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Many educators believe that principals should play the role of instructional leader, and not just school manager ( Fink & Resnick, 2001). The reality is, however, that the many demands on a principal's time and management skills make it difficult for most of them to spend time in classrooms, except, often, when performing teacher evaluations. While principals often make sure teachers have opportunities for professional development, they themselves rarely have any time to directly affect their teachers' professional growth ( Fink & Resnick, 2001). At the same time, parents, the media, and government at local state and national levels have openly questioned whether our schools, and by extension our teachers, are doing an adequate job of teaching (Johnson et. al., 2000). One expert in the field, a principal himself, suggests that the solution is for principals to share the role of instructional leadership with teachers (Hoerr, 1996).
Fink, Elaine, and Resnick, Lauren B. 2001. "Developing Principals as Instructional Leaders." Phi Delta Kappan: 82.
Hoerr, Thomas R. 1996. "Collegiality: A New Way to Define Instructional Leadership. Phi Delta Kappan: 77.
Johnson, Jeannie Pritchett; Livingston, Martha; Schwartz, Robert A., and Slate, John R. 2000. "What Makes a Good Elementary School? A Critical Examination." The Journal of Educational Research: 93.
What did the author say?
Halverson, Grigg, Prichett & Thomas (2005) propose in their article, presented before the National Council of Professors Educational Administration, a new analytic framework for understanding instructional leadership. The authors propose that educational leadership is a dynamic process, one that cannot be manipulated through one answer alone. ather, the authors propose that education is as dynamic as the world itself. Students are diverse. They require complex systems because they are complex systems. The authors consider how leaders in the educational system work with teachers to build data-driven instructional systems or DDIS; they do this as proposed by the authors, by creating programs that use existing school functions and activities. In doing so, information flow is promoted throughout the school.
What does the author mean?
The authors suggest that the flow of information is vital to student achievement. In the past random acts were used…
Barth, R.S. 1991. Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Halverson, R., Grigg, J., Prichett, R. & Thomas, C. 2005. The new instructional leadership:
Creating data-driven instructional systems in schools. NCPEA, University of Wisconsin. Retrieved: http://www.academiccolab.org/resources/documents/HalversonGriggPrichettThomas%20NCPEA.pdf
Hoerr, T.R. 2008 Jan. What is instructional leadership. Information Assessment, Vol. 65, No.4,
As Hill (1996) sees it, the differnce between instructional leadership of the previous decade and instructional leadership of the present and the future is that leadership of the past focuses on teaching and learning, whereas leadership of the present and future involves principals spending more time establishing appropriate preconditions for education and following through with interventions aimed to improve the learning experience. Principals, therefore, have to be experts in a variety of areas -- and this is part of the challenges of the future.
Leadership challenges that will be present in the future.
Instructional leadership is essentially split into three components: (1) administrative, where the principal still ahs to carry out his regular tasks of helping the school move on and succeed, (2) collaboration with students and teachers -- being there with them, listening to them, and joining them in their concerns, (3) educational - being actively involved in the…
Botha, RJ (2006) Excellence in leadership: demands on the professional school principal South African Journal of Education, Vol 24(3) 239 -- 243
Caldwell BJ 2002. Professionalism for Australian principals. The International Principal, 5:9-10.
Instructional Leadership [e-Lead]
Instructional leadership and professional development are some of the most important components towards enhancing the effectiveness of teachers with regards to learning outcomes and achievement of the required educational standards. This is primarily because instructional leadership and professional development are focused on student learning and achievement. School districts are increasingly recognizing the need to promote instructional leadership and professional development of educators in order to enhance student learning and achievement. Paterson Public School considers instructional leadership and professional development as the basic vehicles for generating the desired change in teaching practice, which in turn helps in enhancing learning outcomes and student achievement. As a result, the school utilizes several measures for conducting needs assessment in relation to instructional leadership and professional development. This paper examines the evaluation instruments utilized by Paterson Public School for needs assessment on instructional leadership and professional development.
Evaluation Instruments at Paterson Public School
Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL)
The concept of instructional leadership posits that strong leadership in education focuses on curriculum and instruction (Mitchell, Kensler & Tschannen-Moran, 2015). As an instructional leader, therefore, it is important to have a deep understanding and personal sense of the Professional Standards for Educational Leaders (PSEL). This paper will examine PSEL’s Standards 1-10, summarize each standard and describe my role in relation to each standard.
Standard 1: Mission, Vision, and Core Values
This standard holds that effective educational leaders create, promote and embody and mission, vision and core set of values that can be shared by all stakeholders within the educational system (Professional Standards for Educational Leaders, 2015). As I do not have a great deal of experience in creating such a vision, this is one standard that I need improvement in. For most of my educational career, I have followed others in the sense…
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
National Educational Technology / State Leadership: The State Educational Technology Directors Association (SETDA) has released its 7th annual National Educational Technology Trends Report and it indicates that technology is playing "an increasingly important role" in K-12 school improvement efforts. Leadership in technology training in schools is vital if the future needs of all students are to be met, according to an article in Yacht Charters Magazine (Marketwire, 2010). The article quotes Secretary of Education Arne Duncan: "Schools can't be throw-backs to the state of education fifty, twenty, even ten years ago."
Peabody Faculty Recognized for Research, Leadership: Several faculty members from Vanderbilt University's Peabody Research Institute have been selected as American Education Research Association Fellows due to the leadership they demonstrated in scientific and scholarly educational research initiatives (Vanderbilt University). Meanwhile Robert Rodosky, who is adjunct professor of Leadership Policy and Organizations at Vanderbilt, has won the 2010 Excellence…
Brown, Linnea. (2010). Kaplan University Launches New Online Programs, Including Two New
Master's Degrees. Business Wire. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.businesswire.com.
Court, Marian. (2007). Changing and/or Reinscribing Gendered Discourses of Team Leadership
In Education? Gender and Education, 19(5), 607-626.
For the principal too, this method helps him improve his relationship with staff and the atmosphere has a positive impact on students and parents where a harmonious school atmosphere is created instead of one that represents fragmentation.
In all ways, then, my experiences within this leadership-cycle has only been positive.
Goals in the next five years that relate to instructional leadership
Instructional leaders need to know what is going on in the classroom. I intend to walk around the students inconspicuously picking up observations of the way that they perceive their classroom teaching and unobtrusively picking up information regarding classroom content. I also intend to make an unobtrusive survey of textbooks and material taught in the classroom. I will inconspicuously interweave my observations in the meetings in a manner that teachers do not feel threatened.
I also intend to make these meetings more relaxed encouraging teachers to dress in casual…
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
Instructional supervisor maintains a bridge between students and teachers. Since the communication between students and teachers are very important, it is instructional supervisor's role to ensure that the effectiveness and quality of teaching methods (or teachers). In this matter, instructional supervisor is responsible to provide enough feedbacks to the teachers and communicate with students about their expectations and educational developments. In the traditional institution, an instructional supervisor takes the role of a helper. However, in the ideal model an instructional supervisor is a mentor for students and a role model for teachers.
What should be the ultimate purpose of supervision?
The ultimate purpose of supervision is to protect the best interest for students. It is not limited to enhancement of education and teachers but also the effectiveness and reliability of environmental factors (e.g., the location of classroom, the effectiveness of classroom materials).
