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This was due to death of one of its greatest leaders, Aurangzeb early 1709. Leadership was seemingly absent as the last of the old and experienced leaders passed on and the new leaders took over. One of the new leaders, referred to as the nawab of Bengal took control of the British port and ordered for payment of increased tax from the British. This move was obviously advised by the French and was directed towards killing the British trade in India. However, Britain refused to comply with this order and instead countered this move. They sent a huge group of their military, comprising of English and Indian soldiers who had defected their authorities and joined the British, to battle it out with the nawab military, which were assisted by the French military (Higgins & Pollard, 2006). The British conquered and executed the nawab and replaced with a leader of their…
Harrison, J. (1986). Economy of British America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Higgins, J. & Pollard, S. (2006). Aspects of Capital Investment in Great Britain 1750-1850. New York: Taylor & Francis.
Jacob, G. (1946). British Economy in the Past. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marks, R.B. (2nd ed) (2007). The origins of the Modern World: A Global and Ecological narrative from the Fifteenth to the Twenty-first Century. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Manufacturing was completely transformed, along with the society which arose up around it. And both the production of agriculture and the steam powered engines of ships and locomotives, allowed for an ever increasing population to be fed and to travel and communicate much easier. In other words, the Industrial Revolution transformed manufacturing and agriculture, transportation, which allowed for an increase in population and the creation of a new urban-based society.
"American Railroads: Their Growth and Development." The Association of American Railroads. 1951. eb. 10 Dec. 2011.
Atack, J., Bateman, F., Margo, R.. "Steam Power, Establishment Size, and Labor
Productivity Growth in Nineteenth Century American Manufacturing." NBER
orking Paper 11931. National Bureau of Economic Research. eb. 9 Dec.
Hunter, Louis, C. Steamboats of the estern Rivers: An Economic and Technological
History. New York: Octagon. 1969. Print.
Kim, Sukkoo. "Immigration, Industrial Revolution and Urban Growth in the…
"American Railroads: Their Growth and Development." The Association of American Railroads. 1951. Web. 10 Dec. 2011.
Atack, J., Bateman, F., Margo, R.. "Steam Power, Establishment Size, and Labor
Productivity Growth in Nineteenth Century American Manufacturing." NBER
Human Rights and the Industrial Revolution
The era of Industrial Revolution is the period in history which fundamental altered many aspects of society. ith the introduction of new systems that developed with the mechanization of various agricultural processes as well as the introduction of textile manufacturing. The specialization of labor to support these processes had many implications for the culture and the daily lives of the individuals living through this period. The major industrialization begins in Great Britain during the late 1700s and early 1800s and the effects of this industrialization world over a very short period of time. ith industrialization a new dynamic emerged between labor and the owners of capital. This power struggle was initially presented by the owners of capital having massive amounts of power in which they abused in many cases. Therefore, the industrial revolution had a dehumanizing effect from the perspective of viewing…
Landes, D. The Wealth and Poverty of Nations. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1998.
McDougal, L. Workers of the Nation Unite. 2000. https://sites.google.com/site/theindustrialage/assignments/workersofthenationunite (accessed March 26, 2013).
Pomeranz, K. The Great Divergence: China, Europe, and the Making of the Modern Economy. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2000.
The pioneering spirit of colonialism and of man's ability to make advances in stages of life primarily assigned to nature -- such as the aforementioned innovations in electricity and magnetism -- were all championed by the Enlightenment and carried over to the field of industry.
Additionally, the Enlightenment helped provide some of the political context which helped to create environments in which the scientific and cultural achievements of the Industrial Revolution could take place. Principles of the Enlightenment heavily influenced the founding fathers of the U.S. government -- who then went on to form a country that utilized several of the technologies and principles that the Industrial Revolution went on to be known for. Additionally, social-political upheavals throughout Europe -- most notably the French Revolution -- were spurred in no small part by the feeling of unrest and discontent with tradition that the Enlightenment was credited for. This sentiment played…
Industrial Revolution in America
Countless historical events and cultural impacts have influenced the future of the American culture and society since the period of the Industrial Revolution. Drastic changes were brought to men, transforming their ways of life into convenience and improvement through the advance discoveries of the geniuses of the past and the revolution of diverse industries. Without the era of the industrial revolution, our lifestyles today, in terms of the technology that we currently have, will not be as progressive as they are. Essentially, the industrial revolution had built the history of technology.
The era of the industrial revolution have witnessed changes in the different aspects of society and human life. In America, changes were seen in politics, education, transportation, arts, entertainment, literature, economy, etc., as they were influenced by economic changes from mainly agriculture into manufacturing and production of goods. The economic and social structure of the…
Anderson, Curt. The Two Countries that Invented the Industrial Revolution.
American History. 14 Dec 2003. http://americanhistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.darex.com%2Findurevo.htm
Houghton Mifflin. 14 Dec 2003. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_045300_industrialre.htm
For the overall country however, it meant an incremental desire for high productivity levels and an openness to new techniques (Wallace, 1989).
The colonies and the British fleet
Aside the status and movements within agriculture, another major part was played by the colonies. Great Britain had numerous colonies across the globe, meaning that it enjoyed not only labor force, but also financial and material contributions. England had fought countless battles and with every victory, their prize was more land. Aided by its geographic position, Great Britain controlled the trade handled by its colonies. The most remarkable examples are offered by its colonies in North America, which, by 1780, were the recipients of half of the entire English exports. In the immediate aftermath however, Great Britain turned its attention to the colonies in South America and India and soon came to control these regions as well. The income generated by the…
Hooker, R., 1999, the European Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, Washington State University, http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ENLIGHT/INDUSTRY.HTM last accessed on October 23, 2009
Knowles, L.C.A., the Industrial and Commercial Revolutions in Great Britain during the Nineteenth Century, Taylor and Francis, 2005
Kreis, S., the Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England, the History Guide, 2006, http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html last accessed on October 23, 2009
Musson, a.E., Robinson, E., 1969, Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution, Manchester University Press ND
The overall shift of the population was also significant -- in pre-industrial England more than three-quarters of the population lived in cities; by mid nineteenth century over half of the population lived in cities (Ashton, 49). The United States experienced similar urbanization as a result of the industrial revolution. In 1860 there were only 9 American cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants but by 1900, such cities had increased to 38 (Porter, para on "Growth of Cities")
The effect of the Industrial Revolution on individual members of the working class was also significant. It resulted in loss of the traditional family structure, as many single male members of rural peasant families moved to cities in search of jobs in the factories. Most of these factory workers had to live and work in appalling conditions, away from their families. The monotony of the specialized and repetitive work in mechanized factories, which…
Ashton, T.S. The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
Porter, Glenn. "Industrial Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Online, 2007. June 2, 2007 http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761577952/Industrial_Revolution.html
Neolithic Revolution' (also known as the 'Agricultural Revolution') occurred 10~12,000 years ago when people moved from social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex communities dependent on agriculture and the domestication of animals.
