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Industrial Hygiene: A comprehensive exposure assessment report. Asbestos exposure World Trade Center disaster
Since September 11, 2001, the outdoor environment around the World Trade Center (WTC) site and nearby areas has been expansively monitored by Acme Industrial Hygiene Consultants and health agencies. As a consultant there have taken samples of air, dust, water, river residues, and drinking water and examined them for the existence of pollutants that could posture a health risk to answer workers at the WTC site, headquarter workers, and local populaces.
Everyone from Acme Industrial Hygiene collected bulk samples of fallen dust. This was all done by using a paper scoop, bulk samples were then reserved from numerous outdoor sites (e.g. car hood, window ledge, park bench) in addition to one indoor location, all of which seemed uninterrupted ever since the fall of the towers, as evaluated by the presence of a suave even layer of…
Biello, D. (2015, April 21). What Was in the World Trade Center Plume? . Retrieved from Scientific American: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/what-was-in-the-world-trade-center-plume/
Kazan-Allen, L. (2012, April 21). Asbestos at the WTC. Retrieved from International Band Asbestos Secretariat: http://ibasecretariat.org/lka_world_trade_center.php
Milloy, S. (2015, April 21). Asbestos Could Have Saved WTC Lives. Retrieved from Fox News: http://www.foxnews.com/story/2001/09/14/asbestos-could-have-saved-wtc-lives/
Milloy, S.J. (2015, April 21). Asbestos Fireproofing Might Have Prevented World Trade Center Collapse. Retrieved from https://cei.org/op-eds-and-articles/asbestos-fireproofing-might-have-prevented-world-trade-center-collapse
The Environmental Manager will know exactly what systems we are equipped to deal with and how to best implement them in our institution.
If we need to hire third-party waste management experts including off-campus toilets and perhaps even showers then our Environmental Manager will tell us so and therefore, he or she is thoroughly in charge of issues related to waste management. I would suggest that the Environmental Manager create his or her own team of support personnel. Only a department manager can determine what traits or characteristics to look for in support members.
One of the more immediate concerns would be the initial cleanup effort. I would need to create a team of individuals dedicated to providing the best possible cleanup service, from sanitizing air vents to scrubbing floors. Moreover, our technicians would need to assess the post-cleanup environment to determine whether it was safe for working and operating…
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Informational Booklet on Industrial Hygiene. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved online July 9, 2008 at http://www.osha.gov/ Publications/OSHA3143/OSHA3143.htm#How%20do
Personal Protective Equipment Plan." University of Rochester. Retrieved July 9, 2008 at http://www.safety.rochester.edu/ih/ppeplan2.html
Indoor air quality testing is necessary to ensure that the air in working environments is free from pollutants, or that if there are pollutants that workers can take the precautions necessary to protect themselves. This paper will examine the air quality readings from the test site, outlining the issues that may be present.
The first thing to consider is the role that humidity plays in air quality testing. It has been established that humidity is a factor in air quality perception. Furthermore, both temperature and humidity have been established as key variables in emissions from things like paints and varnishes, from which emissions are greater under conditions of higher humidity (Haghighat & De Bellis, 1998). In this test, relative humidity was a moderate 62-78%, getting high but still not at very high levels.
With the first reading, carbon dioxide, OSHA guidelines does not issue specific air quality standards…
Golden, R. (2011). Identifying an indoor air exposure limit for formaldehyde considering both irritation and cancer hazards. Critical Reviews in Toxicology. Vol. 41 (8) 672-721.
Haghighat, F. & De Bellis, L. (1998). Material emission rates: Literature review, and the impact of indoor air temperature and relative humidity. Building and Environment. Vol. 33 (5) 261-277.
MBL. (2015). Airborne fungal spores exposure limits. Mold & Bacteria Consulting Laboratories. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.moldbacteria.com/mold/airborne-fungal-spores-exposure-limits.html
MDH (2015). Carbon dioxide (CO2). Minnesota Department of Health. Retrieved November 13, 2015 from http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs /eh/indoorair/co2/
Health and Safety Plan for 911 Recovery Operations:
Recommendations on Industrial Hygiene
According to the Office of Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA), industrial hygiene (IH) is of utmost importance to any work site. By definition, IH encompasses the science and art "devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and control of those environmental factors or stresses arising in or from the workplace, which may cause sickness, impaired health and well-being, or significant discomfort among workers or among the citizens of the community."
From this definition one can thus agree with the first sentence, namely that the fact that IH must be present at a work site and the fact that this is of utmost importance, and should never be ignored, especially in light of the fact of the consequences of such an action, which can have a negative impact on workers.
OSHA further states, in relation…
Ground Zero Hazards (n.a.). (2011). 9-11 Research. Retrieved October 29, 2011, from .
OSHA Starts Random Inspections Near Ground Zero (n.a.). (2002). EHS Today. Retrieved October 29, 2011, from < http://ehstoday.com/news/ehs_imp_35180/ >.
Navarro, M. (2011). Payments to 9/11 Workers are Slow to Start. New York Times. Retrieved Octboer 28, 2011, from .
Industrial Hygiene a Science or an Art?
Industrial hygiene basically entails the identification, evaluation, and control of environmental factors that threaten the health and safety of people in the community. Professionals in this sector who are commonly known as industrial hygienists develop necessary skills and competence for anticipating, identifying, evaluating, and controlling environmental hazards. Some of the major hazards examined and controlled by industrial hygienists include chemical agents, biological agent, physical agents, psychological factors, and ergonomic or safety issues. The nature of the roles and responsibilities of industrial hygienists has generated debates on whether this profession is a science or an art. This is also fueled by the fact that industrial hygiene has traditionally been viewed as a science and not an art.
From a personal viewpoint, industrial hygiene is both a science and an art despite of the conventional view of this profession as a science only. This profession…
American Industrial Hygiene Association. (n.d.). What is Industrial Hygiene? Retrieved from School of Public Health -- The University of Minnesota website: http://www.enhs.umn.edu/prospective/files/whatisindustrialhygiene.pdf
National Institutes of Health. (n.d.). What is Industrial Hygiene? Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website: http://www.ors.od.nih.gov/sr/dohs/aboutDOHS/TAB/Pages/technical_branch_ih.aspx
Bakand, S., Hayes, A. & Deschakulthorn, F. (2012). Nanoparticles: A review of particle toxicology following inhalation exposure. Inhalation Toxicology. Vol. 24 (2) 125-135.
The article can be found at the following URL: http://www.tums.ac.ir/1391/11/28/Nano%20Inh%20Tox%2008958378.2012.pdf-sh-bakand-2013-02-16-10-35.pdf
This article discusses one of the emerging issues in inhalation toxicology, which is nanoparticles. The authors note from the outset that the "rapid expansion of nanotechnology" is going to result in a spike in nanoparticles that can infiltrate the lungs of workers, and that it is important to understand the implications of this increase. The authors have done a review of the literature on the subject, and determined that there are links between exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and increased morbidity and mortality. They note that nanoparticles are more likely to be more toxic than larger particles as well, because nanoparticles can be inhaled more deeply into the lungs.
There are several implications for this…
adiation is a workplace hazard, and there are two types of radiation that are of concern to industrial hygienists. Ionizing radiation is radiation that will ionize an atom, so for example x-rays or gamma rays. Non-ionizing radiation is a different category and includes ultraviolet radiation, infrared, static fields, radio frequencies and extremely low frequency fields (AIHA, 2014).
