Sometimes, it is even necessary to carry out certain clandestine operations like deceptions, clandestine collection of information, covert actions, and also the carrying out of the exercise of distributing disinformation or misleading information, which would mislead the suspected threat.
The United States Intelligence Community is, as stated earlier, made up a number of different agencies. The Central Intelligence Agency is one of these. Also known popularly as the CIA, this agency was created in the year 1947, when President Truman signed the National Security Act. The Act stated that the Director of Central Intelligence would be responsible for coordinating the intelligence activities of the entire nation, and that they would also correlate and evaluate as well as disseminate all the pertinent information that would probably be a threat to the national security of the United States of America. Today, the Director of Central Intelligence is Porter J. Goss, who serves…… [Read More]
BITISH COUNTE-INTELLIGENCE SUCCESSFUL AGAINST LEFT AND IGHT WING SUBVESION DUING THE 1930S?
The period between the two World Wars was a time of acute confrontations between various national intelligence and counterintelligence agencies especially in Europe. The extent to which such agencies managed to address the challenges to the benefit of their own national government is a subject of debate to this day among analysts and experts. An important case in study is the role of intelligence and in particular counterintelligence in the UK during the inter-wars period. This research assesses the degree to which MI5 and MI6 succeeded in deterring and countering the left and right wing threats coming from the Continent. Given the tumultuous historical context and the level of development of the information gathering techniques, British counterintelligence managed to deter most Soviet, Nazi, and Fascist influences during the respective period. However, taking into account the events that took…… [Read More]
Collaboration Among Intelligence Agencies and Law Enforcement Agencies
Collaboration occurs when two or more individuals, agencies, or other forms of organizations commence a mutually beneficial relationship toward a shared goal. Collaboration includes a shared determination or will to reach a goal or achieve an objective in many ways such as sharing knowledge/information, sharing resources, combining resources and staff in innovative manners, as well as by constructing and maintaining a consensus. Construction and maintaining a consensus during collaborative efforts keeps every party involved on the same page; there is no one body that retains more knowledge than another or at least all parties involved have the same general sense of the situation or activity. Collaboration is an activity that requires effort in of itself. Collaboration by nature must be two-way or else it is not collaboration, but simply the execution of hierarchy.
Law Enforcement is not a profession or discipline…… [Read More]
The trouble with this is that employees often assume that their email conversations are personal in nature, and therefore fail to find out whether in fact this is actually the case. In general, "They tend to believe that their e-mails are private because they communicate outside the network or because their e-mail accounts are protected by a password. These misconceptions lull many employees into a false sense of security."
The result is that intelligence officers often relay information through emails which is sensitive, personal, or contrary to information that they provided their superiors. This, of course, may be grounds for termination in certain circumstances. The important fact is that emails should not be regarded as strictly personal in nature when send within the workplace. However, it should be the agency's responsibility to inform all intelligence officers of their emailing policies. If no strict policies are stated, each individual employee should…… [Read More]
At present, Al-Qaeda is known to finance its terror operations through drug-trafficking. "[the New York Times reported] that 'militants linked to Al Qaeda also established connections with Bosnian organized crime figures. The officials said Al Qaeda and the Taliban found a route for the trafficking of heroin from Afghanistan into Europe through the Balkans.'... In other words, the CIA knew that Al-Qaeda was involved in heroin-trafficking, but (as is so often the case with big-time drug-traffickers) was not widely sharing it...Bin Laden's network now uses the drug connections which Bin Laden developed with his friend, the former CIA protege Gulbuddin Hekmatyar" during the Soviet occupation (Scott 2007)
The CIA did not merely turn a blind eye to the drug backgrounds of organized criminals, spies, and rebel factions. Even while it condemned the use of LSD by the American counterculture, it used the drug in its own experiments, often without the…… [Read More]
Big Data is driving virtually every industry in today’s Digital Age, including, among all others, the work of the Intelligence community. From human intelligence (HUMINT) to open source intelligence (OSINT), “strategic intelligence as a professional discipline and force multiplier” has evolved from centering on “qualitative subject-matter content analyzed by human specialists” to leveraging “the increasingly massive collection and machine analysis of quantifiable, if not necessarily quantitative, data.”[footnoteRef:2] However, as Richard Best, Specialist in National Defense, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Division, testified before Congress in 2006, OSINT, which is primarily derived from old and new media publications, including social media, lacks a systematic manner in which such data can be incorporated into or used to supplement classified information.[footnoteRef:3] As Best notes, “a consensus now exists that OSINT must be systematically collected and should constitute an essential component of analytical products.”[footnoteRef:4] The main challenge is that among the community itself,…… [Read More]
Domestic Intelligence Agency
The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency
In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.
