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Once more oriented to the minimal statistics gathering and funding assistance between more or less watertight compartments, intergovernmental relations (IGR) has evolved into dynamic and highly integrated sets of behaviors, not only between agents of government but among a host of non-governmental actors, non-profit and for-profit." (Agranoff, 2008) Agranoff states that intergovernmental relations appear to have started with "the territorial organization of states, often termed in international nomenclature as 'primary civil divisions'." (2008) However, changing and accelerating the IGR models was the 'rise of the welfare state' which resulted in "linking central and local governments in deep interdependency in such scope and breadth that the nineteenth century law and politics crowd could never imagine." (Agranoff, 2008)
At this time centralized government programs "began to become parachuted in to local communities by central governments, and in federal systems with connecting landings in constituent unit governments, that is states or provinces." (Agranoff,…
Intergovernmental Relations - a Key to Good Service Delivery (nd) a Guide for Elected Members and Officials. An Output of Activity -IGR in the Free State. Australia South Africa Local Governance Partnership. Online available at http://devplan.kzntl.gov.za/ASALGP/Resources/Activity_Reports/Activity1.7/IGRGuidefinal.pdf
Agranoff, Robert2008) Toward an Emergent Theory of IGR Governance at the Dawn of the Network Era. Paper prepared for the 4th Transatlantic Dialogue, American Society for Public Administration/European Public Administration Group Milan, Italy June 12-14, 2008.
Zeemering, Eric (2006) City council members and the representation function in intergovernmental decision making. Working Group on Interlocal Services Cooperation. Political Science. 2006.
Kuye, J.O. And Ile, I.U. (2007) Realising the Full Potential of Public Service Reform Philosophies: With Particular Reference to the Nigeria's Servicom and South Africa's Batho Pele Principles. Journal of Public Administration. Vol. 42 No. 5. November 2007.
Still, state and local governments must realize that unfunded mandates will still occur, and when that happens, federal resources must be made available to state and local governments in order to help them make responsible financial decisions. Thus, an advisory board should be put into place to assist state and local governments in dealing with unfunded federal mandates as a further bridge in the communication gap between these two sources of government.
VI. Conclusion: Intergovernmental Policy Issue Implications
Unfunded federal mandates have incredible consequences for intergovernmental relations. Most importantly, unfunded mandates hit at the issue of federalism. The current federal government was founded as a reaction to the Articles of Confederation, in which the United States were not united enough to have real power. But the opposite can also be true, and in fact some political party platforms today are founded on the principal that states do not have the…
Alternative Energy Foundation. (2009, February 23). Rising Federal Mandate for Ethanol
Likely to Increase Gasoline Prices. Retrieved June 8, 2009, from the Alterative Energy Foundation. Web Site: http://www.alternativeenergyfoundation.org/releases/2009/rising-federal-mandate-ethanol-increase-gasoline-prices/
"Examples of Unfunded Mandates from Past Legislative Sessions." (n.d.). Retrieved June
8, 2009, from the Texas Association of Counties. Web Site: http://www.county.org/resources/legis/documents/UFM_ex-previous_leg.rtf
They call for greater recognition in the national policies, which negatively affect the goals (Zeemering, 2007).
Taking a critical perspective, I find the Federalism and intergovernmental relations to be undemocratic. This system propagated the tendency towards executive dominance in the American system. It further limits the senate and the legislatures. In spite of the increasing number of open conferences, the process has stringent measures to reinforce the government secrecy. As a result, it ends up contaminating the transparency and accountability of governments to the public.
The process of federalism and intergovernmental relations has many other costs associated to it. So much bureaucratic resources are set aside to operating the process itself. The necessity of constant and frequent consultation cause delays, uncertainty, and unpredictability of major decisions that may require urgent solutions. The process itself dominated the significance of policy. For instance, much time is spent finding out who will perform…
Stephens, G.R., and Wikstrom, N. (2007). American Intergovernmental Relations: A Fragmented Federal Polity. London: Oxford University Press.
Saxena, R. (2006). Situating federalism: mechanisms of intergovernmental relations in Canada and India. Texas, TX: University of Michigan.
Zeemering, E.S. (2007). Who Collaborates? Local Decisions about Intergovernmental Relations. New York, NY: ProQuest.
For example, we could consider a local agricultural project. The local and state expertise in determining what are the right decisions to be made on this project should be more useful and in a more timely manner than decisions that could be made at a federal level.
In the current security and economic environment, the answer is probably somewhere mid-way between all the notions previously presented. From this perspective, a combination of both cooperative federalism and decentralization can be used, with the pre-condition that the federal government fixes the overall goals that the country should try to reach and which should obviously be followed and sought at state and local levels as well. The current economic crisis provides an excellent example in this sense.
The current main objective for the United States is to find the appropriate ways by which to fight with the current economic crisis, probably the most…
1. Easterwood, Michael. 1984. "The Municipality and South Carolina Government," in Local Government in South Carolina. Vol. I. The Governmental Landscape edited by Charlie B. Tyer and Cole Blease Graham, Jr. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina, Bureau of Governmental Research and Service, pp. 9-50
2. Hanson, Russell L. 1999. "Intergovernmental Relations," in Politics in the American States. 7th ed. Edited by Virginia Gray, Russell L. Hanson and Herbert Jacob. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly, pp. 32-65.
3. Moore, William 2008. On the Internet at http://www.cas.sc.edu/poli/courses/scgov/IGR.pdf.Last retrieved on February 11, 2009
This program requires the states to create their own safety standards and to implement their rail safety oversight and audit programs in measuring compliance to that program. ut the diversity of legal authorities, budgets and staff levels of oversight agencies would not allow this to happen smoothly (Caruso).
The proposed Public Transportation Safety Program Act of 2009 hoped to authorize the Department of Transportation to establish the minimum safety standards for all rail systems throughout the country (Caruso, 2009). It would also give the department the choice of creating a safety program for public bus systems. The bill would allow federal assistance for the States' oversight personnel in enforcing the new rules. They would also require state safety agencies to be financially independent from the transit systems under their supervision (Caruso).
Is it time that the federal government step in and take over the safety regulation of local rail transit…
CATO (2001). The expanding federal police power. CATO Handbook for the 105th
Congress. CATO Institute. Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from http://www.cato.org/site/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-handbook-policymakers/2001/hb107-16.pdf
Caruso, L. (2009). Should the federal government take over regulation of rail transit safety? National Journal: National Journal Group, Inc. Retrieved on April 30, 2013
Participatory Budgeting CMA
In the late-capitalist era during the late twentieth century restructuring of Canada's municipalities toward a new model of intergovernmental alliances, known as 'city-regional' governance, the importance of Public Choice as praxis to reconfiguration of the nation's market relations was asserted by urban planning and political theorists interested in the impetus and affects of the what became known as the Consolidation Movement. A decade of exposure to James Lightbody's (1999-2009) work on the topic, set the format for Canadian engagement in the larger theoretical public choice debate, and encourages both the use of Clarence Stone's urban regime model, as well as scholarly comparison with other North American proponents of this school of thought like McAllister (2005), Sancton (2000), and Tullock (1994).
Canada's commercial community is described as constituent leadership at the "political tipping point" within the history of is Census Metropolitan Areas (CMA) and municipal and regional consolidation…
Jacobson, J. Participatory Democracy in Europe. Transnational Institute, 2008. Web.
Lightbody, James. Canada's Seraglio Cities: Political Barriers to Regional Governance. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers Canadians de sociologie, 24.2, 1999.
