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Literacy & Its Influence on Business and Future Leaders
The objective of this study is to explain how information literacy influences scholarship, practice, and leadership in a specific profession or discipline. For the purpose of this study, the legal profession will be chosen.
Badke (2009) writes in the work entitled 'How e Failed the Net Generation' that the orld ide eb came upon most of us who encountered it in the early 90's as a novelty. E all guessed it would be promising, but few of us had any idea what it would become in less than 3 decades." (p.47) Many of today's students are noted in the work of Badke to have "grown up with the web, so for them it is not a novelty. It's mainstream. It's embedded in their lives." (p.47) For those in the legal profession, the orld ide eb had made a huge difference in…
Badke, W. (2009) How We Failed the Net Generation. InfoITLand. July/August. 33(4), 47. Retrieved from: http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/infotoday/doc/199935223.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT:PAGE&type=current&date=Jul/Aug%202009&author=William%20Badke&pub=Online&edition=&startpage=47&desc=How%20We%20Failed%20the%20Net%20Generation
Bravo, LC (n.d.) Information Literacy and Its Influence on the Scholarship, Practice, and Leadership Model in Business Education. Retrieved from: http://www.ulacit.ac.cr/files/careers/84_informationliteracyanditsinfluenceonbusinessadministrationeducation.pdf
Marcus, RL (2008) The Impact of Computers on the Legal Profession: Evolution or Revolution? Northwestern University Law Review. Vol. 102 No. 4. Retrieved from: http://www.law.northwestern.edu/lawreview/v102/n4/1827/LR102n4Marcus.pdf
Teshima, D. (1997) Keeping Current in Electronic Legal Research Methods. Los Angeles Lawyer Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.lacba.org/lalawyer/tech/legalresearch.html
While Lauer and Yodanis (2008) point out that the weblog has many applications, such as a journal or other means or personal use, they state that it can be used as a tool for students to collaborate with each other and share their learning, in addition to a tool for research where students can record their notes, thoughts, and links to more source material. Furthermore, the authors suggest that a weblog is a tool that students can use to passively become information literate, a tool that should not be forced upon them. Zabel (2004) would agree, as she suggests the passive nature of research is something that students must undertake for themselves (para. 4). Thus, Namwar and astgoo (2008) synthesize the concepts of scholarship and practice through the suggestion of this innovative, technological tool. Students can use weblogs as a means of interpreting the scholarship that they are asked to…
Keller, John. (2008, February 8). What is Information Literacy? Retrieved February 11, 2009, from the National Forum on Information Literacy. Web Site: http://www.infolit.org/
Lauer, S.R. And Yodanis, C.L. (2004). The International Social Survey Programme
ISSP): A Tool for Teaching With an International Perspective. Teaching Sociology, 32, 304-313.
Namwar, Y. And Rastgoo, a. (2008). Weblog as a Learning Tool in Higher Education.
Literacy in Education: Its Influence on Scholarship, Practice and Leadership
It was said of Thomas Jefferson that he knew almost everything there was to know. Life was simpler 250 years ago, and the world was smaller. There were only a fraction of the books that there are today, which was not a great problem since most people could not read. For today's learner, however, there is an infinite amount of information available from a wide array of resources and in many different formats. The challenge for students is to find the information they need and evaluate it critically. It is not a skill that students develop automatically through assignments and projects; they must be explicitly taught. The challenge lies, ultimately, with educators, who need to revise curricula and update practices to meet the needs of a new generation of students.
If schools are not always doing a good job teaching…
Badke, W. (2009). How we failed the net generation. Online July/Aug, pp. 47-49.
Grafstein, A. (2002). A discipline-based approach to information literacy. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 28(4), pp. 197-204.
Russell, P. (2009). Why universities need information literacy now more than ever. Canadian Library Association 55(3), pp. 92-95.
Turusheva, L. (2009). Students' information competence and its importance for lifelong
CRAAP is a useful acronym to help all people develop information literacy and media literacy. The acronym asks the researcher to check source currency, source relevance, source authority, source accuracy, and source purpose. This exercise will apply the CRAAP test to a source I found related to my research question on criminal psychology. Specifically, I am looking for information on police interrogation tactics and false confessions.
Source: Nesterak, E. (2014). Coerced to confess. The Psych Report. 21 Oct, 2014. http://thepsychreport.com/conversations/coerced-to-confess-the-psychology-of-false-confessions/
1. Currency: The Nesterak (2014) source is 3 years old, making it fairly current. Because the topic of false confessions and criminal justice is not as time-sensitive as, say, research on an emerging technology, I believe that three years old is sufficiently current for this research.
2. Relevance: The Nesterak (2014) source is directly related to my research topic on false confessions and police interrogation. Because this source is written…
“Evaluating Web Resources,” (n.d.). CRAAP. http://libguides.library.ncat.edu/content.php?pid=53820&sid=394505 “Module 3: Evaluating Information.”
Nesterak, E. (2014). Coerced to confess. The Psych Report. 21 Oct, 2014. http://thepsychreport.com/conversations/coerced-to-confess-the-psychology-of-false-confessions/
Literacy on Ethics
"Meta-ethics, Normative Ethics, and Applied Ethics. (20111).