The names of British factory cities would soon spread around the world symbolizing the peak of industrialization: Liverpool, Leeds, Glasgow, heffield, Birmingham and especially Manchester. In order to get a better image of the city's growth and development, we will turn to statistics once again. In the 1770s, Manchester had a population of about 25, 000 and by 1850, less than a century later, its population had increased to over 350, 000 people. However, this population boom brought about the dramatic worsening of health conditions in urban areas as work conditions and long hours put a toll on working people who were sometimes as young as eight years old. In addition, bad sewage disposal, air and water pollution as well as the diseases which resulted from this insalubrious environment caused an increase in the rate of infant mortality and shorter life expectancy. Along with poor health conditions, the toll roads,…
Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford University Press.
More, Charles. (2000). Understanding the Industrial Revolution. Routledge.
Stearns, Peter N. (1998). The Industrial Revolution in World History. Westview Press.
Industrial evolution and Political Systems
Justify your choice of the two most significant social consequences of the Industrial evolution.
The industrial revolution brought with it a mix of influences, some of which were good and yet others were negative to the society. The major consequences of industrialization that are of interest here are the change in the social structure of the society and the heightening of social unrest around Europe.
As Gregory Clark (2007) indicates, the industrial revolution brought about the development of small centers around the industries where the workers would report on a daily basis with ease. These centers later developed into towns and cities with majority of the dwellers being the people working in the industries and having migrated from their rural homes. This changed the social structure of the European community as many moved from the rural areas leaving the young and the old to stay…
Paul M. Johnson, (2005). Communism. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from http://www.auburn.edu/~johnspm/gloss/communism
Progressive Living, (2012). Capitalism, Socialism & Communism: What They Are, Why They Don't Work, What Works Better. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from http://www.progressiveliving.org/economics/capitalism_socialism_communism.htm
William S. Camanor, (2012). Industrial Revolution
Life during the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved May 19, 2012 from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Even before the team engine developed and the railroad infrastructure was created, ritain benefited from a large number of internal rivers that facilitated a proper transport infrastructure through the use of internal river channels. During a time when the road infrastructure was completely underdeveloped in all countries, the fact that so many river could be interconnected greatly increased communication between the various parts of ritain.
Additionally, ritain also saw the development of some of the most important technology during this period of time, which facilitated the industrial revolution. Technological instruments such as Watt's steam engine allowed an immediate increase in productivity and efficiency.
There are certainly several political and military reasons that are worth enumerating. At the historical moment we could estimate the beginning of the modern economy in ritain, somewhere in the 18th century, the other main economic powers that would dominate the continent in the 20th century were…
1. Jha, Saumitra. Shares, coalition formation and political development: evidence from seventeenth century England. Stanford University. 2008
2. Brenner, Robert. Agrarian Class Structure and Economic Development in Pre-Industrial Europe. Past and Present, No. 76. February 1976
Jha, Saumitra. Shares, coalition formation and political development: evidence from seventeenth century England. Stanford University. 2008
ith families and neighborhoods splitting along urban and rural lines, improvements in transportation were necessary for personal and commercial reasons. The completion of the Cumberland Road -- the first national highway -- and the transcontinental railroad, in addition to the Eerie Canal's opening, helped solve the transportation trouble (Kelly).
Although these industrial advancements progressed the United States, insuring its position as an economic and technological leader, social reforms also occurred because of the new focus on industry. omen were given new opportunities to work outside of the home through the jobs provided in the industrial revolution, and a middle class of working people was created. The industrial revolution showed many that the American dream could really occur. If a person worked hard enough, he or she many not become part of the rich-upper class, but neither was he or she locked into the agricultural world of dependence on the land.…
Kelly, Martin. "Overview of the Industrial Revolution." About.com. 2009. 26 July 2009.
One major effect of the First Industrial Revolution is that the workers of America were leaving their home, rather than working in and around the home, to completed their work. This usually meant the worker of the family (usually the man of the house) going toa factor or another building other than the home to complete work. Women usually stayed home and took care of the children and the house. This leads to the other major impact, whereby women were relegated down to subservient and owning lesser status than the man and certainly less than the near-equal status they enjoyed during the agrarian times in the United States and before that when Britain, Spain and France controlled what is now the United States.
The huge increase in productivity and the ability to create and sustain revenue led to an economic revolution that allowed for the building and the…
As to the climate, as a result of huge factory smokestacks belching out black smoke from the burning of coal, the atmosphere slowly began to change and severely affected rainfall patterns and created variations in the temperature of the air. This was the beginning of what we now call acid rain, a combination of water and carbon dioxide which slowly pollutes everything it comes in contact with, such as aboveground water sources (lakes, rivers and wells) and even the land itself in the form of run-off which eventually ends up in agricultural areas where food is grown and harvested.
With earth's landforms, the excavation and removal of coal in such places as England and the Eastern United States greatly devastated the natural landscape by leaving behind immense sections of land stripped bare and left wide open to further erosion by rain and wind. Since iron ore, copper and tin were…
Pursuing the Ideal Society." (2007). Ricoh. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.ricoh.com/environment/management/earth.html .
The Industrial Revolution and Its Environmental Impacts." (2007). Learning Space. Internet. Retrieved at http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource / view.php?id=94548.
It has been called the "Western Miracle" and the "European Miracle," but it is commonly known as the Industrial Revolution. During the later half of the 1700's and to the beginning of the 20th century, The European continent and North America went through some amazing changes. These changes did not involve politics, but centered on economics and a new way of business in the U.S. They would also bring a new way of life for the middle and lower classes. These changes are no referred to as the Industrial Revolution, and it brought forth a new way of producing goods. It changed the face of our nation from and agricultural emphasis to one of industry and mass production of processed goods, which in turn changed how the country would look at work places and how workers were treated.
Great Britain gave birth to this whole concept of industry…
role of government in the Industrial Development of the West?
The Industrial Revolution in the West began in Britain in the early eighteenth century and then spread to France, Germany, Belgium-most of the rest of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the United States.
The speed and success by which each country became industrialized depended on various factors, one of the most significant of which was the role that the government played in encouraging the move from agricultural-based production and manual production to using machine power to manufacture goods.