3. Who should supervise? Who should…
1. Instructional Supervision by William Dewitt
2. Supervision and Instructional Leadership by Carl D. Glickman
Leadership: Enhancing Lessons Experience
According to Johnson, & Giorgis (2002), Leadership is the process in which an individual influences actions of others towards common goals, Formulates policies, strategies, and influence people towards achievement of the same strategies. Over the past decades, various changes in the world have led to various definitions of leadership. The fall of the Soviet Union, globalization and various advances have changed the world we knew. A woman in leadership positions is a new phenomenon; various leadership trainings are available, and leadership as a skill is now an asset for professionals. For African Universities to ensure knowledge transfer and observing millennium development goals, a good leadership structure is essential. A leader has exception skills and acts outrageously to situations (Padam, 2009).
Scholars have advanced various theories on leadership. Leaders' Individual personal attributes beat explains the trait theory, when one looks closely at Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler it…
Johnson, N.J., & Giorgis, C. (2002). Leadership. The Reading Teacher, 56(3), 315-316. Retrieved from http:/ / proquest.com/docview/203276035
Padam, S. (2009). Leadership: Theory and practice. South Asian Journal of Management, 16(3), 136-137. Retrieved from http://.proquest.com/docview/222728386
Ilgen, D.R., Hollenbeck, J.R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517-543. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205830055
Hanson, K., & Leautier, F. (2011). Enhancing institutional leadership in african universities: Lessons from ACBS's interventions. World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 7(2), 385-417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/20425961201000040
Most conclusions on this approach were vague or indecisive in terms of social, psychological or mental significance (ice, 1978, 1981; Graen et al., 1972; Ashour, 1973).
Furthermore, over the years, many scholars have come to the realization that leadership is situational and hence there are many realistic settings like the environment, the employees, the resources, etc. that determine the characteristics needed in a leader as well as his/her business approach (Hershey and Blanchard, 1977, 1984). This is why it is important to first understand the different types of scenarios that a leader can face and then use those scenarios as the foundation on which most leadership techniques and approaches are built. This idea of leadership being situational is very helpful in outlining the methods through which leadership can be developed and has taken up a good part of the last three-decade of research (Mckenna, Boyd and Yost, 2007).
Adler, a. (1946). Understanding human nature. New York: Permabooks.
Ashour, a.S. (1973). The Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: An Evaluation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 9: 335-76.
Bandura, a. (1997). Self-efficacy. The Exercise of Control. New York: W.H. Freeman. (Bass, B.M. 1985). Leadership and Performance Beyond Expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bennis, W., and B. Nanus. (1985). Leaders. New York: Harper and Row.
Leaders step forward. That's now leaders become better leaders. That's how a "young" inexperienced" leader becomes a better leader. His or her qualities are formed such that he projects the need and desire to become better. Therefore, it happens. ut the leadership qualities that identified them as requiring more experience or a diversity of challenges to make them a CEO or CO are already present.
Is Leadership a "Learned" Set of Skills and Traits...
It may seem that we are answering the same question three times, and, perhaps we are. If we follow the logic of our previous answer, leadership itself is not a learned set of skills or traits. A leader becoming a better manager or executive or administrator involves a learned set of skills or traits. ut he or she has already displayed the traits of leadership -- those inherent personality characteristics, charisma, talents, and the vision that…
Gunn, B. (2001). Can leadership be taught? Retrieved November 17, 2009, from allbusiness.com: http://www.allbusiness.com/human-resources/employee-development-leadership/696129-1.html
Kurnik, E. (2009). Define leadership. Retrieved November 17, 2009, from hubpages.com: http://hubpages.com/hub/Define-Leadership
Zito, E., & Zimmerman, S. (2008, April 21). Can Leaders Be Taught? Retrieved November 17, 2009, from onveon.com: http://www.onveon.com/articles/learn-to-lead.htm
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
Louis and Smith (1991) identify such congruence as an indicator of the quality of work life influencing levels of teacher engagement with their work."
An appreciation by teachers of a significant gap between their current practices and those implied by the changes being proposed within their schools." perception, on the part of teachers, that participating in the school's change initiative is a significant but achievable challenge. Shedd and Bacharach (1991) argue that teaching provides intrinsic motivation under those restructuring initiatives which conceptualize teaching as a highly complex act and help teachers significantly expand their technical repertoires and their capacities to apply them reflectively and constructively. Contributing to the perception of a goal's achievability are opportunities to learn more about how the goal can be accomplished." perception by teachers that they know, specifically and concretely, what they will need to do (or that such specificity can be developed) eventually to implement…
Leadership and otational Development Program for Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA)
Leadership development and rotational programs are crucial for building the potential, skills, and capabilities of new and existing employees. They provide employees with ongoing mentorship, in-depth experiences, as well as training across various functions within the organisation (Columbia University Centre for Career Education, 2016). Organisations rely on these programs to recruit and develop individuals for leadership responsibilities. This paper provides important guidelines for the design of a leadership development and rotational program for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA). The program is aimed at fresh graduates with less than two years working experience.
Designing the Program
The first step in designing the leadership development and rotational program is to define the objective of the program (Donnelly, 2016). It is indeed a critical step. The objective should resonate with the overall objective of the organisation. It should clearly…
Columbia University Centre for Career Education (2016). Leadership development and rotational programs. Retrieved from: https://www.careereducation.columbia.edu/resources/leadership-development-programs
Donnelly, T. (2016). How to create a leadership development program. Retrieved from: http://www.inc.com/guides/2010/07/how-to-create-a-leadership-development-program.html
Gurdjian, P., Halbeisen, T., & Lane, K. (2014). Why leadership development programs fail. Retrieved from: http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/leadership/why-leadership-development-programs-fail
Pernick, R. (2002). Creating a leadership development program: nine essential tasks. Alexandria: International City/County Management Association (ICMA).
While the superintendent may feel or even firmly believe that they have covered all of the bases on expenditures and other relevant issues in school budgeting, the failure to connect to other stakeholders throughout the district, who may or may not add to the data that the superintendent has prepared for presentation, is likely to result in some among those stakeholders feeling slighted or ignored and often lead to complicated budgeting which could have been avoided through simply opening the communication channels during this critical process of school administration.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This work in writing has related the various aspects of the school budgeting process which are the responsibility of the school superintendent as well as relating the various concerns of school budgeting and the importance of staying connected to the stakeholders in the community of the school district throughout the entire process of school budgeting. This work has…
Davis, Stephen, Darling-Hammond, Linda, LaPointe, Michelle, and Meyerson, Debra (2005) School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals. Stanford Educational Leadership Institute. (SELI). 2005. Online available at: http://www.srnleads.org/data/pdfs/sls/sls_rr.pdf
Joynt, T. (2002, December). School budgeting: Cost cutting through onion layers. The School Administrator. Accessed May 16, 2005 at www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2002/focJoynt.htm
Howley, C. (2003, October). Sustaining small rural high schools. The School Administrator, 9(60), 16-1.
Almack, John Conrad (1970) Modern School Administration, Its Problems and Progress. Ayer Publishing, 1970.
Leadership and Accountability
Today's urban schools face problems, which may affect the quality of education that school administrators must overcome in order to effectively, educate the youth of our nation. Goldberg and Morrison (2002) state, "successful leaders are those who manage to rally local efforts around national purpose, and who make national purpose fit local needs" (p.61). This statement describes a leadership vision where national efforts are focused upon local needs. Each urban school encounters special student demographics that should be considered when implementing program reform.
In order to properly prepare students for real-world life experiences such as work, higher education, and responsible citizenship, schools must strive to improve the equality of public education. The authors state that "preparation for life" is more complex than providing instruction in core subjects. The public school system is now expected to provide knowledge and understanding to the students concerning careers, higher science and…
Goldberg, B. & Morrison, D.M. (2002). Co-nect. In J. Murphy and A. Datnow (Eds.),
Leadership lessons from comprehensive school reforms (p. 57-82). New York: Sage
..concerns exist that (a) time will be taken away from the development of functional or vocational skills, (b) referral rates will increase, - students will be exempted or omitted from the accountability system" (Defur, 2002). These are some of aspects that the leader has to be aware of in the implementation of policy and in practice.