The website provides a brief explanation of the difference between the three types of ethics. This website defines metaethics as the nature of ethics and how people make determinations of moral reasoning. It questions whether ethical decisions are made by the individual or are reflective of societal norms. It is a form of ethics that actually questions how ethics are defined.
Hare, R.M. (1952). "The Language of Morals."
This article discusses how we as people make decisions about ethics based on the dialogue we have as people from the same society. If there is one singular ethical language that everyone shares in, then there is unlikely to be variations from it. What we consider ethical or virtuous is all based on what society tells us is good. We accept all that the society tells us as good…
Beauchamp argues that being benevolent or beneficent is how a person effectively uses applied ethics. Whereas many forms of ethics relate to hypothetical situations, the applied system of ethics more refers to how these things work in real-world situations. The author traces the link between beneficence and applied ethics throughout history and determines that the two are intricately linked.
Chadwick, Ruth E. (1998). "Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics." Academic Press: San Diego, CA.
The book discusses all the way in which society requires people to behave ethically in real-world situations. In the real world, things are hardly ever black and white. Most often what the right or wrong thing to do is in a given situation can be difficult to determine. The encyclopedic entries allows the reader to see a pattern of behavior and a pattern of choices.
Information literacy instruction (I LI) is the process of instructing people how to use information resources in order to effectively search for and retrieve information. Thus, librarians have been teachers and instructors for many years. ILI can be most effective if the teacher (librarian) engages in the most efficient means of instruction. This method of instruction is most effective if it includes empirically validated the learning principles, active learning techniques, and incorporates principles of constructionism. Constructivism attempts to account for how knowledge is conceptualized when new information merges with existing knowledge or belief systems. Thus, new information is recreated within the individual in order to allow the person to adapt to the world. According to this viewpoint, which has its origins in cognitive psychology, constructs are filters that the person uses to merge with new information in order to create meaning and order in the person's subjective experience.
In an information age, developing discernment and discrimination when digesting sources of information is a critical skill. Information literacy is the critical skill of being able to recognize credible sources and become a critical consumer of data. As Head & Wihbey (2014) point out, “finding useful information and a sense of what to trust” are now considered essential job skills (p. 1). Therefore, information literacy needs to be approached in a more serious manner. Knowing how to research and locate adequate, appropriate, and correct information is important in almost every field. Information literacy is not just a job skill; lifelong learning depends on developing information literacy (Module 1).
As importance as researching on the Internet can be, the ability to research is not sufficient. Information literacy involves an understanding of the process of delving into academic databases and utilizing the professional research skills that librarians can offer. Research shows that…
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…
Creedy, D.K., Mitchell, M., Seaton-Sykes, P., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Purcell, C., & Weeks, P. (2007). Evaluating a Web-Enhanced Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum:
Perspectives of Third-Year Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 460-
Edwards, J., & O'Connor, P.A. (2011). Improving Technological Competency in Nursing
Students: The Passport Project. Journal of Educators Online, 8(2), 1-20.
Paterson Public Schools School 28 or Public School Twenty Eight was erected in 1962. The president is John J. Pasquale and the vice president is Leonard R. Jacoby. The general contractor for the school is Thomas Construction Company. PS28 is located in New Jersey. The school's address is 200 Presidential Blvd., Paterson, NJ 07522. The school's telephone number is [HIDDEN] . There are a total of 360 students in the school.
The school has several classrooms dedicated to specific areas such as pre-kindergarten, special education, and performing arts. The students range from pre-kindergarten all the way to grade 8. So the age range is around 4-13 years of age. Because New Jersey is located within the tri-state area, the population is diverse with black, Hispanic, Asian, and white students and faculty. The principal, Nancy Castro is Hispanic as well as the Assistant Principal, Victoria, Larosiliere. The majority of the students…
Behaviors to Improve Customer Service
Library scientists are confronted with patrons with a diverse background in library usage, as well as experience in accessing information from online resources. Understanding how people interact with information and theories such as Marchionini's Information-Seeking Process and Kuhlthau's Information Search Process can help practitioners provide better service to patrons. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning these issues, followed by a summary of the research and important findings
Some people walk into learning resource centers fully equipped with the skill set needed to intuitively navigate their way through the ISBNs, Dewey Decimals and the Internet maze to find precisely what they need and many information-seeking models assume this level of expertise for all students. For instance, Savin-Baden and Wilkie (2006) report that, "Many information-seeking models approach students as experts, who are completely aware of what they…
Kuhlthau, C.C. (1994). Teaching the library research process. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press.
Marchionini, G. (1995). Information seeking in electronic environments. Cambridge: Cambridge
Savin-Baden, M. & Wilkie, K. (2006). Problem-based learning online. Maidenhead, England::
Taylor, J. (2006). Information literacy and the school library media center. Westport, CT:
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…
Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227
Bleed R. (2005) Visual Literacy in Higher Education. Retrieved August 6, 2007, at http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI4001.pdf www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928
Brumberger, E.R. (2005). Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729
Bustle, L.S. (2004). The Role of Visual Representation in the Assessment of Learning. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(5), 416+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011600259
Literacy is more than knowing how to read and write in a given language. At the level of college education, literacy pertains to mastering the means of communication for different subjects. Literacy therefore may entail understanding specific jargon of a chosen field, but it may also mean being literate in the modes of inquiry, paradigms, assumptions, and methodologies of specific subjects. Each college major will have different literacy needs and requirements for a successful college term and for graduation. It is crucial that college students master the literacy skills that relate to their chosen major, if they hope to graduate and succeed in their future career.
