100+ documents containing “intergovernmental relations”.
Once more oriented to the minimal statistics gathering and funding assistance between more or less watertight compartments, intergovernmental relations (IGR) has evolved into dynamic and highly integrated sets of behaviors, not only between agents of government but among a host of non-governmental actors, non-profit and for-profit." (Agranoff, 2008) Agranoff states that intergovernmental relations appear to have started with "the territorial organization of states, often termed in international nomenclature as 'primary civil divisions'." (2008) However, changing and accelerating the IGR models was the 'rise of the welfare state' which resulted in "linking central and local governments in deep interdependency in such scope and breadth that the nineteenth century law and politics crowd could never imagine." (Agranoff, 2008)
At this time centralized government programs "began to become parachuted in to local communities by central governments, and in federal systems with connecting landings in constituent unit governments, that is states or provinces." (Agranoff,….
Intergovernmental Relations - a Key to Good Service Delivery (nd) a Guide for Elected Members and Officials. An Output of Activity -IGR in the Free State. Australia South Africa Local Governance Partnership. Online available at http://devplan.kzntl.gov.za/ASALGP/Resources/Activity_Reports/Activity1.7/IGRGuidefinal.pdf
Agranoff, Robert2008) Toward an Emergent Theory of IGR Governance at the Dawn of the Network Era. Paper prepared for the 4th Transatlantic Dialogue, American Society for Public Administration/European Public Administration Group Milan, Italy June 12-14, 2008.
Zeemering, Eric (2006) City council members and the representation function in intergovernmental decision making. Working Group on Interlocal Services Cooperation. Political Science. 2006.
Kuye, J.O. And Ile, I.U. (2007) Realising the Full Potential of Public Service Reform Philosophies: With Particular Reference to the Nigeria's Servicom and South Africa's Batho Pele Principles. Journal of Public Administration. Vol. 42 No. 5. November 2007.
Still, state and local governments must realize that unfunded mandates will still occur, and when that happens, federal resources must be made available to state and local governments in order to help them make responsible financial decisions. Thus, an advisory board should be put into place to assist state and local governments in dealing with unfunded federal mandates as a further bridge in the communication gap between these two sources of government.
VI. Conclusion: Intergovernmental Policy Issue Implications
Unfunded federal mandates have incredible consequences for intergovernmental relations. Most importantly, unfunded mandates hit at the issue of federalism. The current federal government was founded as a reaction to the Articles of Confederation, in which the United States were not united enough to have real power. But the opposite can also be true, and in fact some political party platforms today are founded on the principal that states do not have the rights….
Alternative Energy Foundation. (2009, February 23). Rising Federal Mandate for Ethanol
Likely to Increase Gasoline Prices. Retrieved June 8, 2009, from the Alterative Energy Foundation. Web Site: http://www.alternativeenergyfoundation.org/releases/2009/rising-federal-mandate-ethanol-increase-gasoline-prices/
"Examples of Unfunded Mandates from Past Legislative Sessions." (n.d.). Retrieved June
8, 2009, from the Texas Association of Counties. Web Site: http://www.county.org/resources/legis/documents/UFM_ex-previous_leg.rtf
They call for greater recognition in the national policies, which negatively affect the goals (Zeemering, 2007).
Taking a critical perspective, I find the Federalism and intergovernmental relations to be undemocratic. This system propagated the tendency towards executive dominance in the American system. It further limits the senate and the legislatures. In spite of the increasing number of open conferences, the process has stringent measures to reinforce the government secrecy. As a result, it ends up contaminating the transparency and accountability of governments to the public.
The process of federalism and intergovernmental relations has many other costs associated to it. So much bureaucratic resources are set aside to operating the process itself. The necessity of constant and frequent consultation cause delays, uncertainty, and unpredictability of major decisions that may require urgent solutions. The process itself dominated the significance of policy. For instance, much time is spent finding out who will perform a….
Stephens, G.R., and Wikstrom, N. (2007). American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Federal Polity. London: Oxford University Press.