Possibly the most important aspect to consider is the actual quality of leadership that is required. One of the most significant facets of leadership in this particular educative environment is the development of a positive school and educative culture in which facets of special education - and their integration into the mainstream - can be addressed. Studies note that "...a positive school culture and school improvement go hand in hand" (Apted et al. 2007).
The leader, by providing a collaborative and creative educational and environment, can be instrumental in aiding and facilitating necessary changes,…
Apted K., Macnee K, Court M. And Riley, T. (2007) the Development of Schoolwide Programmes in Gifted and Talented Education -- What can we learn from other schools? New Zealand Principals' Federation Magazine; 2007, pp.37- 46.
Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement. July 3, 2007 http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/methods/technlgy/te800.htm#langlearner www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=48968817
Crockett, J.B., & Kauffman, J.M. (1999). The Least Restrictive Environment Its Origins and Interpretations in Special Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved December 26, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=48968817
Defur S. EDUCATION REFORM, HIGH-STAKES ASSESSMENT, and STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES. Remedial & Special Education, Jul/Aug2002, Vol. 23, Issue 4.
Education leaders note barriers to effective leadership with are unique to the educational setting. Politics and bureaucracy, fear of litigation, teacher unions and school boards are all noted by superintendents and principals as elements which hamper organizational excellence (Finn, 2002). In the same survey, leaders also noted a lack of freedom to accomplish managerial tasks, like hiring and firing or even rewarding outstanding performers. A review of job descriptions posted for superintendent and principal jobs across the United States demonstrates the wide variety of skill required for these positions. Samplings of descriptions include "experience as a principal"; "earned doctorate from an accredited institution"; there also exist a long list of complex organization and managerial tasks which accompany these basic requirements. As a result, the number of individuals completing Ed D. degrees has increased significantly. esearch completed in 2007 (Baker, Orr and Young, 2007) reported the number of programs offering educational…
Kotter, JP, Force for Change: How Leadership Differs From Management, the Free Press, 1990.
Kotter, JP. "What Leaders Really Do," in J.T. Wren (Ed.), the Leaders Companion, the Free Press, 1995, pp. 114-123.
Goffee R, Jones R. (2000) Why should anyone be led by you? Harv Bus Rev 5; 62-70
Finn, CE. (2002) Bureaucracy and school leadership - policy research organization Public Agenda survey on finding strong leaders for schools. Reason. Accessed online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1568/is_1_34/ai_84841777
educational change in regard to the need for curriculum change aimed at addressing curriculum inadequacy that affects our elementary schools. In this paper, the concept of transformational, situational and distributive leadership are discussed in line with instilling positive change to the curriculum development process.
The concept of educational change is one which is often misunderstood by many people (Fullan,2007,p.29).Educational change is either imposed involuntarily or voluntarily accepted by the relevant person or authority. Its meaning too is accepted with a lot of ambivalence as indicated by Fullan.In this paper, we discuss how the concept of educational change is enacted in order to improve student learning through the development of an updated curriculum that is aligned with the state standards for an elementary school. Students often state assessment outcomes as (not met) on the school report card for years. It would therefore require good leadership to instill the necessary change to…
Bondi, J. & wiles, J., (1998) Curriculum Development; A Guide to Practice (5TH Edition).
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River New Jersey.
Burns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, New York: Harper and Row, Publishers
Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and Leadership in Organisations, Newbury Park, CA: Sage
Once a reasonable decision has been arrived upon, I must take on the role of the leader who ensures that it is implemented.
In order to do this, it will be my role to confer with my colleagues to determine if the change is being implemented, how it is affecting the faculty and students, and what other changes can be made to better accommodate this primary change. Furthermore, it will be my role to defend the change when others may question it, in addition to listening to the concerns that they have, many of which may be valid. Finally, as a leader responsible for change, I have the task of evaluating the changes that have taken place, determining by the facts, with others, if the change was truly beneficial or should be repealed or altered.
Thus, while change is often difficult, and even more often necessary, it is the responsibility…
Scholastic claims that a multi-purpose approach to learning, such as that included in the Read 180 program, is ideal for enabling greater achievement among special needs children. Evidence gathered from the literature on first review seems to promote this concept. The evidence provided from in-depth studies of education and special needs students in integrated and segregated classrooms show many factors influence learning. These include collaboration with teachers, an integrated approach to learning, and an approach to learning that is individualized or tailored to the unique needs of the disadvantaged student. When these factors are considered uniformly, Read 180 has the potential to facilitate greater achievement and success among special needs students. Read 180 cannot however, have the label as a universal panacea for educational problems plaguing special needs programs. Further research is critical to assessing the full utility of Read 180 among each of the three core categories of…
Dymond, S.K., & Orelove, P. (2001). What constitutes effective curriculum for students with severe disabilities? Exceptionality, 9(3): 109-22.
Elliot, C., Pring, T., & Bunning, K. (2002). Social skills training for adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A cautionary note, Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 15(1):91-6.
Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2001). Access to the core curriculum, Remedial and Special
This paper is mainly a narrative report of the model whereby we evaluate and contrast the evaluation instruction and also review the principals’ function in endorsing efficient schooling by concentrating on two elements: leadership practice and student success.
Both of these elements hold a number of essential components that frequently appear as independent factors in other evaluation models. For instance, whilst some techniques leave out stakeholder suggestions, one can perceive it as being proof of leadership practice. Similarly, the learner outcomes component includes numerous measures as well (New Leaders, 2012).
Whilst there's substantial debate concerning the “right” weights for the two elements (and modest research-centered proof to aid a specific group of weights), one can assume that outcomes and practice are equally essential and that success ought to be according to advancement and efficiency in the two fields. So, one can suggest a well-balanced strategy (New Leaders, 2012).
For example, managers can increase productivity by assigning the right number of employees to each project, avoiding over- or understaffing. Managers should also be sensitive to interaction problems between employees. When managers are aware of personality conflicts between employees, they should avoid assigning them to the same team.
Increasing productivity involves a careful study of employees' work performance and of managerial decisions, a daunting process in which individuals may feel unfairly singled out or victimized. While this process is painful, it is appropriate when responsibility for low productivity clearly lies with certain individuals. if, however, it is not obvious who the culprits are, the best approach to take is to consider not only individual responsibility, but also search for larger systematic factors behind the low productivity. The problem may be a result of poor management of people and inadequate allocation of resources. Alternatively, it could be the result of an…
According to Lance Secretan during the Industry Week on 12 October 1998, "There is more to leadership than methods and techniques-it is more about having an open mind and a good heart. Leadership is all about inspiration -- of yourself and every other person. Effective leadership is concerned with human experiences, not human processes. Leadership is neither a program nor a formula, it is more of a human action that originates from the heart and puts other people's hearts and feelings into consideration. It is more of an attitude than a routine" (Secretan, 1998).
