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Characteristics of evolution
To determine whether or not we are in a revolution at present requires understanding of what a revolution is. The most recent bases for revolutions that we have are the Industrial evolution and the Agricultural evolution, though arguably there was also a Transportation evolution as well that was more transformative than either of these. The underlying principle of a societal revolution is that after a period of technological stagnation, a period of time arises that is characterized by a rapid succession of advancements. Cumulatively, these advancements transform the entire way that the base task is performed, which in turns leads to transformations in many other elements of society. Within that context, it appears that we are in the midst of another revolution, and on the other side of that revolution the way of life for humanity will be significantly different than it is now. This revolution…
Australian National University (2016). Artificial intelligence replaces physicists. Science Daily. Retrieved May 16, 2016 from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/05/160516091544.htm
Bellis, M. (2015). The Agricultural Revolution. About.com. Retrieved May 16, 2016 from http://inventors.about.com/od/indrevolution/a/AgriculturalRev.htm
Drucker, P. (1999). Beyond the information revolution. The Atlantic. Retrieved May 16, 2016 from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1999/10/beyond-the-information-revolution/304658/
Mead, W. & Clairmont, N. (2015). The transportation revolution is coming. The American Interest. Retrieved May 16, 2016 from http://www.the-american-interest.com/2015/06/12/the-transportation-revolution-is-coming/
Information Technology (IT) is a broad-based term that includes a combination of the acquisition, processing, storage and dissemination of information in a computing or telecommunications platform. In terms of a scientific discipline, it is relatively new, appearing in a 1958 article in the Harvard Business Review in which the authors said, "this new technology does not yet have a single established name. e shall call it information technology (IT)" (Dunn, 2011). The field has been part of the tremendous growth in computing and telecommunications, and remains vital -- it is behind the recent emergence of next generation web technology, bioinformation, cloud computing, global information systems, and large scale databases.
The IT area manages technology in a wide variety of fields that include software, hardware, information systems, and programming languages. IT professionals perform a wide variety of functions from installation of applications and hardware to designing and maintaining complex networks and…
Benefits of Technology use. (2003, January). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education: http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/os/technology/plan/national/benefits.html
Pros and Cons of Modern Technologies. (2008, September 17). Retrieved from Tech Aid: http://www.techacid.com/2008/09/17/pros-and-cons-of-modern-technologies/
Technology Transfer in the Food Industry. (2-11, October 14). Retrieved from CSIRO: http://188.8.131.52/en/Outcomes/Food-and-Agriculture/Food-industry-technology-transfer.aspx
Dunn, J. (2011, November 11). The Fascinating History of Information Technology. Retrieved from Edudemic.com: http://edudemic.com/2011/11/history-of-it/
evolution Movies Marketing
Workers Protection Acts
Investigate ways in which community arts organizations develop and maintain an audience
In the recent past, there has been a notable improvement in the field of arts. Many people in the community are now garnering interest in arts like never before. As a result, there has also been an increase in the community art organization. This is of course due to the need to fulfill the demand for the interest in art. However, it is an enormous challenge for organizations to acquire audience. Furthermore, the bigger challenge is to maintain the audience that they already have. Therefore, it is imperative that there are strategies that can happen in both situations. Community art organizations need to use all the appropriate methods to acquire a new audience. This is possible through advertising although the most suitable is to get to know the target group. There should…
Carpenter, G., & Blandy, D.E. (2008). Arts and cultural programming: A leisure perspective.
Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Cherbo, J.M., Stewart, R.A., & Wyszomirski, M.J. (2008). Understanding the arts and creative sector in the United States. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press
Daragh O'Reilly. & Finola Kerrigan. (2010). Marketing the arts: A fresh approach. Taylor & Francis. London.
Information has been for many centuries a mean to pass on different facts from generation to generation. Things like the Holocaust or the Indian massacres in the Americas live in our conscience, but can be proved only by the documents that have told us about them. I have picked these exact two examples because they are opposites in terms of information preservation. If we consider the Holocaust, any of its contesters can be countered by using documents of the time like the videos that the Nazis made in the extermination camps, the enraged speeches that the Nazi leaders held against the Jewish communities or the testimonies of the survivors. The Indian extermination, however, is not backed up by documents at such a level. Some of the reasons for this are the fact that the Indians relied more on oral preservation of information, from generation to generation, and to…
Information Technology Copyright Issues
There is no doubt that the digital revolution ushered forward by the computer and Internet age has changed myriad aspects of contemporary society. In addition to significant social and cultural changes and the evolution of political discourse on a global basis, the digital revolution has also profoundly changed the landscape of centuries of established legal principles that pertain to the proprietary ownership and protection of original intellectual property (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009). At the time that modern laws of copyright, trademark, and the very definition of intellectual property were created and defined as legal concepts the prospect of their light-speed transmission and storage in vast quantities by ephemeral entities that exist mainly in cyberspace were completely outside of the scope of contemplation by legislators and intellectual property creators alike.
As a result, the first two decades of the Internet age have witnessed legal disputes arising from…
Bagley, C.E. And Savage, D. (2005). Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies
for the 21st Century. CA: South-Western College/West Publishing.
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
An example of this virtual culture is the fan culture, wherein individuals having a similar belief or likeness for an idea or another individual (also identified as "cult hero") come together and form a community wherein they talk about their beliefs, and create a culture uniquely identified only to them. Examples of these fan cultures are Star Wars, Lord of the Rings, and Harry Potter fan groups/bases.
In the following years, despite Macionis' expressed fear for these virtual cultures, this form of culture will develop to give way to new, hybrid cultures that will potentially develop as a result of the continuous innovation and creation of computer- and Internet-mediated technologies. Moreover, these cultures will become important in that it will reflect the kind of groups and individuals extant in the society. These virtual cultures will mirror peoples' values, beliefs, and traditions. And most importantly, virtual cultures will become the 'culture…
Industrial Revolution and Beyond
It is difficult for anyone now alive to appreciate the radical changes that the Industrial Revolution brought to humanity. e imagine that we know what it was like before this shift in economics, in culture, in society: e think of farmers tilling fields and of their children piling hay into stacks for winter forage, or of trappers setting their snares for the soft-pelted animals of the forests, or of fishers casting their hand-woven and hand-knotted nets into the seas from the hand-sewn decks of ships. e imagine the hard physical work that nearly every person in society once had to do in the era before machines substituted their labor for ours -- and this exchange of human (and animal) labor for machine-driven labor is indeed one of the key elements of the Industrial Revolution. But it is only one of the key elements. For with the…
Atkins, Robert. Artspeak. New York: Abbeville Press, 1990.
Atkins, Robert. Artspoke. New York: Abbeville Press, 1993.
Banham, P. Reyner. Theory and Design in the First Machine Age. Cambridge: MIT, 1980.
Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations. New York: Schocken, 1969.
Coordinated Information Technology:
There is a great deal of interest in the implementation of Information Technology for the achievement of coordinated management of operations and other organizational aspects. In the past few years, EP systems have emerged as effective agents for such coordination despite of the difficulties in implementing and maintaining them. On the contrary, information technology initiatives that are less ambitious have been easier to implement though they normally fail in achieving enough coordination. Consequently, large scale initiatives have been recommended because they are advantageous though the degree of their competitive advantage is uncertain. Therefore, there are numerous concerns on whether skill in implementing coordinated information technology provides competitive advantage to an organization.
