S. troops with car bombs. Saddam is in custody, but no WMD have been found. "The human toll of the war has been high for Americans and Iraqis alike" (Lee, 2005). "More than 1,500 U.S. soldiers have been killed and more than 11,000 have been wounded... [and] it is estimated that as many as 100,000 Iraqi civilians have lost their lives," U.S. epresentative Barbara Lee (D-Oakland) wrote in the San Jose Mercury-News. How much has this war cost taxpayers so far?
The total - including the $80 billion Bush is asking Congress for - is now well above $300 billion; "and while the president has asked Congress to extend his tax breaks for the wealthy, he is insisting on cuts in vital programs for education, housing and health care," Lee asserted.
What do Americans say about the possibility of Bush attacking Iran, and about Bush's handling of the war on…… [Read More]
In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.
This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the…… [Read More]
A threat to security, that continues to grow ever since the beginning of the twentieth century, is that of drugs and national and international crime that is directly linked to it. The U.. government is actively implementing policies of fighting illegal drug trafficking and use both nationally and internationally. The cooperation in this matter between Mexico, the main gate for illicit drugs from Latin America and the U.. is vital. The U.. President approved in 2007 the list of major illicit drug producing or trafficking countries that was to be submitted to the U.. Congress in 2008. Among the major players in the field of illicit drugs were: Afghanistan, the Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil, Burma, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Haiti, India, Jamaica, Laos, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru. Meanwhile, Europe came under the threat of massive illicit drugs entering the continent through Africa, so the issue gained in proportions…… [Read More]
international politics and relations in the current era, which define how communities and geographical regions relate to each other, have evolved over a period after time. The human history has been a roller coaster ride, full of violence, bloodshed and genocides. The term genocide refers to a planned and organized destruction against a national, ethnic or religious group.
In every geographical area, there are people from different ethnic, religious and social backgrounds and from different mindsets and school of thoughts. In general, one of the groups remains in the majority while the others remain in the minority. Both the majority and the minority groups have their own respective points-of-view which they aspire to enforce; however, since the majority has the numerical strength, they consider it their natural right to be in the powerful position. In some cases, it had been observed that the minority manages to take over the powerful…… [Read More]
The United States is currently a global hegemon. It epitomizes several fundamental characteristics of a hegemon, ranging from the obvious to the subtler. The first of these characteristics is related to the military. A hegemon possesses the strongest military in the world, and its military is superior to any competing nations.
In addition, a hegemon has the largest and most technically advanced economy in the world. A hegemon is a key trading partner of most of the nations of the world, including the major powers.
A hegemon enjoys a broad range of political allies, as well as friendly relationships with the majority of the world's nations and major powers. Through these relationships, a hegemon creates the majority of the rules that determine global politics and economic relations. Therefore, a hegemon is in control of most international institutions and enjoys a favorable attitude from most of the world's nations.…… [Read More]
Constructivist theory is one of the theories of the international relations emerged in the 1990s posing a challenge to the dominant liberal and realist theoretical paradigms. By taking different theoretical approaches to viewing the international systems, constructivist theory emphasizes on the material objects "rather than the mere existence of the objects themselves". (Cristol, 2011 p 1), for example, nuclear weapons in North Korea, and the United Kingdom may be identical materially, however, they possess different meaning to the US policy makers. Moreover, constructivists place a greater emphasizes on identity, norm development and idealist powers than other theoretical paradigms in international relations.
The objective of this paper is to discuss the theory of constructivism with reference to the international relations.