Every leader in the public safety sector requires a very strong guiding force -- you can either call it a moral purpose or a vision, but it should always act as a compass that chooses the appropriate path of all aspects of leadership whether managerial or instructional in nature. Such a leader also requires…
Eastern Kentucky University. (n.d.). Eight Skills of a Successful Public Safety Leader. Retrieved from http://safetymanagement.eku.edu/resources/articles/eight-skills-of-a-successful-public-safety-leader/
Fullan, M. (2002). Leading in a Culture of Change .Retrieved from http://www.csus.edu/indiv/j/jelinekd/edte%20227/fullanleadinginacultureofchange.pdf
Horsager, D. (2012, Oct). You Can't Be a Great Leader Without Trust. Here's How You Build It. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/forbesleadershipforum/2012/10/24/you-cant-be-a-great-leader-without-trust-heres-how-you-build-it/#112803707a48
Secretan, L. (1998, October). Leading Thoughts. Retrieved from LeadershipNow: http://www.leadershipnow.com/leadershipquotes2.html
Mental breakdown and psychological distress also follow. Good leaders are effective communicators and have the empathy to read warning signs of mental breakdown. They are able to address mental health situations before they start.
You will know bad leadership when you see it. Organizations that are run poorly suffer from the same types of problems including inefficiency, poor financial performance and high incidence of workplace injury and mental health problems. Simply put, bad leadership is hazardous to your health.
Smith, D. (2006). The high cost of bad leadership. Douglas K. Smith. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.douglasksmith.com/2006/01/the_high_cost_of_bad_leadershi.htm
Hadler, N. (1984). Occupational illness: The issue of causality. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 26, 8.
No author. (2009). orkplace injuries and illnesses -- 2008. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osnr0032.pdf
No author. (2009). Accident Report: Fatal Facts. OSHA. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/toc_FatalFacts.html…
Smith, D. (2006). The high cost of bad leadership. Douglas K. Smith. Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.douglasksmith.com/2006/01/the_high_cost_of_bad_leadershi.htm
Hadler, N. (1984). Occupational illness: The issue of causality. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 26, 8.
No author. (2009). Workplace injuries and illnesses -- 2008. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/osh/os/osnr0032.pdf
No author. (2009). Accident Report: Fatal Facts. OSHA. Retrieved November 5, 2009 from http://www.osha.gov/OshDoc/toc_FatalFacts.html
There should also be appropriate systems for conflict management, since two or more principals at the same level of management may experience occasional differences of opinion that should be handled appropriately for the most effective management of the school. With the appropriate implementation, however, this model can lead to greater support for both parents and teachers.
The second suggested model involves parents and teacher in a closer partnership capacity. Groups of parents and teachers work as partners with the principal to further the processes that support excellence in education. The leadership team then receives a well-defined task to implement or complete. A school improvement plan is one example of such a task. When the specific task is completed, the specific team then integrates with others to further develop the task or implement its results.
The third suggested model involves treating all personnel at the school like employees at a company,…
Burniske, J. And Barlow, T. (2004, Apr.). Distributed Leadership Helps Schools Succeed. Pacific Educator. Retrieved from: http://www.prel.org/products/paced/apr04/pr_distributed.pdf
Harris, A. And Spillane, J. (2008). Distributed Leadership Through the Looking Glass. Management Education. Retrieved from: http://www.distributedleadership.org/DLS/Publications_files/PUBLISHED%20Harris,%20Spillane.%20Distributed%20Leadership%20through%20the%20Looking%20Glass.pdf
The long-range impact of educational leadership is to empower others in the school community to nurture their talents and abilities and make them leaders in their own capacities. To realize this, the leader needs to adopt the transformational leadership framework, which requires them to be an intellectual stimulator, inspirational motivator, mentor, and coach. The process of leadership incorporates several leadership strategies including direction-setting, developing people, mentoring and coaching, and developing leadership programs. There is a need for continuous learning to enhancing the leader’s handling of people from diverse cultures, religion, and nationalities. The intermediate aim of the leader is to help followers realize their maximum potential.
Educational Leadership Philosophy
Strong educational leadership is a crucial determinant of effective student learning. On the basis of strong leadership, a struggling school can transform and a great one empowered to thrive even more. According to a report by the Wallace Foundation, educational…
Cambridge Assessment International Education (2017). Educational Leadership. Cambridge Assessment International Education. Retrieved from https://www.cambridgeinternational.org/Images/271192-educational-leadership.pdf
Leithwood, K., Louis, K., Anderson, L., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004). Review of Research: How Leadership Influences Student Learning. The Wallace Foundation. Retrieved from https://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/Documents/How-Leadership-Influences-Student-Learning.pdf
Martin, B., Cashel, C., Wagstaff, M., & Breunig, M. (2006). Outdoor Leadership: Theory and Practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Spears, U. (2012). Coaching Leadership Families: Using the Leadership Family Model to Coach, Mentor, and Multiply Health Families. New York, NY: Xlibris Corporation.
The second meta-analysis revealed strong average effects for the leadership dimension involving promoting and participating in teacher learning and development and moderate effects for the dimensions concerned with goal setting and planning, coordinating, and evaluating teaching and the curriculum." These ideas are showing how this approach will address a number of changes inside an educational environment. (obinson, 2008, pp. 635 -- 674)
Describe the technology-based plan you previously developed to facilitate the change (or part of the change) identified.
To help improve learning comprehension there will be a focus on using technology in the classroom and as a tool for collaboration. This is when different computers and audio visual aids will provide students with alternative forms of learning the concepts presented. Moreover, this will allow them to see how these ideas can be used in the real world. Once this takes place, is when their understanding of the material will…
Davies, B. (2008). Passionate Leadership in Education. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Klein, J. (2012). U.S. Education Reform and National Security. New York, NY: Council on Foreign Relations.
Lidwell, W. (2010). Universal Principals of Design. New York, NY: Rapport.
Robinson, V. (2008). The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44 (5), 635 -- 674.
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
This points to the relevance of the principal's role as an organizational leader with responsibilities to orienting with enthusiasm and effectiveness a staff of qualified and capable individuals. Especially in the inclusion context, where staff members will have particular insight as well as a particular opportunity where given proper academic and creative freedom, Principal Skinner indicates that this mode of distributed leadership is necessary. Indeed, Principal Skinner makes the case that one would have to be particularly attuned to the practices and conventions of special education in order to effectively delegate charges to educators and advocates.
This is also the case where English Language Learner (ELL) students are present in a school. Including these learners who have a particular and specialized set of needs requires the principal to preside over a certain cultural tenor at a school. Indeed, one of the more complex snares of bridging the language gap through…
Graseck, P. (2005). Where's the ministry in administration? Attending to the souls of our schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(5), 373-382.
Nursing Higher Education and Leadership
Clinical leadership is very important because of the problems that characterize the health care sector, including workforce shortage, high rates of change, staff chaos, quality issues, and safety concerns, among others. From history, the preparation of nurses for key roles in the health care delivery system is quite important and should not be overlooked. (Joseph & Huber, 2015). I am trained both as a clinical nursing educator and perioperative nurse. Clinical nurse educators attain that title after much experience in nursing. They mainly coach nursing students and the newly graduated ones. Perioperative nurses on the other hand are registered nurses who help in the surgical department in hospitals, day surgery units, physician’s offices and clinics. Their main work is to assist in planning, implementation and evaluation of treatment for surgical patients. (Turunen et al., 2017).
As such, the perioperative nurse starts her work immediately the…
Brandt (2003) offers ten ways to determine if a school indeed meets the criteria of a learning organization. The first characteristic of a learning organization is that it encourages adaptive behavior in response to differing circumstances. The second is that the learning organization has challenging, but achievable objectives and goals. The third is that members of the organization can accurately identify the organizations' stages of development (Brandt, 2003).
The learning organization can collect, process, and act upon information that fits their purposes (Brandt, 2003). Learning organizations have the knowledge base for creating new ideas. The learning organization has the ability to grow and adapt. They are dynamic and in a constant process of evolution. Learning organizations frequently exchange information with external sources (Brandt, 2003). This happens in educational workshops, in-services, and conferences.
