41-46.
British Geriatrics Society 2010. [online] Do not forget the person!! Available: http://www.bgs.org.uk/campaigns/dignity2010.html .
Clark, H., Gough, H. And Macfarlane, A (2004) It pays dividends: direct payments and older people. Bristol: The Policy Press.
freedom of association refers to the freedom to join a union or association without fear of outside interference. Australia does not guarantee freedom of association in her Constitution. As a result, Australia has ratified several international covenants on freedom of expression, and used international laws as a basis for the Industrial Relations Reform Act 1993.
The orkplace Relations Act of 1996, which specifically protected the freedom of association, and provided specific penalties for breaching the Act, superseded the 1993 Act. Recently, the war on terrorism has presented an unexpected threat to Australia's freedom of association laws. This renewed the argument that the freedom of association should be guaranteed, by law, within the body of Australia's constitution.
Freedom of association has taken an important place in international labor law and social justice. The International Labour Organization (ILO) has long had conventions that deal specifically with freedom of association, the importance of…
Amnesty International. Australia: Senate Must Consider Human Rights When Considering Terrorism Laws. Media release - 13 May 2002. 24 September 2002. http://www.amnesty.org.au/airesources/press-02-05-13.html
Australasian Legal Information Institute. COMMUNICATING WITH THE HUMAN RIGHTS COMMITTEE: A Guide to the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. 24 September 2003. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/ahric/booklet/part3.html
Human & Constitutional Rights. Australian Laws of Freedom of Association. Site maintained by the Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School. 24 September 2002. http://www.hrcr.org/safrica/freedom_assoc/australia_law.html
International Labour Organization. Fundamental International Labour Standards on Freedom of Association. 24 September 2002. http://www.ilo.org/public/english/standards/norm/whatare/fundam/foa.htm
The Positive and Negative Effects of Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
In essence, social media in the UK provides an amazing platform for people to freely express their views, share information, and interact. Indeed, as McGoldrick (2013, p. 49) observes, “Facebook and other internet-based social networking sites (SNSs) have revolutionized modern communications.” Some of the most popular social media platforms in the country include, but that are not limited to, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, etc. It is important to note that unlike in the physical world where relations between people are governed by various social rules and etiquette standards, relations on social media tend to present a limitless and unrestricting facade. In recent times, some countries have attempted to limit the way people relate on social media – even closely monitoring content in an attempt to ensure that freedom of expression in social media is…
In America, the great pragmatists John Dewey and William James are blamed for the American university's current fallen 'state,' a state of freedom from shared morality.
However, Arden provides no statistical evidence or even anecdotal as to why American universities are morally lacking, other than the fact he disagrees with their embrace of the right of the individual learner to choose his or her own path. He makes the assumption that the reader agrees with his contention that American universities are morally bankrupt. Pragmatism's benefits, such as academic freedom of expression are completely discounted as having any positive influence upon higher education. While some of Arden's contentious, that American undergraduates are insufficiently community-minded, may have some (highly debatable) merit as topics of discussion, his preference for Luther's ideal of a university as a place of spiritual and moral rather than intellectual learning, and for limits upon undergraduate self-expression, are not…
Promoting Freedom of Expression within the Social Media in the U.K.
Like the many other freedoms enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, freedom of expression is deemed to be a fundamental and inalienable human right. Towards this end, it is understood, within the said framework, to constitute the “freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers” (United Nations, 2010, p. 107). For this reason, freedom of expression ought to be granted and guaranteed protection by any jurisdiction that prides itself as a beacon of modern democracy. The United Kingdom is one such country, alongside other countries such as the United States and Canada. It is important to note that over time, social media has become a marketplace of sorts for the exchange, advancement, as well as promotion of ideas concerning a wide array…
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.
The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…
Carver, Raymond. (1981). Cathedral: stories. New York: Vintage.
Chopin, Kate. (2003). The Awakening and selected short fiction. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Frost, Robert. (1969). The Poetry of Robert Frost: the collected poems E.C. Lathem, Ed. New York: Holt.
The Nature of Freedom in the 18th and 19th Centuries
The evidence shows that the nature of freedom in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was considered a natural right in some cases and a divine right in others. For example, when it was useful, people appealed to the idea of a Creator endowing people with certain “unalienable rights” and when nature was viewed as the source of life, the rights of man were considered something that just was.
Three passages from the different primary source texts that provide evidence for my claim are:
1. “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights… hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights”—from the Declaration of Rights of Man and the Citizen
2. “We hold these truths to…
e. The lack of attachment to other people and things) is beneficial from an individual perspective, but damaging for society as a whole because it hinders advancement.
In reality however, in order to maintain such a belief in our own self-sufficiency and freedom of choice, we would have to rewrite the laws of human nature. As this is highly improbable, we are likely to continue in our flight from freedom for as long as we remain in existence. People are, after all, social creatures by nature and thus, according to Garcin, we "need the suffering of others to exist."
This is Sartre's way of arguing that existentialism is the only valid means of providing mankind with dignity, and life with meaning. Thus at the core of Sartre's suppositions is that the role of existentialism is vitally important in helping the individual to embrace freedom as a manifestation of nothingness and,…
Muller, R.J. (1998) Beyond marginality: Constructing a self in the twilight of western culture, Praeger Publishers
Sartre, J.P. (1993), Being and nothingness: A phenomenological essay on ontology, tr. By Hazel E. Barnes, Washington Square, (orig. 1943)
Sartre, J.P. No exit, Retrieved from http://www.sartre.org/Writings/NoExit.htm
Interestingly, the connection between private property ownership and political freedom developed in a roundabout way. As property owners grew richer from their commercial endeavors, the state sought to reap benefits via property taxation and this in turn helped to empower the people and Parliament. Pipes draws further connections between the evolution of the commonwealth, the British Empire, and burgeoning rights and freedoms for property owners.
Chapter 4 addresses the history and evolution of property ownership in ussia. ussia's history is far different from that of England, especially with regards to property and its connection with individual rights and freedoms (or lack thereof, in the case of ussia). Pipes explains thoroughly the origin and impact of the patrimonial system in ussia, which established monarchs firmly as the property owners and precluded genuine private property ownership. Patrimony, ussian style, is clearly and simply defined as "the fusion of sovereignty and ownership," (p.…
Pipes, Richard. Property and Freedom. Vintage, 2000.