Karipidis et al. (2007) discuss the relationship between ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and glioma, which is a malignant cancer of the glial tissue in the nervous system. Gliomas represent 80% of malignant brain tumors, and the exact cause of gliomas is not known. There are suspicions among researchers, however, that radiation is a key causal factor, and that has implications for occupational health. The article in question was published in the journal Occupational Medicine, which is one of the journals that publishes articles pertaining to industrial hygiene. This is a valuable area of…
AIHA.org (2014). Nonionizing radiation overview. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Retrieved November 28, 2015 from https://www.google.com.au/search?q=ionizing+and+non-ionizing+radiation&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&gws_rd=cr&ei=zIZZVqWzBOfGmAWV9ZEg#q=ionizing+and+non-ionizing+radiation+industrial+hygiene
Karipidis, K., Benke, G., Sim, M., Kauppinen, T. & Giles, G. (2007). Occupational exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and the risk of glioma. Occupational Medicine. Vol. 57 (7) 518-524. Retrieved November 28, 2015 from http://occmed.oxfordjournals.org/content/57/7/518.full
OSHA Technical Manual. I have not yet discussed this resource, but it is actually one of the foundational resources for the industrial hygiene practice. The specific article (SectionV, Chapter 3) outlines lead exposures in the construction industry. Lead is an airborne exposure risk. The article begins by defining an acceptable level of lead exposure, which is 50 micrograms per cubic meter of air (50 µg/m3). The OSHA approach to lead exposure is outlined -- it groups tasks into three categories that relate to their risk of lead exposure.
The article then discusses the hierarchy of controls. Engineering controls such as ventilation are at the top of the hierarchy, if the problem cannot be eliminated outright. Ventilation removes the airborne hazard, thereby reducing the exposure level. OSHA recommends other remedies such as using a less hazardous material, change in process equipment, or a change in process all as potential means of…
OSHA Technical Manual. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from https://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/otm/otm_v/otm_v_3.html
The American Industrial Hygiene Association publishes a number of different resources regarding the practice of industrial hygiene. Sometimes these resources are available only for the organization's membership, such as the Synergist, and an academic journal; however, a practitioner of industrial hygiene should be a member. That said, there are still publications available for those who are not members.
One such free publication is the report "Demonstrating the business value of industrial hygiene." This report, which was published in 2008, makes the business case for industrial hygiene. In doing so, it highlights that industrial hygiene is something that affects the entire business and therefore is the responsibility of everybody involved in the business. One of the issues that the report intends to deal with is the competition from other countries where worker safety protections maybe are not that good. The business case that is often made is that such…
AIHA (2008). Demonstrating the business value of industrial hygiene. American Industrial Hygiene Association. Retrieved December 22, 2015 from https://www.aiha.org/votp_new/pdf/votp_report.pdf
Self-awareness is a major key to promoting ergonomics in the workplace, because only through self-awareness can an individual realize that he or she is sitting, standing, moving, or working according to ergonomic principles. Ergonomics applies also to product design and engineering. For example, new machinery is being designed according to well-researched principles of ergonomics. Similarly, office equipment, from chairs to computer keyboards, are also being redesigned with worker safety in mind. Through using ergonomically-designed equipment, individuals can avoid problems related to repetitive strain and stress.
One of the major issues related to industrial safety management is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE). PPE reduces employee exposure to hazardous chemicals, fumes, and materials. Development of PPE occurs according to scientific research. Discovering which items or situations are hazardous is the first step toward the development of protective equipment. PPE can be designed for any body part, and applies especially to…
Material Safety Data Sheet: Infectious Substances." Public Health Agency of Canada. Online at http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/msds-ftss/msds132e.html
Personal Protective Equipment." OSHA. United States Department of Labor. PDF file available online at http://www.osha.gov/ SLTC/personalprotectiveequipment/solutions.html.
What's Industrial Hygiene?" AIHA. Online at http://www.aiha.org/aboutAIHA/html/ih-info.htm .
benefit analysis that typically goes into decisions about sampling in industrial hygiene. The authors describe that there are two different main types of sampling -- active and passive. These come with different advantages and disadvantages, one of which is cost. Some others are the amount of time and effort required, and the accuracy of the sampling technique. The authors focus on the cost. Often, the sampling cost is viewed as an up-front cost, but of course this is not the entire picture -- in many cases discovering and addressing a problem early saves a lot of money. So the full cost-benefit picture needs to be taken into consideration when determining the optimal sampling technique.
The authors compared five passive monitors and one active monitor under a number of different scenarios. They found that overall the passive monitors had a better cost-benefit. They were in particular cheaper than the active monitor.…
Nothstein, G, Hahne, R. & Spence, M. (2000). Evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of various passive monitors and active monitors for industrial hygiene sampling. American Industrial Hygiene Sampling Association Journal. Vol. 61 (1) 64-68.
Economic Benefit of Complying to Safety and Health egulations
This paper provides a summary of the journal article titled "A Health Impact Assessment of California's Proposed Cap-and-Trade egulations." (Maxwell, Paul, & Linda, 2012, p e 52). The paper reveals the health benefits that the communities and organizations derive from the application of the cap-and -- trade health regulation in California. The paper further discusses the application of the principle for the economic benefits of different organizations across the state.
Cap-and-Trade egulations in California
The authors argue that a climate change can have health effects on workers and people, and one of the causes of the climate change is the greenhouse emission that increases exposure to extreme weather conditions and heat, which can consequently lead to the distribution of air pollution, vector-borne disease, exposure to ultraviolet radiations, and increase illness within the work environment. In response the health effects of the…
Chan, D.W.M. & Hung, T.W. (2015).An empirical survey of perceived benefits by implementing the Mandatory Building Inspection Scheme (MBIS) in Hong Kong. Facilities, 33 (5/6): 337-366.
Maxwell, J. R. Paul, E. & Linda, R. (2012). A Health Impact Assessment of California's Proposed Cap-and-Trade Regulations. American Journal of Public Health. 102. (9): e52-8.
Ethical Misconduct Among Industrial Hygienists in England by Burgess and Mullen (2002). There are a lot of codes of ethics published for ethical hygienists, but surprisingly few articles discussing ethics in the profession. In this article, the authors note that "failure to behave ethically might have serious and possibly fatal consequences," highlighting the need for a greater level of discussion with respect to ethics in the profession. The authors conducted a survey of 43 industrial hygienists, and found that 33 of them had witnessed ethical misconduct.
The authors provided with their survey nine different categories of ethical misconduct, thereby making clear the definition of the term. Some that were found to have occurred were data fabrication, failure to share credit on work, failure to protect confidentiality, criticizing the integrity of another hygienist for one's own gain, and plagiarism. Some of these could result in injury, but many violate the code…
ABIH (2007). American Board of Industrial Hygiene Code of Ethics. American Board of Industrial Hygiene. Retrieved October 23, 2015 from http://www.abih.org/sites/default/files/downloads/ABIHCodeofEthics.pdf
Burgess, G. & Mullen, D. (2002). Observations of ethical misconduct among industrial hygienists in England. AIHA Journal. 63 (2002) 151-155.