The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"
Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…… [Read More]
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)
The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…… [Read More]
Central Intelligence Agency
The civilian intelligence agency of United States has given the name of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The fundamental objective of this agency is to collect, assess and publicize foreign intelligence that provides national security intelligence assessment to the senior United States policy makers. The CIA is also involved in secret agenda at the request of President of United States.[footnoteRef:1]The establishment of CIA was in succession of the Office of Strategic Service (OSS) being operative in World War II. [1: Caroline Wilbert. "How the CIA Works." Available from http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm; accessed Aug 3rd 2011]
On the government side CIA works fundamentally with the House Permanent select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. These two committees and the Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs and Armed Services committee are responsible to authorize the CIA's program and oversee the CIA. The funding and budgeting system of the CIA…… [Read More]
2003, when the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) was instituted, the concept of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) was largely at its outset. Its beginnings had been propagated in preceding decades, but the circumstances were finally prime for the discipline to develop, grow and spring new branches with the ability to support a growing community practicing a verified dexterity.[footnoteef:1] In delineation, geospatial intelligence takes into account taking advantage of and analyzing images and geospatial information to outline, appraise, and visually portray physical features and geographically mentioned activities on Earth. This is purposed to distinguish the important property of geographical position linked with the data that the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency and the intelligence community generate and analyze. It is also purposed to lay emphasis on the value-added examinations that the NGA undertakes to generate a specific kind of actionable intelligence.[footnoteef:2] Taking into consideration that the purpose of geospatial intelligence is to pinpoint and…… [Read More]
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was founded in1947 out of the Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, and its purpose was to act as a civilian foreign intelligence agency that dealt with threats to American interests abroad. hile initially born at the onset of the Cold ar era in which espionage and the threat of nuclear war was high, the CIA has developed over the years to be something more than its initial mandate set out. By participating in various black operations geared towards effecting regime change, the CIA quickly became known as a cloak and dagger agency very much in the tradition of the OSS.
The organizational structure of the CIA is situated in five directorates, all of which help to coordinate intelligence: the Directorate of Digital Innovation, of Analysis, of Operations, of Support, and of Science and Technology. The Director of the CIA oversees all of these directorates and…… [Read More]
After September 11th, President ush authorized the use of water boarding, as a way to gain knowledge of terrorist groups and their activities. The problem is that many of the civil rights-based groups believe that this is in violation of American law. When the people, who are interrogated (terrorists), are not American citizens and they want to do as much harm to the country as possible. Given the fact that these individuals, are more than likely hard core terrorists and posses knowledge about imminent terrorist activities, meant that the this technique would be utilized to obtain information. Even though this was successful and was used on limited number of people, the press and Congress continued to debate the issue. (Froomkin, 2010) This is troubling, because it undermines the activities of U.S. intelligence officials (who are trying to protect the nation). As they are inserted into a game of political chicken,…… [Read More]
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…… [Read More]
Franks (along with the Bush war cabinet, including Vice President Dick Chaney) "met repeatedly" to plan the attack on Iraq. It was groupthink through and through. At the same time Bush was saying publicly he was "pursuing a diplomatic solution" (Hamilton, 2004), "intensive war planning" was going on during the whole year 2002. It "created its own momentum" in the administration, Hamilton wrote.
In oodward's book, which was recognized as conveying authentic details about the Bush war planning and strategies, he covers much of the pre-war discussions Bush had with top members of his administration, along with decisions Bush made on his own and with help from people like his Foreign Policy Advisor, Condoleezza Rice. But according to an excerpt from oodward's book, Bush waited until the last minute (among his top staff) to brief Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had not been an advocate of going to war,…… [Read More]
Intelligence Unit Memo
Police Chief I.B. Friendly
Incorporating Intelligence Unit into Department
In modern law enforcement, the sophistication of modern criminal activity, particularly post-September 11th, causes a necessary paradigm shift for 21st century police departments. This shift requires that departments rethink the power of information -- the manner in which it is collected, analyzed, and then used to fulfill the goals of the department. In fact, in 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing released by the hite House describes the need for fusion information centers as a vital way to succeed in modern law enforcement and critical to the safety of the local community as well as the nation (Porter, 2008).