The process of implementing Enterprise esource Planning Systems does not consist of a one-size-fits-all strategy because of the need to identify the appropriate program. The lack of the strategy also emanates from the differences…
Gore, A. (2008). Exploring the Competitive Advantage Through ERP Systems. Retrieved from Department of Industrial Engineering and Management -- University of Oulu website: http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514287497/isbn9789514287497.pdf
Neal, H. (2010, March 11). ERP Implementation Strategies -- A Guide to ERP Implementation
Methodology. Retrieved April 7, 2012, from http://blog.softwareadvice.com/articles/manufacturing/erp-implementation-strategies -
It is safe to say that the computer revolution has so dramatically changed the manner in which academics and novices work. "...the uses of information technology are diverse; as data have to be processed, and as word data are laborious to process, and as several powerful packages for data analysis and processing exist, researchers will find it useful to make full use of computing facilities.
Cohen, Manion, and Morrison 155)
The results of the computer revolution, in their entirety have yet to be fully realized but the manner in which it has changed and continues to change research is fundamental to the way it will continue to change education. Seekers of truth may find it difficult to weed through the massive amounts of information but organizing large volumes of knowledge into relatively small spaces reiterates the vastness of the world and with the right skills and training can revolutionize thought.…
Anderson, Ray C. "The Next Industrial Revolution." Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 15.4 (2000): 23.
Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison. Research Methods in Education. London: Routledge Falmer, 2000.
Halal, William E., and Jay Liebowitz. "Telelearning: The Multimedia Revolution in Education." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 1994: 21.
Papert, Seymour. The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York: Basic Books, 1993.
Information technology and computers have also begun to affect, in ways that are both bad and good, family life, community life, education, freedom, human relationships, democracy, and many other issues. By looking into the broadest sense of the word it can be seen that cyber ethics should actually be understood as a branch of applied ethics, and ethics should be something that is believed in by all that provide medical information, whether via the Internet or in some other way, since providing false or fraudulent information could be damaging and potentially deadly for many people.
This particular branch of ethics analyzes and studies information technology and what type of ethical and social impacts it has. Within recent years this new field has led to countless courses, workshops, articles, journals, and many other ways of expression. With the World Wide Web becoming so popular when it comes to health care information,…
Bynum, T.W. (1999) the Foundation of Computer Ethics. A keynote address at the AICEC99 Conference, Melbourne, Australia, July 1999. Published in the June 2000 issue of Computers and Society.
Strategic Planning in IT
IT Impact on Service Industry Performance
Implementation of IT Innovations
1992 U.S. VALUE-ADDED AND EMPLOYMENT BY INDUSTRY
AVERAGE ANNUAL GROTH IN GDP PER HOUR,
MAJOR SECTORS OF THE U.S. ECONOMY
Management TASKS IN BUREAUCRACY VS ADHOCRACY ORGANIZATIONS
This paper addresses the following problem statement: "ithout information technology (IT), a business will not be able to compete globally in any industry, nor in any market it wants to enter. It will not be able to effectively and efficiently optimize its success."
In order to evaluate this statement, a number of issues were examined. The rapid pace of technological change and the effects of technology revolution have launched the world into an era of organizations that are experiencing extraordinary growth in both the development and the dissemination of information and communications technologies. This paper reviews the current literature on the subject of the integration…
American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (2000). Houghton Mifflin Company.
Andreu, R., Ricart, J.E., and Valor, J. (1991). The Strategic Dimension of Transactional Information Systems: Some Organizational Implications. Journal of Information Systems, 1, 223-32.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Bailey, M.N. And Quinn, J.B. (1994). Information Technology: The Key to Service Performance. Brookings Review, 12 (3), 36+.
evolution in Egypt_
Modern citizens hardly make decisions in a social vacuum. This underscore the role social media plays in determining decisions that people make. Social media influences what modern citizens know and how they feel about it. It therefore plays an integral role in influencing the masses. Trends in groups start after one person has taken a stand. This person's stand then influences others creating a cascade effect (Krebs, 2006). Cascades and numbers are integral in unconventional warfare like the revolution that was experienced in Egypt. In today's world users of social networks readily use information received from search network. A person will most likely be drawn into a stand that has been taken by his family members, neighbors, and casual acquaintances. Groups in social networks are easily influenced by the behavior of their members, key opinion leaders, as well as those with connections with them. These groups, opinion…
Aziz, M.A. & Hussein, Y. (2002). The President, the Son, and the Military: Succession in Egypt.
Arab Studies Journal, 9(10), 73 -- 88.
Gladwell, M. (2002). Tipping Point: How Little Things Can Make a Big Difference. New York:
Back Bay Books.
information systems and its effects on business processes. Moreover, I have explained the several business components and their effectiveness as information systems. In addition, I have provided information regarding the effects of information systems on various business careers.
Information systems have brought revolutions and innovations in today's business' setups and also have developed a close relationship with globalization. The responsibility of these information systems in an organization is not to support the tasks of the individuals but to support business functions as a whole. Nowadays, business operations are conducted by using e-mail, online conferences (video/audio) and cell phones which have turned out to be the most fundamental tools in business execution. Information systems, if truth be told, are the basis of accelerating supply chains. The businesses today have the advantage of using internet for purchasing, selling, advertising and imploring the feedbacks from consumers/customers online. It is now the purpose of…
Alter, S. (2002). Information Systems: Foundation of E-Business, 4/e (4th ed.). New Delhi, India: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ElXnQdPTEQ4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Information+Systems:+Foundation+of+E-Business&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8OkdUZaKN6XJ0AXE7oCADQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Information%20Systems%3A%20Foundation%20of%20E-Business&f=false
Chatterjee, I. (2010). Management Information Systems. Delhi, India: PHI Learning Private Limited. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DOi2meoOKWsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems&hl=en&sa=X&ei=998dUej2DIqL0AWQp4CgCA&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20Systems&f=false
Laudon, K., Laudon, J., & Dass, R. (2010). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11th ed.). Chennai: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=gx-LOQmKou8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems:+Managing+The+Digital+Firm,+11/E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KM0dUcjxNOW00QXAtIH4Bg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Lucey, T. (2005). Management Information System (9th ed.). Croatia: Thomson Learning. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=A0bu30rNgJsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+System&hl=en&sa=X&ei=svMdUcLkNoi10QXfmoHYBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20System&f=false
He uses no evidence, his essay is based only on his own opinion, and he does not view the opposition's opinion or their motivation. He writes well, and the points he makes are clear, but his methods and evidence are simply lacking. He is certainly welcome to his opinion, but it does not seem based in reality. Condorcet does not write about the revolution directly, but it is clear he supports the values that the revolutionaries were fighting for, and he mentions several of them, including education, and less distinction between the rich and poor. He does not cite any evidence or analysis either; he is simply expressing his opinion, just as Burke did. He is a good writer too, and gets his points across well, but somehow, his arguments seem more balanced than Burke's, perhaps because they seem more reasonable.
After understanding what the French evolutionaries were trying to…
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. p. 107-112.
Condorcet, Marquis de. The Future Progress of the Human Mind. p. 127-131.
The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.
The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.
The Scientific evolution
Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th
Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.
Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.
Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
What autos a society depends on says a lot about that society too, and the gas-guzzling SUVs and pickups that have made up the backbone of American transportation indicate our indifference to global problems, including the problems the country is creating itself.