Being that it is an operation that is being conducted in an industrial area, and in an industry that dealt with compressed gas, it is critical that all the safety measures are taken into account in a categorical and safe manner in the bid to re-enter the after the terrible hurricane. For instance there are various experts who are present and I would recommend that their individual expertise be put to use in the recovery process. First, the entire employees' body must be informed of the extent of the damage and the seriousness of the problem at hand and instructed not to venture into any area within the firm without the clearance and subsequent communication through a central communications office that they have to be informed of. I would also suggest to the Incident Commander to have a formal written process for the recovery of the firm. This…
Biophica Inc., (2011). The "Chlorinated" Water Issue and the Water Ionization Alternative using
Colloidal Copper or Colloidal Silver Nanocrystal Ionization. Retrieved October 19, 2011 from http://www.biophysica.com/chlorine.html
Healthy Working Lives, (2010). Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Retrieved October 19,
2011 from http://www.healthyworkinglives.com/advice/minimising-workplace-risks/ppe.aspx
Such equipment should be adequate to ensure personnel are protected from chemical exposure to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. PPE may be upgraded or downgraded by the site industrial hygienist, HSM, or qualified Site Safety Officer based upon site conditions and air monitoring results (Levin, et al., 2002)
Work practice and administrative controls
Administrative controls or work practice controls are changes in work procedures such as written safety policies, rules, supervision, schedules, and training with the aim of reducing the interval, frequency, and sternness of exposure to hazardous chemicals or situations. Workers who handle hazardous chemicals in the workplace should be familiar with the administrative controls required fewer than 29 CF 1910.1200, and the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. This controls are perhaps most important, because they impact your people directly. On the one hand, they are the simplest, since all it takes is education. On the other hand, education…
Annual report on 9/11 health (September, 2009). Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://www.nyc.gov/html/fdny/pdf/2009_wtc_medical_working_group_annual_report.pdf
Burright, D. et al., (1999). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. OSHA Salt Lake Technical Center, U.S. Department of Labor: Salt Lake City, UT.
Harris, J.S., (ed.) (1997). Occupational medicine practice guidelines: Evaluation and management of common health problems and functional recovery in workers. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Beverly, Mass.: OEM Press.
Levin, S. et al.,. (2002). Health effects of World Trade Center site workers. America Journal of Industrial Medicine 42:545 -- 547.
" (United Nations, 2000) The Household udget Survey 1996/1997 reported that in excess of 14.5 of households in Mauritius are presently living below the poverty line and economic development has been stalled due to the "…rising cost of labor erosion of the protected international markets due to gradual effects of globalization and liberalization and increasing competition with other countries…" (United Nations, 2000)
The distribution aspect of income and wealth has not been addressed in a sufficient manner by the liberal economic policies that rely on the market. Unemployment has increased in recent years and this has been "accompanied by inflation that has contributed to a loss of purchasing power, especially affecting women." (United Nations, 2000)
There is a failure to meet the needs of very low income housing and creating further tensions in Mauritius are challenges related to employment equality of access and disparity in education which is stated to…
United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) (2000) Mauritius. November 2000.
Constructing Knowledge Societies: New Challenges for Tertiary Education (2002) The World Bank. Online available at: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTAFRREGTOPTEIA/Resources/Constructing_Knowledge_Societies.pdf
Gokhool, Dharambeer (2008) 1148th Session of the International Conference on Education (Unesco) 25-28thNovember 2008,Geneva Comprehensive Approaches In Early Childhood Education: The Mauritian Experience.
Gokhool, D. Hon. (2008) Address given Certificate Award Ceremony for Training of Trainers' Course in Healthy Eating and Food Safety. 28 Apr 208, Paul O. Wiehe Auditorium, Reduit.
Unlike our predecessors in the mines and mills and factories - and even offices - we today expect our workplaces to be safe. We consider this a birthright - that our employers should design and monitor the workplace in such a way that we are allowed to do our job without any undue risk for ourselves. And yet, of course, this is not a birthright but rather a legal protection that was fought for by workers and workers advocates (including unions) in previous generations. There seems to be little if any natural inclination of even good employers to ensure the safety of their workers, and it is for this reason that government regulations exist to protect workers. This research project examines one very specific example within the contemporary workforce of the ways in which government regulation is sometimes a necessary supplement - or bulwark - to the good intentions of…
Barch, Richard. Interview, 2002.
Berg, B.L. (2000). Qualitative methods for the social sciences. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Clarke, E.M. etal. (2000). Model Checking. Cambridge: MIT Press. http://digilander.libero.it/cfgames2000/games_usa_sue.html
By means of automation, specialized works that were predominantly done by men in the manufacturing industries situated in the developed nations were diminished. Conversely, non-specialized jobs mainly in the electronic parts manufacturing industries, particularly the microchip, in which unskilled women in a number of developing nations find employment, became bigger. Thus, the electronic parts manufacturers, instead of investing in huge capital-based units, had favored to make use of manual workers based in nations wherein inexpensive, quiet, and for that reason mostly women workers was quickly accessible. (Mitter; owbotham, 1995) Hence, women in Asia could get several jobs from the electronics manufacturing industry. Fresh high school passed out graduates from the tiny villages moved to the cities for jobs available in the semiconductor units. Usually the daughters of those villagers who were high-incomes, these young females, irritated by the absence of clerical as well as semi-skilled employment prospects in their villages,…
Ahmed, Fauzia Erfan. (2004, Summer) "The Rise of the Bangladesh Garment Industry:
Globalization, Women Workers, and Voice," NWSA Journal, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 34-45.
Ainina, Fall M; Petrick, Joseph a; Scherer, Robert F. (2003) "Loss Control in High Technology
Electronics Manufacturing: A Longitudinal Study of Occupational Safety," Review of Business, vol. 24, no.3, pp: 35-42.
Policies and Procedures
Health and Safety Guidelines
There are several elements to health and safety guidelines that must be adhered to. The presence of equipment, hot water, and chemicals all represent safety hazards to the workers. Furthermore, to the extent that the operation carries cash, and may be at risk for robbery, there are other safety considerations that need to be taken into account. There will be electrical equipment in this environment, a risk given that water will be everywhere on site and its spray uncontrolled. A further risk is that customers will be operating the car wash, meaning that employees do not have full control over the equipment. OSHA has published a list of the common citations specific to the car wash industry, including fall protection, hazard communication, scaffolding, respiratory protection, control of hazardous energy, machines, wiring and more (Lawless, 2012).
A lot of health and safety guidelines can…
Lawless, P. (2012). OSHA for carwash operators: Regulations, enforcement and citations. Professional Carwashing and Detailing. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from http://www.carwash.com/osha-regulations-enforcement-and-citations/
OSHA (2009). Unguarded conveyor injures carwash worker. Occupational Health & Safety Association. Retrieved March 30, 2016 from https://ohsonline.com/articles/2009/09/28/conveyor-injures-carwasher.aspx
.....yearly, quarterly and monthly periods. Trends and issues that will be identified include patterns of growth, regression and other items that are clearly outside of the norm. The items and trends that have been identified include the following:
• The firm is clearly a mostly-domestic endeavor. While the international revenues are somewhat large, they are a rather small proportion of annual revenues.
