1000 results for “Information Systems”.
Define an Information System and Types of Information Systems
An information system comprises the hardware and software components necessary to create, store, manage, share, and maintain data. The type of information system selected depends on the specific needs of the user or the organization. There are three basic types of information systems: transaction information systems, management information systems, and decision support systems ("Types of Information Systems," n.d.).
Decision support systems are indicated for departments that manage strategic planning. For example, a decision support system can offer methods of computing revenue trends, which might provide the necessary data needed to implement an organizational change ("Types of Information Systems," n.d.). Management information systems comprise systems that deliver information used to make short-term decisions. These decisions might not make a huge impact on organizational culture, as they might at upper levels of management, but middle management sill requires information to support…
Leonard, D. & Swap, W. (2005). The knowledge coach. HBS. 10 Jan 2005. Retrieved online: http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/4562.html
Levinson, M. (2007). Knowledge management definition and solutions. CIO. 7 March, 2007. Retrieved online: http://www.cio.com/article/print/40343
PC Magazine. Retrieved online: http://www.pcmag.com/
"Types of Information Systems," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.freetutes.com/systemanalysis/types-of-information-system.html
Information Systems for Healthcare Management
Of the many enterprises that rely on information systems to attain their objectives, healthcare management is the most challenging and costly. The combination of highly complex application, systems and platform trade-offs, along with the need for continual government compliance makes information systems in healthcare one of the most difficult areas to attain best practices in of any IT area (Le ouge, De Leo, 2010). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the primary causes of information management (IM) or information technologies (IT) project failures and recommend three best practices that could guide organizations past these failures in the future. Second, determining the best approach to use project metrics and portfolio management to facilities or enable greater levels of IT governance as well. Third, this analysis will conclude with an analysis of the various types of government intervention occurring into healthcare today and debate how…
Austin, C.J., & Boxerman, S.B. (2008). Information systems for healthcare management (7th ed.). Chicago: Health Administration Press.
Gough, T.G. (2001). Strategic and technologies for healthcare information theory into practice. Journal of End User Computing, 13(3), 41-41.
Helfert, M. (2009). Challenges of business processes management in healthcare. Business Process Management Journal, 15(6), 937-952.
Lang, R.D. (2003). Healthcare information management systems concentration curriculum choices: Evaluating the CIO perspective. Journal of Information Systems Education, 14(4), 373-380.
Information Systems Have Changed the Way We Collaborate and Work in Significant Ways
Introduction to Information System within an organization
Computers are continuously being used in organizations since the appearance of first ever application of this technological equipment that could be helpful in supporting organizational work. It is unavoidable in modern and up-to-date organizations where there is diversity in the organizational work and all related activities. In the early years, Information System was a relatively easy task that was easy to explain but with improvement in system and advancement in technology, it has become quite difficult to explain the functions and role of IS in the organizations. Information systems are playing a vital and expanding role in organizations (brien, 1975).
Information System was established on the basis of management, computer science and organizational theories. It also aimed to focus on the use of computer at personal level as well as…
Heijden, H.V.D., 2009. Designing Management Information Systems. 2 ed. London: Oxford.
Lecuit, L., 1999. DeMIStifying MIS. 1st ed. Washington: s.n.
Nowduri, S., 2008. Management information systems and business decision making:. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 38(3), p. 360.
Oz, E., 2009. Management Information Systems. 6th ed. Boston: Thomson.
Information Systems Outsourcing Advantage and Risks
There appears to be some confusion and trepidation about the use of outsourcing for Information Systems in today's organizations. While some advocate for the use of IS outsourcing still others state claims that it is not an effective or efficient organizational practice.
The objective of the research contained in this study is to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of information systems outsourcing practices.
The significance of the research in this study is the knowledge that will be added to the existing knowledge base on information systems outsourcing practices in the organization.
The work of Gonzalez, Gasco and Llopis (2009) reports that the status of Information Systems (IS) or Information Technology (IT) as a "growing, increasingly global phenomenon in the new millennium" is confirmed by "a wide range of facts and figures." (p.181) There are stated to be various reasons to support outsourcing of IS…
. Hayes, D.C;. Hunton, J.E and. Reck, J.J (2000). "Information Systems Outsourcing Announcements: Investigating the Impact on the Market Value of Contract-Granting Firms," Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 109-125
Clark, T.D. Zmud, R.W.; and McCray, GD McCray (1995). "The Outsourcing of Information Services: Transforming the Nature of Business in the International Journal of Human and Social Sciences 4:3 2009
D-H. Yang; S. Kim; Ch. Nam and J-W. Min (2007). "Developing a Decision Model for Business Process Outsourcing," Computers and Operations Research, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 3769-3778
E.A. Walden and J.J. Hoffman (2007). "Organizational form, incentives and the management of Information Technology Opening the black box of Outsourcing," Computers & Operations Research, Vol. 34, No. 12, pp. 3575-3591.
The use of it systems and technologies is then secondary to the supporting of key business processes that unify an organization. A solid organizational framework can save a company literally millions of dollars in bad it and technical systems by making sure every information asset and initiatives aligns to strategic plans and initiatives.
Big Data, Cloud Computing and Social Networks -- the Data Explosion
The last five years have seen the amount, variety and depth of information literally explode into terabytes, stored in data marts, databases and Master Data Management (MDM) platforms. The sheer magnitude of these data marts and the need for very high performance analytics applications including Hadoop to find insights within them are among the most-hyped technologies in the it industry today (Collett, 2011). At the center of this hype is the potential of using the sheer volume of data to gain greater insights into customer relationships,…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Bughin, J., Chui, M., & Manyika, J. (2010). Clouds, big data, and smart assets: Ten tech-enabled business trends to watch. The McKinsey Quarterly, (4), 26.
Collett, S. (2011). Why big data is a big deal. Computerworld, 45(20), 18-20,22,24. http://library3.webster.edu/docview/908441225?accountid=14944
Daly, R. (2011, the key to big data mastery. Waters,, 22-25.
Multinational management challenges regarding project work refer to its complexity, scope, and risks. Specialists have observed that large it projects provide important advantages to joint ventures. This is related to the development of global teams. The indicators in these cases have been identified as technical difficulties, evolving solutions, innovation, and others.
The challenges of large it projects are addressed by several types of management approaches, in accordance with the characteristics of each project. These approaches refer to rational planning, adaptiveness, and shaping. However, the managerial response to these challenges depends on the skills of the project manager and on the characteristics of the team (Miller & Lessard, 2000).
The proper handling of managerial challenges determined in the case of large it projects depends on several factors. One of the most important factors that influence these processes is represented by teamwork. The efficiency and productivity of team members ensures the successful…
1. The Top Project Management Challenges (2010). Business Improvement Architects. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://www.bia.ca/articles/TheTopProjectManagementChallenges.htm .
2. Cleland, D. & Gareis, R. (2006). Global Project Management. McGraw-Hill. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=N29hiSlk48wC&pg=SA5-PA2&lpg=SA5-PA2&dq=managerial+challenges+in+it+projects&source=bl&ots=xEMv1oDW4m&sig=nUcbxUV6OSaZq3XyttLr7DZK54A&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=managerial%20challenges%20in%20it%20projects&f=false .
3. Miller, R. & Lessard, D. (2000). The Strategic Management of Large Engineering Projects. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=M9aD1nqGgaoC&pg=PA93&dq=managerial+challenges+in+it+projects&hl=ro#v=onepage&q=managerial%20challenges%20in%20it%20projects&f=false .
4. Benefits of Business Pro-Software (2011). Retrieved march 25, 2011 from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/cmgd2lbhni/Business-Pro-Software-Benefits-Business-Pro-Software.html .
Information technologies are the catalyst that unify these diverse areas of a business model together and have the potential to accelerate the business more quickly on key criterion including new product development, higher levels of customer satisfaction, and more efficiency in managing supply chains to forecast. The catalyst of any successful business model, whether being re-defined for business decades old, or a start-up that has just launched, is the need for using information technologies as a conduit for listening to the customer.
The paradox many businesses get caught up in when attempting to stay in step with their customers and stay relevant by investing heavily in information technology is the mistaken belief that standardization of tasks and processes will yield increasingly lower costs as a business moves down an experience curve (Porter, 1986). In previous economic cycles during the 20th century where mass production and efficiency was the approach to…
Richard a D'Aveni, Jonathan M. Canger, & Joseph J. Doyle. (1995). Coping with hypercompetition: Utilizing the new 7S's framework1. The Academy of Management Executive, 9(3), 45.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, & Kentaro Nobeoka. (2000). Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks, 21(3), 345-367.
Porter, Michael E.. (1986). Changing Patterns of International Competition. California Management Review, 28(2), 9.
Michael E. Porter. (2008, January). The FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES THAT SHAPE STRATEGY. Harvard Business Review: Special HBS Centennial Issue, 86(1), 78-93.