One type of literacy that pertains to almost all college majors is information literacy. According to the Association of College and esearch Libraries (ACL, 2014), information literacy is defined as "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information," (p. 1).…
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL, 2014). Introduction to information literacy. Retrieved online: http://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro
"The Many Forms of Literacy," (n.d.). National Writing Project. Retrieved online:
CUNY Information Competency Tutorials are made up of eight different tutorials and quizzes. The topics covered in the tutorials include: Determine Your Information Needs, Define the Research Topic, Locate and Retrieve Relevant Information, Use the Technological Tools For Accessing Information, Take the Quiz, Evaluate Information, Communicate Using a Variety of Information Technologies, Understand the Ethical, Legal, and Socio-Political Issues Surrounding Information and Information Technology, and Use, Evaluate, and Treat Critically Information Received From the Mass Media (Information Competency Tutorials, n.d.).
These eight tutorials will not only teach you how to become an A+ researcher but will develop your information literacy and critical thinking skills. The tutorials follow a set of CUNY information literacy learning goals and objectives that all students should achieve by the time they have completed 60 credits. The first tutorials are intended to prepare a student to use library and other information sources in order to do…
"Information Competency and Ohio University's Libraries." 2008. Web. 1 December 2011.
Available at: https://www.library.ohiou.edu/inst/infocomp.html
"Information Competency Tutorials." n.d. Web. 1 December 2011. Available at:
INTENET'S IMPACT ON HEALTH CAE INFOMATION
The Internet's Impact on Health Care Information
The Internet's Impact on Health Care Information
This paper explores some of the best and well-known cites and sites around the world for information and health care. Early in the 21st century, the World Health Organization made its first attempt to rank the quality of health care in approximately 200 countries. (NYT, 2007) The WHO ranked the countries' health care based on factors such as fairness, quality, access, insurance coverage, patient satisfaction, and use of information technology among other factors. (NYT, 2007) According to this research, some of countries in the world that provide the best health care overall are France, Italy, Malta, Japan, and Monaco, among others. (NYT, 2007) As much as the United States of America boasts at being the best in the world at nearly everything, United States health care was not in…
Global Health Council. (2012). Health Linkages. Web, Available from: http://www.globalhealth.org/Health_Linkages.html . 2012 August 26.
Mayo Foundation for Medical Research and Education. (2012). Mayo Clinic. Web, Available from: http://www.mayoclinic.com/ . 2012 August 26.
National Institutes of Health. (2012). Health Information. Web, Available from: http://health.nih.gov/ . 2012 August 26.
No listed author. (2007). Editorial -- World's best health care? The New York Times, Web, Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/12/opinion/12sun1.html?pagewanted=all . 2012 August 26.
Activities such as reading the names of street signs and stores and reading the ingredients on packages can help make children aware of the importance of printed words.
One of the most important things parents can do to encourage literacy in their early learner is to talk to their child. In a study conducted by Hart and isley (1995, 1999 as cited by osenkoetter & Barton, 2002), children whose parents talked to them more frequently learned to read faster, had more proficient oral and written vocabularies, better grammatical skills, and performed higher on academic tasks than children whose parents were less verbal. Asking questions and sharing experiences are simple but effective methods of having children retell information and use sequencing skills.
Children who have access to computers and learning software have an academic advantage over other students. A study conducted by Zevenbergen & Logan (2008) examined the ways…
Campbell, a. (2009, June). Learning with technology for pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 11-18. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/learning_with_technology_for_pre_service_early_childhood_teachers.html
Freeman, L. & Bochner, S. (2008, December). Bridging the gap: improving literacy outcomes for indigenous students. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(4), 9-16. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/bridging_the_gap_improving_literacy_outcomes_for_indigenous_students.html
Fluckiger, B. (2006). Children's cross-cultural literacy experiences in three worlds: enacting agency. School of Cognition Language and Special Education. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20070814.144647/public/01Front.pdf
Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…
Tom D. (1994), Teaching method: Best practice for teachers, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://northonline.sccd.ctc.edu/eceprog/bstprac.htm
Saskatoon Public Schools (2004),Balanced Literacy Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/balancedliteracy/index.html
The TELUS Learning Connection, What is balanced literacy? Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.earlyliterature.ecsd.net/balanced%20literacy.htm
Houghton Mifflin Company (1997), Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/lit_ins4.html
By placing the demands of literacy education on the community as a whole, a shared responsibility is created and therefore a substantial interest is gained in the process. Literacy is indeed a problem of not just students and teacher, but for the entire population. The purpose of this essay is to review literature pertaining to this argument in order to defend my position and create an opportunity for knowledge and learning. This essay will discuss and reveal some expert opinions about the subject at large and adds context and ideas to the already heavily discussed topic of literacy programs and ways to successfully implement large scale educational changes within an already existing format.
eese & Goldenberg (2008) found explicit data that literacy resources within immigrant Latino families are seriously lacking. They wrote " findings from a study of 35 communities show that communities with greater concentrations…
Epstein, J. & Salinas, K. (2004). Partnering with Families and Communities. Educational Leadership, 61,8. May 2004, 12-18. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/Partnering-with-Families-and-Communities.aspx
Reese, L. & Goldenberg, C. (2008). Community Literacy Resources and Home Literacy Practices Among Latino Families. Marriage & Family Review, 43 (1/2) 2008. Retrieved from https://people.stanford.edu/claudeg/sites/default/files/Parental-Involvement.pdf
Sheldon, S.B., & Epstein, J.L. (2002). Improving student behavior and school discipline with family and community involvement. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 4-26.