Lightbody, James. Defining A Canadian Approach To Municipal Consolidation In Major City Regions. Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance, 3, 2009.
Lightbody, James. A new perspective on clothing the emperor: Canadian metropolitanform, function and frontiers. Canadian Public Administration/Administration Publique du Canada, 40.3, 436-459.
However, post-econstruction, 'states rights' often became a code word for Jim Crow legislation. Southern states demanded the 'right' for the majority to engage in de facto segregation of schools and to institute limits upon how voting rights were exercised.
Many Americans do not know that the Bill of ights originally was only intended to govern the actions of the federal government, not the states. "The debate over whether the Fourteenth Amendment makes applicable against the states all of the protections of the Bill of ights is one of the most important and longest-lasting debates involving interpretation of the U.S. Constitution" (Linder 2012). The Supreme Court has found that "provisions of the Bill of ights: that are "fundamental to the American scheme of justice" (such as the right to trial by jury in a serious criminal case) were made applicable to the states by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth…
The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. (1998). Africans in America. PBS.
Retrieved at: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/index.html
Federalism. (2013). Cornell Law School. Retrieved at:
NGOs Support to IGOs:
In the past few decades, non-governmental organizations have become increasingly influential in the affairs of the modern world. This increase in influence has enabled NGOs to have considerable impact on the political, economic, and social activities of societies and countries across the world. This is primarily because such organizations deal with a wide range of issues including human rights, political rights, environmental protection, and economic development. Consequently, non-governmental organizations have played a crucial role in promoting and enforcing human rights, democratization, enhancing living standards, and dealing with diseases and illnesses. In contrast, intergovernmental organizations are organizations made of sovereign states and are usually established by treaties and agreements, which act as charters for creating the group. Even though these organizations are different in nature, they can work together towards the realization of certain goals and objectives.
The cooperation between NGOs and IGOs is crucial towards the…
Martens, Kerstin. "The Role of NGOs in the UNESCO System." Union of International
Associations. Last modified 1999. http://www.uia.org/archive/role-ngos-unesco
Vabulas, Felicity. "Why do IGOs Grant Formal Access to NGOs?" Sara Mitchell. Last modified
November 2011. http://www.saramitchell.org/vabulus.pdf
However, the scope and the activity of the European Court differentiate it from any other mechanism of applying the justice inside the European Union. There is the issue of the activity of the Court. This mechanism was designed to enable both the European Union and the member states to have a viable and legitimate environment to discuss and resolve their differences. More precisely, the European Court of Justice has a mandate to apply and insure the respect of the Communitarian law. In this sense, it is clear that the simple existence of a special system of law that regulates the relations inside the EU is an element of supra nationality. The European law comprises the particular treaties of the EU as well as the case law of the European Court of Justice. However, the activity of the Court is essential for pointing out its role inside the Union. It is…
Ash, Thomas. "The EU's Future: The Federalism/Intergovernmentalism Debate." Big Issues Ground. 2005. 14 April 2008. http://www.bigissueground.com/politics/ash-eufuture.shtml
Marchal, Andre. L'integration territoriale. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1965.
Merry, Henry J. "The European Coal and Steel Community. Operations of the High Authority." The Western Political Quarterly, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1955, pp. 166-185
The European Commission. Profile. 2008. 14 April 2008 http://ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/president/personal/profile/index_en.htm
Rationalist Theories of International Relations
Despite the name, rationalist theories of international relations are anything but, limited as they are by both an almost childlike understanding of human behavior and a catastrophic lack of imagination. Rationalist theories of international relations, like the Objectivism which developed in the same post-orld ar II period, rely on a number of assumptions which have since been shown to be empirically false. Rationalism assumes that the most important, and in fact, the only entities dictating international relations are nation states, and that these nation states are engaged in a zero-sum game of diplomacy and war, in which the goals of every nation state is eventual dominance above all others, so that international relations are dictated almost exclusively through violence or coercion, with diplomacy essentially reduced to the well-spoken threat of force. Thus, rationalist theories of international relations are not only incorrect, but altogether dangerous, as…
Art, Robert, and Kenneth Waltz. The use of force: military power and international politics.
Lanham: Rowan and Littlefield Publishers, 2009.
Baylis, John, Steve Smith, and Patricia Owens. The globalization of world politics: an introduction to international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Blatter, Joachim. "Performing Symbolic Politics and International Environmental Regulation:
More precisely, the sovereignty promoted by the realists acknowledges the fact that the state has the right to accept or refuse to take part in a regime. Therefore, event the regimes promoted by institutionalism still depend on the actual will of the states.
The United Nations represents a valid example in this sense. Therefore, its structure was indeed created on the basis of the idealist line of thought, giving equal representation rights to nations all over the world. However, the Security Council structure is reminiscent of the realist beliefs of the powerful ruling over the weaker ones. In this sense, while the institutional approach was used in creating the idea of a global organization that would discuss war issues and would engage in peaceful resolution of conflicts, the SC is the classical structure of the balance of power situation. This is one of the reasons for which the United Nations…
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Nye, Joseph. Understanding international conflicts: an introduction to theory and history. New York: Pearson, 2005
Russbach, Oliver. ONU contre ONU. Le droit international confisque. Paris: Edition La Decouverte, 1994
Waltz, K.. Theory of International Politics. New York: McGraw-Hill,1979.
governance namely federalism, centralized and unitary but mainly focusing on federalism as practiced in America. e will be looking at what federalism in the context of its inclusion on the America's constitution and the effects it had on the country. Lastly the paper will discuss the other two forms of governments and why they are different from federal model.
For this first question, the paper will attempt to look at the impact the inclusion of federalism in America's constitution. The constitution of America came to being in 1787, having been drawn by 55 delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. It is the system of fundamental laws of the United States of America. Ginsberg, Lowi, & eir, (2010) argues that federalism has been fundamental in helping the constitution deliver to its citizenly. Even though federalism is not mentioned explicitly in the constitution it however one of the many concepts that…
Ginsberg, Lowi, & Weir. (2010). An Introduction to American Politics
Kelemen D. (2004). The Rules of Federalism: Cambridge, Harvard University Press
Schechter S. (1981). On the Compatibility of Federalism and Intergovernmental Management: America. Oxford University Press
Courchene (2004) also discusses the changing nature of relations between federal Canada and Quebec and suggests that increasing cooperation has become a new vision that is now being explored. Brown (2003) takes particular note of the actions being taken in Quebec, and he notes that the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP) issued a paper "calling for a new federalism 'de concertation et de cooperation,' consisting of a better effort to manage global interdependence, a respect for the federal spirit (i.e. respect for provincial jurisdiction), a better fiscal balance between the federal and provincial governments, and more concerted interprovincial cooperation" (Brown, 2003, p. 6). In terms of how the Copuncil of the Federation, Brown finds that this may be little more than a continuation of the Annual Premiers' Conference under a different name, or it could lead to a return to the earlier practice seen in the Mulroney era when annual…
Brown, D.M. (2003). Getting Things Done in the Federation: Do We Need New Rules for an Old Game? Institute for Research on Public Policy (1).
Burelle, a. (2003). The Council of the Federation: From a Defensive to a Partnership Approach. Institute for Research on Public Policy (3 English).
Cameron, D. & Simeon, R. (2002). Intergovernmental relations in Canada: The emergence of collaborative federalism. Publius 32, 2, 49-70.
Chennells, D. (2001). The Politics of Nationalism in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
status of federalism within the U.S. It is the thesis of the paper that the President, the Courts and Congress have assumed influential and significant roles in the shaping of federalism in recent decades. Initially, a conceptualization of federalism will be offered as established by the founding fathers. Current literature will then be used to identify factors associated with and the role assumed by the presidency, the Courts and Congress in federalism as it exists today within the U.S.