The company's consistent top line revenue growth also illustrates it has been successful in transforming its supplier network into one that operates more on knowledge, less on purely price or product decisions. As a result the company is capable of competing more at the process level and less at the purely price-driven one (eese, 2007).
In terms of the company's factors for success, the greater opportunities is to move into the global houseware and specialties market in addition to gaining greater market share in the global footwear markets, relying on its supply chain expertise to accomplish this (eese, 2007). The company's focus on the accelerating market for global apparel, accessories and luxury goods in its key countries and regions sold is also a critical factor in the long-term success of the firm. Overall the ability to continually improve its procurement and strategy sourcing processes however will make the greatest potential…
Ayling, J.. (1 December). just-style's review of the apparel industry in 2007: Management briefing: September. Just - Style: just-style's review of the apparel industry in 2007:,19-20.
Boulding, W. (2004). Sustainable pioneering advantage? Profit implications of market entry order. Marketing Science, 22, 3, 371-392.
Cuneo (2003) - "Apple Transcends as Lifestyle Brand," Advertising Age, Alice Z. Cuneo (15 December 2003).
Di Gangi, P., & Wasko, M.. (2009). Steal my idea! Organizational adoption of user innovations from a user innovation community: A case study of Dell IdeaStorm. Decision Support Systems, 48(1), 303.
Since this experience is irreversible, the manager's appetite for risk taking will severely affect and all future projects will get a beating.
7. Case Epilogue:
Lessons learned in this case: (i) an organization has to learn the significance of understanding necessities beyond micro level user needs, (ii) the necessity to get the conscious participation of every interested party in a huge complex project, as participative decision making has a tremendous influence on feedback relating to performance, importance of the task at hand, and support for progress to be made. (Wright, 2004) (iii) the significance of evaluating the particular contribution of every partner in a strategic alliance and evaluation has to run through the entire process of the alliance. (Evaluating Collaborations: Challenges and Methods) (iv) the impediments encountered while entering an unknown market with a new, untested IS product.
How to Decide Which EAV / EDS System is the best…
How to Decide Which EAV / EDS System is the best for my clinic?" Retrieved at http://www.besthealth.com.au/EAVexplained4.htm . Accessed on 17 March, 2005
McNurlin, B; Sprague, R. "Information Systems Management in Practice"
Retrieved at http://www.gresi.hec.ca/SHAPS/cp/gescah/formajout/ajout/test/uploaded/cahier0205.pdf. Accessed on 17 March, 2005
Merging Windows NT and UNIX on a single hardware platform" Retrieved at http://www.scd.ucar.edu/docs/asr98/nt.unix.html . Accessed on 17 March, 2005
Moreover, client management tools enable companies/organizations to manage better their computer systems, ensuring that the system is secure, and that all servers are functioning properly and are securely connected to its network.
An example of an organization that has utilized client management tools is Microsoft Corporation, which specifically subscribed to FullArmor and DesktopStandard so that administrators of computer systems (i.e., users) can "manage, customize and lock down desktop and server settings based on a set of policies maintained...The policies...can prevent users from changing settings and can disable services such as US ports to prevent use of removable storage devices" (Fontana, 2005). Through client management tools, Microsoft was able to maintain its own system its employees as well, wherein any security breach or unauthorized retrieval and use of company information are prevented by having the tools that is exclusively for the company's use only.
In addition to contact center management and…
Dubie, D. (2005). "Correlating customer service with it intelligence." Network World. Available at http://www.networkworld.com/news/2005/031405specialfocus.html .
____. (2006). "IBM, HP boost client management wares." Network World. Available at http://www.networkworld.com/news/2006/091106-ibm-hp.html .
Fontana, J. (2006). "Momentum building for identity management." Network World. Available at: ttp:/ / www.networkworld.com/news/2006/091106-identity.html.
____. (2005). "Vendors give boost to Microsoft management tools." Network World. Available at http://www.networkworld.com/news/2005/053005-desktop-management.html .
Such Employee and Student Tables can be further managed by regrouping them into particular collection type. Some examples of database management tools are SQL, Oracle, and SAP among many others.
A database management is important to information systems. Without database management, an information system may not provide accurate and efficient data to users. It is from the right database management where an information system depend its accurate performance because it is from the database where an information system derives data.
Database management is typically administered by a systems administrator or a systems analyst. They are the persons responsible for the design and decision-making of the structure of a database.
Why is group collaboration difficult?
Group collaboration is difficult because the source of information that is accessed by multiple users comes from a single set of source which presents several drawbacks in terms of performance and speed of an information system.…
IS Terminology. http://ia.gordon.army.mil/iaso/lesson01.htm
First, as Personal Trainer expands globally, the system will be available through web browsers anywhere in the world. Second, the ease of completing system upgrades across all users at the same time needs to be taken into consideration, and the use of the Web-based system architecture hosted on a Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platform is critical. Third, by taking this approach Susan can b e assured there will be higher levels of system adoption through the organization by making the graphical interfaces as easily used as possible. Fourth and finally Susan needs to complete Web-based development in-house as the total cost of ownership of a system based on this development technique and hosted on a SaaS platform will be inherently easier to manage than traditional client/server applications.
The main elements of the systems requirements document need to include the introduction, systems request summary, findings, recommendations, project roles, time and cost estimates, expected…
The printing press is a subject of the evolution of technology and has existed for over five hundred years (Eisenstein, 2007, p 87). Looking back into the way the printing press functioned at the inception is an environment characterized by intensive labor and collaboration of efforts to bring to birth probably one of the most significant sources of information existing in the present age (Eisenstein, 2007, p 102). The printing press actually created a platform that advocated for literacy even to the uninterested and in the end, transforming a number of people into believers of the saying knowledge is power. Like all subjects of evolution, the printing press is no exemption considering that it has transitioned from the days of clay tablets through to oil and paper and many more that form the transition tree (Eisenstein, 2007, p 102).
According to Isaac & Mckay, the presence of the writing press…
AXELROD, R.H. (2002). Terms of engagement: changing the way we change organizations. San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler.
BABUS-KA, R., & GROEN, F.C.A. (2010). Interactive collaborative information systems. Berlin, Springer-Verlag.
EISENSTEIN, E.L. (2007). The printing press as an agent of change: communications and cultural transformations in early-modern Europe. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
FEBVRE, L., & MARTIN, H.-J. (2007). The coming of the book: the impact of printing 1450-1800. London [u.a.], Verso.
There are many ways in which Information Systems have revolutionized business in the 21st century. Most of these transformations center around two major paradigms: increase in technological power and the globalization of the marketplace. Essentially, Information Systems revolve around Information Technology -- a broad-based term that runs the gamut of acquiring, processing, storing and then disseminating information (Dunn, 2011). For many years, managers had access to data - sometimes in limited ways, other times a great deal of data, but no real way to effectively analyze it. Data are facts, information is data shaped into meaningful forms so that it can be used to help with decision-making.
In general, Information Systems are transforming modern business in three major ways: 1) The use of the Internet and global communications has allowed organizations to have global customers and employees instead of worrying about geographic locations. This leads to the potential…
What is Management Information Systems. (2012). Mays Business School. Retrieved from: http://mays.tamu.edu/info/what-is-mis/
What is the NFIL? (2013). National Forum on Information Literacy. Retrieved from: http://infolit.org/about-the-nfil/what-is-the-nfil/
Dunn, J. (2011, November 11). The Fascinating History of Information Technology. Retrieved from Edudemic.com: http://edudemic.com/2011/11/history-of-it/
Earl,.M. (1996). Information Management: The Organizational Dimension. Google book: Retrieved from: www.books.google.com.
Describe some reasons why Linux is installed on only a very small fraction of desktop computers. Are there particular categories of products or users who might see Linux as more appealing than conventional operating systems? Do you think Linux's share of the desktop market will increase? Why or why not?
Linux is less prevalent on server systems than desktops, as the latter type of systems have been the primary focus of much of the innovation with open source software. Desktop systems are lagging server adoption of open source due to the entrenched mature of competition from Microsoft and their Windows operating system, lack of consistent approach to defining office automation applications that can challenge the 80%+ market share of Microsoft Office, and the proliferation of 3rd party applications on the Microsoft operating systems in this market (West, Dedrick, 2006). Linux is far more dominant on servers, where open…
Mentzas, G.N. (1997). Re-engineering banking with object-oriented models: Towards customer information systems. International Journal of Information Management, 17(3), 179-197.
Orr, B. (2008). Will IT of the future have its feet firmly planted in the "Cloud"? American Bankers Association. ABA Banking Journal, 100(9), 50-53.
West, J., & Dedrick, J. (2006). Scope and timing of deployment: Moderators of organizational adoption of the Linux server platform. International Journal of IT Standards & Standardization Research, 4(2), 1-15,17-23.