Another feature of the learning organization is that is seeks feedback on their products and services (Brandt, 2003).…
Anderson, J. (2008). Principals' Role and Public Primary Schools' Effectiveness in Four Latin American Cities. The Elementary School Journal. 109 (1): 36-60.
Beasley, E. (2008). New leadership model for business fits schools too. Statesman Journal. August 26, 2008. Retrieved October 18, 2008 at http://www.statesmanjournal.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080826/Business01/808260315/1040/Business
Berenstein, L. (2006). Team Teaching with Academic Core Curricula Teachers: Using Aviation Concepts. Department of Aviation Technologies. Southern Illinois University. 43 (2): 1- 19. Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/ejournals/JITE/v43n2/pdf/berentsen.pdf
Brandt, R. (2003). Is this school a learning organization? 10 ways to tell. Journal of Staff Development. Winter 2003. 24 (1). Retrieved October 19, 2008 at http://www.nsdc.org/library/publications/jsd/brandt241.cfm
2. True learning organizations allocate the time and resources that are required to develop a competitive advantage based on the lifelong learning and training opportunities that are provided to everyone in the organization.
3. A learning organization not only develops the opportunities for learning but it also provides a corporate culture that encourage all of its members to become self-actualized, thereby contributing to the advancement of the larger society in which the organization competes. .
4. The leadership of true learning organizations ensure that the corporate vision is communicated to all members and provides a framework in which their feedback is welcomed and acted upon, as well as ensuring that an environment exists in which there "are no bad questions" concerning the direction in which the enterprise is headed.
5. Learning organizations make it possible to consolidate work and learning as well as encouraging all members of the enterprise to…
Albert, M. 1998 "Shaping a Learning Organization through the Linkage of Action Research
Interventions." Organization Development Journal, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 29-31.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. 2002 Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Al-Sawai, A. (2013). Leadership of Healthcare Professionals: Where Do We Stand?.
Oman edical Journal, 28(4), 285-287 3p. doi:10. 5001/omj.2013.79
This study defines leadership as behavior that drives a group towards an identified goal, and it describes a variety of leadership theories (such as transformational leadership, collaborative leadership, conflict management and shared leadership), beginning with the "early Great an theory" (the idea that some people have the quality of leadership and some do not). Its main purpose is to identify and describe several theories of leadership as they would apply to the health care industry. The finding of the study is that effective leadership strategies should highlight "dynamic relationships between leadership values, culture, capabilities and the organizational context." The evolution of leadership development is such that, today, the most important aspect of leadership is now based on making sure that "a ready supply of replacement leaders" is available at all times…
Mabbott highly recommends this book for its good advice on leadership. The book acts as a go-to guide for anyone in a leadership position who has questions and/or needs tips on leading. The book's structure is divided into three sections and examines in a straight-forward manner the precise and practical issues that determine the quality of leadership and management today. It does so in a simple way, however, so that any person who is new to leadership in the healthcare industry can easily make his or her way through the book and come to identify and better understand nursing concepts and how they might actually relate to the real world. Case studies are utilized in the book to help to shed light on the concepts as they are discussed. All aspects of management are covered, from budgeting to time management, to recruiting and filling staff positions to clinical risk. The way the book is structured it can be used as an encyclopedia of leadership in nursing.
MacPhee, M., Li-Lu, C., Havaei, F., & Wen-Shan, C. (2014). A Descriptive Account of an Inter-Professional Collaborative Leadership Project. Administrative Sciences (2076-3387), 4(3), 373-399. doi:10.3390/admsci4030373.
This study examines the outcome of a collaboration leadership exercise between a group of five "inter-professional teams" located at an urban cancer treatment center in Taiwan and the healthcare faculty plus professional development director. This workshop exercise resulted in the development of a new structure and process of workshopping ideas connected to leadership in the health industry. Instruction was provided by the academic faculty and discussions were facilitated by the professional development director's efforts among the five teams. Interactive exercises were also conducted to reinforce ideas and concepts taught by the faculty. Suggestions were made for better overall development of leadership skills, such as the continuation of appreciative inquiry exercises as well as the rotation of team members in leadership positions, so that each member gains more experience as the leader. The study concludes with a discussion of the fundamental elements of leadership as they were covered in the workshop as well as an assessment of the evaluation method, instructional strategies and expected results that a future program for increasing effective leadership in the healthcare sector could utilize.
Nursing Leadership Issues
eflect on how you would create a safe environment in a healthcare setting by applying the 4 characteristics of a culture of safety. They are:
• Psychological safety. People know their concerns will be openly received and treated with respect.
One of the tenets of the total quality movement as expressed by W. Edward Deming is "Drive out fear" (Edward, 2012). The recommendation comes from a fundamental understanding of human nature: people do not like to call problem to the attention of their supervisors. No one wants to be the bearer of bad news, and in medical and healthcare settings this may be particularly true. Unsafe conditions can mean that patients are exposed to hazards or that employees are more likely to incur injury. In addition, nursing staff may occasionally find themselves in a position where a peer or another staff member are not following procedure. Not…
Edward, A. (2012). Project and Program evaluation. Global Health Strategies for Stability. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University, Bloomberg School of Public Health. Retreived ghss.cdham.org/wp.../Project-Evaluation_GHSS_AE_HO.pdf
____. (2010, March 29). Whistleblower protection for nurses in health care reform bill. Undercover Lawyer. Retreived http://www.undercoverlawyer.com/whistleblower-protection-for-nurses-in-health-care-reform-bill/
____. (2007). Evidence-based practice. Bio-Medical Library. Twin Cities, MN: University of Minnesota Libraries. Retrieved http://hsl.lib.umn.edu/learn/ebp/mod01/step1.html
Carey, R.G. And Lloyd, R.C. (1995). Measuring quality improvement in health care: A guide to statistical process. Milwaukee, WI: ASQ Quality Press. Retrieved http://books.google.com/books?id=IiISAjR73BkC&dq=quality+improvement+in+healthcare&lr=&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Indiana Tech Institutional Review Board Application
INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARD
APPLICATION FOR INITIAL REVIEW OF RESEARCH USING HUMAN SUBJECTS
Class (Day or CPS)/Campus Office
Does this particular project continue every semester and/or year: No
Project Title: Leadership Styles used to Promote Organizational Success Electronic signature of Principal Investigator
Directions: You need to answer the following questions.
Conflict of Interest: (Please check)
Investigators do___ do not__X___ have a real or potential conflict of interest.
Please indicate whether this research should be exempt or non-exempt from further human subjects review and indicate which of the six exemption reasons (Section A) justifies an exemption status.
This research is exempt under Category 2 of exemption categories. This is primarily because the study involves the use survey procedures on a group of consenting adults.
3. Please attach a copy of your responses to items 1-7 of the instructions (Section B), including all related documents,…
shared vision allows for the fulfillment of common goals. Therefore, the first step in creating and maintaining a successful charter school will be to plan the vision with a common goals meeting and invite all stakeholders to the meeting in accordance with best practices ("Shared Vision and Common Goals," n.d.). The ELCC standard 1.1 clearly calls all educational leaders to "develop, articulate, implement, and steward a shared district vision of learning," (ELCC, 2011). This vision of learning is not limited to the confines of any one school or restricted to its building, its educators, and its students. ather, a comprehensive vision is one that takes into account the entire community. Other schools in the community may play a role in the evolution of our school's vision. Community stakeholders including parents and curriculum leaders need to attend the meeting to provide their input and feedback.