Another study found that there are many different strategies that are utilized when information technology is developed within the federal government and many of these tend to come not from the top managers but from the management instead (Gupta, Holladay, & Mahoney, 2000).
Much of this has to do with the fact that the top managers in the federal government are often political appointees and therefore know somewhat less about the inner workings of the organization when it comes to specific technological systems (Gupta, Holladay, & Mahoney, 2000). The middle managers are the ones who generally look for strategies to develop other types of information technology and are often comparable to the end users within other studies (Gupta, Holladay, & Mahoney, 2000). Unlike the managers who deal specifically with management information systems, or the other executive managers within the company, these middle managers actually understand many of the challenges and…
Adams, a. & Sasse, M.A. (1999). Users Are Not the Enemy. Communications of the ACM, 42(12), 40-46.
Bocco, G., and Sanchez, R. (1995). Quantifying urban growth using GIS: The case of Tijuana, Mexico (1973-1993). Geo Info Systems 5(10), 18-19.
Bohnet, D. (1995). Integration of socio-economic data into GIS -- a case study of the CRDA. Proceedings of the AfricaGIS 95 conference, Abidjan, March 5-10.
Broadbent, M., Weill, P., & St. Clair, D. (1999) the Implications of Information Technology Infrastructure for Business Process Redesign. MIS Quarterly, 23(2), 159-182.
Literacy Short Assgts
READING. Fadi Awwad
My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3
I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.
I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…
An often-forgotten component of advancing a nation’s economy is its literacy rate. As the world grows increasingly globalized as well as sophisticated in terms of the technology demanded to function at an optimal level, a literate population is critical for developing the necessary technological infrastructure needed for the state to operate within that global framework. However, not every nation has allowed female literacy to be a focus within its developmental strategy. In the Central African Republic, Iran and Myanmar, for example, female literacy rates are lower compared to male literacy rates—though there are differences that emerge when these rates are compared among one another. High levels of female literacy have been found to have a particularly dramatic impact upon a nation’s social and economic development, given the link between female literacy and lower birth rates, lower poverty rates (as a result of smaller family sizes), and improved health outcomes.[footnoteRef:2]…
teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.
Literacy Intervention Plan
Literacy Intervention Action Plan
Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes
*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling
* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…
C: TSW read along with an audio book in which the emphasis is a word with a short vowel sound.
PA: With digital media (Raskind & Stanberry, 2009), TSW hear a list of words and put a thumb up if they think the vowel is short in a word. Short vowels, as well as long vowel words will be used.
P: TSW plays the sound game. TTW will have two words on the board representing the two different sounds for student to practice, e.g., RUN, RAN. TTW
Self-knowledge is a very important concept in the realm of education and self-improvement. Some of the greatest teachers in history echoed the sentiments of 'know thyself' and the know the universe. But before understanding how self knowledge can help, especially in an educational system, it is helpful to define and identify what exactly the self is and how it is influencing the situation.
Regardless of the finer points of defining the self, Thomas Jefferson Middle School, the target of my analysis, made me aware of the importance of knowing my own role within the education system. To me the education system is a community effort, and while teachers are often given the brunt of the workload to achieve this aim, parents and other leaders in the community are essentially responsible for the quality of education that is presented to the members of its group.
I have found that in this…
Information Systems Management
What sorts of motivators, processes, and best practices should managers of virtual organizations adapt from the open source movement?
Open source movement is a far reaching and wide ranging movement of persons who offer support and backing to the utilization of open source licenses for all software or just a number of them. The open software is made accessible for any individual to make use of or undertake modifications, considering the fact that its source code is made accessible. Virtual organizations can be delineated as a network of autonomous companies that come together more often than not, for a temporary period of time, to create a product or service. There are motivators, processes, and best practices that managers of virtual organizations ought to espouse from the open source movement. To start with, the capacity of allowing members to not only use, but also to modify the data…
Galliers, R. D., Leidner, D. E. (2009). Strategic Information Management: Challenges and Strategies in Managing Information Systems. New York: Routledge.
Heron, M., Hanson, V. L., & Ricketts, I. (2013). Open source and accessibility: advantages and limitations. Journal of Interaction Science,1(1), 1-10.
Hout, T., Carter, J. C. (1995). Getting It Done: New Roles for Senior Executives. Harvard Business Review.
Paul4Innovating. (2014). The role senior executives must fill for innovation success. Paul4innovating's Innovation Views. Retrieved 16 April 2016 from: https://paul4innovating.com/2014/03/03/the-role-senior-executives-must-fill-for-innovation-success/
literacy before ENG115
The way I understood literacy before the literacy class was majorly in three major sections, the ability to write correctly, ability to think before I spoke and ability to comprehend.