Infomation system efes to the combination of softwae, infastuctue, hadwae, and tained pesonnel in an oganized manne with the aim of facilitating planning, contol, decision-making, and coodination within the context of an oganization. This indicates that infomation systems ae vital components towads the achievement of the goals and objectives in the moden economies especially facilitating the aspect of intenational expansion and globalization. It is ideal to note that thee ae tens of millions of small entepises in the context of developed and developing nations. Statistics indicates that appoximately 90% of the fims in the developing nations ae mico and small entepises. These entepises ae vital in the ceation of about 90% of employment cases acoss the globe. The main objective of this eseach execise is to evaluate the influence of the infomation systems on the global e-commece entities.
Globalization has led to the geneation of a competitive and globalized…
references of the consumers. Information systems have played vital roles in enhancing the performance of the e-commerce in the global field as well as local entities. This has led to the increase in the volume of production and consumption because of the reduced challenges such as culture barriers and geographical distance. Information systems have also enhanced communication between entities and persons in the global market.
Merit pay for teachers is another problematic example of comparing data from different sources. A teacher with a relatively well-prepared classroom, full of children with parents who are quite focused on ensuring their children excel in school, perhaps with parents who even encourage students to get extra tutoring if they are in trouble, will find it easier to show demonstrable results than teachers trying to educate a difficult classroom of socially and economically deprived students. The teacher from the more affluent district with a merit-based salary does not necessarily boast higher-scoring students as the result of the district pay structure.
Thus, simply looking at the data regarding salaries is not necessarily helpful -- in fact, it can suggest easy causal relationships between improved salaries, merit pay, and other initiatives, with improved grades, when the real cause is far more complex, and may have to do more with the social and…
2006 Legislative Briefing." (2006). Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved 30 Aug 2007 at http://www.sreb.org /main/LegAction/legactions/06S08_2006_Leg_Briefing.pdf
Gaines, Gale. (2000). "Benchmarks 2000. Teacher Salaries and State Priorities for Education Quality." Southern Regional Education Board. Retrieved 30 Aug 2007 at
Information Systems Life Cycle
Running a photography printing store requires various resources and of particular import are the human resources that manage and operate the various business processes therein. However, keeping track of the employees' attendance via the manual system of punch cards has been a challenge due to lost cards, inaccurate hours, and employees punching in other employees. To remedy the situation, implementing a computerized time entry system is being considered. There is no automated system of choice yet despite the availability of various ones such as biometrics, proximity cards and others. In order to determine the viability of migrating from the manual time entry system into an automated one, it is critical to apply the systems development life cycle into the initiative.
The systems development life cycle or SDLC comprise of various phases depending upon the type of methodology used. The most basic SDLC methodology has four phases…
Bender RBT Inc. (2003). Systems development lifecycle: Objectives and requirements. Retrieved June 20, 2011 from http://benderrbt.com/Bender-SDLC.pdf
Hall, J.A. (2004). Managing the system development life cycle Retrieved June 20, 2011 from http://www.swlearning.com/accounting/hall/ais_4e/study_notes/ch13.pdf
Technology UK. (2011). The systems life cycle. Retrieved June 20, 2011 from http://www.technologyuk.net/computing/sad/life_cycles.shtml
Startvbdotnet.com. (2010). System development life cycle. Retrieved June 20, 2011 from http://www.startvbdotnet.com/sdlc/sdlc.aspx
Information Systems and Technology Involved With Solar Energy/Power
Information Systems and Information Technology in Solar Power/Energy & Associated Challenges
Solar energy is the contributor of approximately 94% of the world's energy although at first glance, much of that energy does not appear to be solar in nature. Solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells, are our most identifiable effort to convert the sun's energy into electricity. They depend on a phenomenon known as the photovoltaic effect, discovered in 1839 by a French teenager. Alexandre Edmond Becquerel, then 19, placed two metal plates in a salt solution and generated an electric current by simply placing his rig in the sun." (Palmer, 2010) Commercial solar cells today are stated to consist of "a layer of silicon mixed with boron, which faces the sun, stacked on top of a layer of silicon mixed with phosphorous. The silicon-phosphorous layer is known as the negative,…
Rapier, R. (2010) Cleantech, Globalization and Energy Independence. R Squared Energy. 12 Nov 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.consumerenergyreport.com/2010/11/12/cleantech-globalization-energy-independence/
Expanding with Green Technology (2010) Bosch. Retrieved from: http://www.bosch.com/content/language2/html/4445.htm
Solar Power and Globalization (2010) The Globalist Syndication Services. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobalist.com/rawmaterials/syndication/sample.htm
SPI Message: The Solar Industry if Ready to Fight (2010) Solar Feeds News and Commentary 12 Oct 2010 Climate Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.solarfeeds.com/climate-progress/14647-spi-message-the-solar-industry-is-ready-to-fight .
Information Systems (IS) and Technology Issues in Developing Countries
Technology has changed society in a manner much like the Industrial Revolution of the 17th century. The technology revolution started in the U.S. And the countries of Western Europe, in a manner similar to the industrial revolutions. The benefits of this revolution were immediately obvious in the improvement of productivity and the quality of life in the countries. Realizing the benefits that can be obtained by implementing information systems and technology systems many developing countries are looking towards using the technology to improve their standard of living and quality of life.
Technology is changing the way we live and work. Its influence is observed in all strata of population and throughout the world. The implementation and use of IS and technology in developed countries has existed for a number of decades. The developing countries are however, racing to catch up with…
Anonymous. (2001). New technologies vital to the poor. Appropriate Technology, 28, 3, 29-30
Checchi, Ricardo M, Hsieh, J.J. Po-An, & Straub, Detmar W. (2003). Public IT Policies in Less Developed Countries: A Critical Assessment of the Literature and a Reference Framework. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 6, 4, 45
Child, John. (2001). Trust -- the fundamental bond in Global Collaboration. Organizational Dynamics, 29, 4, 274-288
Google. (2004). Developing countries. Retrieved August 31, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.google.com/search?hl=en& ; lr=& ie=UTF-8& oi=defmore& q=define:developing+countries
One of the most important elements for business organizations and companies is obtaining competitive advantage over rivals. Competitive advantage can be described as a product and/or service that a business' customers consider more valuable that similar offering from the business' rivals. Consequently, companies are constantly involved in developing measures that contribute to competitive advantages in order to achieve their respective business objectives amidst intense competition from rivals. One of the major ways that has been identified as a crucial element for obtaining competitive advantage is information systems. Information systems are regarded as critical factors for gaining competitive advantages due to their role in competitive strategy. This includes cost leadership, differentiation, innovation, growth, and strategic alliance.
Meaning of Information Systems
An information system can simply be defined as an incorporated set of components that are utilized to collect, store, and process data and to provide information, knowledge, and digital…
Bedi, J.S. (2014, January 29). McDonald's Information System Management. Retrieved February
Callaos, N. & Callaos, B. (2002). Toward a Systematic Notion of Information: Practical
Consequences. Informing Science, 5(1), 1-11. Retrieved from http://inform.nu/Articles/Vol5/v5n1p001-011.pdf
The last three decades have been characterized by huge organizational investments in Information Technology to foster work processes. As a result, both the intra-organizational and inter-organizational work systems in the modern working environments are increasingly IT-enabled. These organizations have increasingly dependent on IT-enabled value chains as the basis of their interactions with customers (Jasperson, Carter & Zmud, 2005, p.525). However, the functional potential of the mounted IT applications is largely underutilized. Generally, organizations face challenges in realizing the effective use of the IT applications and information systems, which results in under-utilization of functional potential. The increased under-utilization of IT applications and information systems has resulted in the publication of several articles to examine the problem and recommend ways for enhancing effective use. An example of these articles is a publication by Xuefei Deng and Lei Chi regarding a longitudinal assessment of system use problems in the context of…
"A Comprehensive Review and Conceptualization of the Post-adoptive Behaviors Associated with IT Applications." (n.d.). Department of Decision and Information Sciences. Retrieved from University of Houston website: http://disc-nt.cba.uh.edu/chin/speakerseries/R1MISQManuscript3546.pdf
Bhattacherjee, A. & Premkumar, G. (2004, June). Understanding Changes in Belief and Attitude Toward Information Technology Usage: A Theoretical Model and Longitudinal Test. MIS Quarterly, 28(2), 229-254.
Deng, X. & Chi, L. (2012). Understanding Postadoptive Behaviors in Information Systems Use: A Longitudinal Analysis of System Use Problems in the Business Intelligence Context. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(3), 291-325.
Jasperson, J., Carter, P.E. & Zmud, R.W. (2005, September). A Comprehensive Conceptualization of Post-Adoptive Behaviors Associated with Information Technology Enabled Work Systems. MIS Quarterly, 29(3), 525-557.
The role of Risk Management Information System (RMIS) in BAE Systems, Inc.