Saxena, R. (2006). Situating federalism: mechanisms of intergovernmental relations in Canada and India. Texas, TX: University of Michigan.
Zeemering, E.S. (2007). Who Collaborates? Local Decisions about Intergovernmental Relations. New York, NY: ProQuest.
For example, we could consider a local agricultural project. The local and state expertise in determining what are the right decisions to be made on this project should be more useful and in a more timely manner than decisions that could be made at a federal level.
In the current security and economic environment, the answer is probably somewhere mid-way between all the notions previously presented. From this perspective, a combination of both cooperative federalism and decentralization can be used, with the pre-condition that the federal government fixes the overall goals that the country should try to reach and which should obviously be followed and sought at state and local levels as well. The current economic crisis provides an excellent example in this sense.
The current main objective for the United States is to find the appropriate ways by which to fight with the current economic crisis, probably the most significant….
1. Easterwood, Michael. 1984. "The Municipality and South Carolina Government," in Local Government in South Carolina. Vol. I. The Governmental Landscape edited by Charlie B. Tyer and Cole Blease Graham, Jr. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, Bureau of Governmental Research and Service, pp. 9-50
2. Hanson, Russell L. 1999. "Intergovernmental Relations," in Politics in the American States. 7th ed. Edited by Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson and Herbert Jacob. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, pp. 32-65.
3. Moore, William 2008. On the Internet at http://www.cas.sc.edu/poli/courses/scgov/IGR.pdf.Last retrieved on February 11, 2009
This program requires the states to create their own safety standards and to implement their rail safety oversight and audit programs in measuring compliance to that program. ut the diversity of legal authorities, budgets and staff levels of oversight agencies would not allow this to happen smoothly (Caruso).
The proposed Public Transportation Safety Program Act of 2009 hoped to authorize the Department of Transportation to establish the minimum safety standards for all rail systems throughout the country (Caruso, 2009). It would also give the department the choice of creating a safety program for public bus systems. The bill would allow federal assistance for the States' oversight personnel in enforcing the new rules. They would also require state safety agencies to be financially independent from the transit systems under their supervision (Caruso).
Is it time that the federal government step in and take over the safety regulation of local rail transit system….
CATO (2001). The expanding federal police power. CATO Handbook for the 105th
Congress. CATO Institute. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from http://www.cato.org/site/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-handbook-policymakers/2001/hb107-16.pdf
Caruso, L. (2009). Should the federal government take over regulation of rail transit safety? National Journal: National Journal Group, Inc. Retrieved on April 30, 2013
Participatory Budgeting CMA
In the late-capitalist era during the late twentieth century restructuring of Canada's municipalities toward a new model of intergovernmental alliances, known as 'city-regional' governance, the importance of Public Choice as praxis to reconfiguration of the nation's market relations was asserted by urban planning and political theorists interested in the impetus and affects of the what became known as the Consolidation Movement. A decade of exposure to James Lightbody's (1999-2009) work on the topic, set the format for Canadian engagement in the larger theoretical public choice debate, and encourages both the use of Clarence Stone's urban regime model, as well as scholarly comparison with other North American proponents of this school of thought like McAllister (2005), Sancton (2000), and Tullock (1994).
Canada's commercial community is described as constituent leadership at the "political tipping point" within the history of is Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA) and municipal and regional consolidation actions. Their….
Jacobson, J. Participatory Democracy in Europe. Transnational Institute, 2008. Web.
Lightbody, James. Canada's Seraglio Cities: Political Barriers to Regional Governance. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadians de sociologie, 24.2, 1999.
Lightbody, James. Defining A Canadian Approach To Municipal Consolidation In Major City Regions. Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, 3, 2009.
Lightbody, James. A new perspective on clothing the emperor: Canadian metropolitanform, function and frontiers. Canadian Public Administration/Administration Publique du Canada, 40.3, 436-459.
However, post-econstruction, 'states rights' often became a code word for Jim Crow legislation. Southern states demanded the 'right' for the majority to engage in de facto segregation of schools and to institute limits upon how voting rights were exercised.