• A large swath of the business is expanding in nature. Acquire is decent and retain is twice as large as acquire. Serve and non-coded make up another $2 million or so. However, expand is more than the other items combined on an annual basis
• When it comes to customer class, commercial clearly dominates the others. Much like the customer rank field, commercial makes up more than the other classes combined.
• There is much more balance when it comes to the biggest customers. There are ten…
Hurricane Aftermath, Returning to a workplace
Disasters are itself destruction to humanity for long time and recovering from that disaster is a challenge which has to be achieved with the gradual process. Safety is the fundamental concern similar to the stability of our mental and physical well-being. Proper planning is required to make the process of recovery achievable in the most efficient way, much faster and less stressful. The research paper followed is a guideline to recover from hurricane and return back to home, community, school, work and normal life.
Safety Measures Adopted and recommendations
The foremost concern after hurricane disaster is the safety of the people affected and surrounding areas. The team comprising of safety supervisors will observe issues and monitor healthcare facility of families and individuals and will scrutinize their well being. To look after the safety measures it will be important for team to make a recovery…
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
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Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Implications on a Call Centre
During the last two decades Contact or call centers have emerged as the answer to cost effectiveness for all sort of businesses that require back end customer services (Boreham et al., 2007). These call centers hailing from different countries are very similar with respect to markets, offered services, structure of the organization and type of workforce. This industry has flourished very quickly but usually these call centers are about ten to twelve years old hence still in infancy. Despite the similarities that exist across the globe in standards, processes and customers; are these call centers actually catering to the emotional side of this work.
Being a repetitive task with only a set of responses most of the time with no creativity and innovation in the services process added with long hours and no formal education on the subject, do these call centers affect…
Ashforth, B.E., & Humphery, R.H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The influence of Identity. The Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.
Blau, P. (1989) Exchange and Power in Social Life, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Chu, K.H. -L. (2002) The Effects on Emotional Labor on Employee Work Outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Hochschild, A.R. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Los Angeles, California, United States of America; University of California Press.
The advent of World War II saw and end of the period of economic turmoil and massive unemployment known as the Great Depression, and thus was a time of increased opportunity for many of the nation's citizens and immigrants, but the experiences of some groups during and following the war were far less positive than others. Some of this was due to the different histories that different immigrant groups had in the country, as well as the different roles that various nations played in the war itself, but often the source for the treatment of different ethnic groups was all too similar and all too simple -- racism and ethnocentrism that made the white Americans "true" citizens while others were labeled as outsiders, and those that didn't belong.
The Japanese suffered the worst during World War II; even families that had been in the country for generations and many decades…
Library of Congress. (2008). "African-American odyssey." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aointro.html
Morgan, T. (1995). "Native Americans in world war II." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/NAWWII.html
Takaki, R. (2008). A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America (Rev. ed.) Boston: Little Brown Company.
Vogel, R. (2004). "Stolen birthright: The U.S. conquest and exploitation of the Mexican people." Accessed 29 October 2010. http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/ conquest5.html
2 of the respondents were self-employed and 11.2% of respondent were white-collar workers with 1.2% of respondents being blue-collar workers. The following chart shows the factor analysis results with VARIMAX rotation of traveler's perceptions of hotel attributes in the study of Choi and Chu (2000).
Factor Analysis Results with VARIMAX Rotation of Traveler's Perceptions of Hotel Attributes
Source: Choi and Chu (2000)
The following chart shows a 'regression analysis results of hotel factors according to Asian and Western travellers overall satisfaction levels.
Regression Analysis Results of Hotel Factors According to Asian and Western Travelers Overall Satisfaction Levels
Source: Choi and Chu (2000)
2.3.1 Definition of customer loyalty
Kandampully and Suhartanto (2000) define a loyal customer as "a customer who purchases from the same service provider whenever possible, and who continues to recommend or maintain a positive attitude toward the service provider" (p. 346).
2.3.2 Loyalty dimensions
Andreassen, Tor Wallin and Lindestad, Bodil (1998) Customer Loyalty and Complex Services: The Impact of Corporate Imagine on Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty for Customers with Varying Degrees of Service Expertise. International Journal of Service Management Vol. 9, No. 1, 1998. MCB University Press.
Bowen, John T. And Chen, Shiang-Lih (2001) the Relationship Between Customer Loyalty and Customer Satisfaction. The International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 13/5 2001. MCB University Press.
Kandampully, Jay and Suhartanto, Dwi (2000) Customer Loyalty in the Hotel Industry: The Role of Customer Satisfaction and Image. Vol. 12 Issue 6. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Abstract Online available at http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do;jsessionid=A7BB20EB4B5CF3B4A2F5E96AD85BD78B?contentType=Article&hdAction=lnkpdf&contentId=867348
Lindberg-Repo (nd) Word-of-Mouth Communication in the Hospitality Industry. CERS Center for Relationship Marketing and Service Management. Hotel School Cornell University. Online available at http://www.hotelschool.cornell.edu/chr/pdf/showpdf/chr/research/wordofmouth.pdf-my_path_info=chr/research/wordofmouth.pdf
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
Primary Data Collection
Secondary Data Collection
Performance evaluation of the optimized supply chains
Carrefour Ooshop e-grocery
Structural decisions items of operations strategy in logistics
Hardware of the firm
Infrastructure decision areas
Software of the organization
Planning and control
Comparison of structural and infrastructural logistical operations management decisions
Globalization and Logistics Optimization
Logistical optimization models
Challenges in e-grocery Logistics
E-grocery logistical solution
Store-based order picking model
Figure: Store-based order picking model
Store-based order picking for attended goods reception
Store-based order picking for unattended goods reception
Dedicated order picking model
Figure: Dedicated order picking model
Delivery from dedicated centers for attended goods reception
Delivery from dedicated centers for unattended goods reception
E-basic needs frameworks so that organizations can get beneficial
Distinctive logistical results
ecognize e-basic framework
Anand, G., Ward, P.T., Tatikonda, M.V., & Schilling, D.A. (2009). Dynamic capabilities through continuous improvement infrastructure. Journal of Operations Management, 27(6), 444-461.
Barnes, D. (2008). Operations management: An international perspective. United Kingdom: Thomson.
Griffin, R.W., & Pustay, M.W. (2009). International Business: A Managerial
Perspective. (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Management Structures Case of Walmart
The City and State where it is located
Firms today are facing fierce and strong competition and this has brought with it many challenges. To ensure their survival, companies must continually improve in both efficiency and effectiveness (Buble, Juras and Matic, 2014). Because of this, every organization must seek to exploit its workforce's potential, and the place of leadership in this can't be understated. Everyone knows that leadership is central in helping an organization achieve its goals and in aiding information sharing in the organization (Buble, Juras and Matic, 2014). Wal-Mart Stores Inc. is U.S.'s largest retail company and has been placed first by Fortune Magazine on Fortune 500 Index (Hayden et al., n.d.). The corporate strategy at Wal-Mart is constituted of dominating retail market, expanding in the United States as well as international markets, creating a positive brand and Company ecognition as well as…
ACCA, (2013). Reward Schemes. Relevant To ACCA Qualification Paper P5, pp.3-12.
Buble, M., Juras, A. And Mati?, I. (2014). The Relationship between Managers' Leadership Styles And Motivation. Management, 19(1), pp.161-193.