Statement of Problems
The international relations theory has been dominated by the theory of liberalism, realism, and pluralism for several decades. However, there has been a departure from the neo-classical theory…… [Read More]
International elations Theory and United Nations Peace:
International elations (I) field normally focuses on the study of how various state systems can be made to work more efficiently to improve the power of law, maintain order, manage interstate affairs peacefully, and lessen prospects of war. The word relation in this field is used to denote the inclusion of more than political affairs to aspects like conflict and peace. International relations field is closely linked administratively to political science departments (O'Connor, 2010). Actually, the field of international relations traces its origin from various subfields including international law, diplomatic history, and international economics. While it's still early to consider international relations as a sovereign field of study, it has broken from the analytical procedures of economics and law as well as the ongoing process of breaking from political science. Consequently, this field has become an important facet because of the conceptualizations of…… [Read More]
Analysis of Theories
The field of international relations is based on many competing and complementary theories. These include realism, liberalism, constructivism, dependency theory, Marxism, etc. The theories are many; the field is expansive. What international relations seek to do is both formulate and analyze international politics, and work concomitantly with world governments, non-governmental organizations, and multi-national corporations. Due to the nature of work in these global affairs, several of the theories mentioned above are utilized to explain various phenomena. This paper will thus focus on a few questions as they relate to international relations and, specifically, to the theories which it employs.
To begin, one must understand that the field of international politics can be segmented into various categories, or levels of analysis. The most famous of these categories are Kenneth Waltz' groups, which include explanations of politics as being driven by individuals, by psychology, by states,…… [Read More]
In international policy, as in the course of daily human life, self-interested actors must carefully weigh competing and often equally valid choices, and make for themselves some compromise between opposed values. It seems that as often as one is able to solve a problem, one notices that the very solution causes problems of its own. An unmitigated good is difficult to find even in one person's individual life, and it is even harder (if not impossible) to discover a national plan of action which will prove beneficial for every citizen and for the world at large. It seems inevitable that any policy which creates significant benefits somewhere along the line must at another spot be creating significant detriments for at least some subsection of the community. (This is even true with crime control, which benefits most citizens and penalizes those whose selves or families depend on illegal…… [Read More]
Efficiency of the international laws
There has been a growing concern over the international law and the application of the same bearing the different settings and backgrounds against which these laws are applied. As they are international laws, so they are taken to be universal with the difference in the reality one the ground differing from one country to another, one continent to another, being of little or no significance at all. Here then comes the issue of the efficiency of these international laws and their universal relevance hence the sustained questioning of the relevance of some of these international laws in given setting.
It is presumptuous to insinuate that the international laws can apply in a universal applicability of the international law since to some extent it is bound to lose touch with the realities of member states hence rendered irrelevant and inefficient. The international law and…… [Read More]
In my opinion, there is no excuse for them not accomplishing the objectives they have been created to attain.
6. egarding the economic situation and the context of the current financial and economic crises, things are not as clear as they are about environmental issues. In my opinion, the policies that must be implemented in the following period of time should take into consideration economic stagnation, and not economic evolution.
The crisis currently affects the real estate market. Then, it will affect the energy market. Eventually, it will affect the food market. In my opinion, the bailouts that everyone complaints about are not such a negative action.
Even if it does not seem fair to pay for other people's mistakes and greed, these bailouts will probably be responsible for saving thousands of jobs domestically and internationally. However, if the bailouts will be used for bonuses, than this measure will obviously…… [Read More]
This is an important issue and a number of commentators and critics have decried this loss of respect for international law. One commentator refers to the words of the politician and sociologist, Daniel Patrick Moynihan, who said that, "...there is nothing quite to compare with the falling from the American mind of the idea of the law of nations" (Kinsley). He also stated that,
At the beginning of Gulf ar II, we forgot... international law. e forgot international law once again. hen the U.N. Security Council would not play ball, we declared that our own invasion of Iraq was justified as a sovereign act of long-term self-defense against potential weapons of mass destruction, by the human rights situation within Iraq,
Therefore, this is a cardinal area of international law that is in danger in the present age.
On the other hand, there are areas of international law that have…… [Read More]
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…… [Read More]
The dependency interactions were sustained by the cooperation of ranks and elites in the periphery who benefited from their economic associations with the core states.