What is so disturbing about America's role in the five-gas-stations theory is the message it sends quite openly to the rest of the world. Friedman notes in his essay that this message breeds resentment because the United States is not content to spread technology and industrialization. In addition, it is spreading democratization, capitalism, fast food, and even Hollywood values to the rest of the world, and many of them strongly resent America for its presumption that everyone would be better off following her example, whether they want to or not (Friedman 134). The country feels the need to drag everyone down the same "righteous" path, and that is…
Friedman, Thomas L. "Revolution is U.S." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 130-135.
Since time immemorial, the adage "no man is an island" has always been true because of the social nature of humankind. Most human beings can never live and function without the support of others in various aspects of life. With the emergence of contemporary information and communications technologies, the "no man is an island" maxim has further been redefined because of the ubiquity and 24/7 interconnection of people with each other. For instance, communications have become readily available with few touches of buttons and have also achieved global reach. In almost every facet of life, the technologies of today have contributed immensely. Of late, people's awareness of and actions in the political milieu have undergone a paradigm shift as a result of the widespread use on two of information technologies' most important innovations -- the social networking site or media and mobile communications.
If lessons would be taken…
Drew, A.E. (2011, May 21). The politics of social networking. Politics 365. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from http://politic365.com/2011/05/21/the-politics-of-social-networking/
Quain, J.R. (2010, October 15). How social networking is changing politics and public service. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2010/10/15/how-social-networking-is-changing-politics-and-public-service
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
Information Systems over the Last Century:
Synchronizing and Streamlining Transportation and Logistics Systems
The pace of change and its complexity continues to drastically redefine entire industries, with those reliant on supply chains, logistics and transportation services seeing the greatest benefits and risks. Globalization is also re-shaping industries the fastest who rely on transportation as a key part of their value chains. United Parcel Service is a company that is representative of the pace and complexity of change that has occurred in business processes, strategies, and information systems over the last one hundred years. UPS was founded in 1907 in Seattle, Washington by Jim Casey, and today is one of the leading transportations services companies globally. The intent of this analysis is to explain the differences between business information systems and methods widely used in 1910 and how they compare to the common enterprise-wide systems and methods of today. The telephone,…
Nabil Alghalith. (2005). Competing with IT: The UPS Case. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 7(2), 7-15.
Ata, B., & Van Mieghem, J. (2009). The Value of Partial Resource Pooling: Should a Service Network Be Integrated or Product-Focused? Management Science, 55(1), 115-131.
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
Das, K.. (2011). Integrating effective flexibility measures into a strategic supply chain planning model. European Journal of Operational Research, 211(1), 170.
Blogs and social networking have altered our daily usage of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Of that, we can be certain. But how exactly has this change evolved, and what specific effects is it having on Internet and Web usage patterns around the world? This paper addresses the history of blogs and social media, and shows their state of development now. This brief introduction will segue into a discussion of the various personal and professional applications for both blogging and social media. Additionally, sections on political applications and implications will round out the discussion on how social media and blogging have changed the ways people communicate and receive information. Finally, it would be remiss to ignore the confluence of hardware, software, coding, applications, and protocols that have led to revolutions in the ways people use their digital devices. Tablets and smartphones are the physical manifestations of the changes…
Barnes, S.B. (2006). A privacy paradox: Social networking in the United States. First Monday 11(9).
Boyd, D. (n.d.). Friends, Friendsters, and MySpace Top 8: Writing Community Into Being on Social Network Sites. CiteSeer. Retrieved online: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=10.1.1.79.5665
Bryant, T. (2006). Social software in academia. Educase Quarterly. 2. 2006.
DiMicco, J., Millen, D.R., Geyer, W., Dugan, C., Brownholtz, B. & Muller, M. (2008). Motivations for social networking at work. In Proceedings of the 2008 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work. Pp. 711-720.
This means that designers do not have the ultimate control, as they have had for centuries in other printed matter. The user now has the ultimate control, and they can alter the aspects of a Web page at the click of a mouse.
Internet typography has evolved from very simple fonts and colors on a plain background, to intensely graphic and easy to navigate Web sites that draw the user in to a totally unique and visual experience. Colors, textures, and variations are endless, and typography is really still in the infant stages on the Internet, so it is clear there will be many more innovations to come. Internet typography has revolutionized how the world accesses information, and it is one of the most important developments of the information age. It will be extremely interesting to see where typography goes in the future on the Internet, and it will be…
Heller, Steven and Philip B. Meggs. Texts on Type: Critical Writings on Typography. New York: Allworth Press, 2001.
Holt, Richard. Dialogue on the Internet: Language, Civic Identity, and Computer-Mediated Communication. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
Jones, Scott L. "Evolution of Corporate Homepages: 1996 to 2006." The Journal of Business Communication 44.3 (2007): 236+.
Morrison, Matt "A History of Typography." A History of Typography. 9 Jul. 2006. EzineArticles.com. 17 May 2008 http://ezinearticles.com/?a-History-of-Typography&id=239551 .
Using social networks as a way of communication will reduce the transactional distance that Moore defines as psychological and communications spaces between learners and instructors (Moore, 1993).
As online communication rapidly links our personal and work life, a new community is emerging so new venues of communication with the community are also developing. "The use of online discussion groups offers a relatively new avenue through which the learner can take an active role in the learning process." (Larkin-Hein, 2001) log usage has dramatically risen over the past couple of years, connecting information and knowledge of an individual to a global community audience who can respond. Social networks such as Facebook and MySpace can bring students and instructors closer together. This breaks the ice among students in an online classroom and helps them to work in a friendlier atmosphere. Newer programs like Twitter are akin to instant messaging to the global…
Concas, G., Lisci, M., Pinna, S., Porruvecchio, G., & Uras, S. (2008). Analysing the Social Networks constituted by open source communities. Proceedings of the AIP Conference, USA Vol. 1060 Issue 1, p147-150
Hartsell, T., & Yuen, S. (2006). Video streaming in online learning. AACE Journal, 14(1), 31-43.
Joint Information Systems Committee. (2002). Video streaming: A guide for educational development. Manchester, UK: JISC Click and Go Video Project.
Kerka, S. (1996). Distance learning, the Internet, and the world wide web. ERIC Digest. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service NO. ED 359214).
revolution in understanding genetic contributions to the susceptibility for developing particular diseases and disorders has been the development of the notion of "personalized medicine." The "personalized" connotation of this growing facet in the practice does not refer to individualized treatments as much as it refers to a personalizing of treatments targeted at a specific subset of patients, for example the development of certain drugs that can target specific cancer-causing genes found in patients' tumors. A drug currently being reviewed by the FDA for release is crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. ALK is believed to be active in several different types of tumors, including about five percent of non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In patients with advanced NSCLC it has been found that those carrying the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene possess a protein product of this fusion that contains a constitutive kinase activity that…
Bang, Y., Kwak, E.L., Shaw, A.T. et al. (2010). Clinical activity of the oral ALK inhibitor PF- 02341066 in ALK-positive patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (18S), 3.
Christensen, J.G., Zou, H.Y., Arango, M.E., Li, Q., Lee, J.H., McDonnell, S.R., Yamazaki, S., Alton, G.R., Mroczkowski, B., & Los G. (2007). Cytoreductive antitumor activity of PF-2341066, a novel inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-Met, in experimental models of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Molecular Cancer Therapy, 6, 3314-3322.