Writing correctly; was perceived as the ability to put down the content on paper in the correct grammar.
Ability to think before speaking; I considered this the capacity to contemplate the consequences of the words that I would speak before speaking them out.
Ability to read and comprehend; this was considered the capacity to take up material, read it and know exactly what it is talking about. These were the three perceptions that shaped my understanding of literacy before the ENG 115 class.
Newly developed definition of literacy (how/why it has changed)
After attending the full course class of literacy, there are changes that I had in perception of literacy and these included.
Using correct grammar was…
Brands R., (2014). 8 Step Process Perfects New Product Development. Retrieved March 1, 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-brands/8-step-new-product-development_b_4556363.html
Education Development Center Inc., (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.edc.org/newsroom/articles/what_literacy
Jamea Paul G. (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.ed.psu.edu/englishpds/Articles/CriticalLiteracy/What%20is%20Literacy.htm
Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade
This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.
ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…
Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:
International Reading Association .
Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.
Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
Headquartered in Houston, Texas, XXX Corporation is a financial holding company with assets of $87.9 billion at June 30, 2012. Its primary subsidiary, XXX Corporation., is a full-service commercial bank providing an array of financial services to individuals, small businesses, middle-market companies, and major corporations. The bank operates 402 branches in California, ashington, Oregon, Texas, New York and Illinois, as well as two international offices. XXX Corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Bank Germany, Ltd., which is a subsidiary of LCT Financial Group. Visit XXXcorparation.com for more information.
Become part of a team where community, diversity, and exceptional service are part of everyone's job.
Associate's degree or higher in business, finance or real estate preferred. Previous loan processing or underwriting related experience preferred.
Three years of relevant experience in commercial and income property lending including direct correspondence and contact with borrowers, brokers and other…
Liability Zero. (N.d.). Protocol Financial Consulting Logo. Retrieved from Deviant Art: http://liabilityzero.deviantart.com/art/Protocol-Financial-Consulting-Logo-266912882
Omni Hotels. (N.d.). Diversity. Retrieved from Omni Hotels: http://www.omnihotels.com/aboutomnihotels/omnihotels/diversity.aspx
Souvenir Technologies. (N.d.). Careers. Retrieved from Souvenir Technologies: http://souvenirtechnologies.com/careers/job-postings/
The quality of this lesson is consistent from the beginning to the end of the project.
Lesson Plan #3: Adding Fun Game
Aim of the Lesson:
In this lesson, the students learn to decode using a chart where certain letters have an assigned number value. The students must solve the mathematical problem by decoding the word.
Literacy Elements Incorporated:
This lesson incorporates the concept that letters have a certain value. This can be tied to phonics, as the students develop the concept that a letter has a certain sound. Students use literacy skills to decode math problems and create number sentences.
How, when why, where and for whom they were used:
This lesson is designed for 3rd graders. One of the key difficulties with this age group is that consistency with skills is varied. Some students are more proficient than others at this stage. This makes it difficult to integrate…
Bintz, W., Moore, S., Hayhurst, E., Rubin, J., & Sherry, T. (2006). Integrating Literacy, Math, and Science to Make Learning Come Alive. Middle School Journal. 37 (3), 30-37. ERIC ID EJ752859.
Literacy Matters (2007). Math. Retrieved December 16, 2007 at http://www.literacymatters.org/content/math.htm.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).
The alanced Concept Summary
This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).
alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…
Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm
Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf
Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf
Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
Further, the work of Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw and their colleagues of the University of California, Irvine, on what is termed 'The Mozart Effect' reports research that show a causal relationship between aspects of intelligence and music.
Practical application of the principles related by Fisher and McDonald in the classroom that this researcher finds most relevant in early literacy instruction combined with music instruction is the technique related by which the teacher asks the students after they have learned the song the questions of: (1) who; (2) what; (3) when; (4) where which provides an excellent method for instructing students in terms of sentence structure and in terms of vocabulary "within meaningful, active, and expressive contents." (Fisher and McDonald, nd) an example of this method of literacy instruction using music is to make PowerPoint slides of songs to use when teaching the songs to students with the 'who', 'what',…
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…
THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?
The Guilford Press, March 2000
Thus, this needs assessment is required in order to determine the best ways to use resources in order to obtain maximum results for students. In order to conduct the assessment, then, data must be collected and analyzed. First, to address the problem of ESL students and their desired interactions with speakers of their own languages, researchers must determine whether or not interaction with a speaker of one's native language is beneficial when one is learning proficiency in another language. Methods of collecting this data include perusing already existing studies regarding the correlation between these two variables as well as conducting further studies based on the performance of a group that had access to a speaker of one's native language and one that did not. Furthermore, the students' expressed need regarding access to technological equipment and personalized training with that equipment can be assessed by gathering data that examines the best…
Integrate Technology With Literacy Instruction
Researchers have investigated aspects of integrating technology with literacy instruction. In my strategy, I would focus on the use of a word processor on written expressions. While some studies have found either no significant outcomes or mixed outcomes with regard to the effect of the word processor on the development of literacy, most analyses have demonstrated word processor to be beneficial. This technology mitigates the complications young kids often experience with the fine-motor control necessary for letter development and help in revisions.