On the other hand, the problem of underdevelopment was basically diagnosed on the basis of weaknesses of domestic ranks in poor countries. While these diagnoses recognized the exploitative global interactions between rich and poor states, they were conducted on the basis that poor countries failed to play a historic role in overhauling conventional elites and practices as well as leading political and economic development.
While the concepts developed by dependency theories were adopted by several developing countries, they were condemned for being too deterministic through an overemphasis on the role of global forces on nations in the South. This criticism included the fact that dependency theories were efficient in explaining why countries didn't develop as compared to their explanations on how some nations really developed.…… [Read More]
international relations: idealism vs. realism
The theories of international relations have been seen as a mechanism thru which practitioners in the area of international politics as well as scholars tried to explain the way in which international politics function and how the behavior of states and actors on the international scene can be anticipated.
The beginning of the 20th century was a period of deep consideration for international politics, given the First World War and its aftermath. The idealistic approach on international politics tried to explain the behavior states had after the end of the war and also define the period between the two conflagrations. The realist theory on the other hand appeared as a result of the Second World War and its aftermath and, although it took into account similar elements, the points made in reference to these elements were somewhat in contrast. There are several key issues that…… [Read More]
The author explains that is the case because it would lead to complete chaos (Ikenberry 2005). In addition a neo-imperial system of American rule is too expensive and burdened with inconsistencies, and based on an exaggerated accounting of American power (Ikenberry 2005). The asserts that Likewise, there are an array of incentives and impulses that will persuade the United States to try to organize unipolarity around multilateral rules and institutions. The United States may want to renegotiate rules and institutions in some global areas, but it ultimately will want to wield its power legitimately in a world of rules and institutions. It will also have incentives to build and strengthen regional and global institutions in preparation for a future 'after unipolarity'. The rising power of China, India, and other non-Western states presents a challenge to the old American-led order that will require new, expanded, and shared international governance arrangements (Ikenberry…… [Read More]
Therefore, there arose a need for the embracing of economic theory and political strategy that made this sort of free commerce possible (Porter, 2002, p. 44). In fulfillment of this need, the pure view of liberalism that was explained earlier was highly effective as a remedy (Miller, 1998, p.64). Under a liberal international order, free trade, political expression and human rights could be realized, in stark contrast to the deprivations and limitations of the wars that so recently threatened to destroy the entire planet.
Perhaps due to the liberalization of the international order, or in spite of it, the U.S.S.R. tightened restrictions on its economy and citizenry in the years after World War II, adding to the superpower's isolation and economic woes; eventually, however, this policy of separation and isolation eventually sealed the U.S.S.R.'s fate, and led to the collapse of Communism in the early 1990's. ecause of this collapse,…… [Read More]
international relations theory due to their background in agriculture related research and study, including a BSc. degree in agriculture, a master's degree was in agricultural development and a master's degree in sustainable development in agriculture. ith regard to sustainable development this applicant was struck by the number of issues that were purely related to an understanding of the nation state and the crisis that it now faces in the era of neoliberal globalization due to the growth in power and influence of non-state corporate entities that have become more powerful than traditional nation states.
hat is happening to date in globalization challenges all of the areas of international relations theory, whether using the approaches of realism, constructivism, or Marxism and critical theory, feminism, foundationalism, the "English school," functionalism, post-structuralism or post-colonialism. The overall topic of this author's research is ambitious. It will be to fuse the elements of all of…… [Read More]
" (Coleman, 2003)
Coleman states that by the very nature of international disputes and the states desiring to protect their national interest results in "all international disputes" becoming "inevitably political in nature..." (Coleman, 2003) Variation is noted in the 'degree of political volatility' that will exist and notes as well that "just how political a dispute will be extremely subjective." (Coleman, 2003) the dependent factors are stated to within a matrix of diverse factors affecting national interest and includes but is not limited to:
1) External economic pressures;
2) Domestic needs; and 3) National pride and prestige. (Coleman, 2003)
Coleman states that the suitability and capacity of the International Court of Justice has been questioned in regards to it 'comprehending and considering "...highly political matters or 'non-justiciable' issues." (Coleman, 2003) One example given is that of the "weapons embargo put in place by the Security Council during the conflict in…… [Read More]
political motive should be allowed to exercise within the context of morality otherwise the strongest will flourish at the expense of the weakest. The accommodation of morality within political decision-making is the essence of the central argument presented by Immanuel Kant in his work, "Perpetual Peace." This paper begins by summarizing Kant's "Perpetual Peace" and goes on to identify the realist and liberal aspects of his work. The paper ends by discussing the compatibility of Kant's ideas with classical realism.