Ku, G.Y. & Lima Jopes Jr., G. (2011). EML4-ALK in non-small-cell lung cancer: the breathtaking progress from benchtop to Phase III clinical trial. Therapy, 8(1)55-61.
Kwak, E.L., Bang, Y.J., Camidge, D.R. et al. (2010). Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 263(18), 1693- 1703.
Thompson "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," The Romantics.
In the article "Disenchantment or Default?: A Lay Sermon," author E.P. Thompson explores the restoration of literary works by Wordsworth and Coleridge. Specifically, Thompson is interested in the moment when the poet became politically aware and disenchanted with the environs around him, turning his distaste into pieces of literature. While making his argument, Thompson delves heavily into the possible psychological profile of the author and his break with Godwinism. By doing this however, Thompson makes a critical mistake which all literary scholars and critics are meant to watch out for: that is confusing the narrator of the literature with the author himself.
Remarkably, Thompson determines that the change in Wordsworth's writings came at a time when he stopped writing towards an ideal and instead directed his writings at a real person. He writes, "It signaled also -- a central theme of…
According to Glenn and Gordon, "Current absorption capacity of carbon by oceans and forests is about 3 to 3.5 billion tons per year. Yet, 7 billion tons are added to the atmosphere annually, which could increase to 14 billion tons per year if current trends continue -- eventually leading to greenhouse effects beyond the ability of humans to control" (Glenn & Gordon, 2006, p. 20).
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, economic development has taken place in many regions of the world with little or no regard for its impact on the environment. his has been particularly evident in the developing nations of the world where the need for economic development outweighs the importance of environmental sustainability. In an increasingly globalized marketplace, though, the opportunity to reverse these ugly trends exists, but only if thoughtful approaches to the use of…
The need for informed approaches to addressing the threats to the global environment has never been greater. At present, more than half of the global life-support systems have already vanished or are in jeopardy of collapsing and environmental degradation will only become more severe by mid-century when an additional 2.6 billion people are added to the world's population (Glenn & Gordon, 2006). Moreover, the overwhelming majority of the population growth that will occur by mid-century (90%) is projected to take place in the world's poorest nations (Yeager & Barker, 2000).According to Glenn and Gordon, "Current absorption capacity of carbon by oceans and forests is about 3 to 3.5 billion tons per year. Yet, 7 billion tons are added to the atmosphere annually, which could increase to 14 billion tons per year if current trends continue -- eventually leading to greenhouse effects beyond the ability of humans to control" (Glenn & Gordon, 2006, p. 20).
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, economic development has taken place in many regions of the world with little or no regard for its impact on the environment. This has been particularly evident in the developing nations of the world where the need for economic development outweighs the importance of environmental sustainability. In an increasingly globalized marketplace, though, the opportunity to reverse these ugly trends exists, but only if thoughtful approaches to the use of information technology are identified and deployed. In this regard, Zhao, Liu and Dong (2008) emphasize that, "Globalisation should provide an opportunity to think more in terms of using technology to create win-win alternatives to the traditional trade-offs between growth and environmental sustainability" (p. 320).
Despite the introduction of increasingly sophisticated and powerful information technology tools in recent years, there remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies concerning how these tools can best be applied to environmentally sustainable initiatives and what types of improvements in these technologies will be required to achieve optimal results. For instance, Glenn and Gordon report that, "The moment-by-moment connectivity among ideas, people, resources, and challenges in order to create optimal solutions, however, is yet to be developed. A worldwide race to connect everything
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…
Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315
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Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68
Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
Technology advancement within today's society ensures that new ways of performing tasks must be learned. This cycle of discovery is at the heart of every academic or professional pursuit that molds and evolves our methods and thinking patterns. The digital revolution that has occurred throughout the last two decades has forced many industries to alter their approach to their tasks, requiring re-education and an open mind ready to welcome these new ideas into practice and use.
The purpose of this essay is to explain the notion of cloud computing and how this technological practice is modifying the world we live in. This essay will introduce basic and key concepts related to cloud computing to demonstrate its effect on today's world. To further enhance this argument, this essay will explore my personal career goals and how they relate to the notion of cloud computing and the effects of this…
Good, S. (2013). Why Healthcare Must Embrace Cloud Computing. Forbes, 2 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/centurylink/2013/05/02/why-healthcare - must-embrace-cloud-computing/
Holloway, K. (2013). Floating In the Cloud. Nursing Review, February, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.nursingreview.co.nz/issue/february-2013/floating-in-the - cloud/#.UaicUZzLuF9
Linthicum, D. (2013). Health care and the cloud are finally coming together. Infoworld, 12 Feb 2013. Retrieved from http://www.infoworld.com/d/cloud-computing/health-care-and - the-cloud-are-finally-coming-together-212581
Tiffin, C. (2012). Beyond the Bedside: The Changing Role of Today's Nurses. The Huffington Post, 28 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/charles-tiffin - phd/nursing-school_b_1384285.html
protect the privacy of the individual via EU Directive for Protection of Personal Data
The internet revolutionized the human life as we know it. It established a culture of liberty aided by not just ingenuousness but also standardized protocols. This was achieved by transmitting the essential products for business-related growth, adopting a model of governance with no formal existence of regulations along with free availability of abundant software packages. This internet revolution can't be underestimated as it has its pros and cons, which also comes under discussion in this paper. With the surging popularity of internet, there happen to be a plethora of new dilemmas knocking at the door. There are tons of merits of Internet for that matter while its demerits have been ignored and hidden along the sidelines. These issues have materialized in the preceding decade and the demand is urgent to solidify a legislation which is tasked…
Andrew, S. (2011). The Federal Trade Commission and Privacy: Defining Enforcement and Encouraging the Adoption of Best Practices, 48 SAN DIEGO L. REV. 809, 854 -- 56.
Aquilina, K. (2010). Public security vs. privacy in technology law: A balancing act? Computer Law & Security Review. Volume 26, Issue 2, March 2010, Pages 130 -- 143
Asinari, M and Poullet, Y. (2004). Public security vs. data privacy -- Airline passengers' data: adoption of an adequacy decision by the European commission. How will the story end?' Computer Law & Security Report, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 370 -- 376.
Bambauer, D.E. (2013). Privacy vs. Security. The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology. Vol. 103, No. 3.
As the business changes, developers can more easily map business process changes to applications and then implement the appropriate it changes.
SOA facilitates business connections. With business processes packaged as modular, accessible business services, enterprises can connect them where and when they are needed to optimize processes across customers, partners, suppliers, and their own internal applications
SOA enhances business control. Because services model business processes, the flow of data and transactions through service-oriented applications is valuable business data. SOA infrastructure actively manages service flows and can provide flexible and dynamic access to this data, which enterprises can use to analyze and optimize business results and process costs.
As flexible, service-based applications make business change easier and faster, business people will take advantage of their new found agility to drive competitive advantage through a faster cycle of introducing new capabilities and optimizing core processes. To guide this faster optimization cycle and…
ESB and EAI buyers do more SOA -- as do testing-tool buyers. Buyers of software tools and infrastructure for enterprise software buses (ESBs), enterprise application integration (EAI), and software testing have notably higher end of 2006 adoption of SOA at 72%, 73%, and 73%, respectively, as compared with 53% of all survey respondents from LWC Research and AMR Research surveys. Higher adoption among ESB and EAI buyers makes perfect sense -- many use such products within their SOA platform -- but researchers often hears of SOA adopters wrestling with testing issues, too. As with other factors above, effective use of testing tools requires a greater level of organizational discipline. Among other types of software infrastructure, the next highest end of 2006 SOA adoption correlations, ranging from 63% to 66%, are with buyers of portal servers, content management, business process management, and application design and development tools.