A stable government was one of the basic elements in ensuring successful industrialization. Britain, at the time of its transformation, had a very steady government, as opposed to the political instability of France, which led to industrialization becoming prolonged.
Another advantage Britain had was the availability of coal which was used in abundance in factories and forms of transportation. France, on the…
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
Industrial Revolution heralded a shift in the way that goods were produced. Technological developments in particular began a shift in emphasis away from human capital towards financial capital. Human beings, once almost exclusively in one trade or another, became increasingly viewed as equivalent to machines, or worse. This marked a shift both in business and society with respect to the nature of work in society, a shift whose repercussions are still felt today. The Introduction section will highlight the background information -- defining the Industrial Revolution, the ways work was viewed in society prior to it and how work is viewed in society today, which will provide perspective of some of the critical changes that have occurred.
In his essay hy e ork, Andrew Curry outlines some of the more profound of these changes. These changes will form the basis of my research paper on how the Industrial Revolution affected…
Curry, A. (2003). Why we work. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.andrewcurry.com/portfolio/WhyWeWork.html
Crowley, M., Trope, D., Chamberlain, L. & Hudson, R. (2010). Neo-Taylorism at work: Occupational change in the post-Fordist era. Social problems. Vol. 57 (3) 421-447.
eNotes. (2010). Industrial Revolution. eNotes. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.enotes.com/industrial-revolution-about/introduction
Ferrante, J. (2005). Sociology: A global perspective. Cengage.
The production of iron was also a basic component of modern development. Its significance cannot be understated because it "constitutes the chief element of all heavy industry and land or sea transport and is the material out of which most productive machinery has been manufactured" (Craig 629). For instance, in 1708, Abraham Darby's invention of the smelting iron in 1708 increased the use of coal in the iron industry. As we can see, one invention (or good idea) often leads to another.
Transportation is one aspect of modern industrialization that cannot be overlooked. As mentioned earlier, Britain had "special advantages" (Chodorow 718) in this area because of its location. Before the eighteenth century, the closest the country came to seeing a railroad was carts being pulled by horses on iron rails. Putting the steam engine on wheels solved this problem. The first "commercial steam railroad" (719) became public in 1825…
Chodorow, Stanley, et al. A History of the World. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Publishers. 1986.
Craig, Albert, et al. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 2000.
Noble, Thomas, et al. Western Civilization: The Continuing Experiment. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1994.
Industrialization After Civil War
The author of this report has been asked to identify and fetter out a number of short lists as a means to answer questions. The questions all relate to the history of the United States after the Civil War as the country entered the period of industrialization. There will be three major aspects of industrialization that changed the United STtaes from 1865 to 1920 in terms of society, economy and politics. Issues that could arise include geography, entrepreneurship and so forth. The next answer will be a list of three groups that were affected by industrialization and there will also be two examples of how each group was affected. Examples include immigrants, children/women and famers. How industrialization affected the life of the average American during this period will be covered. While some may deemed them to be heroes and icons, the actions of people like Andrew…
HBS. (2015). Women at Work: Manual Labor. Library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2015,
PBS. (2015). American Experience . The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie .
Timeline | PBS. Pbs.org. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/timeline/f_timeline.html
As a result of these experiments, researchers realized that this is the mechanism by which nighttime lighting increased cancers in nighttime shift workers.
Nighttime shift work disrupts the normal rhythm of the circadian clock, which suppresses melatonin production; suppressed melatonin levels correspond to decreased resistance to cancers in tissues with melatonin receptor sites and to increased growth rates in tumors with melatonin receptor sites. Colorectal cancer is probably the type of cancer affected most by melatonin levels, because the same modern lifestyle that causes exposure to nighttime lighting also includes a high-fat, low fiber diet that is a known factor in rectal cancers.
The two final piece of the puzzle fell into place when researchers also determined that: (1) mice exposed to very low levels of light, even during nighttime sleep, also had higher cancer growth rates; and (2) people who are completely blind have lower rates of the same…
Pauley, S. (2004) Lighting for the Human Circadian Clock: Recent Research Indicates that Lighting Has Become a Public Health Issue.
Medical Hypotheses 63, 588-596.
It might be argued that the Industrial Revolution throughout Europe was not a revolution in the traditional sense, insofar as it involved no violence. Anyone making this argument, however, is unaware of the existence of the Luddites. Active in England in the early nineteenth century, at the height of the industrial revolution, Luddites were English textile workers who revolted against their replacement with industrial machinery and responded by destroying that machinery. The ritish government responded by sending in the army. The labor historian Eric Hobsbawm notes that "the 12,000 troops deployed against the Luddites greatly exceeded in size the army which Wellington took" to defeat Napoleon, which may give some sense of where governmental priorities actually lay.[footnoteRef:0] The real point is that the Industrial Revolution was tremendously disruptive to the lives of ordinary workers and people, and what is remarkable in retrospect is only that there was not…
Blake, William. "Jerusalem." BlakeArchive.org. http://www.blakearchive.org/exist/blake/archive/transcription.xq?objectid=milton.b.illbk.02 (accessed March 6, 2014).
Hobsbawm, Eric. "The Machine Breakers." libcom.org. http://libcom.org/history/machine-breakers-eric-hobsbawm (accessed March 6, 2014).
MacLeod, Donald. The Stonemason: Donald MacLeod's Chronicle of Scotland's Highland Clearances. Ed. Douglas MacGowan. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2001.
Umachandran, Shalini. "Chequered History of a Textile Company." Times of India, March 12, 2010. http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Layout/Includes/TOINEW/ArtWin.asp?From=Archive&Source=Page&Skin=TOINEW&BaseHref=TOICH%2F2010%2F03%2F12&ViewMode=HTML&PageLabel=6&EntityId=Ar00601&AppName=1 (accessed March 6, 2014).
Industrial evolution: esult of an Agricultural evolution?
The Industrial evolution which began in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, and still continues in certain parts of the world, is considered by some historians to be the most significant transformation in the economic environment of human civilization after the Neolithic evolution. There are a number of reasons that triggered and sustained the transformation of an agriculture-based economy to an industrial-based economy, but perhaps the most significant was the occurrence of an 'Agriculture evolution' in Britain in the century following 1750. In this essay, I shall discuss why this was so, besides describing the following:
The causes and outcome of the Agricultural evolution
Features of the Industrial evolution
The Social Consequences of the Industrial evolution
Karl Marx and Emile Durkhiem's theories about the Industrial evolution
How an Agricultural evolution in Britain triggered the Industrial evolution?