College of the Redwoods, (2010).Maslow's Hierarchy.pp.1-4.
Fauziah, W., Shen, T. And Talha, M. (2013).Herzberg's Two Factors Theory on Work Motivation: Does Its Work for Today's Environment?.Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 2(5), pp.18-22.
The current study aims to examine the effect of the lack of supervision and detachment between administration and low-level supervisors and beat officers and how this leads to low morale and motivation. Imperatively, low level of morale and motivation results in low productivity, which might give rise to absenteeism and poor watch, adversely affecting the society through increased level of crime. A questionnaire will be designed to achieve the purpose of this research study and will be distributed to selected beat officers working in different police precincts. The number of questionnaires analyzed will be to different police precincts. Data collected will be analyzed through SPSS using both descriptive statistics, correlation and regression data.
Organizations endeavor to have more productive personnel, who are deemed the most significant resources and a determining factor for success. Low levels of productivity can be linked to poor employee morale and motivation. The…
WBGT Limits for Chinese Migrant Workforce
The effects of heat stress on workers has been well documented (1-4), especially in the construction industry (5-6), but widely compatible standards for determining safe limits for heat exposure have yet to arisen, which makes a difficult task of determining the compatibility of Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) limits with a Chinese migrant workforce in the construction industry, working primarily in a tropical climate. Each population and climate requires specific considerations when determining the risk of heat stress, and these specific considerations ultimately demonstrate certain gaps in the WBGT heat index that makes it incompatible for deployment with the previously mentioned workforce. A number of regulations use the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature as a standard for determining heat thresholds (7), but recent research (8-9) has shown the WBGT to be overly conservative in certain situations, particularly in areas with high humidity levels such as…
1. Ben GS, Hashim Z, Hamzah R. Occupational heat stress of workers in a plastic industry,
Selangor. J of Occupational Health 2009; 1(2):56-63.
2. Chen M, Chen C, Yeh W, Huang J, Mao I. Heat stress evaluation and worker fatigue in a steel plant. AIHA J. 2003; 64(3):352-359.
3. Bates GP, Miller VS, Joubert DM. Hydration status of expatriate manual workers during summer in the Middle East. Ann. Occupational Hygiene 2009; 54(2):137-143.
Again, Mc Donald's has managed to deal with competitive threats posed by both these market players due to the fact that the prices that Burger King, Starbucks and Costa Coffee charge are much higher than that charged by Mc Donald's. The primary reason behind higher prices of Costa Coffee and Starbucks is the fact that their target market is much stronger and niche as compared to that of Mc Donald's. The recent economic crunch however, has benefitted Mc Donald's as many people who prefer sophisticated ambience, due to their lower purchasing power and increased inflationary pressures now prefer Mc Donald's over the likes of Starbucks and Costa Coffee. As a result, Mc Donald's is the strongest market player in the Global region today.
Mc Donald's target market includes all the people who travel for leisure and/or business purposes and prefer to have a luxurious accommodation. The cafe provides best possible…
Afuah, A. 2009, Strategic innovation: new game strategies for competitive advantage. UK,
Taylor & Francis.
Akhter, S 2003, Strategic planning, hyper competition, and knowledge management. Business Horizons.
Black, J. (2004). Integrated Marketing Communications. College and University, 80(1), 53+. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045074006
advertising through the years in the popular magazine, The Ladies Home Journal. The writer uses examples of ads as well as a discussion about advertising changes to explore the way history dictates advertising. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
From the beginning of the advertising industry, ads have been historical records of the history of the nation. Whether it is a cleaning product, a service, or other advertising need, the tone and look of the ad is dictated and driven by society. The Ladies Home Journal has been a mainstay in America when it comes to print ads. It presents a classic roadmap of historic changes in societal attitudes through the advertisements that it has printed. Through the 1930's 1940's and 1950's the ads in the magazine portray the changing attitudes regarding women and their place in society.
The ads in the Ladies Home Journal magazine through…
A Brief History of Modern Contraceptive Ads
(This site provided me with the understanding that LHJ complied with the advertisers push to manipulate females)
Advertising's Portrayal of Women in the Workplace from the 1930s to the 1950s
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) Blacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, ' http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
Transformation leadership is 'authentic' leadership which "builds genuine trust between leaders and followers." Furthermore transformational leadership "concentrates on terminal values such as integrity and fairness. They see the responsibility for their organization's development and impact on society." (Ibid)
Homig and MacGregor in the work entitled:" Transformational Leadership" state that the following ten 'tenets' are inclusive in the transformational leader's style of leading:
1. Leaders have high moral and ethical values.
2. Leaders express genuine interest in followers.
3. Leaders have an inspirational vision.
4. Genuine trust exists between leaders and led.
5. Followers share leader's values and vision.
6. Leaders and followers perform beyond self-interest.
7. Participatory decision-making is the rule.
8. Innovative thinking and action is expected.
9. Motivation is to do the right thing.
10. Leaders mentor. (nd)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
While all of these theories were valid at some time or in relation to some…
Creating Futures (nd) Online available at http://220.127.116.11/search?q=cache:k13BWFbu_wIJ:u wfoundation.org/newsletter/June2005/43565Camp NewsletterFI NAL.pdf+Jeffrey+H.+Brotman,+Leadership&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9
Costco Wholesale Investor Relations (2006) Online http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=83830&p=irol-govBio&ID=13292
Employee Motivation, the Organizational Environment and Productivity (2006) Section 2: Basic Approaches Used to Improve Productivity. Accel Team Online available at http://www.accel-team.com/human_relations/hrels_03_mcgregor.html
Costco -5th Largest Retailer in U.S. And 11th Largest in the World (2006) http://www.customer-service.com/newsletter/126E.aspx
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
Maryland Prison System
Crime is expensive. But so too is punishment. The state of Maryland, like the majority of states across the nation at the moment, is facing a period of slow economic growth and shrinking economic resources even as it continues to have to meet the needs of its citizens. This paper examines the effect on the state's overall budget of the cost of incarcerating prisoners.
The treatment of prisoners causes few legal problems for the government of a dictatorship. A government that refuses to acknowledge the human rights of even its law-abiding citizens is not likely to show too many qualms about shoving its criminals into overcrowded and unsafe prisons - or even to worry about whether the niceties of due process were considered in getting the person to prison to begin with. But the rule of constitutional law changes all that. Because we live in a country…
Feely, M. And Edward, R. (1998). Judicial policy making and the modern state: How courts reformed. Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Hafetz, J. (1995). Tough justice. New York Empire State Report. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:5haT4coRUqgJ:www.mdgreens.org/montgomery/pdf/schoolsnotprisons.pdf+maryland+state+budget+prison&hl=en&ie=UTF-8
Fo instance, appoximately 33 pe cent of Thailand's wate souces ae categoized as having poo quality and the phenomenon is consideed a seious envionment poblem. Moeove, Thailand is anked among the last Asian counties based on amounts of fesh wate available pe capita (WWF, 2010).