Recommendations for best Practices
From extensive research on enterprises doing SOA, it has been concluded that there are many, many different ways that firms evolve their way into SOA. In most cases, initial SOA implementations are small-scale and low cost -- and achieve only a small part of the full range of flexibility that the full market hype of SOA promises. But that small part is enough, as the above data shows, to prompt nearly 70% of SOA users to expand their SOA deployments. It is this type of market experience -- and its dramatic difference over the days of OO and CBD -- that makes SOA safe, prudent, and a high priority for enterprise adoption. If organizations are not already using SOA they need to move forthrightly toward adoption, start small, and evolve their SOA strategies from there.
Creating Organizational Value through the Integration of Information Technology: A Management Perspective
Change Management and the Construction of a eceptive Organization
Transformational and Participative Leadership
A Decentralized Organizational Culture
Effective Utilization of esources
Performance Monitoring Systems
isk Management and Support Strategies
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, firms must stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields in order to sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and the computerization of business and learning, consumers and investors have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers and shareholders, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In doing so, businesses must be able to efficiently integrate and utilize various sources of…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7 (3), 266-275.
Anthony, S. (2010, May). Three Critical Innovation Lessons from Apple. Retrieved July 26, 2011, from http://hbr.org/anthony/2010/05/three_critical_innovation_less.html
Antonelli, C. (2000). Collective Knowledge Communication and Innovation: The Evidence of Technological Districts. Regional Studies, 34 (6), 535-547.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Bossidy, L. (2002). The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organization Structure. United States: John Wiley and Sons.
Yahoo! Concedes Australias Online Auction to Ebay
The article this paper will review, in relation to project closure and I.T. management, is Keith Regan's Yahoo! Concedes Down-Under Auction Market to Ebay.
Recently, Yahoo! announced to its customers its decision of closing down the Australian online auction site sold.com.au. The announcement was posted in the auction site itself (currently, the auction site is already owned by Ebay). Yahoo! handed down sold.com.au to its auction giant rival Ebay.
Yahoo! bought sold.com.au two years ago from Fairfax at the price of AU$24 milllion. That time, the auction site was making a sale profit of AU$12 milllion. However, for Yahoo!, Australia's online auction was not able to establish more customers and did not give the dot-com giant enough profit. Sold.com.au's performance in the Internet auction market seemed to be far from Down Under's achievements, an online information portal in which Yahoo! remains a…
Regan, Keith. Yahoo Concedes Down-Under Auction Market to Ebay.
E-Commerce Times. 18 Sept 2003. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/perl/printer/31293/
Last Hurray as Yahoo! Folds Sold Auction Site to Join Ebay.
morning Here information seventh unit term. Once complete, left final paper. Unit 7: Scientific Revolution e've reached end journey. The Scientific Revolution represents development thinking world.
Attitudes during the Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution and the age of classical science have had a severe impact on society and made it possible for it to experience great progress as a consequence of the fact that technology had advanced significantly. Humanity was especially ignorant up to this point and technology actually made it possible for the masses to look at the world from a different perspective. People learnt that a lot of things they previously believed to be impossible were actually possible and joined the rest of the world in a struggle to achieve progress. The Scientific Revolution basically represents the moment when the social order started to experience massive reform as a result of technological advancements.
One of the first steps…
McClellan, James E. III and Dorn, Harold, "Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction," (JHU Press, Apr 14, 2006)
"The Age of Classical Science," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860978.html
"The Scientific Revolution," Retrieved August 25, 2012, from the infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0860977.html
Expectations Change That Led evolution
Compare Contrast Expectations Change Led evolution 1917/Civil War ealities
How the ideological changes that accompanied the revolution shaped the arts/culture of ussia/USS
The social and economic systems experienced tremendous transitions occasioning to stress among the populations of ussia. The great reforms formed a cautious path to modernization and reform. Through emancipation, peasants were allowed to own pieces of land and had the personal freedom to share their pieces of land. However, these peasants were not happy with the settlement programs based on emancipation because they held the belief that they were legal owners of the land. This claim became a major source of discontent leading to the 1917 peasant revolution (Sampson & Marienhoff, 2008).
ussia experienced a turning point at the onset of 1917; the nation was prepared for revolution and indeed, they saw the first revolution, which brought rapid changes and increased social opportunities.…
Rossman, V. (2010). Russian intellectual antisemitism in the post-Communist era. Lincoln, Neb:
Sampson, R.J., & Marienhoff, I. (2008). The American economy: Analysis, issues, principles.
Boston: Houghton Mifflin
University of Pittsburgh., & American Political Science Association. (2005). United States political science documents. Pittsburgh: University Center for International Studies,
Building Information Modeling
Evolution of BIM
Characteristics of BIM
Managing BIM Models
Barriers to BIM
The Future of BIM
ecently, a lot of revolution has been taking place to bring change in the fabric of the audiovisual design and integration of business. Nasser (2010) noted that Building Information Modeling (BIM) is not a new innovation to the field of construction. It has been around for decades, even though the term BIM was introduced more recent by Professor Charles Eastman of Georgia Tech, who developed the first no-commercial BIM tool almost three decades ago and called it Engineering Data Model (EDM), when has undergone through a number of iteration (Nasser, 2010). In this paper, we evaluate the concept and application of Building Information Modeling (BIM).
ecently, a lot of revolution has been taking place to bring change in the fabric of the audiovisual design and integration of business.…
Mihindu, S., Arayici, Y.: Digital Construction through BIM Systems will drive the Re-engineering of Construction Business Practices, International Conference on Visualization IEEE Computer Society 2008, 29-34.
Dean, R. (2007). Building Information Modeling (BIM): Should Auburn University Teach BIM to Building Science Students? Graduate Capstone, Department of Building Science, Auburn University.
Rosenburg, T.L. (2007). "Building Information Modeling." [WWW document] URL http://www.ralaw.com/resources/documents/Building%20Information%20Modeling%20-%20Rosenberg.pdf
Thompson, D.B., and Miner, R.G. (2007). "Building Information Modeling - BIM: Contractual Risks are Changing with Technology" [WWW document] URL http://www.aepronet.org/ge/no35.html
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
Two Swedish filmmakers, Ingmar Bergman and Vilgot Sjoman produced a series of sexually explicit films that challenged the conservative international standards in regard to depicting sex onscreen (Andersson). In these films, the characters spoke openly about sexual matters but, more significantly, open nudity was displayed which violated the decency standards then in existence in nearly every country in the world. These films caused an outpouring of debate regarding not only the role of sex and nudity in the movie industry it also sparked open debate about sex in general. As a direct result of these films, the popular notion developed that Swedish society had a liberal attitude about sexual matters while, in actuality, at the time Sweden was experiencing a period of relative conservatism. Nevertheless, the door had been opened and within the next twenty years the movement that had begun in Sweden had spread to the rest of Europe…
Allen, David. Make Love, Not War: The Sexual Revolution: An Unfettered History. New York: Little, Brown & Company, 2000.