Many Americans do not know that the Bill of ights originally was only intended to govern the actions of the federal government, not the states. "The debate over whether the Fourteenth Amendment makes applicable against the states all of the protections of the Bill of ights is one of the most important and longest-lasting debates involving interpretation of the U.S. Constitution" (Linder 2012). The Supreme Court has found that "provisions of the Bill of ights: that are "fundamental to the American scheme of justice" (such as the right to trial by jury in a serious criminal case) were made applicable to the states by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth….
Jonathan and JosephJonathanThis is a great point that you make: Political bipolarization is running rampant in todays governmental system. Everything from budgeting, planning, operations, and personnel choices are all wrapped up in politics. I couldnt agree more and it gets to the heart of the problem of a lack of cooperation and collaboration in government. The Bible teaches us in Romans 12:4-6 that For as in one body we have many members, and the members do not all have the same function, so we, though many, are one body in Christ, and individually members one of another. Having gifts that differ according to the grace given to us, let us use them: if prophecy, in proportion to our faith. Yet even when government does collaborate, studies have found that it is not done in serious ways (He et al., 2022). The passage from Romans 12:4-6 speaks to the importance of….
CASE 3: EINSTATEMENT OF THE ADVISOY COMMISSION ON INTEGOVENMENTAL ELATIONS (ACI)INTODUCTIONThe U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental elations (ACI) was a nonpartisan agency that provided research and recommendations on intergovernmental relations to the President, Congress, and state and local officials. It was established in 1959 and abolished in 1996 (Chi, 2004). Its mission was to strengthen the American federal system and improve the ability of federal, state, and local governments to work together cooperatively, efficiently, and effectively (UNT, 2022). By its very mission, the ACI was set up for failure, however, in a system of federalism.In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the idea of re-establishing the ACI. Proponents argue that the commission could help to address the growing problem of gridlock and polarization in American politics. They contend that the ACI could serve as a forum for constructive dialogue between different levels of government, promoting cooperation and collaboration….
REFERENCESChi, K. S. (2004). The Contributions of the US Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations: A Retrospective Assessment. State & Local Government Review, 36(3), 231-233.Conlan, T. (2006). From cooperative to opportunistic federalism: Reflections on the half?century anniversary of the commission on intergovernmental relations. Public Administration Review, 66(5), 663-676.Kincaid, J. (2011). The US Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations: Unique artifact of a bygone era. Public Administration Review, 71(2), 181-189.Kincaid, J., & Stenberg, C. W. (2011). “Big questions” about intergovernmental relations and management: Who will address them?. Public Administration Review, 71(2), 196-202.McDowell, B. D. (1997). Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations in 1996: The End of an Era. Publius, 27(2), 111–127.Shafroth, F. (1996). ACIR votes against its own report. Retrieved from https://www.thefreelibrary.com/ACIR+votes+against+its+own+report+on+curtailing+current+unfunded...-a018544435 Stenberg, C. W. (2011). An ACIR perspective on intergovernmental institutional development. Public Administration Review, 71(2), 169-176.UNT. (2022). ACIR. Retrieved from https://digital.library.unt.edu/explore/collections/ACIR/
Overlapping Model of IG Presentation Preparation1 IntroductionThis presentation describes and discusses Deil Wrights seminal work on IG. It identifies the model, describes three types of IG, explains how they relate, and what is meant by cooperation, conflict, competition and fragmentation.2 Deil Wrights Seminal WorkDeil Wright\\\'s seminal work on intergovernmental relations (IG) proposed a model that has been widely influential in both academic and policy circles. In his view, IG can be understood as the ways in which different levels of government interact with one another.This interaction can take many forms, including cooperation, conflict, competition, and fragmentation (Hamilton & Stenberg, 2018).3 Three Types of IGWright\\\'s model identifies three main types of IG: horizontal, vertical, and diagonal. Horizontal IG occurs between units at the same level of government, such as between two provinces. Vertical IG takes place between units at different levels of government, such as between the federal government and a….