Most historians are in agreement that the…
Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Four Field System." (2004) Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/003f.html
Jones, R.A. (1986) Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. (1894) "The Communist Manifesto." The Project Gutenberg Etext. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext93/manif12.txt
Industrial evolution - a curse to the Europeans
The industrial revolution has changed the face of the earth and has completely transformed the lifestyle of people. The development in the society, brought by means of several new inventions, has brought number of benefits to a common man. The benefit and rewards of Industrial revolution were not limited to England or the United States, who are the pioneers of the Industrial revolution, but it has spread all around the world with the span of time. The advancement in technology brought by the Industrial evolution facilitated the development of innovative and efficient ways of producing goods, manufacturing services and creating new methods of transportation. As a result of these developments the function of the market system transformed completely, hence changing the way people perceived their standing in the society and change their requirements and needs with respect to their basic necessities. egardless…
F.C. Dietz: The Industrial Revolution: (1927, reprinted. 1973)
T.S. Ashton: The Industrial Revolution (1948)
J.W. Osborne: The Silent Revolution: The Industrial Revolution in England as a Source of Cultural Change (1970)
McCloskey, Robert Green: American Conservatism In The Age Of Enterprise1865-
The Industrial Revolution refers to the wave of technological, economic, and social changes taking place during the nineteenth century. Although fueled by new technology, the industrial revolution had a tremendous effect on society. The Industrial Revolution led to urbanization, social class stratification, and the capitalist market economy.
One feature of the Industrial Revolution was the newfound ability to mass-produce goods. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, any machine that was used to aid manufacturing, such as a loom or the cotton gin, could only be used by a single individual producing one thing at a time (“Industrial Revolution,” n.d. 1). Such machines were unable to produce goods in large quantity in a short period of time. With the advent of large-scale machinery powered by technologies like coal, it was possible to bring products to market faster and cheaper.
Factories also expanded their labor forces to allow them to produce…
History Industrial Revolution
What impact did the Industrial Revolution in England have on the American colonies?
During the mid-eighteenth century, the Great ritain had started the Industrial Revolution; meanwhile the American colonies had not yet begun their journey towards industrialization. The main reason why the American colonies lagged behind the ritish was that the former had abundance of land and at the same time scarcity of labor. However, it should be note here that the Industrial Revolution in England impacted the American colonies in terms of economy and society; both positively and adversely.
In this paper, we shall discuss the positive as well as the negative effects of Industrial Revolution on America.
It should be noted here that the framework of Industrial Revolution that was implemented in the American colonies was borrowed from England after the American industrialists saw that the Great ritain's economic position improved significantly after…
Bianchetti, Ann, "Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age," Academic journal article from Social Education, 68 (2002): 5.
Welsh, Jim, "The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology," Journal of American Culture, 31 (2007): 1.
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp
"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858818.html
Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Technology and Social Change
The Industrial evolution completely changed the way that human beings live and work. Before the Industrial evolution, society was dominated by agrarian economies. The Industrial evolution created a new way of life in which an increasingly large percentage of the population either owned or worked in factories involved in mass production. Populations became increasingly concentrated in urban areas; fewer people worked on farms or owned farms. Instead of making their own goods and services, people now bought the majority of the items they needed in stores.
The current Knowledge evolution is technologically driven, just like the Industrial evolution. It is fueled by the Internet and radically expanded accessibility of information to everyone who has an Internet connection. In some ways, like the Industrial evolution, it is extremely democratic -- just as many people made their fortune through capitalism, the knowledge economy of World Wide Web has…
Gouras, M. (2003). Bulking up for a hardware battle. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved:
How women use the web. (2013). Mashable. Retrieved:
Consequences of the Industrial Revolution on English Society
The ninety years between 1760 and 1850, commonly regarded as the "First Generation" of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, were to bring about sweeping changes: technological, economic, philosophical and social. Previously, technology was low. Manufactured goods were produced by hand, often in the home or in small workshops, by skilled artisans who generally specialized in making one type of goods or one component of an item. The economy was dominated by agriculture, and the majority of the population was rural. ealthy families who owned the land rented it to tenant farmers; these tenants, while mostly illiterate, had the opportunity to grow their own food and live in somewhat appealing and healthful surroundings. They were almost a cashless society, paying their rents and buying goods largely through their produce and exchange of labor. Their diversions often centered around fairs and saints' days, and…
Chadwick, Edwin. "Report from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain." London, 1842, pp. 369-372. http://126.96.36.199/victorian/history/chadwick2.html
Gaskell, P. The Manufacturing Population of England. London, 1833 http://188.8.131.52/victorian/history/workers2.html
Hartwell, R.M. "History and Ideology," Modern Age, Vol. 18, No. 4, Fall, 1974.
Hartwell, R.M. The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth. London: Methuen and Company, 1971.
Although economic, political, and social structures had been changing for at least a century prior, the Industrial Revolution did have a tremendous and far-reaching impact on reconfiguring socioeconomic classes. Industrial capitalism shifted the centers of economic power to the private sector, and economic systems became far more decentralized than ever before due to the emergence of market capitalism. The new economic regime necessitated new political institutions, which in turn transformed social structures. Nineteenth century social formations included a leisure class known as the bourgeoisie and the working class, known as the proletariat, while the new political ideologies that supported capitalism included liberalism and socialism.
Prior to the Enlightenment, European social, economic and political institutions were dependent on Church authority (Burke, n.d.). The French Revolution was a harbinger of the new social and political institutions like liberalism and socialism. Monarchic rule was a thing of the past; once the seeds of…
factory owners during the Industrial Revolution. You are having trouble recruiting and retaining workers, and getting them to do what you want them to do. What techniques would you use to accomplish your goals of achieving efficient and profitable production?
oday, because of the apparently unjust conditions of workers during the early days of industrialization, modern sympathies tend to lie with the factory workers in their efforts to unionize and secure their rights during the early days of the Industrial Revolution. However, even from the capitalist's perspective, unmotivated employees were not as productive as loyal and motivated laborers, thus it was perhaps mistaken to be blatantly unconcerned about workers rights. In fact, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the capitalist factory owners were often frustrated by the need to impose discipline upon workers who were used to agricultural methods and rhythms of labor. his began, initially, by paying workers…
Take a look at the three organizational charts at the websites below. How do these charts represent bureaucracy? How are they similar, and how are they different?