It should not be assumed that…
Beckner, W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. Boston, MA: Pearson Education. Begley, P. T. & Johansson, O. (2003). The ethical dimensions of school leadership. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers
ELCC (2011). Education Leadership Program Standards. Retrieved online: http://www.ncate.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=tFmaPVlwMMo%3D&tabid=676
Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, C. (2009). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. In K. Leithwood, B. Mascall, & T. Strauss (Eds.). Distributed leadership according to the evidence (pp. 61-86). New York: Routledge.
Gottfredson, D.C. (n.d.). School-based crime prevention. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/works/chapter5.htm
This section provides an overview of the instruments that will be used to study assistant principals and instructional leadership. It also provides details of research design variables and scales that will measure the assistant principal's participation in instructional leadership, their perceptions of what impedes the progress of instructional leadership and what they feel can be done to fix the problem. Finally, it describes study participant targets and explains planned data collection and data analysis techniques.
The scope of this work is to assess assistant principals in southeastern Texas to obtain their views on instructional leadership. The intent is to determine the degree to which instructional leadership exists in their current responsibilities and initiatives that they feel will help progress leadership implementation at the assistant principal level.
The survey will take advantage of three instruments. The first will be a revised version of the Sources of Instructional Leadership developed…
All survey results will be entered into a software package and codified with the same rankings that have been offered by the survey. Next, rankings and percentages as well as mean averages will be used to analyze survey results. Also, linear regression analysis will be used to explore the relationship between lack of instructional leadership and primary causes and also primary causes and possible solutions.
Additional analytical techniques may be employed as knowledge is gleaned from the initial analysis.
Glatthorn, A., and Newberg, N. (1984). A team approach to instructional leadership. Educational Leadership, 41(5)
staff and the supervision of higher education staff members?
It is the primary assumption regarding the staff as well as the supervision of higher education staff members that they should influence the people around them in such a manner that they would work for the welfare of all rather than working for their own personal causes (Yukl, 2006). This staff acts as a leadership and therefore, they should have high ethical standards along with intrapersonal and interpersonal skills so that they can guide and influence the people around them in a positive manner and prove to be effective leaders (Jossey-Bass, 2003, p. 253).
Assumptions are opinion instinctively created to simplify a persons' rationale for considering and accepting something that one thinks to be right (uggiero, 2004, p. 94-95). I was given the responsibility to consider and decide a number of things regarding the current staff working in the higher education…
Bernhardt, V.L. (2004). Data Analysis for Continuous Improvement (2nd ed.). Larchmont, NY: Eye on Education.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. (pp.440-445).
Gaetane, Jean-Marie, Normove, Anthony H. (2010). "The Impact of Relational Leadership, Social Justice, and Spirituality among Female Secondary School Leaders." International Journal of Urban Educational Leadership 4(1) pg. 22-24.
Glickman, C.D., Gordon, S.P., Ross-Gordon, J.M. (2010). SuperVision and Instructional Leadership (8th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
The roles of any organization need to be firmly defined and adequately expressed in order for that organization to reach its highest potential. Within the organization there are different levels of leadership that dictate the flow and style of how those quality inherently resonate within each and every individual within that organization.
The educational system is an adequate if not superior means to test the effects of transformational leadership on the overall performance levels of an any given educational institution. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of transformational and shared instructional leadership on school performance as measured by the quality of pedagogy and the achievement of the students.
In order to accomplish this, this essay will first give background information on the subject of transformational leadership and define key terms that will serve as a basis for the argument. The next section of this…
Bierly, C. & Shy, E. (2013). Building pathways: How to develop the next generation of transformational leaders. Bain, 5 Dec 2013. Retrieved from http://www.bain.com/publications/articles/building-pathways-to-school-leadership.aspx
Burns, J.M. (2003). Transforming leadership: A new pursuit of happiness (Vol. 213). Grove Press.
Hallinger, P. (2003). Leading educational change: Reflections on the practice of instructional and transformational leadership. Cambridge Journal of education, 33(3), 329-352.
Hallinger, P., & Heck, R.H. (2010). Collaborative leadership and school improvement: Understanding the impact on school capacity and student learning. School Leadership and Management, 30(2), 95-110.
Success-promoting action questions involve "resource adequacy, management and control structure, bureaucratic rules and regulations, political effectiveness, and feedback and evaluation" (437). Following the necessary pattern of realistic yet personally-sensitive inquiry when formulating good questions, Wolman considers the fact that differing situations will require discretion with regard to how much value is placed on measurement vs. action questions. Wolman concludes that no matter what, implications for success vs. failure must be considered and questioned thoroughly before any public policy plan is carried out. Further research along these lines may result in a formal guiding theory on the "why's and how's" of ensuring program or policy success.
Behn, . (1995). The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration eview, 55 (4), 313.
Brewer, J. (2005). Formulating esearch Questions, in Foundations in Multimethod esearch. Sage Publications.
Camburn, E., owan, B., & Taylor, J.E. (2003). Distributed Leadership in Schools: The Case of Elementary…
Behn, R. (1995). The Big Questions of Public Management. Public Administration Review, 55 (4), 313.
Brewer, J. (2005). Formulating Research Questions, in Foundations in Multimethod Research. Sage Publications.
Camburn, E., Rowan, B., & Taylor, J.E. (2003). Distributed Leadership in Schools: The Case of Elementary Schools Adopting Comprehensive School Reform Models. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 25 (4), 347-373.
Feldman, M., Skoldberg, K., Brown, R.N., & Horner, D. (2004). Making Sense of Stories: A Rhetorical Approach to Narrative Analysis. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 14 (2), 147-170.
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
Both of these measures are expected to improve school performance (Pohlman 2010; Seyfarth 1995).
Philosophy of Curriculum Development
Though each individual classroom and instructor operates on a largely independent basis, the philosophy and practicalities of Ms. Pohlman's approach to instructional leadership and the functioning of ush Strong Elementary according to her description exemplifies an instance of coupling that is more tight than loose (Glickman et al. 2007). There is a great deal of integration and guidance of the individual and independent instructors and instructional methods; this guidance is the result of independent input, but provides a clear overarching structure to the institution and the instructional methods and goals (Pohlman 2010). This is the reason that Ms. Pohlman's philosophy is best classified as leaning towards tight rather than loose coupling (Glickman et al. 2007).
Despite the fact that Ms. Pohlman's instructional leadership philosophy favors tight rather than loose coupling, she does…
Glickman, C.; Gordon, S. & Ross-Gordon, J. (2007). SuperVision and instructional leadership. New York: Pearson.
Pohlman, R. (2010). Personal interview. Conducted 21 February 2010.
Seyfarth, J. (1995). Personnel management for effective schools (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Negative feedbacks and criticisms cannot be avoided at this point, especially upon knowing that it is necessary for them to undergo training on how this program will be implemented, including its advantages for them as teachers.
Educators, especially those who have been practicing the profession for a long time have a greater tendency to abhor going through the learning process once more. As a principal, they should be encouraged to undergo the learning process again and become students, therefore, joining their trainings would promote confidence in learning new ideas once more.
As the teachers become students, the idea of the students becoming teachers at some point upon the implementation of the program would somehow alleviate their fear of integrating the use of technology in their learning process. ithin the 30 minutes math lad, they should be allowed to explore the program and share among their classmates what they have learned…
Franklin, J. (2002) the Importance of Instructional Leadership. The Necessary Principal.
Allen, R. (2002) Honing the Tools of Instruction: How Research Can Improve Teaching for the 21st Century.