Further, complications met by disabled learners in expressing themselves through writing will be reduced using transcription software, word processor, spell checkers, multimedia applications, speech synthesizers and semantic organizers. Other researchers have shown that word processor improves cooperation and active participation among learners besides strengthening children's focus on the material they write. In addition, compared with paper-and-pencil arrangements, it improves sentence density, cohesion, revisions…
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…
Grid of Constructs about Learning." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.math.uow.edu.au/people/ap_contnt.pdf
Reinhardt, Erica. (May 27, 2004) "Learning cycle." Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.human.cornell.edu/units/dns/extension/youth/sciencediscovery/cornellnutritionresources.html
Scaffolding." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1scaf.htm www.uws.edu.au%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D6974%26filename%3DA4611G__Spring_2000.University of Western Sydney, Macarthur "Erica Model -- Whole Language Strategies." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.uws.edu.au/download.php?file_id=6974&filename=A4611G__Spring_2000.pdf&mimetype=application/pdf
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…
Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.
Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf
CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf
fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Coca-Cola is one of the largest companies in the world. It employs 146, 200 employees worldwide and sells beverages in more than 200 countries. Coca-Cola has given its shareholders increasing dividends for 50 consecutive years (Coca-Cola company information, 2012, Coca-Cola). Coca-Cola's flagship brand is the soda Coca-Cola, and it dominates the traditional soda market. However, its main competitor Pepsi-Cola dominates many other facets of the bottled drink industry, such as Gatorade (versus Coke's PowerAde) and Mountain Dew (versus Coke's Mellow Yellow). Cadbury-Schweppes currently produces two other popular soda brands, Dr. Pepper and 7-UP. Coke's rival product Sprite has yet to secure equal market advantage. Cadbury-Schweppes also owns the Snapple line of beverages, some of which have a slightly 'healthier' image than that of much-demonized soda.
Coke has international brand…
Berk, Christiana Cheddar. (2011). Why Diet Coke's victory is bittersweet for Coca-Cola.
Brooker, Katrina. (2006). The Pepsi Machine. Fortune Magazine. Retrieved:
Evidence of improved access and cost effectiveness should soon follow. Over the next two decades, e-health could deliver patient, provider, and planner/manager interactions for all aspects of health care (Detmer, 2000, p. 181). Detmer continued on to state that this could be a positive move from seeking out errors and problems to information systems whose processes prevent many adverse outcomes. When the problem becomes one of error and miscommunication, one needs to do all that is necessary in order to correct the problem. McKnight et al. continued to report how physicians and nurses both report how there were problems with having updated information both web based as well as written copy (McKnight et al., 2002).
A question that also comes to mind is the concern of training or lack there of. Not only should all current systems of information and resources be overhauled, there is also a need to train…
Detmer, D.E. (2000, July 6). Information technology for quality health care: a summary of United Kingdom and United States experiences. Quality in Health Care, 9, pp. 181-189.
McKnight, L.K., Stetson, P.D., Bakken, S., Curran, C., & Cimino, J.J. (2002, 2002). Perceived Information Needs and Communication Difficulties of Inpatient Physicians and Nurses. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 9, pp. 64-69.
Women and the Information Technology Industry: Where is the Attraction?
Opportunities in technology companies are fueling the economy, yet few women pursue them. A recent Pittsburgh Technology Council panel discussion revealed that there are many reasons for women's lack of interest in IT, as were personal priorities (Czetli, 2003). "It might be an issue of self-selection -- women might not be risk takers," said obin Steif, chief financial officer of Maya Design. "It might also have something to do with the work/family issue, because entrepreneurs work way more than 40 hours per week."
Acknowledging that women seeking careers in technology industries faced barriers, there was no evidence that those roadblocks were any more significant than those encountered by minorities or even by men. "I think there is certainly a glass ceiling," said Joy Evans, a management consulting partner at Deloitte & Touche (Czetli, 2003). "But I tend to think of…
Carr, Sylvia. (May 14, 2004). Women still outnumbered, underpaid in IT. San Jose Magazine.
Clements, David. (August 2, 2002). What are the Theories Behind Computer Technology Gender Gap? VOA News
Cockburn, Cynthia, (1985), Machinery of Dominance - Women, Men and Technical Know-how, Pluto Press, London.
Czetli, Steven. (April 3, 2003). Women in tech fields? Washington Post Gazette.
Marketing Information system is a management information system that supports decision making processes in marketing (Kotler & Keller, 2006). Marketing data is gathered, stored, and analyzed within this system and distributed on timely basis to managers to enhance decision making processes (Kotler, 1988). It is a continuing and an interactive structure of people, equipment and procedures to gather information that is used in decision making processes in an organization. The major components of management information system are internal reporting systems, marketing research system, marketing intelligence system, and marketing models. Information touching on finances, production, manpower, marketing, stockholding, and logistical data are normally stored in marketing information system. Orders received, stockholdings and sales are also stored in the marketing information system. Other than the above named information, marketers can also get information related to product type, size, and pack by territory, type of account, industry, and customer; average value and volume…
Anonymous (2011). Marketing. Retrieved from http://www.freezingblue.com/iPhone/flashcards/printPreview.php?fileid=119645
Doherty, M. (1994) Probability vs. Non-Probability Sampling in Sample Surveys. The New
Zealand Statistics, 21-28.