Bureaucracy is a word that has become almost synonymous with red tape and poor and inefficient procedures based not upon reality but upon protocols. However, some bureaucracy is necessary for large organizations to function. For example, for the Argone National Laboratory ( http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anl_org_chart/ ) the organization in question demonstrates the series of bureaucratic channels, with one large organization enveloping several smaller departments of specific areas of equal expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy is technically in charge, overseeing the University of Chicago's operation of the lab in question. The university lab's official head has ultimate control over the smaller cell organizations, while each laboratory beneath the director acts as a department in and of itself, although still under official administrative control. Thus, smaller, but still crucial organizational hubs that serve different but equally necessary functions under the larger, official bureaucratic heads and within a larger bureaucracy.
The functional chart for Argone stands in contrast to the human-focused organizational chart offered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human services. Although both charts show top-down hierarchies, there is an emphasis on personality as well as function in the Heath and Human services diagram, and thus the chart is more complex -- it is both more specific, but also, because it contains more information a bit more difficult to understand for a layperson from the outside, about the many different functionaries within each individual cell of the bureaucracy. (http://www.os.dhhs.gov/about/orgchart.html)
al., 2002). ut since employees perceived that women had financial help from either fathers or husbands, wages remained low. This created difficult situations for women who were the only support for themselves and any children they had.
In addition, while these events opened employment opportunities for women, those jobs represented a revolving door as they typically quit their jobs either when they got married or when their first child was born (Craig et. al., 2002). This encouraged employers to keep women in low-paying jobs with little responsibility. ut in addition to perceptions that women were temporary and expendable workers, women were frequently denied the one thing that, more than anything else, could have elevated their employment options: education. For well into the 19th century, few women received a secondary, or high school, education. This meant that even if a university was willing to accept female students, few if any would…
Craig, Graham, Kagan, Ozment and Turner. The Heritage of World Civilizations. New Jersey: Pearson Hall, 2002.
Tilly, Louise a. 1994. "Women, women's history, and the Industrial Revolution." Social Research, March.
Generally, the European economy was characterized by the following aspects:
The development of the economic activity's industrial side, not only in Western Europe but also in other countries previously considered to be exclusively agrarian. The industry and services presented the highest increases, and the gap between labor productivity in agriculture and the one in industry significantly increased
The Eastern and South-Eastern European countries' economic evolution suffered important transformations, with quantitative and qualitative restructurings
Maintaining the inequalities between European countries, given their distinct evolution
The heterogeneity of options regarding European development strategies
It is considered that the war delayed the European economy's evolution with approximately 8 years, which means that the 1929 production quantum might have been attained in 1921 if it had not been for the war and if the growth rates before 1913 would have been maintained (Kennedy, pp 361).
2.2. The Great Depression and European Economy's Post-crisis situation…
1. Perry, K. Modern European History. Made Simple. London, 1976.
2. Heaton, Herbert. Economic History of Europe. Harper & Row, London, 1966.
3. Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London, 1989.
4. Kindleberger, C.P. The World Depression 1929-1939. University of California Press, 1973.
1 Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in the 18th and 19th centuries and is responsible for the moving of nations away from farming to industry and manufacturing. The Industrial Revolution introduced trains, more advanced shipping, steel production, communications systems, cars, planes, and military equipment, and construction. The skyscraper came into existence, people moved to urban areas away from the countryside. Wars broke out as nations fought over natural resources like oil fields, minerals, and sea lanes to support the new industries.
The nations of the world were able to engage in Industrialization because of another rise—the rise of finance. Banks began to exert more and more influence over the activities of nations. They financed big productions and helped businessmen develop companies that would go on to dominate industries. Banks started working with governments too and together they started redrawing international territories, with wars financed by banks that led to…
The World Health Organization estimates that at least 15% of the world human population in non-developed countries lacks access to potable water. Because of this, at least 1/2 of the world's poor populations are infected with one or more of the main viral or parasitic diseases associated with rank or polluted water (Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers) . Changes in global population growth, unwise agricultural policies, and rapid and unchecked overdevelopment have skewed this balance to the point where almost 1 billion people lack access to safe water, resulting in almost 4 million deaths due to water related diseases annually. Ironically, less than 1% of the total fresh water globally is available for daily and direct human consumption. This is quite dramatic when one considers that a single American who takes a 5-minute shower uses more what than an individual in much of the developing world uses in an entire…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. Cited in: .
Houghton, J. (2009). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lovelock, J. (2010). The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. New York:
In the 20th century, both of these tactics were utilized to successfully gain independence for a number of countries. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
However, Africans also helped European efforts. This was accomplished by many individuals becoming actively involved in: the political, economic and military structure. Over the course of time, these activities divided entire nations against one another. Once this took place, is when the European powers were able to exercise greater amounts of control over its colonies. (Conrad 83 -- 149) (Hochschild 101 -- 164) (Gainty)
hat was the impact of European colonialism (overseas acquisition up to approximately the mid-1700s) and imperialism (overseas acquisition from the mid-1700s) in Africa?
The impact European colonialism was to exercise direct control over entire regions. This was a part of an effort to increase their access to natural resources. Moreover, many of these colonies were established based upon…
Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Hamondsworth: Penguine, 1975. Print.
Duiker, William. The Essential World History. Boston: Wadsworth Learning, 2011. Print.
Engels, Frederic. The Condition of the Working Class in England. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010. Print.
Gainty, Denis. Sources of World Societies. Boston: St. Martins, 2009. Print.
The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.
The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.
The Scientific evolution
Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th
Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.
Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.
Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
Essentially, parenting styles changed dramatically and began to allow children for relative independence vs. relative inter-dependence that was seen before the implementation of industrial capitalism. This move far from traditional agricultural-based family structures lessened the degree of inter-dependence within the family and more towards individual independence within the larger family structure. Mothers and fathers were off working in the factories, leaving them as much less a part of every element of their children's lives. This left children home alone more often, forcing them to find their own relative independence outside the realm of their parents' supervision. Additionally, when children, when required to work, would work outside the context of the home in factories, where there was less supervision from parents. Thus, there was a greater focus on individual needs and individual lives, rather than the more familial unit thinking that was so prevalent before the Industrial Revolution took place.
Industrial evolution was one of the momentous eras in history. The Industrial evolution had an impact on all levels of society as it instigated the change from an agriculture-and-handicrafts focused economy to one replaced by industries, machines, and large-scale manufacturing. The positive impacts are evident in the manner the goods and products are manufactured and the improvements in the way of living in all classes of societies across the world. However, it is important to point out is that the Industrial evolution has had negative influences as well. To begin with, the level of pollution increased in magnitude never seen before, affecting the environment adversely. Another shortcoming was the decrease in earnings along with significant deterioration in working conditions. There was also a proliferation of the number of working children and women, which negatively affected family structures.[footnoteef:2] The positives, on the other hand, include great advances in technology, increased level…
Hobsbawm, Eric. Age of revolution: 1789-1848. Hachette UK, 2010.