Shu-Sheng, L. (2004) Considerations for developing constructivist Web-based learning. International Journal of Instructional Media.
I agree with their article for 2 reasons. Firstly, Leithwood and May (1992) provide credible and thorough research to support their argument. One of Leithwood and May's (1992) studies, for instance, demonstrated that teacher motivation and loyalty to the school is strengthened when they are encouraged to structure their own goals for professional growth. Teacher dedication is important to the atmosphere of the school since it promotes a friendly and supportive environment that spreads to the students and encourages students to learn. More so, it reduces the possibility of conflict between both staff and students thereby promoting a better educational experience for the students. A cohesive and harmonious atmosphere -- generated by joint meetings surrounding the instructional leadership format -- can free itself to devoting itself more to ascertaining that the needs of all children are seen to.
Leithwood and May's (1992) studies also showed that the best school environment…
Leithwood, Kenneth a & Poplin, Mary S (1992) the Move Toward Transformational Leadership Educational Leadership;; 49, 5
As Principal, I would certainly notify Ms. Paulson immediately regarding this issue. This initial action would be specifically in accordance with her individual rights. Additionally, this preliminary notification would provide her with an opportunity to confess to any wrongful action or provide other information that could be potentially helpful to (or even negate) any further investigation. Hopefully, some useful data leading to appropriate routes for corrective actions will be birthed from this interaction. Though even if no help comes of this tactic, it is nevertheless clear that many core principles of teacher supervision, evaluation and even educational law are relevant in this case.
Supervisory issues with reference to this matter would unquestionably rest on the shoulders of Ms. Paulson. As a primary educational advocate in the classroom, she is ultimately responsible for creating and maintaining an effective means of supervising her students. If for any reason she feels unable…
Cooley, V.E., & Shen, J. (2003). School Accountability and Professional Job Responsibilities: A Perspective From Secondary Principals. NASSP Bulletin, 87 (634), 10-25.
Hallinger, P. (2005). Instructional Leadership and the School Principal: A Passing Fancy that Refuses to Fade Away. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 4 (3), 221-239.
Kreitler, S., Zigler, E., & Kreitler, H. (1975). The Nature of Curiosity in Children. Journal of School Psychology, 13 (3), 185-200.
Nalwa, K., & Anand, A.P. (2003). Internet Addiction in Students: A Cause of Concern. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6 (6), 653-656.
Givenemtn recently introduced a Bill called the . No Child Left Behind Act which was an amendment to the Public Law 94-142 Education of the Handicapped Act where education became free and appropriate for all children with a disability. This law emphasized that teachers and principals should accord equal attention to all studetns regardless of educational capactieis and background and that each should be ncouraged to excel academically according to his or her best ability and characteristics. The Act emphasized the setting of high stanfards and measurable goals in schools in order to achieve this goal and strongly called for schools that may be termed as 'stuck' to move towards improvement (American Youth Policy Forum (n.d.))
The 'stuck school' may be termed School A according to Leithwood and May (1992) where top-down power is the modus operandi, principals expect teachers and students to act in a certain manner, schools are…
American Youth Policy Forum (n.d.) No Child Left Behind:Improving Educational Outcomes for Students with Disabilities
Leithwood, Kenneth A & Poplin, Mary S (1992) The Move Toward Transformational Leadership Educational Leadership;; 49, 5
Human relations are vital. Teachers must trust each other, there must be norms that support productive criticism, and there must be techniques in place for combining and resolving disputes. Arrangements need to be in place that generates discussion for problem identification and decision making. These arrangements could be things such as normal team meetings amid teachers at the same grade level or department meetings within high schools and middle schools. Frequently useful are school connections to inside and outside sources of knowledge and scrutiny coupled to a readiness to learn from such sources. Also, schools must work to secure the power to proceed with actions that might go against existing policies and practices. By doing this they master the micro-politics of their districts and their communities.
In schools where circumstances to maintain collaborative problem solving are not in place, leaders must expertly manage two plans at the same time. They…
Adkins, D. (1990). The Relationship between visionary Leadership and instructional leadership behavior of secondary school principals: regression analysis and hermeneutic
Balsamo, M. (2004). Assessing principal practices in a standards-based environment and examining the association between principal practices and student achievement.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY.
Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
In other, more charter-friendly states, there are multiple authorizers -- universities, state boards, even specially created bodies with expertise in charter school creation. The new bill before the state House and Senate will give the Board of Education an advising role on charter school applications prior to going before the local school board.
Patrick Henry School of Science and Arts opened Aug. 11, 2010 making it the 10th charter school to open in the state of Virginia since charter schools were allowed to open in 1998. However, if history repeats itself, Patrick Henry will have a bumpy road ahead. Including Patrick Henry only three charter schools are operating currently in the state of Virginia and Patrick Henry is the only one operating in the city of ichmond. At one time there were nine charter schools in Virginia, but most of them closed due to financial reasons. (citation)
According to the…
Lawrence F. Garrison, & Mitchell Holifield. (2005). ARE CHARTER SCHOOLS EFFECTIVE? Planning and Changing, 36(1/2), 90-103. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 877541691).
CHARTER SCHOOLS: LESSONS in SCHOOL REFORM [review of the Charter Schools: Lessons in School Reform. (2005). Harvard Educational Review, 75(3), 341-343. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 920579091).
Victoria Benning. (1998, October 15). Fairfax Studies Charter School Plan; Measure's Guidelines Allow Only Special-Need Applications: [FINAL Edition]. The Washington Post, p. B05. Retrieved December 17, 2010, from ProQuest National Newspapers Premier. (Document ID: 35117762).
Kraft, M. & Furlong, S. (2007). Public Policy: Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives.
Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Violations as they Pertain to the Case of Sonya
An educational institution's principal greatly influences the learning/teaching of every student within the school, for better or for worse. Studies have found that principals' approach to their post, and its eventual effect on enrolled pupils, is dependent upon their style of leadership. Some styles prove to have more benefits for pupils than others. An especially vulnerable student group is students with special education needs. They are, in fact, so susceptible that regulations are made for their protection, designed specially to look after their education. Such laws foster collaboration, inclusive planning, and shared leadership-- leadership traits that have been proven as having the most favorable impact on all students' outcomes (Schulze, 2014).
The school administrator's role as an educational leader has an extensive history. Currently, however, the significance of this particular role is greater than ever…
Boscardian, M. L. (2011). Exploring the Relationship Between Special Education Teachers and Professional Learning Communities. Journal of Special Education Leadership, 62.
Case Studies in Special Education Law: No Child Left Behind Act and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (Case 2.2 "Sonya" pages 30-32 only) (1st Edition)
Diliberto J. A., Brewer D. (2012). Six tips for successful IEP Meetings. Teaching Exceptional Children, 44,30-37
Harrison, D. (2010). Meeting the Needs of Special Needs Students Virtually. The Journal.
Leonard, L. & Leonard, P. (2003, September 17). The continuing trouble with collaboration: Teachers talk. Current Issues in Education, 6 (15).
The researchers explore the perceptions of teachers across one school district with regard to attributes of their teaching context that inhibit or promote the achievement of collaborative teaching. The authors argue that a negative school environment is unlikely to support implementation of teacher collaboration sufficiently robust to positively impact student outcomes.
In a follow up to a previous district-wide survey, the researchers surveyed 56 of the original 238 respondents regarding the nature and extent of collaboration in their schools. The respondents were from all school levels and had been teaching from 3 to 34 years. The qualitative survey contained open-ended questions to invite teachers to reflect on the collaborative aspects of their praxis at their schools and in the district. In particular, respondents were asked about the expectations of…
Asking your school board for teacher collaboration time. Small Schools Project.