Historical Background - Prior to 1960, even large, urban Police Departments did not have intelligence units. Resources were combined so that Detectives were at the hierarchy of information analysis; and every member of the department was open to…… [Read More]
This flexibility gave U.S. intelligence agencies an advantage over their Soviet counterparts, who were unable to demonstrate a similar capacity for rapid and effective responses to the circumstances of the crisis ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). Finally, and most surprisingly, the U.S. intelligence community retained a remarkable ability to take actions that were not heavily influenced by the political climate of the nation. Rather than being influenced by the political platforms of politicians, the intelligence community focused on the matter at hand, to great effect ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). These three factors were most influential in the successful actions of the U.S. intelligence community during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The atson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497.… [Read More]
By 1945, the OSS was abolished and by 1947 the National Security Act had completely transferred the task of espionage and intelligence from military to civilian hands ("United States Intelligence"). This transfer set the stage for the successes and failures of the U.S. intelligence community during the early Cold ar. It meant that U.S. intelligence was much more greatly coordinated and more aggressively implemented during that period to some apparent success. But it also meant that these new civilian agencies did not have the legacy of experience with espionage that existed within the military intelligence community. The end result was a higher degree of coordination during the early Cold ar, which improved the level of intelligence and communication and helped create the U.S.'s first true intelligence community.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html.… [Read More]
This would create a reactionary agency which, rather than gathering intelligence to the extension of its security, would approach what would come to be known as the 'containment theory,' using whatever resources and tactics were at its disposal to deflect against the spread of communism.
At its time, the 1947 Act would be seen as projecting considerable vision. As one conservative think-tank reports on this idea, "until fairly recently, CIA considered its appropriate time horizon to be fairly long. It was, I believe, generally longer than the focus of either the Defense Intelligence Agency or the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). The Directorate of Intelligence made forecasts in some areas that went out 20 years, and collectors and analysts tried to anticipate events 'over the horizon' -- situations policymakers did not then know they were likely to be worrying about in the future. CIA did this because…… [Read More]
Shortly after, the Navy successfully cracked the Japanese military code in Operation Magic, which allowed U.S. forces to turn the tide of the war in the Pacific by 1942 ("United States Intelligence").
One of the chief actions taken during this period was the creation of the Office of Strategic Services by FDR in 1942. During orld ar II, the OSS coordinated all of the information through collection and analysis that was used for clandestine operations up until 1945 ("United States Intelligence"). The development of the OSS, though short-lived, demonstrates that the role of the intelligence community in United States foreign policy was growing significantly. Before this period, U.S. espionage was limited at best and primarily a domestic affair. By 1945, the role of the intelligence community had greatly expanded and become a more central part of life in the United States.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia…… [Read More]
Intelligence Community (IC) is the biggest and most multifaceted institution of its kind, consisting of sixteen semi-independent agencies with dissimilar, sometimes corresponding, spheres of accountability. Generally, it has demonstrated problematic to institute integrated direction over the IC. Ensuing major terrorist attacks like that of September 11, 2001, comprehensive intelligence restructurings were sanctioned, including legislature to authorize chief leadership by founding a Director of National Intelligence. Notwithstanding these modifications, opposition to central management still affects the IC to this day. The disaster in structural reform is poorly comprehended, as the literature does not intellectualize intelligence agencies predominantly as organizations.
The methodology recommended herein examines the progressive paths of agencies, which irradiates the organizational factors moving reform. Employing the structure of Historical Institutionalism in the new setting of intelligence agencies aids in explaining the difficulties seen in reform, posed by established interests and governmental cultures, damaging the realistic likelihood of centralized control…… [Read More]
Intelligence Practical Exercise
Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
GEOINT which means Geospatial Intelligence is a system which is used to analyse an environment for intelligence and operational purposes. (GEOINT Analysis, 2017).
Describe the Environment: Collect key data that defines the precise destination for the planned mission. Geographical, government and cultural limitations must be established. In most cases, the gathered data could consist of vectors, heights, natural landmarks such as rivers, mountains etc., longitude and latitude locations and several others. All these are the basic requirements of the GEOINT invention.