In this context, the Thai govenment and the Thai people have commenced to pay moe attention to the effect of the envionmental poblems, as well as to the adjacent economics of the poblem. People make an effot to buy poducts which ae envionmentally hamless and, though them, to minimize the negative envionmental implications of consumption. A fist effot in this diection was the intoduction of the Thai Geen Label Scheme in 1993 and its fomal launch one yea late (Geen Label Thailand, 2010). In shot, the scheme suppots the development of the geen poducts secto by intoducing infomation fo consumes and standads fo businesses. Moe…
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American today, works more that an American worker of even a generation ago. A 1999 Government report stated that workers worked 8% more hours than the previous generation. This translates to an average workweek of 47 hours. Twenty percent of workers today work more than 49 hours. The work place has been constantly changing -- the revolution from agronomies to industrialization having had its origins in the industrial revolution. Most of the industrialized regions of the world have attained better standards with significant improvements in quality of life as a result of the industrial revolution. In turn, however, the workplace became more formal and restrictive. Any personal skills of an individual worker were generally ignored. These abilities were not essential a worker's role in the "new" work environment.
Mass production was the next phase of change in the workplace. It made standardization the norm. Greater emphasis was placed on conforming…
Armour, Stephanie. "Workers Seek Compensation from Employers for Job Stress." USA TODAY May 15, 2002.
Barsade, S, and B. Wiesenfeld. Attitudes in the American Workplace Iii. New Haven, CT: Yale University School of Management., 1997.
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Briggs, Susan. To Think or to Do? 2001. Available. December 8, 2002. http://www.pacpubserver.com/new/business/3-12-01/motivation.html
in "Piaf," Pam Gems provides a view into the life of the great French singer and arguably the greatest singer of her generation -- Edith Piaf. (Fildier and Primack, 1981), the slices that the playwright provides, more than adequately trace her life. Edith was born a waif on the streets of Paris (literally under a lamp-post). Abandoned by her parents -- a drunken street singer for a mother and a circus acrobat father -- Edith learns to fend for herself from the very beginning. As a natural consequence of her surroundings, she makes the acquaintance of several ne'er do wells. She rises above the lifestyles of the girls she grows up with who prostitute themselves for a living in the hope that they will eventually meet a benefactor with whom they can settle. Edith has a talent for singing and she indulges this interest by singing loudly in the streets.…
Beauvoir, Simone de, and Parshley, H.M. The Second Sex. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993.pp. lv, 786
Eisenstein, Zillah R. The Radical Future of Liberal Feminism. The Northeastern Series in Feminist Theory. Northeastern University Press ed. Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986.pp. xi, 260
Engels, Fredrick. "The Development of Utopian Socialism." Trans. Lafargue, Paul. Marx/Engels Selected Works. Revue Socialiste. Ed. Basgen, Brian. Vol. 3. New York: Progress Publishers, 1880. 95-151.
Origins of the Family, Private Property, and the State. 1894. Retrieved April 10, 2003 from. http://csf.colorado.edu/psn/marx/Archive/1884-Family/
The Herzberg two-plane model that includes an upper plane of "motivator" factors, which are those factors that lead to high job satisfaction are compared to the "hygiene" factors that are enablers of stability in any work environment. Motivator factors include achievement, recognition; work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, while hygiene factors include company policies, relationships with supervisors, work conditions, salary, relationship with peers, personal life, and relationships with subordinates, status, and security. These factors overall are critical for the development of a motivated and stable workforce. The implications of these factors on the job satisfaction and attitudes of telecommuters form the research foundation of this paper and also look to provide an indication of how teleworkers keep their work/life balance in equilibrium.
The main objectives of this study are:
To provide further understanding of why workers choose to telecommute in the context of their work/life balance objectives.
Apgar, M., (1999). The alternative workplace: changing where and how people work. Harvard Business Review, 76, 3, 121-139.
Bailyn, L. (2004). Times in careers, careers in time. Human Relations, 57, 12, 1507-1521.
Brief, a.P. & Weiss, H.M. (2002). Organizational behavior: affect in the workplace. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 279-307.
Crandall, W. & Gao, L. (2005). An update on telecommuting: review and prospects for emerging issues. Society of Advanced Management Journal.
Motivational Theories for Various Employee Groups
The force that initiates certain behavior in a person is also called motivation. Motivational theories have been developed by researchers using various mechanisms like state of mind, basic needs, desires and goals of a person.
Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg)
The two-factor theory was published in 1959 by Herzberg after doing a research on the job attitudes for five years. Two different factors affect job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction, as the theory states. Thus, dissatisfaction and satisfaction should not be measured using the same continuum. The two motivating factors of the theory are motivation and hygiene factors. Motivation factors produce positive satisfaction to an employee, they are mainly intrinsic conditions e.g. responsibility, recognition, challenging work and achievement. Hygiene factors are extrinsic job conditions and absence of these results in job dissatisfaction e.g. working conditions, company policies, pay, supervision, job security, status and fringe benefits Sutaria, 1980()…
Gagne, M., & Deci, E.L. (2005). Self-Determination Theory and Work Motivation. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 331-362.
Gratton, L.C. (1980). Analysis of Maslow's Need Hierarchy with Three Social Class Groups. Social Indicators Research, 7(1/4), 463-476.
Shore, T., Sy, T., & Strauss, J. (2006). Leader Responsiveness, Equity Sensitivity, and Employee Attitudes and Behavior. Journal of Business and Psychology, 21(2), 227-241.
Sutaria, R. (1980). Personality, Needs and Two-Factor Theory of Work Motivation. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 16(2), 219-232.
Feasibility Study of E-Groceries
ecent technological developments have seen different plans of action being actualized as it relates to e-Groceries retailing. However, challenges have limited the full realization of this aspect with the greatest hindrance has been logistics; more wasteful operation has often prompted resources being utilized on working expenditures. In this case, enhancements geared towards logistical effectiveness are seen as standouts amongst the most essential steps towards the implementation of this project. This study focuses at the feasibility of a distinctive e-grocery logistics framework and usage plan. The primary target is to study how best to actualize an e-Grocery business from the logistical perspective in order to guarantee some business success. The second target is to recognize, model, and assess diverse logistical results that could be utilized as a part of e-basic need retailing. esults for realizing more remarkable delivery proficiency are displayed and modeled.
For the realization…
Aka-li, E. (2005). Applications of Supply Chain Management and E-Commerce Research. New York: Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Davis, W.S., & Benamati, J. (2013). E-commerce basics: Technology foundations and e-business applications. Boston: Addison-Wesley.
Dennis, C., Fenech, T., & Merrilees, B. (2008). E-retailing. London [u.a: Routledge.
Dholakia, R.R., Dholakia, N., Fritz, W., & Mundorf, N. (2012). Global e-commerce and online marketing: Watching the evolution. Westport, Conn [u.a.: Quorum Books.
The Motivation Plan
Summary of Moat Important Elements of the Plan
Motivating the Minimum Wage Service Workers
The elevance of the Individual Worker
Individual to Teamwork Chart
The development of an organizational motivation plan to improve performance within a company should take into account the different needs of different employees as well as the requirements of the employer. The Hawthorne studies by Mayo indicated that when employees were happy and motivated at work they would work harder and display more positive behavioral traits. If the firm is suffering from traits associated with poor motivation, such as poor performance levels, developing a plan to increase motivation may result in desired changes in the behavior, especially if the plan is designed with the needs of the employer in mind.
In the case of the firm making the WooWoo widgets, there are currently some problems; the main symptom is a…
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Armstrong, Michael, (2012), Armstrong's Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, Kogan Page
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Mintzberg Henry, Ahlstrand Bruce, Lampel Joseph B, (2011), Strategy Safari: The Complete Guide Through the Wilds of Strategic Management, Financial Times / Prentice Hall
Taylorism' / 'Scientific management.'