ReferencesBurke, B. F., & Brudney, J. L. (2018). Why We Fight: Conflict and “Coping” in Twenty-First-Century Intergovernmental Relations. In Intergovernmental relations in transition (pp. 58-74). Routledge.Hamilton, D. K., & Stenberg, C. W. (2018). Introduction: Intergovernmental Relations in Transition. In Intergovernmental Relations in Transition (pp. 1-12). Routledge.Kincaid, J. (2018). Why coercion and cooperation coexist in American federalism. In Intergovernmental relations in transition (pp. 37-57). Routledge.Stenberg, C. W., & Hamilton, D. K. (2018). Back to the Future?: The Road Ahead. In Intergovernmental Relations in Transition (pp. 276-284). Routledge.
NGOs Support to IGOs:
In the past few decades, non-governmental organizations have become increasingly influential in the affairs of the modern world. This increase in influence has enabled NGOs to have considerable impact on the political, economic, and social activities of societies and countries across the world. This is primarily because such organizations deal with a wide range of issues including human rights, political rights, environmental protection, and economic development. Consequently, non-governmental organizations have played a crucial role in promoting and enforcing human rights, democratization, enhancing living standards, and dealing with diseases and illnesses. In contrast, intergovernmental organizations are organizations made of sovereign states and are usually established by treaties and agreements, which act as charters for creating the group. Even though these organizations are different in nature, they can work together towards the realization of certain goals and objectives.
The cooperation between NGOs and IGOs is crucial towards the achievement of….
Martens, Kerstin. "The Role of NGOs in the UNESCO System." Union of International
Associations. Last modified 1999. http://www.uia.org/archive/role-ngos-unesco
Vabulas, Felicity. "Why do IGOs Grant Formal Access to NGOs?" Sara Mitchell. Last modified
November 2011. http://www.saramitchell.org/vabulus.pdf
However, the scope and the activity of the European Court differentiate it from any other mechanism of applying the justice inside the European Union. There is the issue of the activity of the Court. This mechanism was designed to enable both the European Union and the member states to have a viable and legitimate environment to discuss and resolve their differences. More precisely, the European Court of Justice has a mandate to apply and insure the respect of the Communitarian law. In this sense, it is clear that the simple existence of a special system of law that regulates the relations inside the EU is an element of supra nationality. The European law comprises the particular treaties of the EU as well as the case law of the European Court of Justice. However, the activity of the Court is essential for pointing out its role inside the Union. It….
Ash, Thomas. "The EU's Future: The Federalism/Intergovernmentalism Debate." Big Issues Ground. 2005. 14 April 2008. http://www.bigissueground.com/politics/ash-eufuture.shtml
Marchal, Andre. L'integration territoriale. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1965.
Merry, Henry J. "The European Coal and Steel Community. Operations of the High Authority." The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1955, pp. 166-185
The European Commission. Profile. 2008. 14 April 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/president/personal/profile/index_en.htm
Rationalist Theories of International Relations
Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and a catastrophic lack of imagination. Rationalist theories of international relations, like the Objectivism which developed in the same post-orld ar II period, rely on a number of assumptions which have since been shown to be empirically false. Rationalism assumes that the most important, and in fact, the only entities dictating international relations are nation states, and that these nation states are engaged in a zero-sum game of diplomacy and war, in which the goals of every nation state is eventual dominance above all others, so that international relations are dictated almost exclusively through violence or coercion, with diplomacy essentially reduced to the well-spoken threat of force. Thus, rationalist theories of international relations are not only incorrect, but altogether dangerous, as they….
Art, Robert, and Kenneth Waltz. The use of force: military power and international politics.
Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 2009.
Baylis, John, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Blatter, Joachim. "Performing Symbolic Politics and International Environmental Regulation:
More precisely, the sovereignty promoted by the realists acknowledges the fact that the state has the right to accept or refuse to take part in a regime. Therefore, event the regimes promoted by institutionalism still depend on the actual will of the states.