Outline the Effects of The Environment: Elaborate thoroughly on the mission location identified in the previous step. Locate and define its natural state, any existing structures and its cultural atmosphere. Account for all possible factors that might have an effect on a mission in the location such as roads, people, buildings, plants, climate, language, government, cultural divides or social factors. Add this new…… [Read More]
hile some in the intelligence community may have resented the intrusion of Congress and calls for transparency, the investigations and oversight gave the CIA and the intelligence community a stronger moral footing in the U.S. democracy (DeYoung and Pincus). In a nation in which freedom and open-ness are core values, the continuance of an intelligence community that operates outside of those bounds and values is ethically unacceptable. The long-term health of the intelligence community in the nation was predicated on those Congressional investigations of the 1970s, which successfully infused the U.S. intelligence community with some degree of a "conscience."
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, alter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." ashington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html.
Van agenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html.… [Read More]
intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.
This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.
Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…… [Read More]
Homeland Security Intelligence
With the advent of new technologies, human lifestyle is improving and people have found better ways to achieve their goals. The impact of technology is found at national level and many security threats are emerged. Keeping in view the possibility of increased security challenges in the time to come, there is serious need to revise the security policies and bring them all together under information communication strategy so that reporting chain and effective control can be determined.
Policy Memorandum of Homeland Security Intelligence
Homeland Security is the matter of national integrity and must be catered for as the utmost priority of government officials and policy makers. The implementing authorities should align their practices with the objective of protecting national integrity and give the feedback to policy makers if there is any issue of concern.
It can be argued that the establishment of a country consists of high…… [Read More]
Pfeffer & Salanick (1978) proposed many important ideas in their examination of management theory's incorporation of external elements and controls. While the information contained in this reading are useful in some manner, their perspective remains incomplete and one sided in many ways. While it is true that the external controls and exchanges between organizations have a direct and almost obvious impact on the cumulative results, the author's ignore the requirement for balance and reason within the total concept of control.
While federal intelligence agencies such as the CIA certain would benefit from taking the authors' recommendations when they wrote " the key to organizational survival is the ability to acquire and maintain resources, " (p.2), it still feels that something even more important is left out. The CIA can and does acquire incredibly large amounts of data and information, or resources, however a point of diminishing returns awaits…… [Read More]
CIA FBI 911
Both the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation are part of the larger, 17 unit organization that is known as the United States Intelligence Community. The CIA and FBI have had a history of conflict and disagreement as history dictates. The most obvious and direct failure of cooperation of these two organizations was revealed in the aftermath of the attacks of 9/11. The institutional differences between these organizations were fully exposed as the intelligence relating to these events have been partially revealed throughout the last decade plus. This essay will provide some details about this conflict and provide some links to some related information about this idea.
The CIA and FBI are both separate units with different missions regarding the safekeeping of America's resources. In past years the CIA has been much more associated with foreign affairs and…… [Read More]
The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab state located on the Persian Gulf, is an oil-rich constitutional monarchy. The country has generally been an ally of the United States, but has internal issues that could compromise its security. Less than half of Bahrain's population are native Bahraini, lending the country a more diverse ethnic mix than might be expected. According to the CIA, 70.3% of the population is Muslim. A plurality of these, including the ruling family, are Sunni, but the country also has a significant Shia minority (CIA, 2015).
Internal Ethnic Issues
Non-Bahrainis, despite making up the majority of the population in the country, have few rights and typically do not play a political role in the country. Bahrain's Muslim population is divided among the ruling minority Sunni and majority Shia, and there has been some friction in the past as the result of internal conflict between these…… [Read More]
6). The question then becomes, who protects the American public from the CICC?"
Currently law enforcement groups at all levels are protective of the information singularly gathered. If these groups were to share all information at every level the information, whether true or not, can be used in a manner that would take away the constitutional right of American citizens to be considered innocent until proven guilty. In today's world of capable technology assisting law enforcement, analysis of criminal intent and mischief is readily available to all entities.
Sharing the resulting information from such analysis with all other law enforcement will open the door to mismanagement and corruption. Such corruption is already evident in many law enforcement entities and to provide them with additional cannon fodder would be a huge mistake.
Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)…… [Read More]
Short to military dances. The book is riddled with anecdotes such as these that indicate the military was ill prepared for a surprise attack, and in fact were arrogant in their ignorance.