Introduction to the Evolvement of Management Theory during the 19th and 20th Century
With the coming of the Industrial age at the turn of the Century, and a new era, came the need for more efficient management techniques. Several Classical Theories evolved during the early years of this discipline. Fordism arose from a synthesis of the other earlier theories. Fayolism philosophy included close communication between bosses and workers. Taylorism developed a theory known as "Scientific Management" to study and set appropriate work quotas based on research. Lillian Gilbreth believed that workers were motivated by both direct and indirect motives. Arthur Gantt developed a task chart to help monitor and plan projects more efficiently.
After the Classical theorists, the Human Relations Movement began to take into account the reasons for individual responses. The first of these theorists was George Elton Mayo who conducted experiments at the General…
Website information for citation:
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Bibby, A. (2001) Organising in Financial Call Centres [online]. Available at http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/ofcc4.html . Or http://www.eclipse.co.uk/pens/bibby/hw-aa.html [Accessed 12th June 2002].
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THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
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Jane Austen's Emma
Jane Austen's Gentleman Ideal in Emma
In her third novel, Jane Austen created a flawed but sympathetic heroine in the young Emma oodhouse. idely considered her finest work, Austen's Emma once again deals with social mores, particularly those dealing with ethical actions and social status.
This paper focuses on how Austen uses the figure of George Knightley to propose a new English Gentleman Ideal to criticize the strictures regarding the role of women and the skewed relationship between the sexes. In the first part, this paper looks at the social world of England in the early 19th century, in which Austen lived. It then compares the reality of these conditions with the seemingly idyllic settings Austen portrayed in novels like Emma.
The second part of the paper then examines Austen's redefinitions of the ideal English gentleman, as embodied by Mr. Knightley. Despite the expected happy ending, this…
Austen, Jane. Emma, vol. 4. Oxford Illustrated Jane Austen. R.W. Chapman, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
Johnson, Claudia. Jane Austen: Women, Politics and the Novel. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988).
Weldon, Fay. "England in Austen's Time." Readings on Jane Austen. Clarice Swisher, ed. (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1997)
Jane Austen, Emma, vol. 4, Oxford Illustrated Jane Austen. R.W. Chapman, ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1982).
As Earleywine points out, "By 850 a.D., the Vikings had dragged the ropes with them to Iceland. In 1000, hemp ropes helped the Italian navy dominate the seas. The hemp crop was so important that British farmers were commanded to grow cannabis or pay fines. Kings ordered the American colonies to export the crop, but they used it to make rope and fabric of their own" (p. 25).
The newly founded American colonies found hemp to be an ideal source for rope and fabric as well, and Earleywine attributes it use by the emerging republic as being a fundamental factor in its ultimate success in achieving independence from Great Britain. It would also appear reasonable to suggest that these valuable aspects of hemp are not being lost on manufacturers of all types in the 21st century either. For example, Earleywine suggests that even though synthetic alternatives have been developed over…
Bock, a.W. (2000). Waiting to inhale: The politics of medical marijuana. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks.
Bowles, T.P. (2004, August 22). The pleasures of flesh. The Mail on Sunday (London, England), 51.
Earleywine, M. (2002). Understanding marijuana: A new look at the scientific evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Small, E. & Marcus, D. (2002. Hemp: A new crop with new uses for North America. p. 284- 326. in: J. Janick and a. Whipkey (eds.), Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA
The internal measures refer to improving the quality of the human resource management, hiring specialized workforce and developing and implementing marketing strategies, such as advertising, logistics and promotional strategies. Measures related to the Japanese market environment refer to Gaillie's compliance with the import laws and acts and getting passed the cultural barriers.
A useful recommendation regards the particular features of the Asian market. As such, the American exporters have to conduct extensive studies in order to identify, understand and relate to the forces that drive the Japanese market and the demand for American cosmetic products.
Carr, J., the Japanese Market: Information Sources for Overseas Companies, Warwick Statistics Service, 1984
Gummesson, E., Total Relationship Marketing..., utterworth-Heinemann, May 1999
Kotaro, T., the Japanese Market Economy System: Its Strengths and Weaknesses, Kodansha Ltd. Publishers, 1994
Vogel, D., Consumer Protection and Protectionism in Japan, Journal of Japanese Studies, Volume 18, Number 1, 1992…
Carr, J., the Japanese Market: Information Sources for Overseas Companies, Warwick Statistics Service, 1984
Gummesson, E., Total Relationship Marketing..., Butterworth-Heinemann, May 1999
Kotaro, T., the Japanese Market Economy System: Its Strengths and Weaknesses, Kodansha Ltd. Publishers, 1994
Vogel, D., Consumer Protection and Protectionism in Japan, Journal of Japanese Studies, Volume 18, Number 1, 1992
Scheduling at ed, White and Blue Fireworks Company
The situation being experienced by Joan Bennet at ed, White and Blue Fireworks Company (WBFC) is one common to many growing companies. The organization is luckily experiencing a period of high product demand; however, they are not able to expand the current facility. As such, Bennet has decided to run production ten hours per day, seven days per week. With this new production schedule, and as a means of avoiding the use of overtime, Bennet is implementing a four, ten-hour shift work week for employees, with each employee having three consecutive days off. The manufacturing process requires a minimum of 20 employees. With these constraints, a staffing plan is presented that determines the exact number of full-time employees needed as well as the schedule each employee will need to work. In addition, the other factors that are relevant in making the transition…
Cunningham, J. (Jul 1981). "Exploring the impact of a ten-hour compressed shift schedule." Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2(3). p. 217-222.
Markiewicz, D. (Oct 2008). "Switching to a 10-hour workday?" Industrial Safety & Hygiene News, 42(10). p. 24.
Functions of labor relations office
The responsibilities of the labor relations manager
In this paper, I present an interview that I conducted with the Labor elations Officer/Manager within the Human esource department of our company. The aim of this interview is to reveal the real world the functions performed by labor relations.
Summary of the interview
My interview with the labor relations officer revealed to me several things on the functions of the labor relations department. Good labor relations are a recognizable as well as a legitimate part of a given organization. A good labor relation involves a rather complex relationship between several people, organizations as well as other organizational variables.
Functions of labor relations office
According to the interview the labor relations office is mandated with the coordination of activities with workers in their formal as well as informal groupings. This includes aspects such as trade unions, representatives…
Frederickson, GH (1969).Conflict within and between Organizations . Administrative Science Quarterly
Vol. 14, No. 4, (Dec., 1969), pp. 595-606
Forbath, WE (1994)The Presence of the Past: Voluntarism, Producerism, and the Fate of Economic Democracy: [Commentary]Law & Social Inquiry Vol. 19, No. 1 (Winter, 1994), pp. 201-215
Kathleen A. Curran, KA (1990)The National Labor Relations Board's Proposed Rules on Health Care Bargaining Units Virginia Law Review Vol. (76) 1, pp. 115-164
Social ork History
Like America, Canadian social work has always been about helping the poor and distressed citizens of the nation. The ideas from England had migrated to America and Canada. Both countries are based on migrants from other countries. There were many movements that developed and promoted social work and the ways that social work was implemented. The industrial revolution had left many unemployed without proper job training for the new work. Migrants were migrating from country to country and from rural areas to the cities causing cities to be overcrowded with unemployment, low wages, and homelessness.