Conceptual Framework unique federal system of government to replace the original Articles of Confederation was established b the U.S. Constitution. On the basis of federalism, the Framer's of the Constitution delineated that national concerns were to be handled by a national legislative branch and executive branch of government while concerns at the local and state level would be handled by state legislatures and governors. It was the intent of the Framer's…
Brock, P. (2001). Supreme Court Justice Thomas Smith speaks. Montpelier Magazine (Spring, 2001), Harrisonburg, VA: James Madison University, Montpelier.
Eastman, J.C. (2002). Re-entering the arena: Restoring a judicial role for enforcing limits on federal mandates. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 01934872, 25 (3), 931-952.
Greve, M. (2000). The supreme court's federalism. AEI Federalist Outlook, 2 (August 2000). Found at http://www.federalismproject.org/outlook/8-2000.html.
Jeffrey, K. (1995). Guide to regulatory reform: The federalism rule. Brief Analysis No. 151, National Center for Policy Analysis, Washington DC. Found at http://www.ncpa.org/ba/ba151.html
Philadelphia Office Market Analysis
Downtown Philadelphia -- Analysis of the Office Market of the Central Business District
Recently, the city of Philadelphia has garnered considerable national attention in the national media. This is partly due to the fact that the Philadelphia schooled and owned colt named 'Smarty Jones' has dazzled the eyes of racetrack spectators and betters all over the nation. This prospective winner of racings illustrious Triple Crown makes the old city of Philadelphia as a whole seem, if not glamorous, then at least a city that is showing a newly marketable face to the nation.
Philadelphia resurgence in the Central City Business District has been predicted since the early 1990's. But, from an office owner's real estate oriented perspective and vantage 2004, is Philadelphia a 'good bet'? hat about specifically regarding office space targeted to that of the horary perspective of the legal profession? ould the purchase of…
Central City Proprietor's Association (CCPA). 2004. Official Website. http://www.centercityproprietors.org/
Issues: Philadelphia 2003. "Central City." 2003. http://www.issuesphiladelphia.net/articles/4062/;jsessionid=5BDE0AE39622D8AA8A7E64D63FBC750A
Issues: Philadelphia 2003. "Intergovernmental Relations." 2003. http://www.issuesphiladelphia.net/articles/4063/
Sinderman, Martin. "Philadelphia." August 1, 1996. National Real Estate Investor. http://www.nreionline.com/ar/real_estate_philadelphia_3/
Role of Government in Healthcare/How Government Influence Sunnydale
Similarities between Monopoly, Perfect Competition and Oligopoly
Importance of Government Involvement with Health Care Entities at the Local, State, and Federal Levels
Structure, Conduct, and Performance Paradigm As It Relates o Health Care
Implications of the Sherman Antitrust Act on Sunnydale Care
Overview of the Structure and Operation of Medicare and Medicaid
Services hat Each Cover
Benefits and challenges of government involvement at Sunnydale Care
Similarities between Monopoly, Perfect Competition and Oligopoly
Monopoly and perfect competition
Both perfect competition firms and monopolies face similar production and cost factors. Both also are in the business of maximizing profit. Both have the potential of earning super-profits but in the long-term they would only achieve normal profits (Boundless, 2015).
Perfect Competition and Oligopoly
In both these is more than one firm in the market competing with the others and no single…
Tang N.I., Eisenberg J.M., & Meyer, G.S. (2004). The roles of government in improving health care quality and safety. National Center for Biotechnology Information. USA: U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14738036
U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1994). Local Government Responsibilities in Health Care. U.S. Washington: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations.
West Group. (2015). Anti-Trust Law Web Page. The New York Technology. Retrieved on 23rd September, 2015 from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://iris.nyit.edu/~shartman/mba0101/manufacture.doc
National Association of egional Councils: History And Evolution
NAC's History and Purpose: furthering the cause of regionalism
The National Association of egional Councils (NAC) has been an independent entity for over thirty-five years. "The National Association of egional Councils (NAC) is the preeminent alliance for fostering regional cooperation and building regional communities.
We advocate for regional approaches with federal and state governments; provide training and technical assistance on the latest regional developments; and conduct research on timely regional topics." (NAC, 2003, (http://www.narc.org/)the National Association of egional Councils is an integral part of the growth and development of countless communities, be they interstate or otherwise..
In 1998 Beverly a. Cigler wrote an article entitled "Emerging Trends in State-Local elations" and though it is questionable that regionalism be defined as emerging it is clear that the academic and governmental organizations that entitle change are sitting up and taking notice of organizations like…
1935). Regional Factors in National Planning and Development: National Resources
Committee. December, 1935. Washington: [Washington, U.S. Govt. print. off., 1935].
Adams, DH, & Savitch, H.V. (1997). Chapter 12 Central Cities and Suburbs. In Handbook of Research on Urban Politics and Policy in the United States, Vogel, R.K. (Ed.) (pp. 170-
181). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
S.A. PATRIOT Act Improvement and Reauthorization Act reauthorized all expiring provisions of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act, added dozens of additional safeguards to protect privacy interests and civil liberties, and strengthened port security. (USDOJ, 2008)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This report has presented in brief the federal policy changes that been changed or created since the events of September 11, 2001. Changes have included collaboration between federal, state and local agencies in coordination and cooperative law enforcement efforts targeted at proactive prevention of potential terrorists in the U.S. Homeland.
Fact Sheet: justice Department Counter-Terrorism Efforts Since 9/11. Department of Justice. 11 September 2008. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2008/September/08-nsd-807.html
Intergovernmental Partnership in a National Strategy to Enhance State and Local Preparedness (2002) United States General Accounting Office Testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management, and Intergovernmental Relations, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. 22 Mar 2002. Online available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d02547t.pdf…
Fact Sheet: justice Department Counter-Terrorism Efforts Since 9/11. Department of Justice. 11 September 2008. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2008/September/08-nsd-807.html
Intergovernmental Partnership in a National Strategy to Enhance State and Local Preparedness (2002) United States General Accounting Office Testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management, and Intergovernmental Relations, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. 22 Mar 2002. Online available at http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d02547t.pdf
National Strategy for Combating Terrorism (2006) U.S. Department of State. U.S. Department of State. Online available at http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/wh/71803.htm
National Strategy for Homeland Security (2002) Office of homeland Security July 2002. Online available at http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/nat_strat_hls.pdf
yealy budget is an integal step in the administation of the ciminal justice system in the United States. The budget is the souce of funding fo all pogams and agencies administeed though the Justice Depatment and the success o failue of such pogams is dependent upon the budgetay pocess. This pape will assess how public policy affects the budgetay pocess and how each the Executive and Legislative banches of the U.S. Govenment teat policy in making decisions egading how the budget is oganized.
The ecent histoy of the budget pocess and its effects on the ciminal justice system in the United States is examined. Pat of this examination includes an explanation as to easons fo why the ciminal justice system has failed in ecent yeas to accuately eflect public policy and suggestions as to how changes in the budgetay pocess might alte the path and diection of the nation's ciminal…
references Towards Criminal Justice Spending Priorities. Justice Quarterly, 317-335.
Mikesell, J.L. (2011). Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector. Boston: Wadsworth.
Office of Management and Budget. (2008). Circular No. A-11 General Information. Washington, D.C.: Office of Management and Budget.