In fact, Clausen's investigation showed the American military knew Japanese codes but ignored them in seeking intelligence; the agencies were unprepared for war or a surprise attack. As the author notes, "Although vested with high commands and responsibilities, they were surprised by the attack. They were unprepared for war. Thus, they were really guilty of criminal neglect of duty" (Clausen & Lee, 1992, p. 228). There was little joint action between the services during and after the attack, and that had a midnight message been decoded, it might have prevented the attack. In short, Pearl Harbor was a series of bungles that resulted in the most horrific naval losses the U.S. has ever endured.
Clausen, H.C. And…… [Read More]
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…… [Read More]
Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework
Terrorism has been the greatest threat to American soil since the end of the Cold ar, and the country has responded to these threats by creating an elaborate counterterrorism and intelligence framework. This counterterrorism strategy must use every possible tool in America's arsenal, and must meet the highest standards in excellence for the duty it is tasked to perform. The nature of terrorist threats in America in the 21st century is the fact that nobody knows where and why terrorism may appear.
Three agencies will form the core of the new counterterrorism and intelligence gather efforts coordinated by the Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2012) These three agencies are the CIA, the FBI, and the DOD, and each already fulfills necessary functions in America's fight on terror. hile still operating within the legal framework that surrounds each agency, I look to improve the overall effectiveness…… [Read More]
They believe that the information was there for the asking, but that DHS did not have the individuals on the ground that could ask.
Since that time, of course, there has been billions of dollars poured into DHS, DIA and the CIA. The DIA's three centers have become more refined and defined. Those three centers as they exist today, consists of: The National Military Production Center, the National Military Intelligence Collection Center, and the National Military Intelligence Systems Center. Each of the three has specific jobs and responsibilities as well as the objective to effectively coordinate information flow between the three centers.
According to Polmar, The National Military Production Center is responsible for producing and managing military intelligence, including assessments of aerospace, maritime and ground forces of foreign forces as well as threat assessment.
The National Military Intelligence Collection Center does exactly what it sounds like, that is it; manages…… [Read More]
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…… [Read More]
U.S. intelligence community is always expected to perform its duties according to some specified guidelines. This study examines the three themes found in the Pfeffer and Salancik book, "The External Control of Organizations," as applied to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). The paper reveals how the themes are applicable to the IC and their potential benefits to the IC. It is evident that the identified have proven to be useful to the community, as it has enabled it to adapt to the changing paradigms within the intelligence community.
First theme: the importance of the environment or the social context of organizations for understanding what decisions were made about issues ranging from whom to hire, the composition of boards of directors, and what alliances and mergers to seek.
From this theme, the leading obstacle in the realization of accountability in the U.S. intelligence community is the prerequisite of secrecy…… [Read More]
U.S. Intelligence Stategy Histoy
The United States has always been a county that pided itself on the excellence of its militay excellenc and pecision. The defense and national foces have been at the heat of militay intelligence thoughout the yeas stating with 2001, in Septembe. Many govenment agencies, fo example, have joined foces with moe taditional militay foces to help combat both mino cime foces with those of a moe sophisticated body of cime thoughtout the United States and the wold. A histoical examination of the vaious elements elated to U.S. intelligence duing militay intense times eveal that moe attention to social o human concens duing the times involved might have ceated a geate dive towads caing fo those left destitute by a focus on militay o social concens duing Wold Wa II, the militay inquiies of the 1970s, and the invasion of Iaq stated in 2003. When examining the…… [Read More]
Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism
Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…… [Read More]
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…… [Read More]
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…… [Read More]
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…… [Read More]
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to counter-terrorism frameworks. First, the author is asked to provide a revised framework for the national terrorism prevention and response agencies in the United States. Per the parameters of the assignment, there are to be at least three agencies involved in the revised framework. Subsequent to that, the author is asked to answer to how and when the agencies will interact and why. The author is asked what tools can be used to help the agencies function and do their jobs and that will be included in the framework summary. The author is asked to wrap up the paper by enumerating at least three policy and/or procedural recommendations that should be implemented to make the existing framework gel and function more effectively.
The existing framework for law enforcement and…… [Read More]
S.-Soviet partnership lasted only a year and a half. With World War II over and the OSS disbanded in October 1945, the Cold War was looming on the horizon.