One area that differed from American social work and Canadian social work was the way the poor and disadvantaged were viewed and the systematic investigation approach in Canada. The poor were viewed negatively by other citizens. It was felt the problems the poor had were a result of a weakness of character.…
Directory M. Articles. (n.d.). Retrieved from History of Social Work: http://articles.directorym.com/History_of_Social_Work-a1069936.html
Drover, G. (n.d.). Social Work. Retrieved from The Canadian Encyclopedia: http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/social-work systematic. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Free Dictionary: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/systematic
Starwood hotel chain expand their business into Kazan market?
Kazan is one of the largest cities in the epublic of Tatarstan in ussia. With a populace of just one, 143, 546 recorded for the year 2010 in the earlier results of the national Census, it ranks as the eighth most populated city in ussia and was branded as the third capital of ussia in 2009. Subsequently, it has also been dubbed as the sports capital of the region. The importance of the city can be recognized from the recent level of importance it has been given by the ussian government as it continues to increase the economic strength, foreign investment and trade for the country.
As technology brings the planet closer together, more businesses have become multinational corporations (MNC) and have included in a method in their administrative policies to strengthen their market share and profits. The success to become…
Abesser, C. (2010). Open-loop ground source heat pumps and the groundwater systems: A literature review of current applications, regulations and problems. British Geological Survey.
Becker, B.E., & Huselid, M.A. (2006). Strategic human resources management: Where do we go from here? Journal of Management, 32(6), 898-925.
Bjorkman, I. And Schaap, A. (1994) 'Outsiders in the Middle Kingdom: Expatriate Managers in Saudi Arabian-Western Joint Ventures', European Management Journal, 12(2): 147 -- 53.
Black, J.S. (1990) 'The Relationship of Personal Characteristics with Adjustment of Japanese Expatriate Managers', Management International Review, 30: 119 -- 34.
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Figure 1 below highlights briefly Hertzberg's two factor theory applications to the Southwest Airlines.
Figure 1: Hertzberg Two Factor Theory
To complete the analysis, the hygiene factors related to dissatisfaction should are considered to be:-
Quality of Supervision
These factors are necessary for the satisfaction of the employees, but will not lead to a motivated police force. Without these factors being present in an appropriate manner, these factors will lead to dissatisfaction, which may negate efforts to motivate the workforce.
The motivation factors include:
esponsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
Clearly, these factors are more connected with internal forces, and affect Southwest employees in a different way. These factors are the driving force behind motivation, and have been the mandate at Southwest Airlines, which explains the success of the company.
Another related motivational model that…
Gordon, Platt, (2004). "United States: Splitting Roles of CEO and Chairman May Harm Business Performance." Find Articles Publications. Retrieved on March 20, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3715/is_200406/ai_n9455531
Govindarajan, Vijay and Lang, Julie (2002). Southwest Airlines Corporation. Dartmount College: Center for Global Motivation.
Greenberg, J., (2010). Managing Behavior in Organizations, 5th Edition. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers.
Jaffe, Charles, (1991). Moving fast by standing still - Herbert D. Kelleher, Southwest Airlines, Nation's Business. Retrieved on March 21, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1154/is_n10_v79/ai_11319024/print
However, the reader might probably be disappointed at the lack of assignment of responsibility to any living being. Again, the author of this essay thinks that the book buying public who provides the author with the ability to make a living deserves better.
This portrayal of McCourt's father is further analyzed in the book by Helena Schneider. She has an entire chapter dedicated to McCourt's father. She quotes one of McCourt's interviews where he cites an extract from the book where he likens his paper in an Irish parody of the Holy Trinity. He said his father had one in the morning with the paper, then one at night with stories and prayers and then he said that the one reeking of whiskey comes home and wants them to die for Ireland (Schneider 6). The father is a complex figure who is just too proud to ask anyone for financial…
Doyle, Danny and Terence Folan, eds. The Gold Sun of Irish Freedom: 1798 in Song and Story. Dublin: O'Brien Press, 1998.
"Frank McCourt: A Writer Risen from the Ashes." Academy of Achievement. Academy of Achievement, Jul 29, 2009. 10 Apr 2010. .
Grossman, Lev. "Frank McCourt, Author of Angela's Ashes, Dies." Time Jul. 19, 2009:
ystems of income and financial position would superimpose standards of normalization upon everyone within the firm. Accounting, thereby, had achieved Foucault's definition of knowledge as power over people per excellence. By the 1950s, however, person as decision-maker replaced this vision of person as machine, and accounting still has power in our society, but a different sort of power. Likewise, accounting still possesses its constructivism (i.e. manner of perceiving a certain stranglehold on reality by emphasizing certain construct and demoting others), although its constructivist paradigm may have differed from that of, say, a century ago. Individuals are viewed, measured, and criticized within programmatic frameworks, and Miller and O'Leary (1987) suggest that accounting today can still be viewed as part of the heritage and structure (albeit slightly changed) of the traditional mode of power that it was in the early decades of this century. In other words, the slanted domination of accounting…
Armstrong, P. 2002, "Management, Image and Management Accounting. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 13, pp. 281-295
Bryer, R. 2006, "Accounting and control of the labour process" Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 17, pp 551-598.
Chwastiak, M. & Young, J.J. 2005, "Silences in Annual Reports, Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 14, 533- 552
Ezzamel, M., Lilley, S. & Willmott, H. 2004, "Accounting representation and the road to commercial salvation." Accounting, Organizations and Society, 29, pp. 783- 813.
Fortunately, no NC responders have been killed, but around the country every year several first responders are injured or die from job-related exposures to these labs" (efilmgroup, 2009).
The fire department seems to be at the forefront of the risk in many cases, because a significant number of the clan labs are called in as explosions or fires. In other words, often the fire service doesn't know exactly what they are getting into. Calls may report medical aid is needed, or that someone is injured, a structure fire, trash fire, or investigation is required of some suspicious "smoke," a strange odor, or someone dumping illegally, and on. And the actual mix of whatever it really is could be fatally toxic to someone -- like the fire service or police -- who first encounters it. These chemicals are mixes of: acetone, methanol, benzene, ether, hydriodic acid, muriatic acid, sodium hydroxide, and…
Clandestine drug laboratories. (1997, June). Retrieved December 5, 2009, from phoenix.gov: http://www.phoenix.gov/fire/20407.pdf efilmgroup. (2009). Meth labs - a to z hazard for emergency responders. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from efilmgroup.com: http://www.efilmgroup.com/AtoZ.html
IAFF. (2009). The methamphetamine problem: A health and safety overview for firefighters. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from International association of firefighters (IAFF): http://www.iaff.org/HS/Resi/Methamphetamine%20final.htm
IDEM. (n.d.). Indiana department of environmental management (IDEM):Cleanup illegal drug labs. Retrieved December 5, 2009, from in.gov (Indiana): http://www.in.gov/idem/4178.htm
Peterson, D. (n.d.). Hazardous materials - clandestine drug labs. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from State of Minnesota (from Firehouse.com): http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs / the/meth/lab/dpeterson.pdf