U.S Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. (1993). The Role of General Government Elected Officials in Criminal Justice. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Advisory Commission.
Criminal Justice Budget
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
worst that could happen to an information system was a natural disaster destroying all information, nowadays, the category of risks has become thoroughly diversified and, because an increasing use of informational systems as data storage and processing tools, it has become more and more important to provide suitable solutions in each situations. In the paragraphs here below, we present a series of problems one may face in ensuring IT security in an organization, together with a set of solutions that may be applied. We have referred to external and internal vulnerabilities, as well as cyber, physical and social ones.
According to an excellent study by Gerhard Eschelbeck
, there are several generations of external threats and vulnerabilities worth discussing:
First Generation threats comprise external virus attacks, generally by email or forms of file sharing. The main characteristic of these attacks is that human action is needed in order…
1. Eschelbeck, Gerhard. Worm and Virus Defense: How can we protect the Nation's Computers from these Threats? Presentation before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Census. September 2003. On the Internet at http://www.qualys.com/research/rnd/vulnlaws
2. Toft, Dorte. Dictionary defines cyber-threats. October 1999. From IDG, on the Internet at http://edition.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9910/04/mitre.dictionary.idg/index.html
3. Tyson, Jeff. How Firewalls work. On the Internet at http://computer.howstuffworks.com/firewall1.htm
4. IT Physical Security. NCI Information Systems release. On the Internet at www.nciinc.com/solutions/nci_itphyssecurity_final.pdf
This hurts the low-wage labor pool, which is the function of large employers that able to pool many jobs under one roof rather than many jobs under many roofs. Small businesses suppliers are often eliminated due to state government dealings with big business. States can assist with these problems by only enabling such entities to operate away from the small businesses and only operate in areas where there are a small number of small businesses with very strong customer loyalty to where the businesses in that area enjoy an inelastic demand curve and fear losing no business to the outside.
Bell . 2010. Smart Grid, Smarter City. ICMA September 2010.
Lare PV 2006. Growing Toward More Efficient Water Use: Linking Development Infrastructure, and Drinking Water Policies. Copyright EPA 2006.
San Diego Budget & Finance Committee (2006) FY 2008 to FY 2012 -- City of San Diego Five-Year…
Bell R. 2010. Smart Grid, Smarter City. ICMA September 2010.
Lare PV 2006. Growing Toward More Efficient Water Use: Linking Development Infrastructure, and Drinking Water Policies. Copyright EPA 2006.
Two New Jersey State Legislators -- Biographies and Legislative and Ideological Histories of Democrat John D. Adler and Republican Joseph Palaia
This paper is a biographical paper on two state legislators from two different political parties, illustrating how the two of them compare on issues pertaining to judicial ethics and the environment of the state. The member of the majority party, Democrat Senator John D. Adler of the New Jersey State Legislature currently represents Cherry Hill, New Jersey, one of the southernmost counties of the state. Adler studied government at Harvard University, earning his A.B. In the subject, and later going on to earn his law school degree from the same university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Adler is particularly noteworthy for his work on the New Jersey Israel Commission from 1995 to the present. He thus takes a strong interest in international as well as national affairs, although part of…
Senator Joseph A. Palaia. (2004) New Jersey State Legislator Website. Retrieved on July 21, 2004. http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/members/palaia.asp
Senator John A. Adler. (2004) New Jersey State Legislator Website. Retrieved on July 21, 2004. http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/members/adler.asp
The school incorporates a lot of natural light and has all updated materials in excellent condition. The Lea school is about 30 years old and, like many Philadelphia public schools, lacks adequate facility funding. Many of the materials and building are outdated and deteriorating.
Students at Penn Alex were significantly more positive than students at Lea regarding their school and rated wall color, variety of wall color, amount of lighting, amount of art work on display, personally having art work on display, overall appearance of the school, peers opinion of overall appearance, and elements that should be changed all higher. In addition, Penn Alex students had more positive attitudes including proud to show visitors, school makes them feel good, school appearance is not distracting, adults care about how the school looks, appearance is fine the way it is, and feelings of responsibility for taking care of the school. Students at…
Ballast, D.K. (2002). Interior design reference manual. Professional Pub. Inc.: Belmont, CA.
Boyatzis CJ and Varghese, R. (1994) Journal of Genetic Psychology; 155(1) 77-85
Hupka, R.B, Zbigniew, Z, Jurgen O., Reidl, L. And Tarabrina, L. The colors of anger, envy, fear, and jealousy: a cross-cultural study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 28.(2)156-162
Kuller, R. (1976). The Use of Space -- Some Physiological and Philosophical Aspects. Paper presented at the Third International Architectural Psychology Conference, University Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France.
The National Defense Education Act was the outcome of a bill that was present before the Sputnik scare.
While the categorical aid as described in the 1958 and 1965 legislation allowed some room for negotiations on the state-church issue, it yet faced another problem due to the opposition that did not want a federal control over their states. This dragged the implementation process of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. It was in the interest of the federal government to keep a check on how the funds that they allocated were being spent thus federal control was inevitable. The resistance however did not want any intervention and thus opposed any control and checks by the federal government.
There was a Public Law 94-142 passed in 1975 which was in favor for the education of handicapped children. The passing of this law experienced a slow but sure professional change in approach.…
The U.S. department of Education. "The Federal Role in Education" [online website] Available at http://www.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html?src=ln [Accessed on 01/09/2005]
Laurence H. Tribe, American Constitutional Law (Minneola, NY: The Foundation Press, second edition, 1988)
W. Brooke Graves, American Intergovernmental Relations: Their Origins, Historical Development and Current Status (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964)
Keith W. Olson. The GI Bill, the Veterans, and the Colleges (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974)
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
Thus, the progress was, in fact, achieved through the intergovernmental ability of those commanding our country to have their requests travel both ways, and the DHS thus enabled Washington to reach the average policeman.
Early criticisms of the DHS, though existent, have now all but been erased. However, these criticisms at first included references of redundancy. Many thus questioned whether the DHS was actually necessary especially in the aftermath of the attacks. This matter was corner-stoned by the belief of many that security had indeed not been improved but rather nominal measures were taken to simply look as if the Bush administration was being tough on terrorism. Despite such criticism, the DHS, in hindsight, as there were no known terrorist attacks on American soil since, one can state that the DHS has achieved some security. However, one cannot say whether it prevented attacks or whether they were even planed; however…
European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations
The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…
Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.
Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.
Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.
Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
" (Risse, 1998) First, the "Euro is about European union rather than just lowering transaction costs" and secondly "intuitionalists arguments about path dependent processes offer significant insights if they are linked to the more constructivist reasoning" which Risse develops in his work. (1998) Third stated is the primary argument is that "the visions about European order which give political meaning to EMU, need to be understood in the framework of identity politics." (Risse, 1998) Risse states that the controversial nature of relationships of political elites in the 'big three' as well as the various attitudes "can be explained by differences in the construction of national collective identities and their relationship to European order." (Risse, 1998) Risse note that historically, money "...has been closely linked to state- and nation-building." (1998) There is no exception when it comes to the Euro and while the Euro has been "incorporated into their (Germany and…
Pettinger, R. (2007) Why the UK Will Never Join the EURO. 1 Mar 2007 Economics Essays. Online available at http://www.economicshelp.org/2007/03/why-uk-will-never-join-euro.html
Jones, Alistair (2007) Britain and the European Union. Edinburgh University Press. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=TPIVYIO4NsoC&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=british+reluctance+to+join+the+eu&source=web&ots=LSnWPXcjXM&sig=nEaqcfIyPijSiJofXJ8Y02DQEck&hl=en#PPT1,M1
To Euro or Not to Euro: The EMU and Identity Politics in the European Union. ARENA Working Papers WP 98/1. 15 Jan 1998. Online available at http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/wp98_1.htm#Note4+5
Buller, Jim (2003) the Disadvantage of Tying One's Hands: The Rise and Fall of the Europeanization of the British Monetary Policy. In University of Sheffield, Department of Politics, ESRC/UACES Series of Seminars on EBPP 19 Sept 2003. Online University of Pittsburg available at http://aei.pitt.edu/1717/
George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA
The face of American politics has changed greatly over past fifteen years. After 9/11 incident, the American version of democracy and the credibility of higher offices of United States has been questioned time and again. Even CIA is not different from any other organization in the machinery of United States government and its integrity and objectivity has been the subject of doubt consistently over past few years. Where CIA has been the questioned repeatedly, so has its former and last DCI, George Tenet. George Tenet has been accused of crossing ethical boundaries and overlapping his ethical obligations with his personal preferences which caused the downfall of CIA as an organization.