The United Nations represents a valid example in this sense. Therefore, its structure was indeed created on the basis of the idealist line of thought, giving equal representation rights to nations all over the world. However, the Security Council structure is reminiscent of the realist beliefs of the powerful ruling over the weaker ones. In this sense, while the institutional approach was used in creating the idea of a global organization that would discuss war issues and would engage in peaceful resolution of conflicts, the SC is the classical structure of the balance of power situation. This is one of the reasons for which the United Nations….
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005
Russbach, Oliver. ONU contre ONU. Le droit international confisque. Paris: Edition La Decouverte, 1994
Waltz, K.. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw-Hill,1979.
governance namely federalism, centralized and unitary but mainly focusing on federalism as practiced in America. e will be looking at what federalism in the context of its inclusion on the America's constitution and the effects it had on the country. Lastly the paper will discuss the other two forms of governments and why they are different from federal model.
For this first question, the paper will attempt to look at the impact the inclusion of federalism in America's constitution. The constitution of America came to being in 1787, having been drawn by 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. It is the system of fundamental laws of the United States of America. Ginsberg, Lowi, & eir, (2010) argues that federalism has been fundamental in helping the constitution deliver to its citizenly. Even though federalism is not mentioned explicitly in the constitution it however one of the many concepts that….
Ginsberg, Lowi, & Weir. (2010). An Introduction to American Politics
Kelemen D. (2004). The Rules of Federalism: Cambridge, Harvard University Press
Schechter S. (1981). On the Compatibility of Federalism and Intergovernmental Management: America. Oxford University Press
Once more oriented to the minimal statistics gathering and funding assistance between more or less watertight compartments, intergovernmental relations (IGR) has evolved into dynamic and highly integrated sets…Read Full Paper ❯
Still, state and local governments must realize that unfunded mandates will still occur, and when that happens, federal resources must be made available to state and local governments…Read Full Paper ❯
They call for greater recognition in the national policies, which negatively affect the goals (Zeemering, 2007). Taking a critical perspective, I find the Federalism and intergovernmental relations to be…Read Full Paper ❯
For example, we could consider a local agricultural project. The local and state expertise in determining what are the right decisions to be made on this project should…Read Full Paper ❯
This program requires the states to create their own safety standards and to implement their rail safety oversight and audit programs in measuring compliance to that program. ut…Read Full Paper ❯
Participatory Budgeting CMA In the late-capitalist era during the late twentieth century restructuring of Canada's municipalities toward a new model of intergovernmental alliances, known as 'city-regional' governance, the importance of…Read Full Paper ❯
However, post-econstruction, 'states rights' often became a code word for Jim Crow legislation. Southern states demanded the 'right' for the majority to engage in de facto segregation of…Read Full Paper ❯
Jonathan and JosephJonathanThis is a great point that you make: Political bipolarization is running rampant in todays governmental system. Everything from budgeting, planning, operations, and personnel choices are all…Read Full Paper ❯
CASE 3: EINSTATEMENT OF THE ADVISOY COMMISSION ON INTEGOVENMENTAL ELATIONS (ACI)INTODUCTIONThe U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental elations (ACI) was a nonpartisan agency that provided research and recommendations on intergovernmental…Read Full Paper ❯
Overlapping Model of IG Presentation Preparation1 IntroductionThis presentation describes and discusses Deil Wrights seminal work on IG. It identifies the model, describes three types of IG, explains how they…Read Full Paper ❯
NGOs Support to IGOs: In the past few decades, non-governmental organizations have become increasingly influential in the affairs of the modern world. This increase in influence has enabled NGOs to…Read Full Paper ❯
However, the scope and the activity of the European Court differentiate it from any other mechanism of applying the justice inside the European Union. There is the issue…Read Full Paper ❯
Rationalist Theories of International Relations Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and…Read Full Paper ❯
More precisely, the sovereignty promoted by the realists acknowledges the fact that the state has the right to accept or refuse to take part in a regime. Therefore,…Read Full Paper ❯
governance namely federalism, centralized and unitary but mainly focusing on federalism as practiced in America. e will be looking at what federalism in the context of its inclusion…Read Full Paper ❯