The research showed that the KGB was established in 1917 and was official deactivated in 1991. The research also showed that the KGB was not the stuff of the James Bond movies, but rather was characterized by an enormous sense of internal rivalry, a profound sense of paranoia and a desire on the part of many of its agents to defect to the West at their first opportunity. In this environment, it was little wonder that the KGB would resort to some of the tactics it used to achieve its mission, and it is reasonable to assert that current ussian intelligence agents will have taken a lesson or two from their KGB predecessors as they seek to maintain hegemony with…… [Read More]
The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…… [Read More]
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]
Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.
Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…… [Read More]
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…… [Read More]
To handle these responsibilities, intelligence agents need to possess certain skills and education. Most positions require at least a bachelor's degree, and degrees in politics or the sciences are recommended. Applicants need to possess strong writing skills, especially with analytical reports. Strong oral presentation skills are desired. Applicants need to be able to absorb and synthesize large amounts of information, to convey ideas thoroughly and logically, and be able to draw logical conclusions based on careful research and analysis. Computer knowledge and data entry are key skills. In addition, intelligence agents demonstrate leadership and show strong teamwork. Other requirements can include the ability to travel, familiarity with automated tools and systems, and foreign language skills. An applicant to any intelligence department must be able to pass a polygraph test, a background check to gain security clearance, and a psychological interview.
After achieving the right skill set and education, there are…… [Read More]
Open Source Intelligence and Organized Crime
In the words of Bell and Congram (2014), TOC-Transnational Organized Crime can be defined as a crime carried out by an enduring organization or structure created and primarily involved in pursuing profits through several illegal businesses. It shares certain traits with formal organizations: using rules and codes to coordinate activities, division of labour, and allocating tasks with the aim of actualizing some given goals. While it is appropriate to see TOC as being composed of several activities, it can be seen that some specified organized criminal activities fall into the same category. They include activities such as drug trafficking, money laundering, people smuggling, human/sex trafficking, endangered species trafficking, arms trafficking, and most significantly since the last decade, terrorism.
Structure of TOC Groups
According to Bell and Congram (2014), the domestic and transnational groups that perpetrate crimes have succeeded in modifying their structures into flexible,…… [Read More]
Collecting National Security Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).
Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…… [Read More]
Foreign Intelligence Services
There is much controversy with regard to the foreign policy practiced by the majority of powerful nations in the contemporary society. In an environment where intelligence is often the key to success, emerging powers have the tendency to improve their intelligence services and to get actively involved in competing with some of the established actors in the international setting. hile Russia proved to be an impressive adversary for the U.S. during the Cold ar era, new powers such as China and Iran currently represent significant opponents for the est. hen considering the U.S.' current role in international affairs, it would be important for someone to gain a complex understanding of the degree to which countries such as Russia, China, and Iran represent significant threats today.
Russian-American relations have been turbulent throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The 1990s have brought a breath of fresh air…… [Read More]
Terrorism in recent years has hit an all-time high. Affecting millions of people, radical groups and organizations see terrorism as a favored tactic or approach for bringing to fruition their extreme ideological agendas both domestically and internationally. Terrorism globally chose the United States and other western countries to target in their extremist agendas. The United States government became aware of terrorist efforts after the September 11 attacks. Since then the U.S. has devoted time and resources into developing a counterterrorism and intelligence framework in order to respond to any ongoing and future terrorist attacks/activity.
Counterterrorism refers to the processes that consist of the offensive measures taken to avoid, deter, forestall, and react to terrorism. The United States regarded counterterrorism missions as distinctive operations by clandestine, undercover, or low discernibility means. Counterterrorism presently is categorized as a fundamental task for the United States government. The government has fashioned or redefined distinct…… [Read More]
Varnava (2012) commented on the multifaceted intelligence attributes that went into making the construct of British Intelligence gathering in Cyprus, a successful vocation in World War II. This review aims to explore the implications of the role played by local, civil populace in thwarting attempts by military in allowing intelligence inputs through counter-espionage on British and Middle East territories. The review revisits some work on the First World War British efforts on counter espionage measures in Cyprus after 1916. The work will add to the literature on intelligence activities, attempted during the WW1 (Varnava, 2012).
According to Constantinou's (2013) paper, the role played by diplomatic strategies that extrapolates intelligence-gathering process makes it successful. Diplomacy is a means of making skilled, persistent advocacy towards obtaining solutions of complex situations. It fails to make most of its capabilities. The epistemology (of diplomacy) in the context of humanism, above the dimension of intelligence…… [Read More]
agency/organization in which you worked. Include information on the size of the organization (number of personnel, of what kinds) and the division of labor into units or departments. Obtain an organizational chart, or prepare one yourself, showing the formal structure of the organization.
The organization where I worked from April 24, 2012 to June 29, 2012 was U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Created in 2003, it is the main investigative body of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Investigation. It is a federal law enforcement agency whose main responsibility includes executing the immigration and custom laws of the United States to protect the country and to ensure the public security.
The detailed chart of the structure of the organization is attached in the Appendix A. ICE has a divisional organizational structure. It is headed by the Director who is appointed by the President of U.S. And approved by the…… [Read More]
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…… [Read More]
Human interaction provides a roadmap of how we think and process information. The human brain is bipolar with one side, being more feminine, incorporates the emotional and subjective types of data, where the left brain models the scenario and attempts to gather, dissect and disseminate that information for a better purpose. This modeling process can be very helpful in the military intelligence community to help organizations reach better conclusions and hence plan and operate in a more direct and impactful way.
The business world in its attempts to seek and gain a competitive advantage in many different ways and forms provides useful modeling techniques that can be used in any industry or scenario. elating these business models to the intelligence community requires a strong understanding of the words and phrases used within these models. Once a common language has been established, and all key terms are understood, the models can…… [Read More]
Integrated agreements will assist in targeting the maximum federal funding at the greatest risk counties, cities and states where through the addition of more funds, security of citizens will be increased (U.S. Congress 2010). U.S. Department of Homeland Security should uphold on what it considers being right. It should be firm on actions vital to the country's ability to respond to such issues. It should issue a mandate on funding for the activities, interoperable communications and should not ignore its own requirements. As a result, local and state governments will succeed in achieving interoperable communications (Studeman, 2002).
The DHS must ensure that localities and states attain a certain degree of appropriate interoperable communications. Activities and actions should be given proper funding. In addition, Department of Homeland Security should allow local and state governments to be flexible and make decisions on how they intend to achieve the standard. The DHS enterprise…… [Read More]
police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?
Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…… [Read More]
gathering and using knowledge as a basis for making decisions in formal settings is an old one. If one is to gain advantage over their rivals, it is essential to gather updated knowledge that is also accurate with regard to what they intend to do and their capabilities. The principle applies across a wide range of fields including military strategies, politics, criminal intelligence circles and business. Further, it is a continually evolving process. It has been changing in response to socio-cultural factors, higher advanced analytical skill requirements, organizational demands, and even technology. Review of the roots of intelligence and the analytical procedures as a pre-occupation and profession is a consultative activity. Such analysis of the background of intelligence processes helps us to understand the past, the present and help anticipate the future. We also learn, in the process, that intelligence gathering is an ever evolving field. Consequently, if the practice…… [Read More]
Intelligence, Information Sharing, and the 9/11 Commission Report
Intelligence versus information
There two terms are fundamentally different for a number of reasons. The reason the terms are different can be decoded by investigating the ‘why’ from the information gathered. According to Lance (2017) the ‘how’ or ‘what’ is not important in decoding intelligence information. The resource needed to produce valued and true intelligence is by understanding why. The sole purpose any entity receives finished intelligence is to make it possible for the entity to make strategic, operational and tactical decisions with the information received. The media takes information received and takes steps towards transforming this information into stories hence creating actionable intelligence. In essence, according to Lance (2017) intelligence changes the how and what in information into when and why in the process of decision making. Information only becomes finished intelligence through detailed analysis of that information.
Tallmadge (2016) defines…… [Read More]
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…… [Read More]
North Korean Intelligence:
Throughout its history, North Korea has continued to harass South Korea for as long as these countries have been separated by imaginary line and roadblocks. Since the country invasion upon South Korea in June 1950, North Korea has been a thorn in the daily lives of South Koreans. North Korea has been able to maintain such relations because of intelligence collection capabilities on the Korean Peninsula. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea has a comprehensive intelligence gathering structure and several people conducting the intelligence operations. The three main agencies in the intelligence unit are the Ministry for Protection of State Security, Korean Workers Party, and the military intelligence arm.
North Korea's Intelligence Collection Methods:
One of the most evident aspects regarding North Korea is that the country seems to be in a constant mission to gather intelligence on the Korean Peninsula. This is largely…… [Read More]