With its headquarters in Virginia’s Arlington County, BAE Systems Incorporated has units in America, Britain, Mexico, Israel, Sweden, and South Africa that employ around 43,000 individuals. Its mounting yearly earnings suggest that it may be counted as one of the top global defense firms (Winzelberg, 1). Its extensive operations cover air, naval and land electronic systems, services, and platforms. Security and intelligence solutions necessitate the incorporation of several multifaceted information systems which are aligned with smooth operation.
But the organization encounters a number of issues when it comes to guaranteeing client and operations-linked information security. A few of these issues are finding an appropriate data classification of facts communicated via collaboration sites, appropriate information sharing and validation, central data control and restricted technical data access on collaboration internet sites ("BAE Systems" 1). For dealing with every aforementioned issue…
Information System Briefing
the Process of selecting & acquiring an Information System (IS) for Healthcare:
Any medical organization planning to go for an IS must choose an efficient Electronic Patient ecord -- EP which is the starting point of any computerized system. Effectiveness of the following points must drive the process of selection and acquisition of an IS. These are (i) Patient care which is the documented record of every patient undergoing process at the medical care unit. (ii) Communication: Patient records constitute and important means through which doctors, nurses and other are able to communicate with one another regarding patient requirements. (iii) Legal documentation: Legal documentation is important as these keep track document care as well as treatment, can become legal records. (iv) Billing and reimbursement: Patient record delivers the documentation which is used by patients to verify billed services. (v) esearch and quality management: Patient records are used…
Anderson, James. G; Aydin, Carolyn. (2005) "Evaluating the Organizational Impact of Healthcare Information Systems" Springer.
Keshavjee, K; Bosomworth, J; Copen, J. (2006) "Best practices in EMR implementation"
AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2006; 2006: 982. compete-study.com [PDF]
Wager, Karen A; Lee, Frances W; Glase, John P. (2009) "Healthcare Information System -- A
Information System/Internet Strategy
Information technology and Internet systems have become such an integrated part of life today that all businesses of any significant size have at least some form of electronic media as part of their daily operations. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine how any business could function without at least an e-mail platform or an electronic database connection. What I have learnt about decision making, the role of information, information systems, and knowledge management should help me in my current job situation, when thinking critically about the ways in which other businesses conduct their operations, and in constructing my own operations should I be a business owner in the future. This knowledge can be applied to my current work situation at the telecommunication company Orange, as well as to a group investigation I was part of for the Manchester University.
The Orange company, where I am currently employed,…
Davenport, T.H. (2006, Jan). Competing on Analytics.
Maes, R. (2009). An Integrative Perspective on Information Management.
Peppard, J. (1999). Information management in the global enterprise: an organising framework. European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 8.
MIS stands for "Management Information System." It is one of the computer-based tools to manage organizational operations efficiently. It consists of software that managers' use in making decision, for data storage, in project management applications, for records and procedures for making customers relations etc. Nowadays most of the organizations have separate MIS department which is basically responsible for computer systems. MIS is also called "Information System" or "Information Technology." The combination of people, software, hardware, communications network and data resource that collect, transform and distribute information in an organization is called an information system (O'Brien, 1999).
Working of the information system depends on the different activists. The first activity is input of data resources. It involves the data entry. Data can be of any time like transactions data etc. Then information system analyzes and processes that data to form information. Now this information is transferred to end users…
O'Brien, J (1999). Management Information Systems -- Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
ISACA (2006). CISA Review Manual 2006. Information Systems Audit and Control Association.
ISACA. 2008. "Segregation of Duties Control matrix." Retrieved May 25, 2011, from
Kiountouzis, E.A. And Kokolakis, S.A. (1996). Information systems security: facing the information society of the 21st century London: Chapman & Hall
Ideally, Zachman thinking pattern has been challenged by time and fails to address challenges in a real-time basis collectively. Such a basis would agree that a superior usage of technology is not near-change mechanism. Zachman argues that a communication breakdown exists in the organization (by that time) because it handled the frameworks differently. This was not in line with the requirements of a desirable organization. Further to this, communication channels inside the organization have improved and not according to Zachman's times in the 21st century. While responding to Zachman, it is good to establish whether the current approach (data modeling / and hybridism for large calls and the superior application of technology) is satisfying (Bowman, Godfrey, & Holt, 2000).
As a result, future studies should apply the future design system that will integrate Zachman's ideas into real time environment whilst acknowledging the impetus behind data modeling. The following research questions…
Bigot, L.L., Jamet, E., Rouet, J., & Amiel, V. (2006). Mode and modal transfer effects on Performance and discourse organization with an information retrieval dialogue system in natural language. Computers in Human Behavior, 22(3), 467-500.
Bowman, I., Godfrey, M., & Holt, R. (2000). Connecting architecture reconstruction frameworks. Information and Software Technology, 42(2), 91-102
Huysman, M. (2000). Rethinking organizational learning: analyzing learning processes of information system designers. Accounting, Management and Information Technologies, 10(2), 81-99
Raeesi, M., & Sadeghi-Niaraki, A. (2013). Gis-Based System For Post-Earthquake Crisis Management Using Cellular Network. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XL-1/W3, 321-325.
EP systems are designed to provide this level of integration to enable process-centric workflows throughout companies (Kamhawi, 2008). In terms of data, EP systems deal with a multitude of different types, from supplier- and product-specific data to pricing and customer-based data in terms of orders and the status of shipments to customers. The most fundamental aspect of an EP system is its contribution in streamlining the distributed order management process (Walker, 2008). In terms of the network, EP systems often sit in the middle of company-wide internal networks that seek to integrate all legacy and 3rd party systems together and create a single system of record (Walker, 2008) for the company. The network topology is often in the form of a series of smaller clusters or "islands" of data and systems that the EP system is meant to integrate to and unify.
Section 3 - Write a summary to show…
Shih-Wei Chou, Yu-Chieh Chang. (2008). The implementation factors that influence the ERP (enterprise resource planning) benefits. Decision Support Systems, 46(1), 149. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1603626971).
Emad M. Kamhawi. (2008). System Characteristics, Perceived Benefits, Individual Differences and Use Intentions: a Survey of Decision Support Tools of ERP Systems. Information Resources Management Journal, 21(4), 66-83. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1570039261).
Kenton B. Walker. (2008). SOX, ERP, and BPM: A Trifecta That Can Make Your Business Run Better. Strategic Finance, 90(6), 47-53. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1607404201).
Information has been for many centuries a mean to pass on different facts from generation to generation. Things like the Holocaust or the Indian massacres in the Americas live in our conscience, but can be proved only by the documents that have told us about them. I have picked these exact two examples because they are opposites in terms of information preservation. If we consider the Holocaust, any of its contesters can be countered by using documents of the time like the videos that the Nazis made in the extermination camps, the enraged speeches that the Nazi leaders held against the Jewish communities or the testimonies of the survivors. The Indian extermination, however, is not backed up by documents at such a level. Some of the reasons for this are the fact that the Indians relied more on oral preservation of information, from generation to generation, and to…
What surprised me about Prototyping in the article
Although the prototyping systems are presently becoming smaller and more affordable, they are still present additional expenses for most companies. There are some companies who select a prototyping strategy that is much cheaper than other systems. In the article, there are two main things that surprised me about prototyping.
One thing is that, not all prototypes implemented looks accurate. Most companies use prototyping in printing parts for their functional testing in prior to production. However despite of the advancement in technology, various prototyping systems cannot manage to create the design. However, prototyping is said to be a non- remedy for the problems that are associated with the system development.
The other thing that is surprising from the article of System Management with prototyping is that, prototyping is built out of the concept making the presented models in early stage to be incomplete.…
Rick, W., & Bill, H. (1994). Journal of Systems Management. An investigation of guidelines for selecting a prototyping strategy. Retrieved March 14, 2013, from www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-15095635/investigation-guidelines-selecting-prototyping.html
0 are used in organizations to provide an access to high levels of the scale without an enormous costs of traditional infrastructure. Both increase performance given that the clients who are the organizations have data centers across the globe that keeps the processing reasonably close to accessing it over the network. Organizations use cloud computing and web 2.0 to strategically cut the cost of driving innovation and to be ready for the prime-time use in the enterprise environments (O'eilly, 2008).
Technologies required for web cloud computing and Web 2.0
Tim O'Reilly (2008). Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing - O'Reilly Radar. O'Reilly Radar - Insight, analysis, and research about emerging technologies. Retrieved March 17, 2013, from http://radar.oreilly.com/2008/10/web-20-and-cloud-computing.html
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
The CPU is generally a single microprocessor made from a wafer of semi-conducting material (usually silicon) containing millions of electrical components on it. Its main function is to process information entered through an input device, such as a keyboard, scanner, or joystick, or taken from memory. The CPU usually does this by performing arithmetic and logical operations on the data or information.