KANT: PEPETUAL PEACE
The current international political environment is tilting towards a New World Order. This is due to the visible tension that is a product of interaction between the major world powers along with their national interests and the lesser world powers. This tension stems primarily from the desire to maintain power and protect one's own national interests at the expense of others. Several philosophers have suggested…… [Read More]
International relations studies is the specialization that focuses on the study of foreign affairs and the global events significantly influence the trend of the states that are within the international system. These systems are categorized as governments, countries, organizations and even people who are the main agents of relations and interchange between people within varying geographical locations (WITS University, 2014). There are pertinent issues that are involved in the study of international relations such as war, disease, democracy, poverty, diplomacy, globalization, economics and trade. The significance of continued study of international relations are numerous and important to any organization and governments. From the study of international reactions between two entities in the past, it is possible to predict the future and the significance and possible repercussions of some international decisions that a government or a president or even the organizations may take. International studies a reason geared towards having a…… [Read More]
Socialist states use a command and control management structure as a substitute for the profit motive. This structure is less efficient, so production levels cannot match those of capitalist states. Ultimately, the lack of productivity and the large number of distortions lead to economic collapse (Tesche, 1993).
Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the pace and nature of economic reforms has differed greatly in the former Soviet states. These range from regions with a virtual continuation of communist dictatorship (Belarus, Transnistria) to full-scale embrace of the free market (Estonia in particular). Russia's economy has only opened somewhat, and only to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). For the most part, the major firms in the economy are controlled by powerful businessmen with close ties to government. Freedom of capital flows has improved slightly, but the Russian economy overall remains under significant government control. The economy has grown substantially since…… [Read More]
As Ikenberry points out in his book's first chapter, institutions play different roles depending on the order structure currently in place, with hegemonic systems of governance relying on institutions to consolidate power and destabilize potential sources of opposition, and constitutional systems employing institutions to empower the citizenry and provide "checks and balances" to governmental authority (15).
Any comprehensive analysis of international order must also address the issue of disorder, and Ikenberry covers this aspect of the issue by examining historical instances of anarchistic rule. For as long as human beings have transformed naturally ethnic and cultural factions into organized nation states, the politically charged process of dividing the planet's limited territory has left certain groups without native land to call their own. The phenomenon of these so-called stateless nations has been produced by a confluence of geopolitical circumstances, but in all areas of the world there are cultural groups who…… [Read More]
International Corporation Walmart
Because of the abilities of the internet and the expansion of global interests, there are many more international corporations today than there were in the past. One of the largest and most recognized of those corporations is Walmart. It operates in nearly all developed countries in the world, and is one of the largest retailers on the planet (Fishman, 2006; Zook & Graham, 2006). While it started out small, the company has grown to enormous proportions. It has become so large that some countries and some communities have taken strong and significant steps to keep the company out. Not everyone is a fan of the company, and not all countries think Walmart is good for business. The way the company comes in and "takes over" is sometimes a problem for much smaller, "mom and pop" businesses that are not able to sell as inexpensively as Walmart. For…… [Read More]
The definition of democracy intensifies the ideals of the individual, as it regards the individual as a very important cog in the wheel of representation. In fact as the work points out the collective idea of social unrest lies not in individualism but in the fact that the individual ideal was to strong for third world political institutions to bear up under. (30) Yet, the individualistic ideals of today's society, are incongruent with true representation. We as members of "democratic" nation are taught to celebrate our differences and yet the human ability to celebrate any differences but our own is inherently flawed as individuals cannot recognize value in an "other" without much exposure and ideological challenge to themselves as a valuable individual defined by their differences. The self is, by its very nature associated with the ideal of better than, simply by the virtue of its separateness.