King, Steven., Timmins, Geoferry. Making Sense of the Industrial Revolution: English Economy and Society 1700-1850. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
Overton, Mark. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian economy 1500 -1850. Canbridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Scheina, Robert L. Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899. 2003: Washington: Brassey's, Inc.
Ogburn identifies four social revolutions that have occurred as the result of new technologies. The first was the move from the hunter-gathered model to pastoralism or horticulturalism, where people settled either to raise animals or to grow plants for food. Technologies for hunting or agriculture made such moves possible. As we were able to learn enough about food production to remain in one place for extended periods, we chose to do so.
The next step was the move to an agrarian society. Using both animals and machinery, we were able to make significant improvements in food production, not just for food but for other uses as well. This allowed for much greater population density, as well as excess production for winter months. The third social revolution was the development of the industrial society. Machinery that dramatically increased productivity brought about industrial society, which incorporated a stronger division of labor.…
Boundless.com. (2007). The four social revolutions. Boundless.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-social-change/sources-social-change/four-social-revolutions/
Boundless.com. (2007). Ogburn's theory. Boundless.com. Retrieve April 13, 2013 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-social-change/sources-social-change/ogburn-s-theory/
" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."
During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."
In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."
MacEwan, Arthur. Banishing the Mexican Revolution. Monthly Review. (1991): 01 November.
The Path to Revolution. (accessed 12 October, 2004). http://www.interknowledge.com/russia/rushis06.htm ).
Unknown. India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
But he failed and started cooperating with real leaders - owners of huge industrial monopolies. To get rid of small businessmen organization (SA) Hitler murdered their leader Ernst Rem and some other leaders.
That's why fascists changed their political program.
Any national property was controlled by state, but in fact - rich monopolists. Hitler created extremely effective General department of property (head - Krupp and Siemens).
The largest corporation in the country belonged to German Gering. It was that huge because it received Jews' property and later - property which was captured in states- victims of German foreign policy. German leaders started regulating prices as it was in USSR or USA during New Line.
Agriculture was also controlled by the state. Agricultural production was controlled and every farmer had to sell it to the state (by the way, prices were also regulated by state).
So, all German private property got…
6. Georgi Zhukov From Moscow to Berlin: Marshall Zhukov's Greatest Battles Noontide Pr 1991.
7. Montefiore, Simon Sebag Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar Dixie 1993
8. J.Simon, M. Miller. World Economics WestPrint 1988
The Service evolution is once again changing the way the world does business.
Just like the Industrial evolution, business will never be the same again. These manufacturing-based economies of the 19th and 20th centuries have been transformed into service-based economies. and, just as during the Industrial evolution, the Service evolution has seen mass-production becoming an integral part of business, however now it is mass-production of services, as opposed to mass-production of goods.
The results will also be the same for this new evolution.
As mentioned, during the Industrial evolution, artisans and craftsmen fell by the wayside. In the Service evolution, firms that have once been masters of building relationships one at a time will fall prey to those who are able to provide high quality service at a greater efficiency and a lower cost.
Bitner, M., Booms, B., & Tetreault, M. (1990). The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable…
Bitner, M., Booms, B., & Tetreault, M. (1990). The service encounter: Diagnosing favorable and unfavorable incidents. Journal of Marketing, 23. Retrieved July 21, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Gremler, D., & Gwinner, K. (2000). Customer-employee rapport in service relationships. Journal of Service Research, 3(1). Retrieved July 21, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Service revolution in comparison to industrial revolution
Expectations Change That Led evolution
Compare Contrast Expectations Change Led evolution 1917/Civil War ealities
How the ideological changes that accompanied the revolution shaped the arts/culture of ussia/USS
The social and economic systems experienced tremendous transitions occasioning to stress among the populations of ussia. The great reforms formed a cautious path to modernization and reform. Through emancipation, peasants were allowed to own pieces of land and had the personal freedom to share their pieces of land. However, these peasants were not happy with the settlement programs based on emancipation because they held the belief that they were legal owners of the land. This claim became a major source of discontent leading to the 1917 peasant revolution (Sampson & Marienhoff, 2008).
ussia experienced a turning point at the onset of 1917; the nation was prepared for revolution and indeed, they saw the first revolution, which brought rapid changes and increased social opportunities.…
Rossman, V. (2010). Russian intellectual antisemitism in the post-Communist era. Lincoln, Neb:
Sampson, R.J., & Marienhoff, I. (2008). The American economy: Analysis, issues, principles.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin
University of Pittsburgh., & American Political Science Association. (2005). United States political science documents. Pittsburgh: University Center for International Studies,
On the other hand, one lesson of the Industrial Revolution is that human suffering and exploitation can never be used as a coin with which to pay for material progress or wealth. Likewise, the Industrial Revolution teaches that neither the welfare of the contemporary wealthy and fortunate, nor even the future well-being of subsequent generations is ever justified as the fruits of the suffering of other human beings.
In retrospect, the progression from agrarian to industrial economies need not have required the degree of suffering with which it was, unfortunately, associated, particularly in the nineteenth century. The best evidence for this proposition seems to be the efforts, most of which were successful, on the part of Bismark, in Germany, while workers suffered greater hardships, by comparison, in the rest of the newly industrialized world. Greed and callousness, is, unfortunately, characteristic of many elements of human life, which was not necessarily…
Burchell, S.D. (1968) Age of Progress.
Time Life: UK
Faissler, M., Hayes, C. (1966) Modern Times: Mainstreams of Civilization.
Macmillan: New York
It is safe to say that the computer revolution has so dramatically changed the manner in which academics and novices work. "...the uses of information technology are diverse; as data have to be processed, and as word data are laborious to process, and as several powerful packages for data analysis and processing exist, researchers will find it useful to make full use of computing facilities.
Cohen, Manion, and Morrison 155)
The results of the computer revolution, in their entirety have yet to be fully realized but the manner in which it has changed and continues to change research is fundamental to the way it will continue to change education. Seekers of truth may find it difficult to weed through the massive amounts of information but organizing large volumes of knowledge into relatively small spaces reiterates the vastness of the world and with the right skills and training can revolutionize thought.…
Anderson, Ray C. "The Next Industrial Revolution." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 23.
Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison. Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Falmer, 2000.
Halal, William E., and Jay Liebowitz. "Telelearning: The Multimedia Revolution in Education." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 1994: 21.