RAM is the acronym for random access memory and it is the physical or semi-conductor-based memory inside the computer circuitry stored in tiny computer chips that can hold millions of bytes of information. It can be read or changed by the user or the computer. It is thus different from read only memory (ROM) that can only be read but not changed.
Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices, such as…
Computer." Chapter on 'How Computers Work.' Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003. CD-ROM version.
In addition, expect an in-car camera increase, to expand "an effort to protect officers from unwarranted complaints (CPD, 2007)."
• Expect an increase in the availability of hardware devices based on any increase in system or application users. Consider the hardware users for Santa Barbara in a parallel comparison: The Santa Barbara "population includes all full-time employees and also includes eserve Officers, volunteers, Explorers, temporary employees, and a small number of users that work at other city, county, and state departments that have access to portions of our systems."
• Expect an increase in capacity for data storage. With an expected increase in population, the CPD can expect a larger pool of transactional data for recording and updating.
• Expect a need for new software development and software integrations. To continue to improve its information technology program, the CPD will continue to develop new software to expand on mapping systems,…
CPD. (2013). A brief time history of the chicago police department. Retrieved from https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/About CPD/History
CPD. (2007). Technology update: staying ahead of the curve. Retrieved from https://portal.chicagopolice.org/portal/page/portal/ClearPath/News/Department
City of Santa Barbara. (2013). Information technology . Retrieved from http://www.santabarbaraca.gov/Government/Departments/Police/police_information_technology
information systems and its effects on business processes. Moreover, I have explained the several business components and their effectiveness as information systems. In addition, I have provided information regarding the effects of information systems on various business careers.
Information systems have brought revolutions and innovations in today's business' setups and also have developed a close relationship with globalization. The responsibility of these information systems in an organization is not to support the tasks of the individuals but to support business functions as a whole. Nowadays, business operations are conducted by using e-mail, online conferences (video/audio) and cell phones which have turned out to be the most fundamental tools in business execution. Information systems, if truth be told, are the basis of accelerating supply chains. The businesses today have the advantage of using internet for purchasing, selling, advertising and imploring the feedbacks from consumers/customers online. It is now the purpose of…
Alter, S. (2002). Information Systems: Foundation of E-Business, 4/e (4th ed.). New Delhi, India: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ElXnQdPTEQ4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Information+Systems:+Foundation+of+E-Business&hl=en&sa=X&ei=8OkdUZaKN6XJ0AXE7oCADQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Information%20Systems%3A%20Foundation%20of%20E-Business&f=false
Chatterjee, I. (2010). Management Information Systems. Delhi, India: PHI Learning Private Limited. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=DOi2meoOKWsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems&hl=en&sa=X&ei=998dUej2DIqL0AWQp4CgCA&ved=0CFsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20Systems&f=false
Laudon, K., Laudon, J., & Dass, R. (2010). Management Information Systems: Managing the Digital Firm (11th ed.). Chennai: Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=gx-LOQmKou8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+Systems:+Managing+The+Digital+Firm,+11/E&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KM0dUcjxNOW00QXAtIH4Bg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Lucey, T. (2005). Management Information System (9th ed.). Croatia: Thomson Learning. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=A0bu30rNgJsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Management+Information+System&hl=en&sa=X&ei=svMdUcLkNoi10QXfmoHYBw&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=Management%20Information%20System&f=false
They have a moral obligation to the South African people in this area for many reasons. First, they have an obligation to make certain that they can participate in the global economy to give their citizens the same chances for advancement as other nations. Secondly, they have a moral obligation to do everything possible to keep their citizens safe.
When one discusses the topic of security in Information and Communication Technology (ICT), much of the discussion focuses on the technology itself. Currently, the South African banking industry is attempting to establish standards that represent best practices in information security (Tshinu, Botha, and Herselman, 2008). These measures currently focus on the technological aspects of information security. However, the development of industry-wide best practices must take all sources of vulnerability into consideration, including the moral and ethical responsibility to keep information safe.
Therefore, the development of best practices cannot ignore the human…
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2006. "The Economics of Information Security." Science [Online] 314 (5799), pp.610-613, October 27, 2006. Available at:
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~rja14/Papers/toulouse-summary.pdf (Accessed June 20, 2010).
Anderson, R. & Moore, T. 2007. "The Economics of Information Security: A Survey and Open Questions." Fourth Bi-annual Conference on the Economics of the Software and Internet Industries. January 19-20, 2007: Toulouse, France. [Online] Available at:
Information Systems over the Last Century:
Synchronizing and Streamlining Transportation and Logistics Systems
The pace of change and its complexity continues to drastically redefine entire industries, with those reliant on supply chains, logistics and transportation services seeing the greatest benefits and risks. Globalization is also re-shaping industries the fastest who rely on transportation as a key part of their value chains. United Parcel Service is a company that is representative of the pace and complexity of change that has occurred in business processes, strategies, and information systems over the last one hundred years. UPS was founded in 1907 in Seattle, Washington by Jim Casey, and today is one of the leading transportations services companies globally. The intent of this analysis is to explain the differences between business information systems and methods widely used in 1910 and how they compare to the common enterprise-wide systems and methods of today. The telephone,…
Nabil Alghalith. (2005). Competing with IT: The UPS Case. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, 7(2), 7-15.
Ata, B., & Van Mieghem, J. (2009). The Value of Partial Resource Pooling: Should a Service Network Be Integrated or Product-Focused? Management Science, 55(1), 115-131.
Barrett, J.. (2007, November). Demand-Driven is an Operational Strategy. Industrial Management, 49(6), 14-19,5.
Das, K.. (2011). Integrating effective flexibility measures into a strategic supply chain planning model. European Journal of Operational Research, 211(1), 170.
Information Systems for a Nostalgic ecord Store
Benefits and Drawbacks of Information Systems
Comparison of Five Systems' Cost and Benefits
Launching a new record store that concentrates on nostalgic music can potentially be lucrative as many music fans like to listen to their favorite musicians and artists who may not be played on popular radio today. For a small brick -- and mortar music store specializing in nostalgic music, it is recommended that a series of five systems be considered for managing the business. These five systems include the following:
E-Commerce Website and supporting system
Pricing and Merchandise Management System
The benefits and drawback of each of these systems id briefly described in this paper.
Benefits and Drawbacks of Information Systems
Each of the systems that the record store needs in order to operate profitably are defined in this section along with their benefits…
Sarapovas, T., & Cvilikas, A. (2008). The evaluation of e-commerce impact on business efficiency. Baltic Journal of Management, 3(1), 71-91.
Wichmann, H. (1983). Accounting and marketing - key small business problems. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 7(4), 19-19.
This constraint engine could also be used for specifically designing upper limits as to how many total sessions to allow to be created given the constraint of professor time and availability. In addition, the Web-based college or university registration system also needs to have a front-end interface or graphical user interface that is intuitive enough for the first-year or freshman students to navigate yet robust enough in functionality to allow students who are pursuing master's and PhD level studies to also schedule independent study and consultation times with their professors. There must be a degree of flexibility in the system design to specifically allow for this type of role-based access and use, from the entry-level freshman to the advanced master's and PhD-level students. To ensure the system is used correctly and there is sufficient security, it is also critically important for the design to allow for role-based and authentication-based use…
Stefano Ceri, Florian Daniel, Maristella Matera, & Federico M. Facca. (2007). Model-driven development of context-aware Web applications. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 7(1), 2.
Moez Limayem, Mohamed Khalifa, & Wynne W. Chin. (2004). CASE Tools Usage and Impact on System Development Performance. Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce, 14(3), 153-175.
Ioana Manolescu, Marco Brambilla, Stefano Ceri, Sara Comai, & Piero Fraternali. (2005). Model-driven design and deployment of service-enabled web applications. ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, 5(3), 439.
Mattsson, a., Lundell, B., Lings, B., & Fitzgerald, B.. (2009). Linking Model-Driven Development and Software Architecture: A Case Study. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 35(1), 83-93.
4). The strength associated with this approach is ensuring that an organization has access to its mission-critical data in the event of a disaster, with the concomitant weakness being the relatively modest costs involved.
The next step in developing the organization's information system recover plan is to take stock of existing hardware. As Cohen emphasizes, "If you have been hosting your company's Web site on an office computer, it is time to stop. For the cost of a cup of coffee per day, a Web-hosting center can fully protect your site off-site, where it will not tie up your company's bandwidth" (p. 3). This approach to maintaining important contacts with customers and an organization's intranet has several strengths over an organization's hosting the Web site in-house. For instance, eagan (2006) notes that, "A hosted solution provides an organization with the flexibility of deploying an IP-enabled system without the maintenance costs…
Cohen, B. (2004, November 17). Data recovery planning -- What you need to know.
SmallBusinessComputing.com. [Online]. Available: http://www.smallbusiness computing.com/webmaster/article.php/3436831.
Reagan, C. (2006, February). Using VOIP to recover telecommunications services: A new generation of disaster recovery processes and telecom systems can help your enterprise deal with a crisis. Business Communications Review, 36(2), 60-61.