The stanch democratic…… [Read More]
I think the state should be neutral, and there should be opportunities for everyone, but that is not real life. I think that men mostly run government, but to call states patriarchal seems too extreme for me. I believe that there will be more opportunities for women both in government and the private sector, and that this is a wiser and less volatile outlook than the more radical feminist ideas. I do not have a problem with women or minorities in government, and I believe the state should encourage and make way for more of this type of participation.
As far as economic ideals are concerned, I believe a blend of the Minimalist and the Developmental state is the best alternative. I believe that capitalism is a good thing, but that wealth does not need to be distributed evenly, so I am not a fan of the socio-democratic state. I…… [Read More]
Articles 6 to 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural ights recognize the rights of people to work under decent conditions, join and form trade unions, collect social security, and enjoy a decent standard of living (Office for the High Commission of Human ights, 1996). International laws also aim to provide protection and assistance for the family, especially mothers, children and young people.
Further, articles 6 to 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights protect the right to life and prohibit torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (Office for the High Commission of Human ights, 1996). In addition, they hold that no one is to be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention and that all persons have the right to be treated with humanity. The provides for the establishment of a Human ights Committee responsible for supervising implementation of…… [Read More]
International expansion is one of the growth strategies that are embraced by companies in order to improve their bottom-line/profitability. In this paper, we present an elaborate international marketing strategy for ed Bull energy drink. The marketing plan begins with an introduction into the concept of international expansion and marketing and a brief overview of the company. A review of the main conclusions and recommendations is then presented. This is then followed by a discussion of internalization strategy. In this section, the context as well as context and reasons for the firm's internationalization initiation or expansion decision, as well as a discussion of the stage of internationalization at which your chosen firm finds itself. The next section is a discussion of the foreign market segmentation and targeting strategies. Under this section, we justify our choice of a market concentration or diversification strategy, incremental vs. simultaneous entry, the number of countries you…… [Read More]
International Disasters and Humanitarian Law
Great infrastructure damage and social dislocation have been common consequence of natural disasters and social disasters for example wars. The aims of relief and post-disaster reconstruction comprises of:
Instant physical relief of victims
eduction of social dislocation
estoration of a function of social organization and reparation of physical infrastructure
The major disaster or wars international actors are United Nations agencies and ed Cross Movement.
International policies and laws have played a greater impact in helping shift disaster relief and post-disaster reconstruction in that, whenever there is major disaster there is immediate establishment of a rescue and recovery command center under the body of the United Nations, ed Cross and affected governments; this aid in supervision of relief efforts participating foreign military such as U.S. forces being part of it. For example for the case where there was establishment of U.S. dominated command centre set at…… [Read More]
The extent of historical American involvement will also be considered.
In term of qualitative data, surveys will be conducted of demographic groups in the United States and Iraq. These groups will be approached by mail, email, or telephone. Survey questions will revolve around each person's understanding of democracy, the democratic process, and whether the respondents believe that the American government is currently promoting either or both. Finally, respondents will be asked for any suggestions to improve the democratization process in Iraq and countries similar to it.
Ethics and Limitations
To ensure the reliability of qualitative data, respondents will be allowed to remain anonymous when submitting their completed survey. They will also be assured that no data will be published individually, or without their prior consent. Consent forms to used their data will also be made available for respondents to sign.
Limitations could involve the unwillingness of citizens to respond honestly…… [Read More]
"Opening up the financial system to foreign capital flows can lead, and has led, to disastrous financial crises, which have resulted in great pain, suffering and even violence" (Mishkin, 2006, p.9).