Christensen, Harold T. "Changing Sex Norms in America and Scandinavia." Journal of Marriage and Family (1970): 616-627.
Crano, William d. Attitudes and Attitude Change. London: Taylor & Francis, 2008.
Smith, Tom W. "The Sexual Revolution?" Public Opinion Quarterly (1990): 415-435.
Whether it was the Spanish that fought to conquer lands in the south, or the Dutch that engaged in stiff competition with the British, or the French that were ultimately defeated in 1763, the American soil was one clearly marked by violent clashes between foreign powers. This is why it was considered that the cry for independence from the British was also a cry for a peaceful and secure future for the next generations. Thomas Paine argued that the time had indeed come for the colonies to be excluded from the continuous clashes that had defined their past. Thus, because of the British's traditional inclination towards war, such an objective was hard to reach under the Empire's constant control. Consequently, the time had come for the colonies to break apart and search their peace as an independent state.
Looking at the historical development of the events, it is easy to…
Aptheker, Herbert. 1960. The American Revolution, 1763-1783: a history of the American people. New York: International Publishers.
Berstein, Serge, and Milza. 1994. Pierre. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier.
Braunstein, Florence, and Pepin, Jean Francois. 1998. Les Grandes Doctrines. Paris: Ellipses.
Carlyle, Thomas. 2004. The French revolution, New York: Kessinger Publishing, LLC. Vol. 2
In fact, the American evolution may have served to assert the natural rights of some people, but those people were limited to a class of white males.
It is important to keep in mind that one of the ideological underpinnings of the evolution was a challenge to imperialist ideals, and race-based oppression and slavery had long been major parts of the imperial system. Despite that, it is unfair to characterize Britain as pro-slavery, as the British began to embrace abolitionist sentiments prior to the evolution. In fact, British Imperialists struggled with the concept of slavery, because of the fact that denying the right to own slaves was viewed as economic oppression by many white colonists, because, without slavery, the cash crops that made colonies profitable were difficult, if not impossible, to harvest (Brown, 1999). They began by attempting to limit the import of slaves into the colonies, something that they…
Appleby, J. (1976). Liberalism and the American Revolution, New England Quarterly, 49(1), 3-
Brown, C.L. (1999). Empire without slaves: British concepts of Emancipation in the age of the American Revolution, the William and Mary Quarterly, 56(2), 273-306.
Freehling, W.W. (1972). The founding fathers and slavery, the American Historical Review,
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).
Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).
Account of a Declaration 1, available at: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/account/ , accessed on: February 11, 2004
American Journey, available at:
This happened because blacks had learnt that they no longer had to obey the people that illegitimately enslaved them.
Slaves had been determined to fight for their freedom through any means possible, and, they took advantage of any opportunity that they had to become free. According to Nash, tens of thousands of slaves have left the American continent as the British forces advanced inland. Apparently, a great number of black people wanted the British to win the war, as they believed that such an event would set them free.
As Nash describes it, the people that wrote the Constitution hadn't considered the fact that they still had slavery present within the borders of their so-called free country. By the time of the Constitution, however, people had already begun to relate to other issues, believing that slavery had been too insignificant for them to give credit to. Consequent to the period,…
1. Nash, Gary B. (1990). Race and Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield.
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…
Kahn, David. The Code-Breakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1997
Knight, Judson, CIA (United States Central Intelligence Agency), available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-United-States-Central-Intelligence-Agency.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., United States Intelligence, History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., CIA, Formation and History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-Formation-and-History.html ;
Industrial Revolution heralded a shift in the way that goods were produced. Technological developments in particular began a shift in emphasis away from human capital towards financial capital. Human beings, once almost exclusively in one trade or another, became increasingly viewed as equivalent to machines, or worse. This marked a shift both in business and society with respect to the nature of work in society, a shift whose repercussions are still felt today. The Introduction section will highlight the background information -- defining the Industrial Revolution, the ways work was viewed in society prior to it and how work is viewed in society today, which will provide perspective of some of the critical changes that have occurred.
In his essay hy e ork, Andrew Curry outlines some of the more profound of these changes. These changes will form the basis of my research paper on how the Industrial Revolution affected…
Curry, A. (2003). Why we work. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.andrewcurry.com/portfolio/WhyWeWork.html
Crowley, M., Trope, D., Chamberlain, L. & Hudson, R. (2010). Neo-Taylorism at work: Occupational change in the post-Fordist era. Social problems. Vol. 57 (3) 421-447.
eNotes. (2010). Industrial Revolution. eNotes. Retrieved November 9, 2010 from http://www.enotes.com/industrial-revolution-about/introduction
Ferrante, J. (2005). Sociology: A global perspective. Cengage.
Keynesian evolution: Analysis and Criticism believe myself to be writing a book on economic theory which will largely revolutionize -- not, I suppose, at once, but in the course of the next ten years -- the way the world thinks about economic problems"
John Maynard (Keynes, Letter to G.B. Shaw, January 1, 1935)
Prior to the Keynesian evolution, may economists and politicians viewed economics from a "micro" perspective. They saw factors such as unemployment, interest rates, profit and loss as related to individual organizations and the impact of individual transactions. In modern times, the idea of macroeconomics is much more widespread, and the impact of economic endeavors is viewed as part of an economic whole, or national/global approach. Part of the credit for this much more diverse and broad view is due to the efforts of John Maynard Keynes, through his publications and the "Keynesian evolution."
Though Keynes is often…
Briggs, A. (ed.) (1962) Fabian Essays, Allen & Unwin, London Cairncross, A. (1978) 'Keynes and Planning, in Thirwall, A.P. (ed.), Keynes and Laissez-Faire, Macmillan, London
Galbraith, John Kenneth. "The Joys of Recession," (Winter, 1994): 8-9, March 15, 2003, http://epn.org/prospect/16/16galb.html
Keynes, M. (ed.) (1975) Essays on John Maynard Keynes, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge
Technology and Social Change
The Industrial evolution completely changed the way that human beings live and work. Before the Industrial evolution, society was dominated by agrarian economies. The Industrial evolution created a new way of life in which an increasingly large percentage of the population either owned or worked in factories involved in mass production. Populations became increasingly concentrated in urban areas; fewer people worked on farms or owned farms. Instead of making their own goods and services, people now bought the majority of the items they needed in stores.
The current Knowledge evolution is technologically driven, just like the Industrial evolution. It is fueled by the Internet and radically expanded accessibility of information to everyone who has an Internet connection. In some ways, like the Industrial evolution, it is extremely democratic -- just as many people made their fortune through capitalism, the knowledge economy of World Wide Web has…
Gouras, M. (2003). Bulking up for a hardware battle. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved:
How women use the web. (2013). Mashable. Retrieved:
Library Search: Books
nut, W. (n.d.). The Regime of Anastasio Somoza, 1936-1956. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, p. xiii.
Zimmerman, M. (2000). Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp.205-227.
Vilas, C. (1985). The workers' movement in the Sandinista revolution. In Harris, R. And Vilas, C. (eds.), Nicaragua: A Revolution Under Siege. London: Zed Books.
Zwerling, P. And Martin, C. (1985). Nicaragua: A New ind of Revolution. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books. Also, reviewed in Foreign Affairs. n.p., 1 Sept. 1985. [Webpage]. Retrieved http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/40113/robert-d-crassweller/nicaragua-a-new-kind-of-revolution.