Health Information System
Promoting Action Design esearch to create value in healthcare through IT
ecently there has been varying proof showing that health IT reduces costs while improving the standard of care offered. The same factors that had caused delays in reaping benefits from IT investment made in other sectors (i.e. time consuming procedural change) are also very common within the healthcare sector. Due to the current transitive nature of the Healthcare sector, new IT investment is likely not going to provide maximum value unless this new investment is backed up with a total reform of healthcare delivery. The overall ability of healthcare IT value researchers to add value to practice will be severely limited as a result of the traditional ex-post approach to measuring IT and the fact that government spurs significant investment. It may be risky to generalize or compare results from traditional IT value research with those…
Fichman, R., Kohli, R., & Krishnan, R. (2011). The role of information systems in healthcare: Current research and future trends. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 419-428.
Goh, J.M., Gao, G., & Agarwal, R. (n.d.). Evolving work routines: Adaptive routinization of information technology in healthcare. Information Systems Research, 22(3), 565-585.
Hoffnagel, E., Woods, D., & Leveson, N. (2006). Resilience engineering: Concepts and precepts. Abingdon: GBR: Ashgate Publishing.
Jones, S., Heaton, P., Riudin, R., & Schneider, E. (2012). Unraveling the IT productivity paradox lessons for health care. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2243-2245.
Many see collaboration as an investment strategy. While some may see collaboration as a scary area to approach in research, in actuality, collaboration involves more than simply sharing techniques or data. Numerous researchers in fact, regard collaboration as an important step in research. However, many researchers do not know how to collaborate. By increasing the amount of benefits one receives from collaboration, it then takes center stage as an important aspect of research.
Collaborative research yields higher levels of creativity and helps one network with people they may work with in the future. Overall, when one takes on the endeavor of collaborating in regards to research, there is less work. This is because there are more people helping in gathering information and compiling/analyzing data. Less work means more time spent on providing quality information and research to the project.
Another thing to note is criticism. Any work done…
Iso.org,. (2013). ISO 27001 - Information security management. Retrieved 26 February 2016, from http://www.iso.org/iso/home/standards/management-standards/iso27001.htm
Savoie, M. (2012). Building successful information systems. [New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017): Business Expert Press.
Savoie, M. (2012). Building successful information systems. [New York, N.Y.] (222 East 46th Street, New York, NY 10017): Business Expert Press.
According to Glenn and Gordon, "Current absorption capacity of carbon by oceans and forests is about 3 to 3.5 billion tons per year. Yet, 7 billion tons are added to the atmosphere annually, which could increase to 14 billion tons per year if current trends continue -- eventually leading to greenhouse effects beyond the ability of humans to control" (Glenn & Gordon, 2006, p. 20).
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, economic development has taken place in many regions of the world with little or no regard for its impact on the environment. his has been particularly evident in the developing nations of the world where the need for economic development outweighs the importance of environmental sustainability. In an increasingly globalized marketplace, though, the opportunity to reverse these ugly trends exists, but only if thoughtful approaches to the use of…
The need for informed approaches to addressing the threats to the global environment has never been greater. At present, more than half of the global life-support systems have already vanished or are in jeopardy of collapsing and environmental degradation will only become more severe by mid-century when an additional 2.6 billion people are added to the world's population (Glenn & Gordon, 2006). Moreover, the overwhelming majority of the population growth that will occur by mid-century (90%) is projected to take place in the world's poorest nations (Yeager & Barker, 2000).According to Glenn and Gordon, "Current absorption capacity of carbon by oceans and forests is about 3 to 3.5 billion tons per year. Yet, 7 billion tons are added to the atmosphere annually, which could increase to 14 billion tons per year if current trends continue -- eventually leading to greenhouse effects beyond the ability of humans to control" (Glenn & Gordon, 2006, p. 20).
Since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century and throughout the 20th century, economic development has taken place in many regions of the world with little or no regard for its impact on the environment. This has been particularly evident in the developing nations of the world where the need for economic development outweighs the importance of environmental sustainability. In an increasingly globalized marketplace, though, the opportunity to reverse these ugly trends exists, but only if thoughtful approaches to the use of information technology are identified and deployed. In this regard, Zhao, Liu and Dong (2008) emphasize that, "Globalisation should provide an opportunity to think more in terms of using technology to create win-win alternatives to the traditional trade-offs between growth and environmental sustainability" (p. 320).
Despite the introduction of increasingly sophisticated and powerful information technology tools in recent years, there remains a paucity of timely and relevant studies concerning how these tools can best be applied to environmentally sustainable initiatives and what types of improvements in these technologies will be required to achieve optimal results. For instance, Glenn and Gordon report that, "The moment-by-moment connectivity among ideas, people, resources, and challenges in order to create optimal solutions, however, is yet to be developed. A worldwide race to connect everything
This is so important because the current business environment is full of competitions and therefore firms that don't focus on external value creation eventually lose their competitive advantage (Spulber,2009). The current business scene is very competitive meaning that each form must have an edge so as to win over more customers. The process requires that the internal and the external business processes be fine tuned using all tools available. The adopted tools should be able to react to the changes in the corporate environment such as new business models. New technologies such as management information system strategy are important in order to remain competitive through enhance internal and external functions (Chaffey, 2002).
Johnson plc should invest in Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) technology that would allow it to exchange valuable information such as order updates, product prices and transaction schedules to their suppliers and customers. This should be rolled on a…
Bartoo, J, Elliot, T, and Naik-lyer, V.(2000) Increased Competitive Advantage the Combination
of E-business and Business Intelligence Tools. San Jose, CA: Business Objects, 2000.
Chaffey, D., (2002), E-business and E-Commerce Management, Pearson Education Limited
Earl, M. (1998) "An organizational approach to IS strategy making." In M. Earl (eds)
Creating Organizational Value through the Integration of Information Technology: A Management Perspective
Change Management and the Construction of a eceptive Organization
Transformational and Participative Leadership
A Decentralized Organizational Culture
Effective Utilization of esources
Performance Monitoring Systems
isk Management and Support Strategies
When considering the ever-changing and highly competitive global landscape of business today, firms must stay at the cutting edge of their respective fields in order to sustain profitability in the long-term. With the current exponential growth of technology and the computerization of business and learning, consumers and investors have become much more connected to the businesses they patronize (Kurzweil, 2001). Accordingly, companies are faced with the continuous task of finding new ways to understand and subsequently accommodate the needs of those customers and shareholders, while simultaneously securing lucrative business models and job environments. In doing so, businesses must be able to efficiently integrate and utilize various sources of…
Aladwani, A.M. (2001). Change Management Strategies for Successful ERP Implementation. Business Process Management Journal, 7 (3), 266-275.
Anthony, S. (2010, May). Three Critical Innovation Lessons from Apple. Retrieved July 26, 2011, from http://hbr.org/anthony/2010/05/three_critical_innovation_less.html
Antonelli, C. (2000). Collective Knowledge Communication and Innovation: The Evidence of Technological Districts. Regional Studies, 34 (6), 535-547.
Ashkenas, R., Ulrich, D., Jick, T., & Bossidy, L. (2002). The Boundaryless Organization: Breaking the Chains of Organization Structure. United States: John Wiley and Sons.
FedEx Express is a logistics company, focusing on overnight delivery service, though offering slower services as well. The company operates globally, using a hub and spoke model. The company ships from each depot to one of several centralized depots, where the packages are sorted and dispatched to the different outbound aircraft (FedEx.com, 2015). Not surprisingly, information systems are critical to managing millions of packages each night, and ensuring that they arrive in their destination anywhere in the world the next day.
One Critical System
One of the information systems that is critical to FedEx is the one that manages the tracking of packages as they move through the centralized sorting facility. Each package has a bar code with which it is tracked. At the different stages of the handling, that code is scanned. This allows the packages to be sorted more efficiently, and it allows both FedEx and…
Baldwin, R. (2013). Shipshape: Tracking 40 years of FedEx tech. Wired. Retrieved April 2, 2015 from http://www.wired.com/2013/04/40-years-of-FedEx/
FedEx.com (2015). About us. FedEx.com. Retrieved April 2, 2015 from http://www.FedEx.com/us/
Gruman, G. (2004). Wireless -- UPS vs. FedEx: Head-to-head on wireless. CIO Magazine. Retrieved April 2, 2015 from http://www.cio.com/article/2439622/mobile/wireless-ups-versus-FedEx -- head-to-head-on-wireless.html
Information Systems Management
What sorts of motivators, processes, and best practices should managers of virtual organizations adapt from the open source movement?