During his tenure as CIA's head, George has been praised over time for brining CIA back to the status of fully-functional organization full of motivated employees and has…
Gordon, P.D.(2007), The ethics map- a values-based approach to defining ethics and integrity in the public service. Retrieved from http://users.rcn.com/pgordon/homeland/ethicsmap.pdf
McDougle, M.L. (2007), Understanding and maintaining ethical values in the public sector through an integrated approach to leadership, retrieved from http://www.ipa.udel.edu/3tad/papers/workshop6/McDougle.pdf
Menzel, D. (2003). Public administration as a profession: Where do body and soul reside? Public Integrity, 5(3), 239-249.
Waldo, D. (1980). The enterprise of public administration, Chandler and Sharp, Novato, CA.
Submitted to the Faculty of the Division of the International Relations and Diplomacy
In Candidacy For The Degree Of Master Of Philosophy
A number of developments are challenging the national identity and interests of Western European countries. Primary among these are the supranational integration and sovereignty sharing that is occurring between the European Union (EU) member state governments and the EU governance organs, the ongoing inward migration of peoples from the global South and East into EU countries, as well as the continued elaboration and application of human rights, which is of particular importance to potential migrants and EU residents of non-European origin. The existence of increasing migratory flows and a growing number of settled immigrant communities demands a policy response from the EU and its member states to address the situation of immigrant minorities "particularly with regards to the rights to be (or not to be) conferred upon them"…
Freedman, Jane. 2003. Gender and Insecurity: Migrant Women in Europe. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Company.
Geddes, Andrew. 1995. "Immigrant and Ethnic Minorities and the EU's 'Democratic Deficit'." Journal of Common Market Studies 33:197-217.
Guiraudon, Virginie. 2000. "European Integration and Migration Policy: Veretical Policy-making as Venue Shopping." Journal of Common Market Studies 38:251-71.
Huysmans, Jef. 2000. "The EU and the securitization of migration." Journal of Common Market Studies 38:751-78.
George Tenet and the Last Great Days of the CIA, in Stillman
The cross-coded ethical dilemmas facing former CIA Director George Tenet and its impact
The operations of an intelligence agency and its governance are different from the everyday administration of public services and bureaucracies. The fact that the agency -- C.I.A was dealing with espionage and intelligence gathering in states that are hostile to the U.S. And the way the offices of the President and the general U.S. administrators considered it just another branch of the U.S. Government led to its downfall. The loss of credibility is more because of creating an ethic and work protocol that could not be sustained. Although the death of the CIA has been attributed to George Tenet, in reality it was a system that was bound to collapse and tenet was just the last scapegoat. Analysis will reveal that the bureaucratic system and…
Alexander, Jennifer; Nank, Renee. (2009) "Public -- Nonprofit Partnership Realizing the New
Public Service" Administration & Society, vol. 41, no. 3, pp: 364-386.
Bannink, Duco; Ossewaarde, Ringo. (2012) "Decentralization New Modes of Governance
and Administrative Responsibility" Administration & Society, vol. 44, no. 5, pp: 595-624.
Neo-Functionalism the European Model
The concept of neo-functionalism originated in the 1950s after the Second World War. During that time, the world was witnessing an emerging pattern of regional integration that saw countries especially in Europe and Latin America eliminate trade barriers in a bid to form regional economic blocks. Neo-functionalism, widely considered as a theory, is synonymous with western European integration. It is thought that the proponents of European integration adopted this theory as their main integration strategy. According to Rosamond (2000), neo-functionalism was triggered by the interactive activity among the original six member states (p. 10). On the other hand, Eilstrup-Sangiovanni (2006), asserts that neo-functionalism was as a result of the behaviorist turn in American social science that were centered on institutional forms, behavior and the integration process (p. 89). He however notes that neo-functionalism failed to describe the integration process during the 1965 empty chair crisis because…
Cini, M., & Perez-Solorzano Borragan, N. (2004). European Union Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Commission of the European Communities. (1983). Treaties Establishing the European Communities. uxembourg: Office of Official Publications of the European Community.
Eilstrup-Sangiovanni, M. (2006). Debates on European Integration. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan Ltd.
Goldstein, W. (1993). Europe After Maastricht. Foreign Affairs, 117-32.
GDP went down due to weak domestic demand, which went further down after a decline. Somehow, it again rose by 0.1% in the first quarter and appeared to have pulled the economy out of recession. ut Portugal retained big trouble. In the last quarter of 2002, its GDP plummeted.8% from the third quarter and in the last quarter, it contracted by 1.3% from the previous year until the.3% in the third quarter of 2002. The economy continued to sag until the ank of Portugal itself observed the fall of business confidence to its lowest recorded level since the 1993 recession. Official unemployment rate increased to a high 49.6%, rising by 26.3% from 2001 (O'Flynn).
Unemployment was 6.7% in 2003, compared with 4.3% in 2002 (O'Flynn 2003). Labor unions in Portugal claimed it was more than 7.6% as against the 5% ceiling set by the EU, despite the fact that the…
Clapp, D. (2005). Spain's Economy is Vibrating and Growing. Group Communications, Inc. http://www.facilitycity.com/busfac/bf_04_03_global1.asp
Development Assistance Committee (2001). Portugal Development Cooperation Review. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/31/0,2340.en_2649_201185_1883871_1_1_1_1,00.html
Giomo, C. And Jimenez, M. (2001). Economic Survey of Spain. Building Partnership for Progress. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/36/0.2340.en_2649_201185_1912676_1_1_1_1.00.html
Internal Study Programs (2004). Portugal. http://www.studyprograms.com/focus_portugal.htm
AIDS and Politics in African
Aside from Malaria and other life threatening diseases, AIDS constitutes one of the major concerns within the African continent. One of the reasons behind this concern is the fact that HIV / AIDS is responsible for causing many deaths in this part of the world. ith close to 70% of people living with HIV / AIDS in the entire globe coming from Africa, the magnitude of the problem in the continent cannot be overemphasized (UNAIDS 1). Political participation in matters as serious as this cannot go without being noticed. Politics in Africa is part of the HIV / AIDS epidermis and plays a role not only in the prevention of the diseases but also in its causes among other dynamics. The politics of Aids however is not limited to government and political entities and neither does it emanate from Africa alone. The participation of such…
Akukwe, Chinua, HIV / AIDS in Africa: Politics, Policies, Programs and Logistics, Atlanta, GA: the Perspective, 2003
Cook, Nicholas, AIDS in Africa, Congressional Research Service, 2008, Accessed April 30, 2012, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33584.pdf
Fassin, Didier & Schneider, Helen, the Politics of AIDS in South Africa: Beyond the Controversies, South Africa: BMJ Publishing Group, 2003
Goliber Thomas, Africa's Political Response to HIV / AIDS, Washington D.C: Population Reference Bureau, 2012
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy
The "Chinese Model" of Investment
The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework
The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus
Trading with the Enemy Act
Export Control Act.
Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act
The 1974 Trade Act.
The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy
The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)
The Managerial Practices
Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)
China and western world: A comparison
The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods
The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development
The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition
Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)
ACD arms control and disarmament
ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADF Asian Development Fund
APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation
AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…
Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088
Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557
Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923
Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
Freedom is the Foundation of Peace. Without freedom, there is no peace. America, by nature, stands for freedom, and we must always remember, we benefit when it expands. So we must stand by those nations moving toward freedom. We must stand up to those nations who deny freedom and threaten our neighbors or our vital interests. We must assert emphatically that the future will belong to the free. Today's world is different from the one we faced just several years ago. We are no longer divided into armed camps, locked in a careful balance of terror. Yet, freedom still has enemies. Our present dangers are less concentrated and more varied. They come from rogue nations, from terrorism, from missiles that threaten our forces, our friends, our allies and our homeland.
Since the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick between the kingdoms of Spain and France in 1697, the island…
"Beginning of Diplomatic Relations." Department of Foreign Affairs and International Relations. (January 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from http://www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca /latinamerica/haitirelations-en.asp.
Graham, Andrew. "Canada bolsters support to Haiti." Media Relations Office
Canadian International Development Agency. (July 2004) Retrieved June 3, 2005 from
Implementation of the Plan
The implementation program will focus on the five crucial aspects that will run concurrently: provision of funds, educational programs, development of Voluntary Counseling and Testing centers, availability of ARV drugs, and awareness campaigns (Kartikeyan p. 388). In the achievement of the goals and objectives of the implementation plan, it is ideal to have the financial resources. This implementation plan seeks to increase the size of the healthcare budget by the government towards the course of HIV and AIDS elimination. These financial resources will be crucial towards the execution of other components of the implementation plan such educational programs and campaigns, training of the personnel to offer VCT services, and other relevant services. It is, therefore, ideal to increase the size of the healthcare budget by setting aside about $1.5 billion towards this course. NGOs and IGOs will also chip in towards the contribution of the financial…
Juma, Monica K, and Jennifer Klot. HIV / AIDS, Gender, Human Security, and Violence in Southern Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Africa Institute of South Africa, 2011. Print.
Rohleder, Poul. HIV / AIDS in South Africa: 25 Years on Psychosocial Perspectives. New York:
Springer, 2009. Print.
Abdool, Karim S. S, and Karim Q. Abdool. HIV / AIDS in South Africa. Cape Town: Cambridge
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…
"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are
Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.
Web. 01 Mar. 2013.
"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.
Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.
For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.
In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.
In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.
As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…
"Article 230." Treaty of Nice. 2000. University College Cork. 25 Aug. 2009
Case 70/88, European Parliament v. Council of Ministers, Judgment of the ECJ of 22 March
1990, European Court Reports 1990, p. I-2041.
There is confusion about laws which are subject to different interpretations and this result in critical information not being made available. This is caused by such laws like the "Educational ights and Privacy Act -- FEPA, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act -- HIPAA and a number of legislations that seek to protect the privacy of the family." ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) Many state laws are also interpreted in such a way that they retard the work of agencies involved in monitoring health and safety issues. ("eport to the President on Issues aised by the Virginia Tech Tragedy," 2007) the complex nature of the law and the state laws, with a small percent of the laws applicable in a federal scale, it is not possible to enforce uniform standards.
It is to be concluded that the federal laws must be…
Billi, John E; Agrawal, Gail Bopp. (2001) "The Challenge of Regulating Managed Care"
Gostin, Larry Ogalthorpe. (2002) "Public Health Law and Ethics: A Reader" University of California Press.
Grim, Charles W. (2005, Jan) "IHS Focuses on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention"
Retrieved 11 February, 2008 at http://www.usmedicine.com/column.cfm?columnID=193&issueID=70
Over the last several years, the issue of human trafficking has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because the industry is considered to be a major source of income for organized criminal gangs and other groups with it accounting for $31.6 billion in profits worldwide. Depending the region, these returns will vary with some having greater rewards from: socially acceptable practices, a lack of regulation and the ability of criminal groups to move with impunity in certain regions. The below table is showing, those areas with the highest returns and levels of human trafficking. ("An Introduction to Human Trafficking," 2008) ("Human Trafficking," 2013)
The Profit Margins and Amounts of Human Trafficking
Number of People
49% ($15.1 billion)
% ($9.7 billion)
Latin America and the Caribbean
4.1% ($1.3 billion)
Middle East and North Africa
4.7% ($1.5 billion)
An Introduction to Human Trafficking. (2008). UN. Retrieved from: http://www.unodc.org/documents/human-trafficking/An_Introduction_to_Human_Trafficking_-_Background_Paper.pdf
Human Trafficking. (2012). IOM. Retrieved from: http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/shared/shared/mainsite/microsites/IDM/workshops/ensuring_protection_070909/human_trafficking_new_directions_for_research.pdf
Human Trafficking. (2013). UN Global Compact. Retrieved from: http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/labour/Forced_labour/HUMAN_TRAFFICKING_-_THE_FACTS_-_final.pdf
Bales, K. (2007). What Predicts Human Trafficking? International Journal of Criminal Justice, 31( 2), pp. 269 -- 279.
NGO is a non-governmental organization, while an IGO is an intergovernmental organization. The latter is typically created between states. Trade agreements often create IGOs as enforcement mechanisms, for example. Thus, IGOs exist as intermediary between the constituent nations. There are often three or more nations party to the agreement, as per the UIA (2014) definition of an IGO. The body will typically have specific set tasks for which it has been created, and any authority that the IGO has will be related to the performance of those tasks.
An NGO is also an international organization, but exists outside of state influence. The UIA defines an NGO as being transnational in nature but not bound or run by any nation. An NGO may theoretically receive some funding from a nation-state, but in many cases will raise funds privately. NGOs therefore operate independent of state influence, and perform tasks on this basis.…
Hardin, G. (1968). The tragedy of the commons. Science. Vol. 162 (3859) 1243-1248.
UIA. (2014). Types of international organization. Union of International Associations. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.uia.org/archive/types-organization/cc
UNCHR.org (2014). What are human rights? United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Retrieved December 12, 2014 from http://www.ohchr.org/en/issues/pages/whatarehumanrights.aspx
Employee Wellness Program
Benefits of the Employee Wellness Program
Employee Needs Assessment
Components of the Program
Marketing of the Program
Implementation of the Plan
Evaluation of the Plan
This paper aims at developing an employee wellness program for the organization so as to ensure that the due attention is paid to the health and wellness issues that are being confronted by the employees. The paper would also propose strategies for the effective marketing and evaluation of the developed employee wellness program.
Employee Wellness Program
The organization under consideration has been in the business since last 10 years. The organization is a manufacturing concern that is indulged in the development and sales of beverages, including fresh juices and gerbil teas. The organization operates in 3 different regions of the United States of America and employs a total of 500 people. The organization has a healthy business and…
Forbes Magazine, (2012). 4 Steps To Implement A Successful Employee Wellness Program. Forbes. Retrieved 17 July 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/theyec/2012/11/28/4-steps-to-implement-a-successful-employee-wellness-program/
McClintick, K. (2009). WSU Employee Wellness Needs Assessment and Programming Implementation (1st ed., pp. 1-35). Winona: Winona State University. Retrieved from http://www.winona.edu/asf/media/wsu_employee_wellness-mcclintick.pdf
Staff Members of the International Public Management for Human Resources, (2013). Employee Wellness Benefit Guide (1st ed., pp. 2-14). Alexandria: International Public Management for Human Resources. Retrieved from http://ipma-hr.org/sites/default/files/pdf/EmployeeWellness_Plantation.pdf
Staff Members of the Texas Municipal League Multistate Intergovernmental Employee Benefits Pool and Deer Oaks Employee Assistance Program, (2010). The City of Somewhere's Wellness Program (1st ed., pp. 1-4). Austin: Texas Municipal League Multistate Intergovernmental Employee Benefits Pool and Deer Oaks Employee Assistance Program. Retrieved from https://www.tmlmultistateiebp.org/documents/Sample%20Wellness%20Program.pdf
Terrorism in elation to International Governance
The 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States highlighted the global threat of terrorism since it changed the ways in which the world views terrorism. Actually, the attacks demonstrated the evolution of the threat of terrorism that has become a major security threat across the globe. Given the global dimension of terrorism, state actors and the international community has become increasingly concerned and developed various ways to deal with the threat of terrorism from a national and international level. Domestic and international law has altered policy towards terrorism, leading to an evolution of counterterrorism efforts. However, the effectiveness of these counterterrorism efforts requires an understanding of what terrorism is, its impact on countries, and international laws. Since terrorism is a global concern, international response may be crucial to resolving such a troubling issue.
Description of the Issue
Terrorism has continued to evolve in recent…
Bachmann, S. & Gunnerisson, H. (2014). Terrorism and Cyber Attacks as Hybrid Threats: Defining a Comprehensive Approach for Countering 21st Century Threats to Global Peace and Security. The Journal on Terrorism and Security Analysis, 1-37.
Bogdanoski, M. & Petreski, D. (2010). Cyber Terrorism -- Global Security Threat. International Scientific Defense, Security, and Peace Journal, 59-72.
Ervine, P. (2010, November 15). Does Terrorism Pose a Real Threat to Security? Retrieved May 14, 2016, from http://www.e-ir.info/2010/11/15/does-terrorism-pose-a-real-threat-to-security/
Gaibulloev, K., Sandler, T. & Santifort, C. (2011). Assessing the Evolving Threat of Terrorism. Retrieved from Homeland Security Center -- University of Southern California website: http://create.usc.edu/sites/default/files/publications/assessingtheevolvingthreatofterrorism_2.pdf
McLure, C.E. (1997). Electronic commerce, state sales taxation, and intergovernmental fiscal relations. National Tax Journal, 50(4), 731-750.
This study takes place within the context of a marketplace that is that is increasing utilizing electronic commerce as a way to facilitate transactions between vendors and consumers. Taxation in regard to electronic commerce is a complicated situation, which resulted in some confusion and uncertainty for tax administrators and tax payers alike.
The aim of the study by McLure (1997) was to explore the implications associated with electronic commerce as it relates to tax administration. A review was conducted in order to synthesize information with regard to this issue in order to devise a proposal for a solution with regard to taxation and electronic commerce.
Design: This examination was conducted as a systematic review broken down into five succinct sections. The first section, the introduction, presented the situation under investigation, in particular the…
McLure, C.E. (1997). Electronic commerce, state sales taxation, and intergovernmental fiscal relations. National Tax Journal, 50(4), 731-750.
Political legitimacy derives from the peoples of the Member States and thus from the states themselves; (b) the primacy of European law: this is not 'absolute' and the Court reserves the right to block European legislation in order to protect sovereignty and 'constitutional identity', which is, moreover, enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty itself; and (c) ring-fences certain sovereign powers for the Member States: in the areas of criminal law and procedure, policing, military matters, fiscal policy (thus precluding 'economic government') and social, cultural, religious, educational and media affairs; and (5) Emphasizes that the formal creation of a European federal state and the transfer of such powers to that state would require a change in the Constitution and therefore a referendum. (eaudouin, 2009)
eaudouin reports that the Lisbon Treaty makes the EU "considerably more powerful by merging the three pillars, endowing the Union with legal personality, extending its competences, establishing the…
Beaudouin, Christopher (2009) Presentation of the German Federal Constitutional Court Judgment of 30 June 2009 on the Lisbon Treaty. Online available at: http://www.efdgroup.eu/uploads/file/German%20Federal%20Const-Court%20Judgement/788816EN.pdf
Coughlan, Anthony (2009) 13 Facts About the Lisbon Treaty. 21 Aug 2009. Corbett Report -- Open Source Intelligence News. Online available at: http://www.corbettreport.com/articles/20090821_lisbon_facts.htm
European Parliament and the Lisbon Treaty (2009) European Parliament. Online available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&refreshCache=yes&pageRank=1&id=66
McConalogue, Jim (2009) Ireland's 100 Reasons to Vote 'No' to the Lisbon Treaty. The European Journal. Sept 2009. Online available at: http://europeanjournal.typepad.com/my_weblog/2009/09/irelands-100-reasons-to-vote-no-to-the-lisbon-treaty.html
DUAL FEDEALISM PHASE
The Dual Federalism is the reflection of the ideology that stressed over the balance of powers between the national and state governments, and considers both the governments as 'equal partners with separate and distinct spheres of authority' (Sergio, 2005). Previously, the 'federal or national government was limited in its authority to those powers enumerated in the Constitution', and it was evident that there was partial understanding and correspondence between the national and stat. There existed little collaboration between the national and state governments, which resulted in the 'occasional tensions over the nature of the union and the doctrine of nullification and state sovereignty'.
In 1789, the Constitution was approved by the States; ratification of the conventions convened took place. The period from 1789 to 1801 has been regarded as the Federalist Perios, 'the period takes its name from the dominant political party of the time, which believed…
Michael Mcguire. American Federalism and the Search for Models of Management. Public Administration Review. Volume: 61. Issue: 6. 2001. American Society for Public Administration.
Stever, James a. The Growth and Decline of Executive-Centered Intergovernmental Management. Publius: The Journal of Federalism Vol. 23. 1993. pp. 71-84.
Stoker, Gerry, and Karen Mossberger. Urban Regime Theory in Comparative Perspective. Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy Vol. 12. 1992. pp. 195-212.
Stone, Clarence. Regime Politics. University Press of Kansas. 1989. pp. 218.
Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…
Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
Function #1: Mitigation
At this stage, gradual and long-term steps are taken to ensure that disasters do not occur, or that, when they do, they cause minimal damage. Actions at this stage include the identification of hazards, the research of the causes which generate the disaster, the creation of means in which to modify the causes of the disasters, the development of means which reduce the community's vulnerability to the disaster, the efforts to better consolidate old buildings, the construction of disaster-resistant buildings, the education of the population or the provision of insurance.