Library Search: Journal Articles
Harris, R.L. (1987). The revolutionary transformation of Nicaragua." Latin American Perspectives, 14(1 Winter), 3-18.
Leogrande, W.M. (1996). Making the economy scream: U.S. economic sanctions against Sandinista Nicaragua, Third World Quarterly, 17(2), 329-348.
Paris, R. (2002). Peacebuilding in Central America: Reproducing the sources of conflict? International Peacekeeping, 9(4 Winter), 39-68.
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Kirksville, MO: Truman University. [Website]. Retreived http://revolutions.truman.edu/nicaragua/index.htm
Klerlein, E. (2006, December 14). Environmental effects of Nicaraguan armed conflicts. ICE Case Studies. [Website]. Retrieved http://www1.american.edu/TED/ice/nicaragua.htm
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Slaves were not in such a position, and often lived their entire lives in bondage to cruel masters and terrible conditions. Furthermore, in contrast to immigrants who left their home countries by choice, African slaves were kidnapped from their homes against their will. In these cases, there was indeed a definite hierarchy in the country.
Doerflinger turns the focus to the economy of the country at the time. According to the author, business people at the time were more individually focused on making use of the opportunities offered by the new country than on freeing themselves from England. Indeed, business people did very little to incite revolution. In this way, the paradigm of the economic world was much different from the social.
In terms of hierarchy, it seems not to have been greatly manifested in the American economy. Business people were free to conduct their dealings as they saw fit.…
Zuckerman, Michael. 1998. Tocqueville, Turner, and Turds: Four Stories of Manners in Early America. The Journal of American History, June, Vol. 85, No.1, pp. 30-31.
Fogleman, Aaron S. 1998. From Slaves, Convicts, and Servants to Free Passengers: The Transformation of Immigration in the Era of the American Revolution. The Journal of American History, June, Vol. 85, No.1, p. 43
Doerflinger, Thomas M. Philadelphia Merchants and the Logic of Moderation, 1760-1775. William and Mary Quarterly, p198
e would not accept such an assertion about any other historical notion. ho would say that the revolution was inevitable, without the fight of the patriots and the leadership of the Founding Fathers? Yes, the question of slavery was a contentious issue -- but it was just as contentious a hundred years later, a hundred more years of bondage for blacks, and a hundred more years of making the unacceptable institution acceptable and entrenched in the American fabric.
The book is organized particularly effectively in that it allows the author to advance his clearly articulated thesis, structure the different historical experiences of African-Americans before, during, and after the actual warfare of the Revolution and then include an appendix of primary source documents. The book has a chronological structure in this sense, which makes it easy for non-experts in the Revolutionary ar period to follow, but still advances a compelling argument…
Nash, Gary. (1990). Race and the Revolution. New York: Madison House Publishers, Inc.
American evolution was a political turmoil that occurred in the United States between 1765 and 1783 through which rebels in Thirteen American Colonies defeated Britain's authority and led to the formation of the United States of America. The rebels achieved this goal through their rejection of monarchy and aristocracy that was characterized by initiatives that were geared towards a revolution. This important event in the history of the United States was also brought by a series of political, intellectual, and social changes that took place in government, thought processes, and the American society.
The commencement of the American evolution can be traced back to 1763 when leaders from Britain started to stiffen imperial reins ("Overview of the American evolution," n.d.). The tightening up of imperial reins by British leaders was characterized by the enforcement of punitive and coercive laws on various colonies. One of the major reasons for the actions…
Magnet, M. (2012, April 22). The Americanness of the American Revolution. City Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.city-journal.org/2012/22_4_urb-american-revolution.html
"Overview of the American Revolution." (n.d.). Digital History. Retrieved from University of Houston website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/era.cfm?eraID=3
"The American Revolution." (n.d.). U.S. History - Pre-Columbian to the New Millennium.
Known as much for her fashion choices as for her role in the French Revolution, Marie Antoinette is in many ways a quintessential queen in that the patriarchal historical record severely undermines her power. Marie Antoinette was far from being an architect of the Revolution and yet her role in it cannot be underestimated. Misogynistic misunderstandings and misconceptions about the role of women in positions of power have caused Antoinette’s legacy to have been distorted gravely, to the point where she has been incorrectly credited with saying “let them eat cake.”[footnoteRef:1] Vilified as she was, Marie Antoinette signifies the ways women wielded power even when they were stripped of official or legitimate political agency. [1: “Marie Antoinette Biography.” Last modified Jan 4, 2018. https://www.biography.com/people/marie-antoinette-9398996 ]
Marie Antoinette was born into power, the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor and Maria Theresa, the empress of the mighty Habsburg dynasty based in…
He uses numerous quotes from source docs, and he does not imply his conclusions, he spells them out. He also writes in a relatively easy to read style that is academic but not too pedantic, and so it is easy for the student to follow and understand.
In the context of the course, this book ties in quite well. It explains a part of American history that has often been questioned, but not answered so effectively. The author uses his research to debunk some of the well-known myths of this time, such as the fact that South Carolina and Georgia were the main foes of abolition, and they had enough power to create animosity towards abolition. In fact, the author writes, "In fact, Georgia and less so South Carolina, were precariously situation in 1787 and had far greater need of a strong federal government than the rest of the states…
Nash, G.B. (1990). Race and revolution. Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers.
Nash's wok may have contibuted to the wide eading ou moden texts include, athe than the evisionist vesion which paaphases down to 'the Noth had to accept slavey against its will because the South would have balked fom the new epublic.' Ou selection of texts, paticulaly the pimay mateial, conside this dynamic with moe balance than in the centuy and a half pio to Nash, if his histoiogaphy is tue. Nash applauds DuBois paticulaly as one of the fist to contovet such mythologization (p. 72), and we have ead some of his pimay woks. Nash suppots and expands upon DuBois and the othe eadings; what Nash does contadict is the assetion that "We hold these tuths self evident," and poves the authos of those wods had thei finges cossed when they signed at the bottom of that page.
What I took most fom Race and Revolution was a wide undestanding…
references, is the inherited wisdom I mostly encountered in public education. Nash's version that the North bore equal responsibility, and that this aggregate responsibility was caused by individuals who constituted and perpetuated abstract institutions forming the new nation, helps balance the Southern separatist explanation as perhaps history as revised by the victors (p. 3). This is a valuable perspective for all who would understand a national identity where slavery and then segregation comprise seven-eighths of our history rather than the nominal equality only one generation has experienced for an entire lifetime so far.
ace and evolution
An iconoclastic figure in the study of American History, Gary Nash, who is Director of the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA, writes from a position of authority as he questions the history that many of us were taught during our primary and secondary educations. In ace and evolution, Nash turns his keen vision toward the matter of slavery at the time our country was founded. A collection of essays based upon his series of Merrill Jensen Lectures in Constitutional Studies at the University of Wisconsin, ace and evolution is an indictment of our country's, primarily northern, founders as they hemmed and hawed and, ultimately, declined the opportunity to create a true, free, racially diverse republic.
ather than focusing on the issue of slavery at its post-independence height, during the antebellum period in the South, ace and evolution examines the issues surrounding slavery during…
Nash, G. (1990). Race and revolution. Lanham, Maryland:
Madison House Publishers
Nash, G. (2010). Red, white, and black: the peoples of early North America (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Internet is arguably the greatest revolution in Human History. In considerably less than a century, information-gathering and communication have skyrocketed with no apparent end in sight. Google and ikipedia are merely two examples of Internet developments that were probably unimaginable even 20 years ago but are widely-used realities today.