Open source movement is a far reaching and wide ranging movement of persons who offer support and backing to the utilization of open source licenses for all software or just a number of them. The open software is made accessible for any individual to make use of or undertake modifications, considering the fact that its source code is made accessible. Virtual organizations can be delineated as a network of autonomous companies that come together more often than not, for a temporary period of time, to create a product or service. There are motivators, processes, and best practices that managers of virtual organizations ought to espouse from the open source movement. To start with, the capacity of allowing members to not only use, but also to modify the data…
Galliers, R. D., Leidner, D. E. (2009). Strategic Information Management: Challenges and Strategies in Managing Information Systems. New York: Routledge.
Heron, M., Hanson, V. L., & Ricketts, I. (2013). Open source and accessibility: advantages and limitations. Journal of Interaction Science,1(1), 1-10.
Hout, T., Carter, J. C. (1995). Getting It Done: New Roles for Senior Executives. Harvard Business Review.
Paul4Innovating. (2014). The role senior executives must fill for innovation success. Paul4innovating's Innovation Views. Retrieved 16 April 2016 from: https://paul4innovating.com/2014/03/03/the-role-senior-executives-must-fill-for-innovation-success/
Furuholt, (2006) argues that lack of management engagement to the acceptance of information systems has been a barrier to the implementation of information systems. The issues are even common with organizations in the developing countries where management does not give enough priority to the information systems implementation. Importantly, implementation of information systems requires management support since management will need to approve fund that would be used for IS implementation. Generally, younger people are more interested in the it tools than older people. In a situation where number of older working team outnumbers younger working team within an organization, the IS implementation may be cumbersome.
More importantly, lack of knowledge of information systems may serve as barrier to its implementation. In the developed countries, private and public organizations have already aware the importance of information systems to the organizations. Many organizations in developed countries already realize that it tool is a…
Abukhzam, M. & Lee, a. (2010). Factors affecting Bank Staff attitude towards E-banking adoption in Libya. The Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries: 42(2): 1-15.
Ali, S.N.A. (2010). E-government services: an exploration of the main factors that contribute to successful implementation in Libya. PhD thesis, University of Portsmouth.
Bartol, K.M. (1982). Managing Information Systems Personnel: A Review of the Literature and Managerial Implications. MIS Quarterly.
Boh, W.F. & Yelling, D. (2007). Using Organizational Architecture Standards in Managing Information Technology. Journal of Management Information Systems. 23 (3): 163 -- 207.
ENTEPISE INFOMATION SYSTEMS ON AN OGANIZATION'S PEFOMANCE?
What is the effect of enterprise information systems on an organization's performance?
There is need for any organization operating in today's rapidly changing and competitive business environment to be dynamic and flexible in its daily operations Hevner, March, Park, & am, 2004.
Using enterprise information systems, an organization is able to improve its business efficiency and reduce costs. Embracing information technology will allow an organization to succeed in the rapidly changing business world. Information technology has made it possible for organizations to develop information systems that allow for effective communication, support decision making, and provide mutual understanding amongst the staff members.
Modern business comprises of complex multicomponent systems, the primary component being information technology. Each business has its own unique financial and economic activities, but there are problems which would face all business. Some of the problems include marketing, financial resources,…
Breath, C.M., & Ives, B. (1986). Competitive Information Systems in Support of Pricing. MIS Quarterly, 10(1), 85-96.
Chen, M. (1995). A Model-Driven Approach to Accessing Managerial Information: The Development of a Repository-Based Executive Information System. Journal of Management Information Systems, 11(4), 33-63.
Creswell, J.W. (2002). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. 2455 Teller Road Thousand Oaks, CA 91320: SAGE Publications.
Hakim, C. (2000). Research Design. 7625 Empire Drive, Florence, Kentucky: Taylor & Francis.
Acquistion of Information Systems
Selection and Acquisition of Information Systems
Selection and acquisition of information systems could involve an enormous investment for a healthcare organization. Besides the initial costs that organizations need to incur, there are also long-term costs associated with maintenance, support and enhancement of the information system. Selecting the right information systems that would meet the need of an organization is a critical step to consider when selecting and acquiring the information systems. To select information systems, it is critical to evaluate the costs and benefits as well as gaining insight on the full constituents of the users.
Fundamental objective of this paper is to discuss the process of selecting and acquiring the information systems for our healthcare organization.
Process of Selecting and Acquiring the Information Systems
System acquisitions are the process of selecting a new system in order to replace the old information systems. The process of…
Johnson, E. (2006). Selecting an Electronic Medical Record System for the Physician Practice. AHIMA's 78th National Convention and Exhibit Proceedings.
Wager, K.A. Lee, F.W. & Glaser, J.P. (2009). Health Care Information Systems: A Practical Approach for Health Care Management. John Wiley & Sons. USA.
Marketing Information System
This is a type of management information system that is designed for supporting the process of marketing decision making. This is a system which is planed and entails the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of data in information form required in carrying out management functions.it is also termed as a system made up of people, equipment and procedure which are used in gathering, sorting, analyzing, evaluating and distribution of data to managers according to the required informational needs regularly. There are four main components of marketing information system these are internal records which gives reliable inside information of an organization; marketing intelligence that gives information collected from external sources; marketing research for solving marketing problems in an organization and marketing decision support system comprise of tools that assist managers in data analysis hence better decision making. The marketing decision support system enables marketers to get the information…
Johnson, R. (2011).The 8 different pricing objectives. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://vwmarketingsolutions.ca/2012/07/the-8-different-pricing-objectives/
Opdenakker, R. (2006). Forum; Qualitative social research. Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research. Volume 7, No. 4, Art. 11. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/175/391
Price, R. (2010). The Basic Steps of the Marketing Research Process. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/basic-steps-marketing-research-process-30942.html
Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration
HM technologies are essential towards reduction of the cost of operations as well as an increment in the level of consumer satisfaction hence effective management of the resources and available opportunities. Wal-Mart should focus on the quality and efficient automation of the processes and departments for the purposes of eliminating errors and overhead costs. This is essential through management of the HM technologies such as CM, FID, and EP with the aim of achieving maximum profit levels and revenues at the end of the fiscal year.
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an EP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production esearch, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The ole of Information Systems
Ho, C. (2007). Measuring system performance of an ERP-based supply chain. International Journal of Production Research, 45(6), 1255-1277. doi:
Karimi, J., Somers, T.M., & Bhattacherjee, A. (2007). The Role of Information Systems
Resources in ERP Capability Building and Business Process Outcomes. Journal Of
Role of Information Systems in Marketing
The objective of this study is to examine the role of information systems in marketing in terms of the information that is necessary for decision making. Additionally this work will examine the role of IS for this function within the organization and the benefits of IS for the functional users at the operational level, the use of data at all levels of the organization and how IS has affected processes for this functional perspective.
Decision Making and the Marketing Information System
The work of Ismail (2011) entitled "The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision Making: An Applied Study on Royal Jordanian Air Lines (RJA)" reports a study that has the objective of emphasizing the importance of the utilization of the marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making through making clear the requirement for decision-making that is both "quick and effective…due to time saving and…
Bahloul, MY (nd) The Role of Marketing Information System Technology in the Decision Making Process Case Study: The Banking Sector in Gaza Strip. Islamic University of Gaza. Retrieved from: http://library.iugaza.edu.ps/thesis/98936.pdf
Chapter 9: Marketing Information Systems (nd) FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w3241e/w3241e0a.htm
Hansen, W, (2000). Internet Marketing, Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western Publishing.
Harmon, RB (2003) Marketing Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.iped-uk.com/marketing_information_system.pdf
For startup companies, the key business functions include: Sales and Marketing, HR, Finance and Accounting, and Manufacturing. Present-day startups require information systems for monitoring all their business operations, such as business planning, material acquisition, production, quality control and delivery to markets. In view of the aforementioned key business roles of startup companies, the chief information systems required are; Marketing and Sales Information Systems, Production and Manufacturing Information Systems, Accounting and Finance Information Systems, Strategic Information Systems, Enterprise Collaboration or Office Automation Systems and HR Information Systems (Al-Mamary, Shamsuddin & Aziati, 2014).
Functions of Information Systems
Sales and Marketing Information Systems
Marketing and sales departments are in charge of selling company offerings. Marketing chiefly deals with: determining buyers of the company's services/products, ascertaining their demands and requirements, planning and creating services and products for satisfying their demands, and conducting advertising and promotion activities for these services and products. The sales function…
Reporting on Information Needs
This report aims at establishing the process for managing records within the organization and marketing products. This report was requested by Michael Duffy Administration and Business Support Manager, based on the numerous complaints raised by staff regarding the hurdles they face when trying to access information from the current information system. The staff have explained that it is difficult for them to find information that is correct and up-to-date. There are also numerous brochures, and the staff is uncertain what brochures are correct. This leads to the wrong information being shared and provided to potential students and clients. The sales teams have been using the old document versions, and they have not been aware of this problem since there is no version control being followed as stipulated by the organization it is difficult for them to know when documents are updated and what documents should be…
As each of the principles is predicated on each person involved in the implementation taking a personal role in their success, transformational leadership is crucial for its success. As the transformational leader has the ability to get people to move beyond their own boundaries of the status quo and move forward despite fear, for the 10 principles as defined by obertson to be successful, there will need to be a continual focus on transformational leadership and a continual reinforcing of the value of the change as well. All of these factors will need to be unified in a very thorough communications plan that gets beyond the generalities to the specific very quickly. Only by having a strong project director with these skills with any project succeed and attain the 10 principles as defined (Vital, Bernier, 2006).