Effective use of teacher collaboration time to advance student achievement: A living case study. (2010, October 15). Retrieved http://www.mass2020.org/files/file/
For many years, teacher quality has been a major focus in the United States (Berlinger, p. 14). Many states, throughout history, have worked to improve quality through legislation, changes in policies, and reform in various processes that are transforming teacher preparation, new teacher assessment and support systems, content-specific professional development, recruitment, and certification systems. These efforts have been aided by strong collaborative networks within states and by funding provided by the Higher Education Amendments of 1998 (p. 17).
Recently, experts have suggested that supervision, as at least traditionally viewed, is no longer useful. In Educational Supervision: Perspectives, Issues, and Controversies, the issue "Should Supervision be Abolished?" is presented (Glanz, 1997). One professor argued for the abolition of supervision, presenting many questions on the issue and offering some suggestions for changing the roles of supervisors. The professor analyzed the legitimacy of the fundamental assumptions underlying the theory and practice…
Berliner, D. (1984). The half-full glass: A review of research on teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Blase, J., & Blase, J. (1998). Handbook of instructional leadership: How really good principals promote teaching and learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
Calabrese, R.L. (2000). Leadership through excellence: Professional growth for school leaders. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Glanz, J., & Neville, R.F. (1997). (Eds.). Educational supervision: Perspectives, issues, and controversies. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers, Inc.
principals who are equity-oriented, marginalized dynamics may crop up in schools that are changing demographically at a rapid pace (Cooper, 2009). This essay reflects upon how educators may play the role of transformative leaders by way of carrying out cultural work that tackles inequity, addresses and/or attempts to remove socio-cultural limits, and promotes inclusion. The theories of Cornel West on 'the new cultural politics of difference' appraise the topic, as do literary works on transformative leadership to promote social justice.
Highlighting the ever-changing policy responses in the history of educational leadership, along with their contextual settings, explains the necessity for another glimpse at the manner in which educational leadership should be considered in recent times. Gale & Densmore (2003) found that educational leaders are now faced with contradictory pressures -- on the one hand, to favor some student groups over others, yet, on the other hand, to ensure that disadvantaged…
Appiah, K.A. (2006). The politics of identity. Daedulus, 135(4), 15-22.
Barrett, A. (2012). Transformative leadership and the purpose of schooling. Unpublished dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.
Bell, D.A. (1987). Neither separate schools nor mixed schools: The chronicle of the sacrificed Black schoolchildren. In D. Bell (Ed.); And we are not saved: The elusive quest for racial justice (pp. 102 -- 122). New York: Basic Books.
Brown, K.M. (2004). Leadership for social justice and equity: Weaving a transformative framework and pedagogy. Education Administration Quarterly, 40(1), 77-108.
Many of them are either uddhist or Taoist, and both of these religions teach respect very seriously. In order to understand the idea of respect amongst siblings in the way that the Chinese individuals see it, it becomes necessary to also understand some of the Taoist and uddhist traditions and beliefs. These are not always seen as being very significant, largely because many individuals in the west do not understand Taoism and/or uddhism, and therefore it gets largely ignored. However, it is also important to understand the importance of schooling and how this affects the way that the Chinese individuals think when it comes to the respect that they show to their siblings (ogdan & iklen, 1992).
Integration of the Elements by Locals
Religion and usiness in China
uddhism is the religion that is generally seen in the Chinese culture. uddhists seek an elimination of suffering. The uddha teaches that,…
Balfour, Frederik. (2006). B&Q stores: Renovating China's attitudes. BusinessWeek. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/globalbiz/content/apr2006/gb20060425_120572 . htm
Bass, Frank M. The Future of Research in Marketing: Marketing Science. Journal of Marketing Research 30, 1 (1993): 1-6.
Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Cateora, P.R., & Graham, J.L., (2002) International Marketing 11th Ed. Mc Graw-Hill
Education as Cultural Transmission
Education and societal inequality
Synthesis and Analysis
Education as cultural transmission
Although the precise purpose of education remains in debate, what is clear is that the life lessons needed by young people living in the Amazon rainforests are far different from those needed by young learners in developed nations, so it is reasonable to posit that education can be viewed as a means of cultural transmission that is intended to impart what is regarded as important and valuable to future generations (Harris & Graves, 2010). Young learners in the primitive regions of the Amazon, for instance, would need to know how to hunt and fish for the right types of game and which plants were edible and which should be avoided. These young people would have little or no need (which is not to say desire) for knowing how to design a…
Causarano, A. (2013, September 1). Literacy strategy journal: Planning literacy instruction in a liberal arts college. Journal of Education and Learning, 2(3), 111-117.
Cicero, A.M. & De La Cruz, Y. (1999, May). Teaching and learning creatively: Using children's narratives. Teaching Children Mathematics, 5(9), 544-551.
Georgiou, I. (2011, July). Sociocultural and historical elements in secondary mathematics. Mathematics Teaching, 223, 18-21.
Goldring, L. (2009, November-December). The power of school culture: Research show which traits of a school's culture most affect student achievement, and how schools can work toward positive change. Leadership, 32(2), 32-35.
Activity and Summary
The first activity in which a campus administrator must coordinate that I participate in deals with afterschool bussing. My duties for this activity include ensuring that a peaceful order is established as parents pick up their children and others are placed on the right busses. This activity is for 300 students K-6th grade.
The second activity of this nature, deals with a process called Test Sophistication. This afterschool activity is aimed at improving test scores for high achieving middle school students. The Assistant Principal (AP), is charge of this activity and I assist in teaching in this program. Cosden et al. (2004) suggested that these types of afterschool programs are beneficial for development. They wrote "After-school homework programs can provide students with structure, supervision, academic assistance, and the opportunity to learn study skills. At their best, participation in after-school homework programs can help students maintain…
American College of Education. November 2013 Graduate Catalog.
Cosden, M., Morrison, G., Gutierrez, L., & Brown, M. (2004). The effects of homework programs and after-school activities on school success. Theory into Practice, 43(3), 220- 226.
Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting
One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…
Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.
Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
balance of power between institutions such as the Executive, Bureaucracy, Legislature, and the courts?
The state selected for this essay is the State of Washington. The State of Washington is made of three branches that are contextualized after the federal government and these are the executive, legislative, and the judicial. To begin with, the executive consists of the state's governor and the other elected state officials. In particular, these officials carry out and execute the laws passed by the Legislature. Imperatively, the governor is endowed with the power and authority to appoint members of the judicial branch. Moreover, any bills that are passed by the legislative branch have to be sent to the governor in order to be vetoed or signed. The second branch is the legislative branch. It is made of the Senate and the House of epresentatives. In the balance of power within the state, the legislature has…
Access Washington. (2017). Washington State: Branches of Government. Retrieved 12 June 2017 from: http://access.wa.gov/topics/government/state/branches
Makings, E. (2017). As the Legislature begins its second special session, OSPI offers a new K -- 12 plan. Washington Research Council. Retrieved 12 June 2017 from: https://researchcouncil.org/2017/05/24/as-the-legislature-begins-its-second-special-session-ospi-offers-a-new-k%E2%80%9312-plan
Stafford, J. (2016). A Preview of the 2017 Washington State Legislative Session. South Seattle Emerald. Retrieved 12 June 2017 from: https://southseattleemerald.com/2016/10/06/a-preview-of-the-2017-washington-state-legislative-session/
The Saylor Foundation. (2012). Political Ideology. Retrieved 12 June 2017 from: https://www.saylor.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/POLSC2312.1.4.pdf