At this stage, the responsibilities of the central government include:
The identification of hazards and the research of their causes
The research as to how the causes of the disaster can be modified
The offering of research and development grants to local projects
The promulgation of buildings safety standards
elative to the competencies of the local governments…
Arnstein, S.R., 1969, A Ladder of Citizen Participation, AIP Journal
Boyce, W., 2002, A Seat at the Table: Persons with Disabilities and Policy Making, McGill-Queen's Press -- MQUP, ISBN 077352181X
Branigan, T., 2009, More than 500 dead in Typhoon Morakot, The Guardian, Edition of August, 14
Canton, L.G., 2007, Emergency Management: Concepts and Strategies for Effective Programs, Wiley-Interscience, ISBN 047173487X
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
ASEAN-EU Regional Integration
Coordination between ASEAN and EU started in 1980 after the formulation of a cooperation agreement. The EU has twenty five member countries and engages in several multilateral trade cooperation and relations. The EU is influential because of its extensive economic cooperation with other regional organizations through trade agreements. It is also a central player in the world trade organization.
ASEAN is exemplary for demonstrating consistent excellence in improving and fostering peace, political stability and economic development among its member countries. Other strategies including regional integration have a central contribution towards the achievement of its ASEAN's vision 2020 (Das 139). ASEAN-EU Regional Integration, therefore, is of vast importance in enhancing development in Eastern Asia and Europe through trade.
Comparison between EU and ASEAN
The institutional orientation of the two, ASEAN and the EU, vary on grounds of their formation. Intergovernmental cooperation is the basis of the agreement among…
Cheritel, Meriem. ASEAN: AFTA and other Free Trade Agreements - Development and Impact on the International Automotive Industry. Munich, Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2006. Print.
Christoph, Marcinkowski., Chevallier-Govers, Constance and Harun, Ruhanas. Malaysia and the European Union: Perspectives for the Twenty-First Century. New Jersey, NJ: LIT Verlag Munster, 2011. Print.
Das, Sanchita. Achieving the ASEAN Economic Community 2015: Challenges for Member Countries & Business. Panjang, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2012. Print.
Doidge, Matthew. The European Union and Interregionalism: Patterns of Engagement. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011. Print.
The Gold Coast area has a reputation as a flood prone area, even without considering the effects of global climate change.
The Gold Coast area comprises seven major catchment areas including the Tallebudgera, Currumbin, Nerang iver, Coomera iver, Pimpama iver, South Moreton Bay, Sandy Creek and Broadwater area (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Tallebudgers catchment to the South. It is bordered by the Broadwater and Coomera iver area to the North. The Nerang iver catchment is adjacent to the Pacific beach area as well (Mirfenderesk, 2009).
Catchment areas have different levels of tolerance before the concentration of water to sediment reaches saturation levels, creating the likelihood of flooding in the area. The Tallbudgers, Currubin, and Broadwater area have time concentrations of approximately 3 hours, creating conditions favorable to short duration local flooding (Mirfenderesk, 2009). The Nerang iver and Coomera catchments have time of concentrations from…
Abbs, D. (n.d.). The Effect of Climate Change on the Intensity of Extreme Rainfall Events.
CSIRO Atmospheric Research. White Paper.
Boesch, D., Field, J., & Scavia, D. et al. (2001). The Potential Consequences of Climate
Variabiltiy and Change on Coastal Areas and Marine Resources. NOAA's Coastal Ocean
Although the transnational public sphere is conceived as an entity without boarders, or that at least stretches boarders, Kohler goes on to argue that this type of public sphere is by default dependent on the national sphere (233). The national and international are directly related through a matrix of power. As the transnational public sphere grows, this puts pressure on the national government's sovereignty. A prime example of this is the case of Troy Davis, a Georgian inmate on death row whose status was challenged by Amnesty International. The United States' government, which had sent Davis to death row, experienced the pressure from a transnational network, which called into question the state's authority to determine the punishments for its criminals.
Thus, the transnational public sphere is an entity that can be appreciated both for its own beauty in addition to its function. Made up of a global civil society whose…
Kholer, Martin. "From the National to the Cosmopolitan Public Sphere." Re-imagining
Political Community: Studies in Cosmopolitan Democracy. Ed. Archibugi,
Daniele, Held David, and Kohler, Martin. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998. 232-251.
New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective
The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…
Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf
Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.
Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73
Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
Despite the political agreement, it did not result in any sustainable resolution due to the fact that while the Sudan People's Liberation Army endorsed the provisions with a clear focus on the self-determination solution, the regime in Khartoum underlined the importance of the unity of the country and the preeminence of the Shari a as the national reference law. Consequently, the peace talks reached a stalemate.
The international community became more actively involved in the negotiations underway in Sudan. In this sense, the involvement of the U.S. is most relevant. The Clinton Administration in particular imposed economic and political sanctions on the regime in Khartoum given the fact that it was the Sudanese state that constantly refused to accept negotiations with its counterparts. Countries in the region as well got involved in the process and supported the ongoing talks through the Intergovernmental Authority for Development. This structure included states such…
Abdelgadier, Osama. God, Oil, and Country: Sudan's Long Road to Peace. Sudan at the Crossroads. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://fletcher.tufts.edu/sudanconference2004/outcomes/Abdelgadier%20Thurs.pdf
Agreement on Wealth Sharing during the Pre-Interim and Interim Period. 2004. 4 October 2007 http://www.usip.org/library/pa/sudan/wealth_sharing_01072004.pdf
BBC. "Country profile: Sudan" BBC World. 2007. 3 October 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/country_profiles/820864.stm#facts
CIA. The World Factbook. Sudan. 2007. 3 October 2007 < https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/su.html#Intro
It has also been noted that growing interdependency in world economies has led to a decreased ability to rule for many national governments, and the WTO actually assists in this regard, as well (Pauwelyn, 2003; Jackson, 2006). The WTO relieves certain burdens of governing and alleviates certain diplomatic pressures by providing extra-national means of developing and conducting inter-state trade, which can ease relationships between states in many ways (Jackson, 2006). Providing a specific avenue for states to approach each other and develop trade and other agreements also provides an obvious boon to interstate relationships.
Liberal institutionalism quite confidently explains and even predicts the efficacy of the WTO in terms of its strengthening of international law and its easing of relations between states, and in fact the WTO can be seen as the quintessential organization evidencing the tenets of liberal institutionalism. Unlike many other breeds of liberalism, liberal institutionalism incorporates…
D'Anieri, P. (2011). International Politics. Mason, OH: Cengage.
Jackson, J.H. (2006). Sovereignty, the WTO, and changing fundamentals of International Law (Vol. 18). Cambridge University Press.
Petersmann, E.U. (1997). The GATT/WTO Dispute Settlement System: International Law, International Organizations and Dispute Settlement (Vol. 23). Martinus Nijhoff.
Pauwelyn, J. (2001). The Role of Public International Law in the WTO: How far can we go?. American Journal of International Law, 535-578.
At the time the U.S. Constitution was ratified, the new America of the 19th century saw its indigenes with varied political opinions. Those in favor of a powerful central government and therefore, a restraint of the powers the states possessed were part of the Federalist Party; those with the belief that interpretation should be given to the Constitution in order to reduce the powers the national government wields, which would further empower the states, became part of the epublican PartyTherefore, The Federalists adopted a nationalistic opinion; the epublicans, although they would not refute the efficiency of the central government, held the opinion that certain rights ought to be kept for the states. Thus, this essay will explore the aforementioned idea (Writer Thoughts). It will examine how the Federalist philosophy and ideas shaped modern American Society.
Supporters of the Constitution
The proposed American Constitution's advocates labeled themselves as "Federalists."…
Boyd. "American Federalism, 1776 to 1997: Significant Events." USA Embassy. N.p., 1997. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .
"Constitution of the United States." The Free Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .
"Federalists." U.S. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2016. .
MacDonald, William. Select Documents Illustrative of the History of the United States, 1776-1861. N.p.: Macmillan, n.d. Google Books. 1905. Web. 26 Mar. 2016. .