Papert, Seymour. The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
Living in the Industrial (21st Century) Society
One of the most revolutionary events and changes that happened in all of the world's societies is the emergence of the Industrial Revolution during the turn of the 21st century. During this period, human civilization moved from a communal form of living to a highly-industrialized society, wherein commodities and the needs of people became readily available in quantity because of the invention of machineries and the process of mass production. With the growth and development that the Industrial Revolution has brought to the world societies, many people have lived in what now we call as the 'capitalist societies,' and the backbone of most people's living and income comes from the rule of economics and providing people with the means to acquire their wants and needs. This, perhaps, is the most important characteristic that the Industrial or Capitalist society brought to human civilization, that…
Given that the workers, even the women and children, were working long extended hours everyday, resulted to limited family communication with the merely instance that they are all at home was when they went home to rest and sleep after working very hard. There were also instances when several families would need to share lodging with other families that promoted the division of the family as one unit. Consequently, the children were given minimal amount of education, child labor also resulted to make the children experience underdeveloped in height as well as weak and always ill. Children have grown to become rather emotionally unstable, for they were never learned how to behave the right manner. The living conditions were really awful; as mentioned earlier, the working families would often reside in slums with little or no sanitation. On the other hand, there were also positive transformation in Europe during the…
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
This suggests that people act fairly in part because of what they think may be the result of other people's reaction to the self-serving behavior. People appreciate distributive equity that further supports their personal circumstances. On the other hand, more recently, social scientists, such as Miller (1999) have argued that people do care about justice and behave with justice-seeking behavior instead of this more selfish self-interest. In other words, there is no overall behavior that is common to all people.
As noted in ischer et al. (2007), what motivates employees has normally been studied in laboratory settings, which is an artificial approach. or, the better alternative, studies have asked employees about their thoughts concerning the company's allocation policies. As noted, it is important to know what employees actually perceive instead of what decision makers intend to do. Thus, ischer's research focused on employees' perceptions of the allocation decisions made by…
Fischer, R., Smith, PB., Richey, B et al. 2007 "How Do Organizations Allocate Rewards?"
Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, vol 38, no 1, pp 3-18.
Miller, DT 1999. "The norm of self-interest," American Psychologist, vol 54, pp.1053-1060.
shift from agrarian to industrial society a simple substitution of one form of economic behavior for another, hanging up the hat of the farmer to put on the hat of the factory worker. But there was in fact a substantial shift in nearly everything about daily life for those generations caught up in the transition from rural to urban worlds. The most obvious change was in the relationship between people and the land itself. No longer were people defined by their place of birth, by where they had always lived. They were defined - by others as well as themselves - by a series of portable skills.
The magnitude of this change is difficult for those of us who have grown up in a world in which mobility is the norm. But it must have been for those living at the beginning of the Industrial evolution a shattering (as well…
Bensel, R. (2001). The political economy of American industrialization, 1877-1900.
Cambridge: Cambridge University.
Carter, G. (ed.). (2000). Empirical approaches to sociology: A collection of classic and contemporary readings (3rd ed.). New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Durkheim, E. (G. Simpson, trans.). (1971). "Social Order and Control Via Close Social Ties: The Example of Suicide" in Suicide: A study in sociology. New York: The Free Press.
Social Revolution 1945 to 1990
Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…
Araghi, F. A., 1995. Global Depeasantization, 1945-1990. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(2), pp. 337-368.
Berman, S., 2011. Understanding Social Democracy. Columbia University, pp. 2-38.
Freedman, L., 1997. Review of The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991. [Online]
Available at: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/28
New Technology/Changes in Warfare from End of French Revolution/Napoleonic Wars to American Civil War eginning
Warfare Change in Technology
In France, reforms began after the great Seven-Year-long war. The war ended in French calamity in1763. Evidently, it was important to have reforms to field soldiers that could fight for French interests and honor. The government suggested that light infantry should be increased. This later brought about initiatives for conventional infantry training in techniques for light infantry. This training created soldiers that could fight both in open and close order. The multiple gun calibers used by the artillery unit were taken away; and they were left with only four varieties. There were new guns, which were more portable and lighter than the earlier ones. The new guns featured standardized segments and enclosed rounds. Lidell-Hart stated that according to Jean du Teil, "light mobile guns for use in the field when used…
Gibson. "Napoleon and the Grande Armee: Military Innovations Leading to a Revolution in 19th Century Military Affairs." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.napoleon-series.org/military/organization/c_rma.html .
History.com. "Civil War Technology." 2010. Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/civil-war-technology .
Scholastic. "Strategy and Tactics, Military." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.scholastic.com/teachers/article/strategy-and-tactics-military .
Zapotoczny, Walter. "The Impact of the Industrial Revolution On Warfare." Accessed November 9, 2016. http://www.wzaponline.com/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/Inductrialrevolution.292125935.pdf.
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.
History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com .
At the time of the Industrial Revolution, philosophy had already dealt substantially with the notion of "division of labour" although the terminology was slightly different. Our modern sense of the division of labour is, of course, largely derived from nineteenth century industrial capitalism, and it was based on this paradigm that sociological thinkers like Marx, Durkheim, and Simmel would analyze the phenomenon. But we might note by way of introduction that they were inheriting an earlier tradition that emerged from earlier pre-industrial forms of capitalism, what began to emerge in England in the Elizabethan period and thereafter. Thus the Elizabethan idea of a "great chain of being" -- which posited an order and hierarchy to social relationships -- would gradually come to be altered by thinkers like Thomas Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville. By the early eighteenth century, Mandeville would lay down the basic principles of an idea of division…
Coser, Lewis. Masters of Sociological Thought. Second Edition. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, 2003. Print.
asically, without yeast which creates the alcohol, there would be no wine, at least not with an alcoholic base.
The progress of fermentation can be monitored or controlled in several ways. The most simple method is to observe the activity in the fermentation vessel. Sometimes in a laboratory setting, fermentation is often followed by weighing the fermentation vessel at various intervals which results in a record of the weight of carbon dioxide gas lost and exactly how much sugar remains in the vessel. The most popular form of control is a measurement of the density of a sample of the fermenting juice which can be accomplished by using a hydrometer which measures the remaining sugar's percentage in weight.
As to the taste of wine that results form this complex series of chemical manipulations by a chemist or fermentation specialist, the time required for complete fermentation of grape juice, either white…
History of Wine." Ewineplanet.com. Internet. 2007. Retrieved at http://ewineplanet.
stand on the same level as the French Revolution or the Russian Revolution of 1917, because the changes that it implied were not achieved by the thorough bloodshed that these two encountered, there were many keen to develop the subject of radicalism in the American Revolution, mainly through the changes it implied after its achievement rather than through the means these changes were obtained during the Revolution itself.