Jeff Anderson Consulting (2013). Interviewing and Research Methods. Retrieved http://www.jeffandersonconsulting.com/marketing-research.php/survey-research/research-methods
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
Client Report: Early Literacy Template
Kayla is a first grade student who has passed the kindergarten literacy standards. Although she passed the kindergarten literacy standards, she has not passed the first grade reading standards due to her difficulty with reading. Recent assessments revealed that she continues to perform below average in reading skills, particularly with decoding, fluency and comprehension.
List of Assessments (to be included with Client Report: Final Submission)
Parent Permission Form with your full name and first name of parent typed in
Teacher Referral Form with all information typed on this template
Observation Checklist: Early Literacy Behavior with all information typed on this template
1. Early Literacy riting Sample with form completed in template and a jpg file of actual writing sample included.
Early Literacy Assessments -- Complete all parts of the Test Summary Sheet (from John's Basic Reading Inventory: Early Literacy)
Word recognition -- ___ -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ --
Comprehension/retelling -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ -- ___ --
From Jerry L. Johns, Basic Reading Inventory (11th ed.). Copyright © 2012 by Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company (1- *** , ext. 4). May be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes. Website: www.kendallhunt.com
What Needs to Be Done
The research quite clearly suggests that something needs to be done about the gender gap in literacy rates and the lower comprehension and skill levels of male students. What is somewhat less clear is exactly what needs to be done or how to go about implementing the necessary changes. This is not to say that certain strategies and methods have not been suggested, many of which have even been studied and demonstrated to have a positive impact, but developing a full teaching strategy that addresses this gap in many ways requires an overhaul of general teaching practices that is complex and difficult to concretely define let alone implement. Certain entrenched policies and practices also increase the difficulty of implementing the necessary adjustments to curricula and methodologies.
Education has tended towards greater freedom for independent exploration and less rigid instruction, and while this can lead…
Identify two new pieces of financial information that you learned about this week that will help you make informed financial decisions about your future and eventual retirement.
Personal financial management and financial planning can be daunting. It helps to learn more about the tools people can use to plan their savings and budget for the future. One of the things I learned this week that will help me make informed financial decisions is how to be a responsible borrower. For one, I never considered credit cards as being a form of lending. Essentially, people who forget that credit cards entail borrowing money from a bank can get into a lot of trouble with debt accumulation. Next, taking out loans can be tricky. Student loans tend to have reasonable interest rates, but any amount of interest is still going to add up over time. The less the loan principal, the less…
The Effect of Interactive Word Walls on Literacy Development of English Language Learners (ELL) in Middle School – Data Collection Completion and Potential Actions
Part 1 – Data Collection
As previously indicated, a qualitative descriptive research design will be employed to examine the effect of interactive word walls on literacy development of ESL learners in middle school. Since the nature of the research issue is exploratory, the study will collect and analyze qualitative data to help answer the research question. Qualitative data for this study will be collected from existing data relating to this issue. The use of existing data sources is suitable for the study because of the time and finance constraints facing the research. Moreover, the researcher believes that existing data already contains significant insights on this issue and would help answer the research question. As previously indicated, existing data on the research issue will be collected from…
Hollingsworth, H. & Heard, J. (2018, December 10). Teacher Comments in School Reports: What’s Effective? Retrieved November 25, 2020, from https://www.teachermagazine.com/au_en/articles/teacher-comments-in-school-reports-whats-effective/
Piro, J.S. (2011, January). Data Literacy for Student Achievement. National Social Science Journal, 36(1), 114-119.
Schildkamp, K. (2019, June 12). Data-based Decision-making for School Improvement: Research Insights and Gaps. Educational Research, 61(3), 257-273.
A three: 63% of Americans in a recent study believe that "regulations and laws" that are intended to protect our oceans are not strict enough, while 16% say laws are ok;
c) the knowledge most people have about the science related to the ocean and coast is not high.
A one: citizens are unaware of threats to the oceans, though the threats are immediate two: 50% of people recognize that factories are a pollution source, but only 24% recognize that "runoff" is what causes the pollution from factories and oil refineries three: 75% of people in one survey believed trees and forests give off more oxygen than oceans; and 60% of respondents didn't know that there are more plant and animal species on oceans than on land.
A four: about 45% of those polled between that between 11 and 20% of U.S. coastal regions are now in federally protected zones;…
Coyle, Kevin J. "Understanding Ocean and Coastal Literacy: How Public Opinion and Knowledge Research Helps Inform Ocean and Coastal Science Education Programming at NOAA." National Environmental Education and Training Foundation. 2005.
21st Century Knowledge
There was probably a point in time in the not-so-recent past when it could be asserted that many to most people in the modern world did not need to possess scientific knowledge, skills and understanding. However, as the society and technology of the world, the West in particular, becomes more advanced and demanding, this is becoming less and less true and some would say that entirely too many people in today's society are woefully unprepared when it comes to possessing skills that are needed for a modern context and society. To be sure, the assertion being made does not mean that everyone is destined to work in hi-tech fields and thus will need advanced degrees and training. However, the proverbial bar that signifies what is needed for the "average" person has certainly gone up. While advance training and degrees are not necessary for the average person, everyone…
The author reiterates the basic elements of reading must be understood, and so they must be consistently repeated until they become automatic for students. The author also notes, "Teachers also should not use the time spent on tasks as a measure of student progress; instead, educators should focus on the total number of exercises that students have mastered" (MacGregor, 2004, p. 52). Thus, the teaching techniques must include specific exercises and instructors should completely understand what the results of those exercises are, and how their students are mastering the exercises. The instructor must be familiar with the educational software and its uses to gain the most for students and study time. This information can increase the effectiveness of reading remediation and student's results with reading exercises.