Searching for information on Google IS and IS NOT like trying to find a needle in a haystack. as the library of the 19th century more efficient? Explain.
The answer to this question depends on several factors. At first blush, searching for information on Google is certainly like "trying to find a needle in a haystack" because "Some people have suggested that there are 155 million eb sites, 1 trillion eb pages, and 5 million terabytes of data out there" (Anonymous, Introduction to Computer Literacy | Chapter 6 | The search is on, 2012, p. 8). Since Google allows a person…
Anonymous. (2012). Introduction to Computer Literacy | Chapter 6 | The search is on. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from Content.ashford.edu Web site: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUINF103.10.1/sections/6.0
Anonymous. (2012). Introduction to computer literacy | Chapter 7 | Web 2.0. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from Ashford. edu Web site: https://content.ashford.edu/books/AUINF103.10.1/sections/7.0
Cohen, N. (2011, June 6). Paul Revere, Sarah Palin and Wikipedia. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from New York Tiimes Web site: http://thecaucus.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/06/06/paul-revere-sarah-palin-and-wikipedia/
Lynch, S.N., & Mulero, E. (2007, July 14). Dewery? At this library with a very different outlook, they don't. Retrieved March 17, 2012 from New York Times Web site: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/14/us/14dewey.html?_r=1
Glorious Cause: The American Revolution
Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982.
Robert Middlekauff, born in 1927 in Washington state, holds a B.A. from the University of Washington and a Ph.D. from Yale. He saw active duty as a lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps in Korea from 1952-54. For most of his long career he has been a professor of history at the University of California at Berkeley. In addition to The Glorious Cause (1982), his published books include Ancients and Axioms (1963), The Mathers (1971), and Benjamin Franklin and His Enemies (1996). Dr. Middlekauff received the Bancroft Prize in 1972 and the Commonwealth Gold Medal in 1983. He is listed as a historical educator in Who's Who in America where this biographical information was obtained.
This work, a narrative historical study of the American Revolution, and the first volume to…
Home Goods M-Commerce
During the earlier parts of the internet and technological revolution that began in the 1990's with the emergence of the World Wide Web was what eventually came to be known as E-Commerce. Indeed, there was the shift whereby what was done in brick and mortar stores was increasingly done online. Thus, regular commerce became electronic commerce, or e-commerce for short. Nowadays, there has been yet another shift to a subset of electronic commerce, that being on mobile devices like cellular phones, tablets and personal data assistants, or PDA's. Mobile commerce has become prominent enough that it should get its own mention. The covering of mobile commerce within the modern paradigm can be associated with a number of product categories and industries. The specific industry that will be focused on in this report is goods for the homes such as those for cooking, other food preparation and gardening.…
Because of the wording of the "Declaration of Independence," Locke is perhaps the most famous Enlightenment influence upon the Founding Fathers. However, a number of Continental Enlightenment philosophers had great influence upon the shape of the new nation: "Jean-Jacques Rousseau…distrusted the aristocrats not out of a thirst for change but because he believed they were betraying decent traditional values…Rousseau argued that inequality was not only unnatural, but that -- when taken too far -- it made decent government impossible" (Brians 2002). The French philosopher Voltaire's irreverent attitude towards religion and Rousseau's scrupulous belief in the integrity of the 'natural' man, untouched by law and custom, is reflected in the Founding Founders' notions of a society that was based upon a rule of law, rather than upon the whims of a leader. Rights rather than birthright were to govern the new American state.
The philosopher of criminology Beccaria's influence should not…
Brians, Paul. "The Enlightenment." University of Wisconsin-Madison. March 11, 1998. Last
Revised May 18, 2000. February 10, 2010. http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/hum_303/enlightenment.html
Hoffman, Bruce. "Beccaria." Crime Theory. January 2002. February 10, 2010.
Searching for information on Google is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Is that true? Was the library of the 19th century more efficient? Explain.
Google makes searching easy by typing in search terms in the browser. When search terms are searched in the browser, it brings up a list of items from the search terms. This makes the searching in Google much easier to find what the user is looking for. The 19th century brought about revolution in the respect that the libraries introduced directories that were placed on the tables in the libraries to look for and find information more efficiently. Google has used the internet to search for information through data bases that come from all over the world. The libraries of the 19th century only had them on a table, which means that people still had to go to the library. Google…
A virtual counter-revolution. (2010, Sept 2). Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/16941635
Boswell, W. (2005, June 17). Google vs. Libraries. Retrieved from About.com Web Search: http://websearch.com.about.com/b/2005/06/17/google-vs.-libraries.htm
Ozer, N. (2011, Mar 23). Judge Cites Privacy Concerns in Rejecting Google Books Settlement. Retrieved from ACLU: http://www.aclu.org/blog/technology-and-liberty/...privacy-concerns-rejecting-google-books-settlement
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…
Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign
Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.
Ordinance of 1787
Quiet Revolution on Real ID details a middle path between the extremes on both sides of the issue. It is informative as well balanced. In the wake of 9/11, we can not afford to sit quietly back and wait for tragedy to happen again. In that tragedy, fake ids allowed a small group of terrorists to perpetrate the largest and most devastating attack on American soil in its history. hat becomes largely apparent is that the delay of Real ID can make such days (or even worse) a reality for Americans. The solution that the authors of the article not only make sense but are critical to our survival as a nation, especially in the light of the threat of terrorist nuclear weapons to America. As recently as 25 April, 2011, an Investor's Daily article spoke about ikileaks allegations about Khalid Sheikh Muhammad's threat of a "nuclear hellstorm" if Osama…
Ahers, Mike M. "Obama administration delays rule to improve driver's license security."
CNN. 2011. Web. 30 Apr 2011.
Ni, A.Y., and A.T.K. Ho. "The Real ID Act and U.S. National Identification System
Understandably, information technology caused experts to rethink successful business models. The 1990s represent a nearly clean slate in the remodeling of business because of information technology. Scott and Morton have identified five markers that serve analysts and experts in creating the business model which now emanate from information technology outward, and links other entities and customers in a seamless way.
The markers of the revolution in corporate structure and managerial practice are multifold, but the essence of the changes can be captured by five items:
First, in terms of the classic corporate structure, the most startling of these reforms is the shift to matrix management. The traditional corporation was organized by business and/or function, with clear lines of authority and a strict division of labor. But in the new structures, there are overlapping responsibilities, and managers report simultaneously to several superiors. This organizational form was not completely…
Allen, T.J. & Morton, M.S. (Eds.). (1994). Information Technology and the Corporation of the 1990s: Research Studies. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96197382
Bednarzik, R.W. (2005). Restructuring Information Technology: Is Offshoring a Concern? Employment Trends by Industry and Occupation Suggest That Offshoring in the Information Technology Sector Occurs, but Not to a Great Extent. Monthly Labor Review, 128(8), 11+. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011979549
Farmer, B. (2007, June 25). A World of Opportunity: Although Some World Economic Changes Have Negatively Affected American Workers, the United States Is Uniquely Positioned to Thrive in the Global Economy. The New American, 23, 12+. Retrieved March 1, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5021577367