Another dimension of implementing these factors throughout a network is the long-term motivation of…
Minard, B. (1987). Growth and change through information management. Journal of Healthcare Management, 32(3), 307-307.
Murdick, R.G., & Ross, J.E. (1972). Future management-information-systems. Journal of Systems Management, 23(5), 32-32.
Nasir, S. (2005). The development, change, and transformation of management informaton systems (MIS): A content analysis of articles published in business and marketing journals. International Journal of Information Management, 25(5), 442-457.
Robertson, J. (2005) 10 principles of effective information management. KM Column. 1 November 2005. Retrieved on March 12, 2012 from http://www.steptwo.com.au/papers/kmc_effectiveim/
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future?
Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the trends in any business or profession may change and so the path of development. It is better to look at the experience of some companies whose systems have changed over the past few years and thus try to estimate what is likely to happen.
There are many changes that have come to the world through the development of Information Technology and Computers. All the changes have come over a relatively short period of twenty years, and in many cases both industry and concerned humans are yet to adjust to the changes. There are many changes which have come in the accounting industry also, and those changes give an idea of what is likely to happen in the future.
The organization where…
Anders, Susan B. (February, 2005) "Website of the Month: Legalbitstream" The CPA Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/205/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
Anders, Susan B. (July, 2005) "Website of the Month: Kaplan CPA Review" The CPA Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/2005/705/essentials/p70.htm Accessed on 12 July, 2005
An unforeseen benefit of this online strategy Dell used to increase brand awareness and remove some of the tarnish from their brand image was Word-of-Mouth (WOM) of the brand began to grow significantly as a result (Jarvis, 2008). Dell had not experienced WOM success of its brand awareness strategies in nearly a decade prior, and what the marketing managers attributed this to was the commitment to listen and respond to customers and talk openly about the strengths and weaknesses of products. In short Dell was able to redefine their brand through the use of augmented branding strategies based on listening to customers. They showed they cared when they listened and this engenders trust, which was critical for their brand to be seen as credible again. Information technologies were tertiary to this effort. Web-based portal applications made it possible for Dell to get their website DellIdeaStorm.com up and running within weeks.…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C.. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Bughin, J., Shenkan, A., & Singer, M.. (2009). How poor metrics undermine digital marketing. The McKinsey Quarterly,(1), 106.
Dan Coffey. (2005). Matching strategies in car assembly: the BMW-Rover-Toyota complex. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, 5(3), 320-335.
Duray, Rebecca. (2004). Mass Customizers' Use Of Inventory, Planning Techniques And Channel Management. Production Planning & Control, 15(4), 412-421. (125 mass merchandisers)
5). Although Web portals also provide executives with the ability to aggregate large amounts of data from various sources, there is still the issue of sorting out all of this information in meaningful ways. Indeed, many executives are faced with so much information that it is comparable to trying to sip from a fire hose. In contrast to Web portals, digital dashboards "is a personalized portal that provides consolidated information for an individual user" (Abel, p. 6). Finally, digital dashboards also provide executives with the ability to view the information offline, thereby adding portability to the EIS approach (Abel).
Examples of Executive Information Systems and Digital Dashboards. One of the more popular EISs in use today is SAS, described by one of its vendors as "the market leader in providing a new generation of business intelligence software and services that create true enterprise intelligence. SAS is the only vendor that…
Abel, T. (2008). Microsoft Office 2000: Create dynamic digital dashboards using Office, OLAP, and DHTML. Microsoft Corporation. [Online]. Available: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc301554.aspx.
Desouza, K.C. (2002). Managing knowledge with artificial intelligence: An introduction with guidelines for nonspecialists. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Glenn, R.W., Panitch, B.R., Barnes-Proby, D., Williams, E., Christian, J., Lewis, M.W., Gerwehr, S. & Brannan, D.W. (2003). Training the 21st century police officer: Redefining police professionalism for the Los Angeles Police Department. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Lilly Software. (2008). Infor Global Solutions, Inc. [Online]. Available: http://www.lillysoftware.com/software_solution/business_performance/executive_information_ system.asp.
Future Development Trends
The pervasiveness of the Internet and the increasing availability of development tools for creating analytics applications are together serving as the catalyst for the development of an entirely new set of predictive analytic and modeling applications where the performance of specific strategies can be simulated and planned for (Gounaris, Panigyrakis, Chatzipanagiotou, pp. 615, 616). Second, the development of collaborative platforms based on the Internet is also making the data collection function of Marketing Information Systems much more streamlined that has been the case in the past.
Marketing Information Systems are transforming the accuracy and speed that companies' marketing, sales and senior management can react to market conditions effectively. The growth of these systems is in direct proportion to the increasing speed and uncertainty new markets and market conditions influence company's plans and results.
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through…
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through call center emails into a decision support system for churn prediction. " Information & Management 45.3 (2008) 164. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Elizabeth Daniel, Hugh Wilson, Malcolm McDonald. "Towards a map of marketing information systems: An inductive study. " European Journal of Marketing 37.5/6 (2003): 821-847. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com.
Spiros P. Gounaris, George G. Panigyrakis, Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou. "Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems:an empirically validated instrument. " Marketing Intelligence & Planning 25.6 (2007): 612-631. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Ronald L. Hess, Ronald S. Rubin, Lawrence a West Jr. "Geographic information systems as a marketing information system technology. " Decision Support Systems 38.2 (2004): 197-212. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 27 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
For the SunLife agents to be successful the accumulated experience and knowledge in the company need to be captured, and applied to the sales cycles and ongoing customer relationships. This is another major gap that is in the approach the company is taking with the implementation of Maestro today as well. SunLife is not taking into account the deep expertise and knowledge within the company to streamline and make more efficient the selling process, and as a result the resistance to change on the part of agents just increases over time. They fail to see the value of making any significant shift in how they view new technologies to help them sell more effectively or continually be trusted advisors over time.
SunLife has an exceptionally strong grasp of technologies and their contributions to each aspect of the insurance sales, account management and risk management aspects of the insurance industry. Several…
Bull, C.. (2010). Customer Relationship Management (CRM) system, intermediation and disintermediation: The case of INSG. International Journal of Information Management, 30(1), 94.
Ernst, H., Hoyer, W., Krafft, M., & Krieger, K.. (2011). Customer relationship management and company performance -- the mediating role of new product performance. Academy of Marketing Science. Journal, 39(2), 290-306.
Keller, 1999. The Pitfalls of Meta-Systems and Business Rules. Generali Office Service and Consulting.
Levasseur, R.. (2011). People Skills: Optimizing Team Development and Performance. Interfaces, 41(2), 204-208.
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Acquistion of Information Systems Selection and Acquisition of Information Systems Selection and acquisition of information systems could involve an enormous investment for a healthcare organization. Besides the initial costs…Read Full Paper ❯
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Analyze the appropriateness of HM technologies and best practices to recommend applications and strategies for your selected organization, in order to improve organizational effectiveness, workforce productivity, and systems integration…Read Full Paper ❯
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Role of Information Systems in Marketing The objective of this study is to examine the role of information systems in marketing in terms of the information that is necessary…Read Full Paper ❯
For startup companies, the key business functions include: Sales and Marketing, HR, Finance and Accounting, and Manufacturing. Present-day startups require information systems for monitoring all their business operations, such…Read Full Paper ❯
Reporting on Information Needs This report aims at establishing the process for managing records within the organization and marketing products. This report was requested by Michael Duffy Administration and…Read Full Paper ❯
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As each of the principles is predicated on each person involved in the implementation taking a personal role in their success, transformational leadership is crucial for its success. As…Read Full Paper ❯
Information System holds in Accounting Industry's future? Looking through the glass and estimating what the future holds for any individual or profession is always a difficult exercise as the…Read Full Paper ❯
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An unforeseen benefit of this online strategy Dell used to increase brand awareness and remove some of the tarnish from their brand image was Word-of-Mouth (WOM) of the brand…Read Full Paper ❯
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5). Although Web portals also provide executives with the ability to aggregate large amounts of data from various sources, there is still the issue of sorting out all of…Read Full Paper ❯
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Future Development Trends The pervasiveness of the Internet and the increasing availability of development tools for creating analytics applications are together serving as the catalyst for the development of…Read Full Paper ❯
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For the SunLife agents to be successful the accumulated experience and knowledge in the company need to be captured, and applied to the sales cycles and ongoing customer relationships.…Read Full Paper ❯