In this sense, perhaps the first idea we should be referring to when discussing the Radicalism of the American Revolution is the fact that it was a "catalyst of social change"
The American society up to the Revolution was characterized by the same hierarchical structures that dominated every territory of the ritish Empire. As a colony, the American territories were ruled by the King's representative, who was on top of the pyramid. The aristocracy, mostly ritish, subsequently followed down the line, including…
1. Gordon S. Wood. The Radicalism of the American Revolution. First Vintage Books Edition. 1993. Quote from the Internet, at http://www.brothersjudd.com/index.cfm/fuseaction/reviews.detail/book_id/1275/Radicalism%20o.htm
Pre Industrial and Early Industrial Development
The major theme of the reading entitled "The United States Economy in 1790" is the development of the American economy in this particular year and those which directly preceded them. The author writes at length about the difficulties that the relatively new nation incurred while attempting to stabilize itself financially. It is worth noting that the author also explicates the fact that the relative novelty of the country, and the political instability that characterized its early years, was a significant contributing factor to this theme. The political instability resulted in an economic one which was evinced in a number of different ways.
The author provides a number of different types of evidence to support the aforementioned theme. He issues first hand quotes from notable luminaries (including Thomas Jefferson and the Earl of Sheffield) to reinforce his assertion that the U.S. had little room to…
"The Economy 1815-1860 -- An Overview."
"The United States Economy in 1790."
In the Continental Army was not just a force that was motivated by its service to a united cause, but by the democratic impulses that differentiated this from the British system of nobility and military rank. As a result, the dedication to cause elicited from the Continental Army solider was inherently more driven by the theoretical opportunities to follow victory. Certainly, for those who took part in the struggle to remove the British from American soil, there would also be an adoption of the view of this as a personal homeland now imposed upon by occupation.
To an extent, this motive may be said to be a greater assurance of eventual victory than military might. In the case of the American war for Independence, the better armed and more resource-wealthy British Imperial forces would be worn down by a commitment to what the Continental Army and militias alike saw as…
Such alliances suggested the more widespread implications of an American victory. While we may stop short of arguing that Britain lost a war -- particularly because many conditions suggest its defeat was inevitable regardless of military tactic -- it may be reasonable to argue that this signaled the beginning of the end of a colonial system which had sustained all European monarchies to this juncture. The power of the British Crown had been tarnished, but the initiation of the Industrial Revolution in both the United States and throughout Europe during the next century was fully dismantle its structural relevance. The type of wholesale occupation through which it had conducted its international presence would no longer be possible for Great Britain on the scale that had been achieved prior to American Independence.
Ultimately though, it seems appropriate to acknowledge these events first and foremost as a victory for the aristocratic leaders of the American rebellion and the working class enlisted men alongside whom they fought. Without too greatly idealizing this relationship, it may be acknowledged as a root to Americas socioeconomic identity today.
Martin, J.K. & Lender, M.E. (2006). A Respectable Army: The Military Origins of the Republic, 1763-1789. Harlan Davidson, Inc.
Kingdom of Matthias
n the early nineteenth-century America went through a phase of religious revival with many people turning to the religious beliefs in Christendom following the religious instability that took place in the seventeenth-century in England for the reformation of Christians and the community. The most notable event amongst all the momentous events was called the Second Great Awakening, which lasted one year and began in 1830. This year holds a lot of history for a country like America because it was the same year that Americans reached the highest level of consumption of alcoholic drinks, with an average of four gallons per person. This was not only the highest for all the years of American history but also one of the highest in the world. t was in the year that came to be known as 'the spirit-soaked year' when the evangelical preacher Charles Grandison Finney came to…
In this in-depth research, Paul Johnson takes the opportunity to explain and use a small and unknown event to depict an interesting event from an interesting perspective on the city of New York. There are several incidents used to signify the issues of sexual corruption to radical doctrinal innovations. The Burned-Over district in the city of New York, served as the platform for the many religious movements such as Mormonism, Adventism, Christian Scientists, however there are numerous smaller religions and even noteworthy political movements such as Antimasonry that did not leave their mark on American soil to exist till today.
This book is also based on the story of one of those movements. The story begins by introducing Matthias to Kirtland as he goes to visit the Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith. Although, his visit took place close to the end of the book, or better put close to the end of Matthias's activity of fooling his followers, his ideas were obviously cheated from many of the ideas of Joseph Smith. Even the practice of the washing of feet common to both the followers of Joseph Smith and Ellen White was also used by Matthias for his followers. He believed that the truth of the Gospel had come to the earth following the demise of Christ for another Mormon belief. Another feature common to Smith was the possession of a sword which he claimed was ancient similar to Smith's sword of Laban, as well as naming the Priesthood after the order of Melchezidek. His mentor Mordecai Noah, taught him that the Indians belonged to a branch of the Israelites, as found in the Book of Mormon. These ideas were known before 1830 when Matthias began his practice in the name of religion.
The book doesn't only contain horrid tales about his activities but also contains humorous parts of this periods history is the moments that connect to Matthias' enemies trying to shave off his beard. Johnson did a marvelous job at condensing the most relevant information in this short book. The Kingdom of Matthias is a humorous book and serves as an interesting read for those interested in this period of American religious history.
industrialization Civil War influenced U.S. society
Industrialization after the Civil War paved the way for modernizing the United States and giving it the status that it enjoyed for the majority of the 21st century -- that of a global superpower. It did so through the development of a robust economy built on manufacturing, which gave it both political and social clout throughout the world.
Three Major Aspects of Industrialization during 1865-1920
The continued development and completion of the railroad.
The emergence of the factory system and manufacturing industries (particularly steel).
Five Specific Groups Affected by Industrialization
These workers were brought on to assist with the completion of the railroad.
Their perceived debauchery led to the Exclusion Act of 1882 (Harvard, 2014).
These peoples migrated from the South to the North due to the manufacturing industries.
They were frequently used as strike breakers in labor disputes.
Dublin, T. (1986). Rural-urban migrants in Industrial New England. Journal of American History. 73(3), 623-644.
Galbi, D. (1996). Through eyes in the storm: Aspects of the personal history of women workers in the Industrial Revolution. Social History. 21(2), 142-159.
Harvard University Library Open Collection Program. (2014). Chinese Exclusion Act (1882). http://ocp.hul.harvard.edu/ . Retrieved from