MacGregor, D. (2004). Literacy software saves struggling…
MacGregor, D. (2004). Literacy software saves struggling readers the Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), 32(4), 52.
Technological and social challenges of information technology in health care
Information technology has transformed all aspects of society and healthcare is no exception. One 2010 survey of physicians conducted by the Medical Group Management association found that seven of the top ten challenges identified by physicians had to do with health information technology: implementing electronic records-keeping, keeping track of Medicare reimbursement and compensation, and bi;; collections via new information management systems (Sarasohn-Kahn 2010). However, significant challenges exist in implementing health information technology effectively, so it can realize its promise to create a more efficient healthcare system. "Clinical information systems do not communicate with each other automatically because integration of existing data standards is lacking. Data standards for medical specialties need further development. Database architectures are often designed to support single clinical applications and are not easily modified to meet the enterprise-wide needs desired by all end-users" (Kardry et al. 2010).…
Gibbons, Michael Christopher. (2011). Use of health information technology among racial and ethnic underserved communities. Online research journal: Perspectives in Health Information Management. Retrieved October 17, 2011 at http://perspectives.ahima.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=206:use-of-health-information-technology-among-racial-and-ethnic-underserved-communities&catid=63:telehealth
Kadry B., I.C. Sanderson, & A. Macario. (2010). Challenges that limit meaningful use of health information technology. Current Opinion Anesthesiology, 23(2):184-92.
Retrieved October 17, 2011 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20084001
Sarasohn-Kahn, Jane. (2010). Economics and health information technology are top challenges for physicians in 2010. Health Populi. Retrieved October 17, 2011 at http://healthpopuli.com/2010/07/01/economics-and-health-information-technology-are-top-challenges-for-physicians-in-2010/
ETHICS & INFOMATION TECHNOLOGY
Ethics & Technology
The first aspect of this article that struck the author is how human beings began as hunter-gatherers of food, materials for shelter, and defense -- and now human beings are hunter gatherers of information. Just as hunting and gathering affected the kind of society humans were millions of years ago, hunting and gathering information in the 21st century affects the kinds of societies present in the west and in other cultures that are technologically advanced as well as technologically integrated to a substantial degree. While the materials that we hunt may have changed, the urge and commitment to hunting and gathering remains strong in the human species.
The article is a general meditation on ethics during the information age, now, and what the implications for ethics are with the advent of technologies that change our daily lives. In this way, the topic of…
Introna, L.D. (2002) The (im)possibility of ethics in the information age. Information and Organization, 12, 71 -- 84.
Mason, R.O. Four Ethical Issues of the Information Age. Available from http://www.ida.liu.se/~TIMM32/docs/4etical.pdf . 2012 May 29.
Classroom-based reading assessment is the measurement of children's progress in learning reading by using both formal and informal measurement tools.
Classroom assessment collects useful information about what students do and do not know about reading. Teachers can use four different types of assessments to accomplish this.
Leveled books can be used to figure out where exactly a student is in terms of reading level.
Rough observation and measurement can be used to figure out where exactly students are in terms of reading level.
Tests can be administered to find out where students' strengths and weaknesses are.
Collecting samples of a student's work can be instructive in figuring out where a student is in terms of reading level
Determining Student's Reading Level
Teachers must figure out where students are in terms of reading level so that they can progress in their learning…
Education Administration Discussions
freshman at the high school where you are principal runs into the office claiming that he was assaulted by three upperclassmen in the restroom. He reports that a teacher witnessed the incident but quickly left the scene. The student says he can identify the three students who assaulted him. Respond to the questions in the discussion. How should you go about investigating the student's claim?
If it turns out there was an assault, can you or the school be held liable? Explain. What should you do about the teacher who witnessed the incident but left the scene?
Schools have a responsibility to protect the students when they are on campus or attending school-sponsored extracurricular activities. This means that schools have an obligation to maintain safe environments that are conducive to learning -- an obligation that extends to all faculty and staff at a school (Lake, 2001; "in…
Value of Access to Excessive Visuals
Business - Advertising
Assessing Value of Access Excessive Visuals
The paper will consider visual literacy with respect to legal and ethical implications of the access to numerous visuals to users of the Internet in the 21st century. The overall subject matter of the Youtube video students were to watch has to do with copyrights and use. The Internet is a vast and useful resource. There is no doubt that its existence has changed and in many ways improved humanity and human relations around the world. As part and parcel of the Internet, users in most countries have at their fingertips access to an innumerable amount of material, including a vast number of visuals such as photographs, diagrams, and charts.
On the one hand, access to numerous visual sources can have positive effects. People can be exposed to works of art, to data infographics, and…
Youtube. (2010). Copyright Basics. Youtube.com, Web, Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uiq42O6rhW4&feature=youtu.be . 2012 January 15.
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…
(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from: http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf
(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf
(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf
Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .