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Sometimes, it is even necessary to carry out certain clandestine operations like deceptions, clandestine collection of information, covert actions, and also the carrying out of the exercise of distributing disinformation or misleading information, which would mislead the suspected threat.
The United States Intelligence Community is, as stated earlier, made up a number of different agencies. The Central Intelligence Agency is one of these. Also known popularly as the CIA, this agency was created in the year 1947, when President Truman signed the National Security Act. The Act stated that the Director of Central Intelligence would be responsible for coordinating the intelligence activities of the entire nation, and that they would also correlate and evaluate as well as disseminate all the pertinent information that would probably be a threat to the national security of the United States of America. Today, the Director of Central Intelligence is Porter J. Goss, who serves…
Air Intelligence Agency, History Perspective. Retrieved at http://aia.lackland.af.mil/homepages/ho/index.cfmAccessed on 1 January, 2005
Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved at http://www.cia.gov/cia/information/info.html . Accessed on 1 January, 2005
Conley, Richard S. The War on Terrorism and homeland security:
Presidential and Congressional Challenges. Retrieved at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:ER6Cox2uKcYJ:web.clas.ufl.edu/users/rconley/ . Accessed on 1 January, 2005
BITISH COUNTE-INTELLIGENCE SUCCESSFUL AGAINST LEFT AND IGHT WING SUBVESION DUING THE 1930S?
The period between the two World Wars was a time of acute confrontations between various national intelligence and counterintelligence agencies especially in Europe. The extent to which such agencies managed to address the challenges to the benefit of their own national government is a subject of debate to this day among analysts and experts. An important case in study is the role of intelligence and in particular counterintelligence in the UK during the inter-wars period. This research assesses the degree to which MI5 and MI6 succeeded in deterring and countering the left and right wing threats coming from the Continent. Given the tumultuous historical context and the level of development of the information gathering techniques, British counterintelligence managed to deter most Soviet, Nazi, and Fascist influences during the respective period. However, taking into account the events that took…
Barros, A and T. Talbot. 2009. "Debating British Decision making toward Nazi Germany in the 1930s." International Security. Volume 34, Number 1, pp. 173-198.
Cohen, Paul (1986) "The police, the home office and surveillance of the British Union of fascists." Intelligence and National Security, 1:3, 416-434.
Security System. 2014. What is the difference between MI5 and MI6?. Available at https://www.mi5.gov.uk/home/about-us/faqs-about-mi5/what-is-the-difference-between-mi5-and-mi6.html
Special Intelligence Service MI6. 2014. Our history. Available at https://www.sis.gov.uk/our-history.html
Collaboration Among Intelligence Agencies and Law Enforcement Agencies
Collaboration occurs when two or more individuals, agencies, or other forms of organizations commence a mutually beneficial relationship toward a shared goal. Collaboration includes a shared determination or will to reach a goal or achieve an objective in many ways such as sharing knowledge/information, sharing resources, combining resources and staff in innovative manners, as well as by constructing and maintaining a consensus. Construction and maintaining a consensus during collaborative efforts keeps every party involved on the same page; there is no one body that retains more knowledge than another or at least all parties involved have the same general sense of the situation or activity. Collaboration is an activity that requires effort in of itself. Collaboration by nature must be two-way or else it is not collaboration, but simply the execution of hierarchy.
Law Enforcement is not a profession or discipline…
AFCEA Intelligence Committee. 2007. The Need to Share: The U.S. Intelligence Community and Law Enforcement. AFCEA International, 1 -- 12.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2011. FBI Information Sharing Report 2011.
United States Department of Justice. 2006. Fusion Center Guidelines -- Executive Summary. . Available from www.it.ojp.gov.
United States Department of Justice -- Bureau of Justice Assistance. 2005. Intelligence-Led Policing: The New Intelligence Architecture. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs, 1 -- 49.
The trouble with this is that employees often assume that their email conversations are personal in nature, and therefore fail to find out whether in fact this is actually the case. In general, "They tend to believe that their e-mails are private because they communicate outside the network or because their e-mail accounts are protected by a password. These misconceptions lull many employees into a false sense of security."
The result is that intelligence officers often relay information through emails which is sensitive, personal, or contrary to information that they provided their superiors. This, of course, may be grounds for termination in certain circumstances. The important fact is that emails should not be regarded as strictly personal in nature when send within the workplace. However, it should be the agency's responsibility to inform all intelligence officers of their emailing policies. If no strict policies are stated, each individual employee should…
Nusraty, Tim and John Pascua. 2006. "E-Mail Privacy in the Workplace." Georgia State University. Available:
Persson, Anders J. And Sven Ove Hansson. 2003. "Privacy at Work Ethical Criteria." Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 42, iss. 1.
Nusraty, Tim and John Pascua. 2006. "E-Mail Privacy in the Workplace." Georgia State University. Available:
At present, Al-Qaeda is known to finance its terror operations through drug-trafficking. "[the New York Times reported] that 'militants linked to Al Qaeda also established connections with Bosnian organized crime figures. The officials said Al Qaeda and the Taliban found a route for the trafficking of heroin from Afghanistan into Europe through the Balkans.'... In other words, the CIA knew that Al-Qaeda was involved in heroin-trafficking, but (as is so often the case with big-time drug-traffickers) was not widely sharing it...Bin Laden's network now uses the drug connections which Bin Laden developed with his friend, the former CIA protege Gulbuddin Hekmatyar" during the Soviet occupation (Scott 2007)
The CIA did not merely turn a blind eye to the drug backgrounds of organized criminals, spies, and rebel factions. Even while it condemned the use of LSD by the American counterculture, it used the drug in its own experiments, often without the…
CIA Director Stansfield Turner's Testimony." 1977 Senate Hearings on MKULTRA. Retrieved 10 Sept 2008. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/history/e1950/mkultra/Hearing05.htm
Cockburn, Alexander & Jeffrey St. Clair. (1999). Whiteout: The CIA, Drugs and the Press. New York: Verso.
McCoy, Alfred. (2003). The Politics of Heroin: CIA Complicity in the Global Drug Trade. New York: Lawrence Hill Books.
A tangled web: A history of CIA complicity in drug international trafficking." (7 May 1998).
Big Data is driving virtually every industry in today’s Digital Age, including, among all others, the work of the Intelligence community. From human intelligence (HUMINT) to open source intelligence (OSINT), “strategic intelligence as a professional discipline and force multiplier” has evolved from centering on “qualitative subject-matter content analyzed by human specialists” to leveraging “the increasingly massive collection and machine analysis of quantifiable, if not necessarily quantitative, data.”[footnoteRef:2] However, as Richard Best, Specialist in National Defense, Foreign Affairs, Defense and Trade Division, testified before Congress in 2006, OSINT, which is primarily derived from old and new media publications, including social media, lacks a systematic manner in which such data can be incorporated into or used to supplement classified information.[footnoteRef:3] As Best notes, “a consensus now exists that OSINT must be systematically collected and should constitute an essential component of analytical products.”[footnoteRef:4] The main challenge is that among the community itself,…
Best, Richard. Open Source Intelligence (OSINT): Issues for Congress. Washington, DC, 2007.
Lim, Kevjn. \\"Big data and strategic intelligence.\\" Intelligence and National Security 31, no. 4 (2016): 619-635.
Lowenthal, Mark M., and Robert M. Clark, eds. The five disciplines of intelligence collection. Sage, 2015.
Zegart, Amy B. \\"September 11 and the adaptation failure of US intelligence agencies.\\" International Security 29, no. 4 (2005): 78-111.
Zegart and Stephen D. Krasner, eds. “Pragmatic Engagement amidst Global Uncertainty: Three Major Challenges,” Hoover Institution, 2015.
Domestic Intelligence Agency
The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency
In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.
The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"
Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…
Burch, James. "A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative
Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security, Homeland Security Affairs 3, No. 2 (June 2007).
CNN. "U.S. policymakers mull creation of domestic intelligence agency, CNN.com, Oct
20, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/20/domestic.intelligence.agency / (accessed July 8, 2013).
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)
The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…
About CIA. (2013, January 10). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
Canon, D. (1980). Intelligence and ethics: the CIA's covert operations. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 4(2), 198-199. Retrieved from http://mises.org/journals/jls/4_2/4_2_6.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) website: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf
Cia.gov (2009). Components of the CIA -- Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/additional-publications/the-work-of-a-nation/cia-director-and-principles/components-of-the-cia.html.
Central Intelligence Agency
The civilian intelligence agency of United States has given the name of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The fundamental objective of this agency is to collect, assess and publicize foreign intelligence that provides national security intelligence assessment to the senior United States policy makers. The CIA is also involved in secret agenda at the request of President of United States.[footnoteRef:1]The establishment of CIA was in succession of the Office of Strategic Service (OSS) being operative in World War II. [1: Caroline Wilbert. "How the CIA Works." Available from http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm; accessed Aug 3rd 2011]
On the government side CIA works fundamentally with the House Permanent select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. These two committees and the Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs and Armed Services committee are responsible to authorize the CIA's program and oversee the CIA. The funding and budgeting system of the CIA…
Wilbert, Caroline,: How the CIA works," Available at http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm . Internet; accessed 3rd August 2011
Kent, Sherman, "Kent Centers Occasional Papers 2004." Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/kent-center-occasional-papers/pdf/OPV3No1.pdf . Internet, accessed 3rd August 2011
Hennessey, Kathleen, "Petraeus Confirmed as CIA Director." American Forces Press Service, Department of Defense (2011-07-01) Available at. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=64540 . Internet; access, 3rd August 2011
Mazzetti, Mark "C.I.A. Tells of Changes for Its Internal Inquiries." New York Times, (February 2, 2008). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/02/washington/02intel.html . Internet; accessed, 3rd Aug 2011
2003, when the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) was instituted, the concept of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) was largely at its outset. Its beginnings had been propagated in preceding decades, but the circumstances were finally prime for the discipline to develop, grow and spring new branches with the ability to support a growing community practicing a verified dexterity.[footnoteef:1] In delineation, geospatial intelligence takes into account taking advantage of and analyzing images and geospatial information to outline, appraise, and visually portray physical features and geographically mentioned activities on Earth. This is purposed to distinguish the important property of geographical position linked with the data that the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency and the intelligence community generate and analyze. It is also purposed to lay emphasis on the value-added examinations that the NGA undertakes to generate a specific kind of actionable intelligence.[footnoteef:2] Taking into consideration that the purpose of geospatial intelligence is to pinpoint and…
Alderton, Matt. "The Defining Decade of GEOINT." Trajectory, 2014.
Buxbaum, Peter. "Geospatial's Big Data Challenge." Intelligence Geospatial Forum, 2015.
Flint, Colin. Introduction to geopolitics. Routledge, 2016.
Mapping Science Committee. New research directions for the national geospatial-intelligence agency. National Academies Press, 2010.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was founded in1947 out of the Office of Strategic Services, or OSS, and its purpose was to act as a civilian foreign intelligence agency that dealt with threats to American interests abroad. hile initially born at the onset of the Cold ar era in which espionage and the threat of nuclear war was high, the CIA has developed over the years to be something more than its initial mandate set out. By participating in various black operations geared towards effecting regime change, the CIA quickly became known as a cloak and dagger agency very much in the tradition of the OSS.
The organizational structure of the CIA is situated in five directorates, all of which help to coordinate intelligence: the Directorate of Digital Innovation, of Analysis, of Operations, of Support, and of Science and Technology. The Director of the CIA oversees all of these directorates and…
Tyler, Patrick. A World of Trouble: The White House and the Middle East. NY: Farrar,
Straus and Giroux, 2010. Print.
Weiner, Tim. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. NY: Anchor Books, 2008.
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…
Andres, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only. (New York: HarperPerennial), 1996.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
Painter, David S. The Cold War: An International History. London: Routledge, 1999.
Powers, Thomas. Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: New York Review Books, 2002.
Franks (along with the Bush war cabinet, including Vice President Dick Chaney) "met repeatedly" to plan the attack on Iraq. It was groupthink through and through. At the same time Bush was saying publicly he was "pursuing a diplomatic solution" (Hamilton, 2004), "intensive war planning" was going on during the whole year 2002. It "created its own momentum" in the administration, Hamilton wrote.
In oodward's book, which was recognized as conveying authentic details about the Bush war planning and strategies, he covers much of the pre-war discussions Bush had with top members of his administration, along with decisions Bush made on his own and with help from people like his Foreign Policy Advisor, Condoleezza Rice. But according to an excerpt from oodward's book, Bush waited until the last minute (among his top staff) to brief Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had not been an advocate of going to war,…
Bar-Joseph, Uri, and Levy, Jack S. 2009, 'Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 461-489.
Bar-Joseph, Uri. 1995, Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Gentry, John a. 2008, 'Intelligence Failure Reframed', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 247-260.
Hamilton, William. 2004. 'Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11.' Washington Post, April 17, 2004, p. A01.
Intelligence Unit Memo
Police Chief I.B. Friendly
Incorporating Intelligence Unit into Department
In modern law enforcement, the sophistication of modern criminal activity, particularly post-September 11th, causes a necessary paradigm shift for 21st century police departments. This shift requires that departments rethink the power of information -- the manner in which it is collected, analyzed, and then used to fulfill the goals of the department. In fact, in 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing released by the hite House describes the need for fusion information centers as a vital way to succeed in modern law enforcement and critical to the safety of the local community as well as the nation (Porter, 2008).
Historical Background - Prior to 1960, even large, urban Police Departments did not have intelligence units. Resources were combined so that Detectives were at the hierarchy of information analysis; and every member of the department was open to…
Corrections - Report of the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. (1973, March). Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=10865
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011, June). Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Retrieved from FRI.gov:
This flexibility gave U.S. intelligence agencies an advantage over their Soviet counterparts, who were unable to demonstrate a similar capacity for rapid and effective responses to the circumstances of the crisis ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). Finally, and most surprisingly, the U.S. intelligence community retained a remarkable ability to take actions that were not heavily influenced by the political climate of the nation. Rather than being influenced by the political platforms of politicians, the intelligence community focused on the matter at hand, to great effect ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). These three factors were most influential in the successful actions of the U.S. intelligence community during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The atson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The Watson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497 .
By 1945, the OSS was abolished and by 1947 the National Security Act had completely transferred the task of espionage and intelligence from military to civilian hands ("United States Intelligence"). This transfer set the stage for the successes and failures of the U.S. intelligence community during the early Cold ar. It meant that U.S. intelligence was much more greatly coordinated and more aggressively implemented during that period to some apparent success. But it also meant that these new civilian agencies did not have the legacy of experience with espionage that existed within the military intelligence community. The end result was a higher degree of coordination during the early Cold ar, which improved the level of intelligence and communication and helped create the U.S.'s first true intelligence community.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html .
Shortly after, the Navy successfully cracked the Japanese military code in Operation Magic, which allowed U.S. forces to turn the tide of the war in the Pacific by 1942 ("United States Intelligence").
One of the chief actions taken during this period was the creation of the Office of Strategic Services by FDR in 1942. During orld ar II, the OSS coordinated all of the information through collection and analysis that was used for clandestine operations up until 1945 ("United States Intelligence"). The development of the OSS, though short-lived, demonstrates that the role of the intelligence community in United States foreign policy was growing significantly. Before this period, U.S. espionage was limited at best and primarily a domestic affair. By 1945, the role of the intelligence community had greatly expanded and become a more central part of life in the United States.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia…
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html .
Intelligence Practical Exercise
Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
GEOINT which means Geospatial Intelligence is a system which is used to analyse an environment for intelligence and operational purposes. (GEOINT Analysis, 2017).
Describe the Environment: Collect key data that defines the precise destination for the planned mission. Geographical, government and cultural limitations must be established. In most cases, the gathered data could consist of vectors, heights, natural landmarks such as rivers, mountains etc., longitude and latitude locations and several others. All these are the basic requirements of the GEOINT invention.
Outline the Effects of The Environment: Elaborate thoroughly on the mission location identified in the previous step. Locate and define its natural state, any existing structures and its cultural atmosphere. Account for all possible factors that might have an effect on a mission in the location such as roads, people, buildings, plants, climate, language, government, cultural divides or social factors. Add this new…
Ali Rathore, S. (2016). Brussels Attack - Lessons Learned. A JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM RESEARCH.
Brown, G., Carlyle, M., Salmeron, J., & Wood, K. (2005). Analyzing the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure to Attack and Planning Defenses. Tutorials inOperations Research, 102 - 123.
GEOINT Analysis. (2017). Retrieved from National Geospatial Intelligence Agency: https://www.nga.mil/ProductsServices/GEOINTAnalysis/Pages/default.aspx
International Nuclear Safety Group. (2010). The Interface Between Safety and Security at Nuclear Power Plants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
hile some in the intelligence community may have resented the intrusion of Congress and calls for transparency, the investigations and oversight gave the CIA and the intelligence community a stronger moral footing in the U.S. democracy (DeYoung and Pincus). In a nation in which freedom and open-ness are core values, the continuance of an intelligence community that operates outside of those bounds and values is ethically unacceptable. The long-term health of the intelligence community in the nation was predicated on those Congressional investigations of the 1970s, which successfully infused the U.S. intelligence community with some degree of a "conscience."
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, alter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." ashington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html.
Van agenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html.
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, Walter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." Washington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html .
Van Wagenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html .
intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.
This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.
Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…
Federation of American Scientists. (1996). Improving Intelligence Analysis. USA: FAS. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int012.html .
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2011). Criminal Intelligence. New York: UNODC. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/Law-Enforcement/Criminal_Intelligence_for_Analysts.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (1999). Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. USA: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 21, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/PsychofIntelNew.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (2005). Limits of Intelligence Analysis. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.worldaffairsboard.com/attachments/staff-college/20727d1273228985-ebo-sod-limits-intelligence-analysis-fpri-winter-2005-heurer-.pdf.
CIA FBI 911
Both the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation are part of the larger, 17 unit organization that is known as the United States Intelligence Community. The CIA and FBI have had a history of conflict and disagreement as history dictates. The most obvious and direct failure of cooperation of these two organizations was revealed in the aftermath of the attacks of 9/11. The institutional differences between these organizations were fully exposed as the intelligence relating to these events have been partially revealed throughout the last decade plus. This essay will provide some details about this conflict and provide some links to some related information about this idea.
The CIA and FBI are both separate units with different missions regarding the safekeeping of America's resources. In past years the CIA has been much more associated with foreign affairs and…
Here is another condensed version: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-911REPORT/content-detail.html
Here is an argument suggesting that the attacks were a product of a false flag operation designed to stir emotion and begin a war in the Middle East: http://www.presstv.com/detail/2013/09/11/323227/falseflag-meme-goes-viral-on-911-anniversary/
Here is another that describes Operation Northwood's a model of previous false flag attempts: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Operation_Northwoods
The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small Arab state located on the Persian Gulf, is an oil-rich constitutional monarchy. The country has generally been an ally of the United States, but has internal issues that could compromise its security. Less than half of Bahrain's population are native Bahraini, lending the country a more diverse ethnic mix than might be expected. According to the CIA, 70.3% of the population is Muslim. A plurality of these, including the ruling family, are Sunni, but the country also has a significant Shia minority (CIA, 2015).
Internal Ethnic Issues
Non-Bahrainis, despite making up the majority of the population in the country, have few rights and typically do not play a political role in the country. Bahrain's Muslim population is divided among the ruling minority Sunni and majority Shia, and there has been some friction in the past as the result of internal conflict between these…
Akbari, R. & Stern, J. (2012). Bahrain's triangle of conflict. Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2012/05/17/bahrains-triangle-of-conflict/
CIA (2015). Bahrain. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ba.html
Shehabi, A. (2014). Why is Bahrain outsourcing extremism? Foreign Policy. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://foreignpolicy.com/2014/10/29/why-is-bahrain-outsourcing-extremism/
Wagner, D. & Cafiero, G. (2014). The U.S. And Bahrain's increasingly tense alliance. International Policy Digest. Retrieved March 6, 2015 from http://www.internationalpolicydigest.org/2014/10/07/u-s-bahrain-s-increasingly-tense-alliance/
6). The question then becomes, who protects the American public from the CICC?"
Currently law enforcement groups at all levels are protective of the information singularly gathered. If these groups were to share all information at every level the information, whether true or not, can be used in a manner that would take away the constitutional right of American citizens to be considered innocent until proven guilty. In today's world of capable technology assisting law enforcement, analysis of criminal intent and mischief is readily available to all entities.
Sharing the resulting information from such analysis with all other law enforcement will open the door to mismanagement and corruption. Such corruption is already evident in many law enforcement entities and to provide them with additional cannon fodder would be a huge mistake.
Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)…
Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)
http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/intelsharingreport.pdf , Accessed December 15, 2007
Short to military dances. The book is riddled with anecdotes such as these that indicate the military was ill prepared for a surprise attack, and in fact were arrogant in their ignorance.
In fact, Clausen's investigation showed the American military knew Japanese codes but ignored them in seeking intelligence; the agencies were unprepared for war or a surprise attack. As the author notes, "Although vested with high commands and responsibilities, they were surprised by the attack. They were unprepared for war. Thus, they were really guilty of criminal neglect of duty" (Clausen & Lee, 1992, p. 228). There was little joint action between the services during and after the attack, and that had a midnight message been decoded, it might have prevented the attack. In short, Pearl Harbor was a series of bungles that resulted in the most horrific naval losses the U.S. has ever endured.
Clausen, H.C. And…
Clausen, H.C. And Lee, B. (1992). Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework
Terrorism has been the greatest threat to American soil since the end of the Cold ar, and the country has responded to these threats by creating an elaborate counterterrorism and intelligence framework. This counterterrorism strategy must use every possible tool in America's arsenal, and must meet the highest standards in excellence for the duty it is tasked to perform. The nature of terrorist threats in America in the 21st century is the fact that nobody knows where and why terrorism may appear.
Three agencies will form the core of the new counterterrorism and intelligence gather efforts coordinated by the Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2012) These three agencies are the CIA, the FBI, and the DOD, and each already fulfills necessary functions in America's fight on terror. hile still operating within the legal framework that surrounds each agency, I look to improve the overall effectiveness…
Coker, M. (2012, March 6). U.S., Yemen Restart Training. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204276304577265321207513952.html
Homeland security. (2012, February 3). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240598490142.shtm
Intelligence.gov. (2012). Seventeen Agencies and Organizations United Under One Goal. Retrieved from website: http://www.intelligence.gov /about-the-intelligence-community/
Lee Myers, S. (2012, March 22). www.nytimes.com. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/world/us-intelligence-report-warns-of-global-water-tensions.html
They believe that the information was there for the asking, but that DHS did not have the individuals on the ground that could ask.
Since that time, of course, there has been billions of dollars poured into DHS, DIA and the CIA. The DIA's three centers have become more refined and defined. Those three centers as they exist today, consists of: The National Military Production Center, the National Military Intelligence Collection Center, and the National Military Intelligence Systems Center. Each of the three has specific jobs and responsibilities as well as the objective to effectively coordinate information flow between the three centers.
According to Polmar, The National Military Production Center is responsible for producing and managing military intelligence, including assessments of aerospace, maritime and ground forces of foreign forces as well as threat assessment.
The National Military Intelligence Collection Center does exactly what it sounds like, that is it; manages…
Beal, Clifford (2006) Chronic Underfunding of U.S. HUMINT Plays Role in Intelligence Failures, http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/jdw/jdw010911_1_n.shtml , Accessed August 21, 2006
Polmar, Norman and Allen, Thomas B. (1997) Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: Random House
Powers, Thomas. (2002) Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: The New York Review of Books
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security
U.S. Intelligence Stategy Histoy
The United States has always been a county that pided itself on the excellence of its militay excellenc and pecision. The defense and national foces have been at the heat of militay intelligence thoughout the yeas stating with 2001, in Septembe. Many govenment agencies, fo example, have joined foces with moe taditional militay foces to help combat both mino cime foces with those of a moe sophisticated body of cime thoughtout the United States and the wold. A histoical examination of the vaious elements elated to U.S. intelligence duing militay intense times eveal that moe attention to social o human concens duing the times involved might have ceated a geate dive towads caing fo those left destitute by a focus on militay o social concens duing Wold Wa II, the militay inquiies of the 1970s, and the invasion of Iaq stated in 2003. When examining the…
r, intelligence analysts had grossly underestimated Japanese capabilities and intentions, revealing a tendency to misunderstand Japanese actions by looking at them with American cultural biases. After the war, the resolve of America's leaders "never again" to permit another Pearl Harbor largely prompted the establishment of a centralized intelligence structure.
America's entrance into World War II created an immediate need for intelligence to support the warfighter. While the Army and the Navy maintained their own intelligence capabilities, none were prepared to provide the kind of support needed.1 To bolster this effort, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was created in June 1942, under the recently established Joint Chiefs of Staff to succeed the Coordinator of Information. William Donovan remained in charge of the reorganized unit. In addition to assuming the analytical role of its predecessor, the OSS was chartered to carry out clandestine operations against the Axis powers on a worldwide scale. It was not, however, readily accepted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), who remained skeptical of the value of OSS activities, and the new unit faced strong competition from the FBI and the Army's intelligence organization.
Usually glamorized as the dashing operations arm of the U.S. Army (with its well-known espionage exploits with the Resistance in Europe), the OSS' contribution to intelligence production has gone largely unnoticed. It was, however, one of the seven major intelligence producers and was an important training ground for a generation of intelligence analysts, as well as operatives. Decidedly different than the British system, the OSS established the tradition of putting analysts and operatives in the same organization. The difficulties, however, that the OSS had in establishing itself within the JCS structure reaffirmed
Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism
Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…
Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things
We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/080923risk.pdf (accessed February 16, 2013).
McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How
the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/04/30-terrorist-plots-foiled-how-the-system-worked (accessed February 15, 2013).
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…
Aljazeera.com. (2013, October). U.S. 'drone strike' kills senior Shabab members. Retrieved from aljazeera.com: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/10/drone-strike-kills-senior-shabab-members-20131028184651994308.html
BBC. (2013, October). Pakistan says drones killed 67 civilians since 2008. Retrieved from BBC.co.uk: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-24742037
FAS.org. (n.d.). Military Intelligence Satellites. Retrieved from Fas.org: https://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Intro/Part2_26e.html
Galbraith, P. (2013, October). NSA spying on Europe gives the U.S. more intelligence, but not better. Retrieved from Theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/29/nsa-spying-europe-us-intelligence
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…
BBC. Bush Pledge Over U.S. Intelligence. BBC News: British Broadcasting Company,
2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4396457.stm
CIA. History of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 2007. Retrieved on May 30, 2009cia.html" http://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th - grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html
Harris, James W. The Path to Intelligence Reform: "Changes in the Intelligence Craft
As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.
In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…
Kahn, David. The Code-Breakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1997
Knight, Judson, CIA (United States Central Intelligence Agency), available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-United-States-Central-Intelligence-Agency.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., United States Intelligence, History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html ;
O'Neal, Michael J., CIA, Formation and History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-Formation-and-History.html ;
The author of this report is asked to answer to a number of questions relating to counter-terrorism frameworks. First, the author is asked to provide a revised framework for the national terrorism prevention and response agencies in the United States. Per the parameters of the assignment, there are to be at least three agencies involved in the revised framework. Subsequent to that, the author is asked to answer to how and when the agencies will interact and why. The author is asked what tools can be used to help the agencies function and do their jobs and that will be included in the framework summary. The author is asked to wrap up the paper by enumerating at least three policy and/or procedural recommendations that should be implemented to make the existing framework gel and function more effectively.
The existing framework for law enforcement and…
Boehm, E. (2013, August 20). New audit finds IRS can't keep track of its own software Watchdog.org. Watchdog.org - The Government Watchdog. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://watchdog.org/101977/new-audit-finds-irs-cant-keep-track-of-its-own-software/
Cillizza, C. (2013, May 21). Everything you need to know about the IRS scandal. The Washington Post: National, World & D.C. Area News and Headlines - The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-fix/wp/2013/05/21/what-we-know-and-what-we-dont-about-the-irs-scandal/
DOJ. (2004, November 1). Special Report: A Review of the FBI's Handling of Intelligence Information Prior to the September 11 Attacks. Welcome to the United States Department of Justice. Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/oig/special/0506/chapter2.htm
Poulson, K. (2013, August 29). New Snowden Leak Reports 'Groundbreaking' NSA Crypto-Cracking | Threat Level | Wired.com. wired.com . Retrieved September 2, 2013, from http://www.wired.com/threatlevel/2013/08/black-budget/
S.-Soviet partnership lasted only a year and a half. With World War II over and the OSS disbanded in October 1945, the Cold War was looming on the horizon.
The research showed that the KGB was established in 1917 and was official deactivated in 1991. The research also showed that the KGB was not the stuff of the James Bond movies, but rather was characterized by an enormous sense of internal rivalry, a profound sense of paranoia and a desire on the part of many of its agents to defect to the West at their first opportunity. In this environment, it was little wonder that the KGB would resort to some of the tactics it used to achieve its mission, and it is reasonable to assert that current ussian intelligence agents will have taken a lesson or two from their KGB predecessors as they seek to maintain hegemony with…
Andrew, Christopher and Vasili Mitrokhin. 1999. The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB. New York: Basic Books.
Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Kalugin, Oleg D. 2002. "Window of Opportunity: Russia's Role in the Coalition against Terror." Harvard International Review 24(3), 56.
Ebon, Martin. 1994. KGB: Death and Rebirth. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, p. ix.
The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…
Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.
In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.
Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.
U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
Law enforcement agencies, or the police force, operate on several jurisdictional platforms within the United States. In general, their primary mandate is to help maintain societal order and the rule of law by assisting subjects with legal compliance, protecting property, helping to keep citizens and property safe and secure, and for assistance in extraordinary events. The police force is part of the social order of society and mediates public events, pre-empts anti-social behaviors, helps mitigate potential dangers at large events, works with other agencies in general search and rescue, crowd control, regulations, education and awareness campaigns, and to support the rule of law (Cole, 2004). Under the rubric of law enforcement, there are three major categories of police: Federal, Local and State.
Local law enforcement provides routine and micro-policing to the communities within their jurisdiction. This may include traffic enforcement, criminal investigations, local laboratory or forensic investigation, certain types…
The Difference Between Federal and State Law. (2010). Retrieved from The Leadership Conference - Civilrights.org: http://www.civilrights.org/judiciary/courts/difference-federal-local-courts.html
Cole, G. a. (2004). The American System of Criminal Justice. New York: Wadsworth.
Dempsey and Forst. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Florence, KY: Delmar Cenage Learning.
Hedgpeth, D. (2008, September 17). Congress Says DHX Oversaw $15 Billion in Failed Contracts. Retrieved from The Washington Post.com: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/16/AR2008091603200.html
Organized Crime elated Intelligence
Those interested in global intelligence would recognize acronyms like CIA, KGB and MSS however for the sake of those who have no knowledge in this area, they mean Central Intelligence Agency -- United States, KGB (Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti) -- Soviet Union/ussia, and the Ministry for State Security (MSS) -- China and their activities are covered well by contemporary media. However, here we consider the less famous and covert intelligence agencies that operate currently or used to exist. A number of these agencies had specific job descriptions while the function of the rest were quite vague, however, all these agencies fulfilled their common responsibility of giving their superiors in-depth knowledge of a situation to aid their decisions (Powell, 2014)
The Frumentarii, who bear close similarities to the contemporary "secret police" like the SAVAK of Iran and the Kempeitai who existed in Japan during World War…
Greenberg, M. R., & Haass, R. (1996). Making Intelligence smarter. Council on Foreign Relations.
Juul, P. (2013, july 23). Adapting to the Future of Intelligence Gathering. Retrieved from American Progress: https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/security/reports/2013/07/23/70281/adapting-to-the-future-of-intelligence-gathering/
Nomikos, J. M. (2008). Greek Intelligence Service: A Brief Description. European Journal of Intelligence Studies.
Powell, J. (2014, July 11). A Historical View of Intelligence Gathering: From the Kryptia to the CIA. Retrieved from https://sofrep.com/37879/obscure-intelligence-agents-agencies-part-1/
To handle these responsibilities, intelligence agents need to possess certain skills and education. Most positions require at least a bachelor's degree, and degrees in politics or the sciences are recommended. Applicants need to possess strong writing skills, especially with analytical reports. Strong oral presentation skills are desired. Applicants need to be able to absorb and synthesize large amounts of information, to convey ideas thoroughly and logically, and be able to draw logical conclusions based on careful research and analysis. Computer knowledge and data entry are key skills. In addition, intelligence agents demonstrate leadership and show strong teamwork. Other requirements can include the ability to travel, familiarity with automated tools and systems, and foreign language skills. An applicant to any intelligence department must be able to pass a polygraph test, a background check to gain security clearance, and a psychological interview.
After achieving the right skill set and education, there are…
Collecting National Security Intelligence
Intelligence gathering is one of the most important activities in law enforcement and plays a crucial role in the development of national security strategies. The significance of intelligence in law enforcement and national security strategies is attributed to the fact that it helps in lessening ambiguity intrinsic in observation of external initiatives and activities. National security intelligence is usually collected through a cycle which determines how information is obtained, created, and shared with users. This cycle has five major steps i.e. planning and direction, collection, processing, producing, and dissemination ("Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines," n.d.).
Generally, the responsibility of collecting national security intelligence is given to intelligence collection organizations at the national level. These organizations are mandated with the task of gathering, processing, and disseminating security information that is in turn used to develop suitable law enforcement and national security strategies and initiatives. The intelligence collection…
"Intelligence Collection Activities and Disciplines." (n.d.). Operations Security -- Intelligence Threat Handbook. Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://fas.org/irp/nsa/ioss/threat96/part02.htm
Steiner, J.E. (2009, October 28). Improving Homeland Security at the State Level. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency website: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol.-53-no.-3/improving-homeland-security-at-the-state-level.html
Foreign Intelligence Services
There is much controversy with regard to the foreign policy practiced by the majority of powerful nations in the contemporary society. In an environment where intelligence is often the key to success, emerging powers have the tendency to improve their intelligence services and to get actively involved in competing with some of the established actors in the international setting. hile Russia proved to be an impressive adversary for the U.S. during the Cold ar era, new powers such as China and Iran currently represent significant opponents for the est. hen considering the U.S.' current role in international affairs, it would be important for someone to gain a complex understanding of the degree to which countries such as Russia, China, and Iran represent significant threats today.
Russian-American relations have been turbulent throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The 1990s have brought a breath of fresh air…
Schoen, D. "The Russia-China Axis: The New Cold War and America's Crisis of Leadership." (Encounter Books, 9 Sep 2014)
United States. Congress. House. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence . "Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community: Hearing Before the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held in Washington, DC, February 3, 2010," (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010)
"Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security: A Profile," A Report Prepared by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress under an Interagency Agreement with the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office's Irregular Warfare Support Program December 2012.
Varnava (2012) commented on the multifaceted intelligence attributes that went into making the construct of British Intelligence gathering in Cyprus, a successful vocation in World War II. This review aims to explore the implications of the role played by local, civil populace in thwarting attempts by military in allowing intelligence inputs through counter-espionage on British and Middle East territories. The review revisits some work on the First World War British efforts on counter espionage measures in Cyprus after 1916. The work will add to the literature on intelligence activities, attempted during the WW1 (Varnava, 2012).
According to Constantinou's (2013) paper, the role played by diplomatic strategies that extrapolates intelligence-gathering process makes it successful. Diplomacy is a means of making skilled, persistent advocacy towards obtaining solutions of complex situations. It fails to make most of its capabilities. The epistemology (of diplomacy) in the context of humanism, above the dimension of intelligence…
Alfonso, K.L. (2010). Femme fatale 2010. AIR AND SPACE POWER JOURNAL MAXWELL AFB AL.
Blair, J. (2011). Hesitation kills: A female Marine officer's combat experience in Iraq. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the military: Women in the armed forces of western democracies. Routledge.
Clandestine Women: Spies in American History (2014) National Women's History Museum. Retrieved from: https://www.nwhm.org/online-exhibits/spies/8.htm
Terrorism in recent years has hit an all-time high. Affecting millions of people, radical groups and organizations see terrorism as a favored tactic or approach for bringing to fruition their extreme ideological agendas both domestically and internationally. Terrorism globally chose the United States and other western countries to target in their extremist agendas. The United States government became aware of terrorist efforts after the September 11 attacks. Since then the U.S. has devoted time and resources into developing a counterterrorism and intelligence framework in order to respond to any ongoing and future terrorist attacks/activity.
Counterterrorism refers to the processes that consist of the offensive measures taken to avoid, deter, forestall, and react to terrorism. The United States regarded counterterrorism missions as distinctive operations by clandestine, undercover, or low discernibility means. Counterterrorism presently is categorized as a fundamental task for the United States government. The government has fashioned or redefined distinct…
Jensen, T. (2014). National Responses to Transnational Terrorism: Intelligence and Counterterrorism Provision. Journal of Conflict Resolution. doi:10.1177/0022002714545221
Park, A., & Tsang, H. (2015). A Systematic Approach to Develop a Computational Framework for Counter-terrorism and Public Safety. tsas.ca. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from http://library.tsas.ca/media/TSASWP14-09_Park-Tsang.pdf
Park, A., Tsang, H., Sun, M., & Glasser, U. (2012). An agent-based model and computational framework for counter-terrorism and public safety based on swarm intelligence. Security Informatics, 1(1), 23. doi:10.1186/2190-8532-1-23
Walsh, P. (2015). Building Better Intelligence Frameworks through Effective Governance. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 28(1), 123. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08850607.2014.924816#.VQRQL47F9j8
agency/organization in which you worked. Include information on the size of the organization (number of personnel, of what kinds) and the division of labor into units or departments. Obtain an organizational chart, or prepare one yourself, showing the formal structure of the organization.
The organization where I worked from April 24, 2012 to June 29, 2012 was U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Created in 2003, it is the main investigative body of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Investigation. It is a federal law enforcement agency whose main responsibility includes executing the immigration and custom laws of the United States to protect the country and to ensure the public security.
The detailed chart of the structure of the organization is attached in the Appendix A. ICE has a divisional organizational structure. It is headed by the Director who is appointed by the President of U.S. And approved by the…
Cyber Crimes Center. 2012 June 16 .
Herald, Glenna. U.S. Immigration and Enforcement arrests 44. Chicago Tribune. N.p., 14 June 2012. Web. 19 June 2012. .
Hughes, Gordon, Eugene MacLaughlin and John Muncie. Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Sage Publications, 2002.
ICE Strategic Plan Fiscal Years 2010-2014. Strategic Plan. Washington DC: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, 2010.
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
Integrated agreements will assist in targeting the maximum federal funding at the greatest risk counties, cities and states where through the addition of more funds, security of citizens will be increased (U.S. Congress 2010). U.S. Department of Homeland Security should uphold on what it considers being right. It should be firm on actions vital to the country's ability to respond to such issues. It should issue a mandate on funding for the activities, interoperable communications and should not ignore its own requirements. As a result, local and state governments will succeed in achieving interoperable communications (Studeman, 2002).
The DHS must ensure that localities and states attain a certain degree of appropriate interoperable communications. Activities and actions should be given proper funding. In addition, Department of Homeland Security should allow local and state governments to be flexible and make decisions on how they intend to achieve the standard. The DHS enterprise…
Pincus, W. (2007). An Admonition on Intelligence. New York: ProQuest
US Congress (2010). Congressional Record, V. 153, Pt. 1, January 4, 2007 to January 17, 2007.
New York: Government Printing Office
Studeman, M. (2002). Strengthening the Shield: U.S. Homeland Security Intelligence. Kingston:
police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?
Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…
Anderson, R 1994, "Intelligence-led policing: A British perspective," in A Smith(ed) Intelligence-led policing: International perspective on policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement intelligence Analyst.
Anderson, R 1997, "Intelligence-led policing: A British Perspective," In Intelligence-led policing: International Perspective on policing in the 21st Century: Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst.
Bennett, T 1994, 'Community policing on the ground: developments in Britain,' in D.P. Rosenbaum(ed) The challenge of community policing: Testing the promises, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
Carter, DL and Carter, JG 2009, "Intelligence-Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy," Criminal Justice Policy Review 20, no. 3: 310-325
gathering and using knowledge as a basis for making decisions in formal settings is an old one. If one is to gain advantage over their rivals, it is essential to gather updated knowledge that is also accurate with regard to what they intend to do and their capabilities. The principle applies across a wide range of fields including military strategies, politics, criminal intelligence circles and business. Further, it is a continually evolving process. It has been changing in response to socio-cultural factors, higher advanced analytical skill requirements, organizational demands, and even technology. Review of the roots of intelligence and the analytical procedures as a pre-occupation and profession is a consultative activity. Such analysis of the background of intelligence processes helps us to understand the past, the present and help anticipate the future. We also learn, in the process, that intelligence gathering is an ever evolving field. Consequently, if the practice…
CIA. (n.d.). Signals Intelligence Activities. Retrieved from cia.gov: https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/Policy-and-Procedures-for-CIA-Signals-Intelligence-Activities.pdf
Erickson, M. H. (1929). Study of the Relationship Between Intelligence and Crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.
Manget, F. F. (2006). INTELLIGENCE AND THE CRIMINAL LAW SYSTEM. STANFORD LAW AND POLICY REVIEW, 415.
Ratcliffe, J. H. (2007). Integrated Intelligence and Crime Analysis. Police Foundation.
Intelligence, Information Sharing, and the 9/11 Commission Report
Intelligence versus information
There two terms are fundamentally different for a number of reasons. The reason the terms are different can be decoded by investigating the ‘why’ from the information gathered. According to Lance (2017) the ‘how’ or ‘what’ is not important in decoding intelligence information. The resource needed to produce valued and true intelligence is by understanding why. The sole purpose any entity receives finished intelligence is to make it possible for the entity to make strategic, operational and tactical decisions with the information received. The media takes information received and takes steps towards transforming this information into stories hence creating actionable intelligence. In essence, according to Lance (2017) intelligence changes the how and what in information into when and why in the process of decision making. Information only becomes finished intelligence through detailed analysis of that information.
Tallmadge (2016) defines…
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…
Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.
Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554430822300352
Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.beaconreader.com/joshua-foust/throwing-the-intelligence-community-under-the-bus
Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/atomic-escapism
North Korean Intelligence:
Throughout its history, North Korea has continued to harass South Korea for as long as these countries have been separated by imaginary line and roadblocks. Since the country invasion upon South Korea in June 1950, North Korea has been a thorn in the daily lives of South Koreans. North Korea has been able to maintain such relations because of intelligence collection capabilities on the Korean Peninsula. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea has a comprehensive intelligence gathering structure and several people conducting the intelligence operations. The three main agencies in the intelligence unit are the Ministry for Protection of State Security, Korean Workers Party, and the military intelligence arm.
North Korea's Intelligence Collection Methods:
One of the most evident aspects regarding North Korea is that the country seems to be in a constant mission to gather intelligence on the Korean Peninsula. This is largely…
Erickson, Ryan. "Foreign Intelligence Organizations: Mid Term; North vs. South Korea." Ryan
Erickson, 2009. http://ryanerickson.com/foreign-intelligence-organizations-mid-term-north-vs.-south-korea / (accessed December 15, 2011).
Jin, Han Young. "NSC's Detection of Cell-Phone Usage Is Strengthening." Daily NK
Brightening the Future of Korea, 2007. http://www.dailynk.com/english/read.php?cataId=nk01500&num=2792 (accessed December 15, 2011).
Crime Intelligence Analysis:
To Apprehend And Prevent Violent Crimes And Criminals
Corrections/Police -- Intelligence
Criminal Intelligence Analysis is used to handle all kinds of violent crimes happening in the world. Organized violent crimes include corruption (bribery), extortion, alcohol and tobacco smuggling, counterfeiting, arms trafficking, drug trafficking, fraud, loan sharking, gambling (bookmaking and numbers), smuggling of humans, prostitution and pornography, murder and terrorism. This white paper discusses how crime intelligence analysis can be used effectively to apprehend violent criminals and to prevent violent crimes.
Crime Intelligence Analysis is defined by Dr. achel Boba in Problem Analysis in Policing, 2003, "conducted within the police agency [and] in which formal criminal justice theory, research methods, and comprehensive data collection and analysis procedures are used in a systematic way to conduct in-depth examination of, develop informed responses to, and evaluate crime and disorder problems" 1.
The organized criminal offenders belong to a low income…
Boba, R. Problem Analysis in Policing. Washington, DC: Police Foundation, 2003.
Goldstein, H. Problem-Oriented Policing. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations (NAGIA). National Gang Threat Assessment. Scribd. http://www.scribd.com/doc/82294288/National-Gang-Threat-Assessment-2005 (accessed June 3, 2012).
Osborne, D. Out of Bounds: Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Washington DC: JMIC Press, 2006.
human intelligence particularly in the context of Afghanistan war. Afghanistan is a Muslim Asian state which has been victimised by external forces of USA and ussia. The internal state of Afghanistan is very unfavourable for the development of country and it is most likely that for rehabilitation, it needs the assistance of many other countries.
In the context of human intelligence, it is important to mention that this topic has not been much explored in the literature. The reason can be its possible connection with the car, while the literature mainly casts light upon the causes and outcomes of the war. The strategies are mostly confidential and it takes centuries to explore them.
The paper will explain the concept of human intelligence and its implications in war against the countries. The paper revolves around USA policies and practices maintaining focus on its invasion in Afghanistan in the background of Iraq.…
1. Hastedt, Glenn and Guerrier, Steven. 2010. Spies, Wiretaps and Secret Operations. USA: ABC-CLIO.
2. Holmes, Dave and Dixon, Norm. 2001. Behind the U.S. War on Afghanistan. Australia: Resistance Books.
3. Lansford, Tom. 2003. A Bitter Harvest: U.S. Foreign Policy and Afghanistan. England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
4. Rothstein, Hy. 2006. Afghanistan and the Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare. USA: Naval Institute Press.
" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)
The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.
DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm
Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html
The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.
Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm
It is also advisable to create a USAJOBS member account so that resumes can be posted online, application status can be found, and automated job alerts received.
4. Interview process -- the best-qualified candidates will be forwarded to the hiring official for that particular job; interviews are done in person or by phone; and selection is subject to Federal Civil Service Laws.
Because Homeland Security is a Federal Agency, and because of the wide range of talent required, Homeland Security has four programs that fit most individuals regardless of the stage of their career:
1. Student and ecent Jobs -- internships, fellowship, and training programs are available in almost every law enforcement opportunity. Some jobs are actively recruited from colleges and universities.
2. Experienced Professionals -- Technical, managerial and other skills (medical, emergency, etc.) professionals are needed.
3. etirees -- Short, long -- and medium terms projects based on part-time…
National Strategy for Homeland Security. (2002, November). Retrieved from ncs.gov: http://www.ncs.gov/library/policy_docs/nat_strat_hls.pdf
Department of Homeland Security. (2012, March). Get a Homeland Security Job. Retrieved from dhs.gov: http://www.dhs.gov/how-do-i/get-homeland-security-job
Department of Homeland Security Jobs. (2012, November 19). USAJOBS. Retrieved from Seattle Bsed Jobs: https://dhs.usajobs.gov/JobSearch/Search/GetResults?Keyword=&Location=Seattle%2C+WA&search.x=43&search.y=11&search=Search%21
In recent years, many researchers have been attracted by the topic of emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership style. Their interest in the area is based on claims that effective leadership style and Emotional Intelligence are linked. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and leadership style giving emphasis to transformational in organizations and countries by incorporating the concept of organizational culture. The future existence of agencies has been determined primarily by their ability to adapt to continuous change. As such, the study also looks into unveiling the actual role of gender in determining leadership style and Emotional Intelligence as effective areas of organizational behavior. In concluding the research, the study looks at limitations and gives recommendations for further studies in this field.
Emotional intelligence has been defined as the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions because it is a…
19). Six Sigma is also making it possible for local, regional, state, district and national organizations to find the gaps in intelligence that represent potential risk to national security as well. The analysis of chemical threats that have regional and state implications yet occur on a local level is a case in point (Kamalick (2006), pp. 22, 23).
The disadvantages of a distributed homeland security intelligence production include lack of coordination with other local, regional, state, district and national counterparts, inconsistency of data management across varying information systems and processes, and confusion over funding for cross-divisional programs and plans. Compounding these disadvantages is the need for managing incidents in a more synchronized, focused strategic approach that capitalizes on the unique strengths of each homeland security level. The weaknesses of having a distributed security intelligence function also include confusion over which focal points deserve the highest priority across the entire spectrum…
Anderson, Anice I., Dennis Compton, and Tom Mason. "Managing in a Dangerous World -- the National Incident Management System." Engineering Management Journal 16, no. 4 (2004): 3-9.
Armstrong, C.M. "Homeland Security: America's most Critical Public-Private Joint Venture." Mid - American Journal of Business 19, no. 1 (2004): 11-2.
Kamalick, Joe. "Chemical Remain a Tempting Target." ICIS Chemical Business Americas 270, no. 9 (2006): 22-3.
Kinnersley, Randall L. And Craig D. Shoulders. "Homeland Security & Natural Disasters: Are States Up to the Financial Demands?" The Journal of Government Financial Management 56, no. 1 (2007): 10-8.
2. Is it ethical to send an attractive employee to a bar to "hang out" with a competitive employee in the hopes of getting information? Again, this is quite dependent upon the situation. If one "assigns" the attractive employee to participate in espionage as part of their job duty, and it is fully disclosed, then it is not necessarily unethical -- any more than sending someone to shop for a brand of beer at a bar in order to get others to purchase, etc. If the competitive employee gives information, then the ethical onus is on them, their agreement and their conscience. Now, that said, this assumes the attractive employee is only there to "hang out." if, however, it goes further than that, and sexual favors are offered for information, or blatant lies are told (not simply by omission, but by direction), then the behavior is unethical because it has…
(Olson, 1999) the feminist theory is when you are making the arguments that the social structure in place is unfair or targeting a particular group of people. The critical legal studies theory is when you are looking beyond the issues of civil liberties and are instead focused on if the action is effective in supporting particular rights. The moral theory is when you are arguing that the best way to interpret the law is based upon what is best for society using: case precedent, established legal principals and the law. Intellectual capitalism is when you are arguing that freedom of speech is the best way for the minority of having their voices heard. Where, you are using the different actions to justify that the government could be stifling this free speech, which is leading the activity in question. The over regulation theory is when the federal / state government will…
Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts. (2010). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Regulations.gov website: http://www.regulations.gov/search/Regs/home.html#documentDetail?R=0900006480aaf473
History of Anti-Money Laundering Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Treasury Department website: http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/aml_history.html
Olson, B. (1999). Application of American Legal Theories. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Boston College website: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/st_org/iptf/commentary/content/1999122601.html
Schlick, a. (2010). A Third Way Legal Framework for Addressing Comcast Dilemma. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from FCC website: http://www.broadband.gov/third-way-legal-framework-for-addressing-the-comcast-dilemma.html