Directly linked to the previous disadvantage and the basic definition of globalization, is the fact that the interdependence of sectors and institutions increases in a global market. In this instance then, a financial crisis within one country or within one institution is likely to generate negative effects upon its partners. The most relevant example of chain reaction to a financial crisis is the current situation, in which the global community is threatened with economic collapse due to the financial difficulties of the United States. The situation is similar in terms of politics or the social environment.
Globalization has often been assimilated with Americanization, meaning by this the desire of the American corporations to transcend boundaries and get access to…… [Read More]
International Risk Management
No profit was ever made without taking some financial risk. However, economists such as John Eatwell and Lance Taylor have argued in their text Global Finance at Risk: The Case for International Regulation that international financial markets are intrinsically and particularly apt to pose the threat of risk to potential investors on an individual and a corporate level. Investors in finance base their decisions on guesses, not only about how other investors within a nation will behave, but also about national stability, which affects the stability of the currency. As markets have grown more global in scope, industrialized countries often have pursued a more cautious monetary policy regarding other nations. However, too much caution can be risky too, Ultimately hesitancy in investment results not only in lost opportunities, but a climate of fear that can at its extremes generates international deflation, a depression in economic growth, and…… [Read More]
International Pol. Ec.
The four different scenarios laid out by the orld Economic Forum in 2009 paint distinctly different visions of the development of global financial markets. The four scenarios are financial regionalism, re-engineered estern centralism, fragmented protectionism and rebalanced multilateralism (yman, 2009). Of these four different scenarios, there is evidence late in 2010 that would support the evolution of two of these different scenarios. These scenarios, in particular the one with the most support, will be given primary consideration in this paper. The implications for these scenarios for my chosen company, an IT firm with a local focus, will also be discussed in this paper.
The EF scenario that fits the world best as of late 2010 is the first scenario, financial regionalism. This scenario relies on post-crisis blame-shifting, something that can be seen in the global political environment at present. The United States has raised serious issues about…… [Read More]
CTUR is an organization that was instituted in the year 1987 and brings together labor lawyers, unionists, reporters, and academics. Since its formation it has set up national committees in every continent and a global network of its members. t should be noted that this is a non-profit making organization and has the sole responsibility of protecting, improving and defending the rights of its members worldwide.
The main aims of this organization include defending and extending the rights of trade unions, and gather information and raise awareness of trade union rights and their infringements. This organization came as an answer to the cry of many unions with regard to the infringement of their rights by employers which include legal threat and violence. it's accreditation in 1993 came as a result of the recognition of its importance in defending the rights of trade unions and their members.
Structure and Funding
Given…… [Read More]
In the case of United States, Article 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code provides for practically all types of security agreements for owned property that are both for own use as also for commercial purposes. This type of agreements includes fixtures which mean personal property that is attached to the property, and the ready example can be a water heater. This does not include other liens taken on the property like the lien of a mechanic are not covered by this act, but are covered by the individual laws that govern them. There is also a statute of frauds and that requires a security agreement to be in writing for it to be valid, unless the property has been pledged for getting the loan. This sort of a pledge takes place when the borrowing party shifts the collateral to the lender of money in exchange for the loan that he…… [Read More]
International Human Resources
Culture, Political, Economic and ocial Contexts of Nigeria Under the ubject of International Human Resource Management.
This paper is solely related to the International human resources practices, the uses of international human resources aspects as well as implementation within Nigeria. The paper has been explored several positive and negative aspects of Nigeria related to IHRM and whether it is feasible for global companies to operate and use the labor of Nigeria for making higher profits over there.
International HRM growth and significance
After attaining global scale, any company may be bound to utilize numerous resources and opportunities like global scale, scope, local differences adaptation and tap into best resources and locations associated with global presence in Nigeria and other countries. These are important opportunities in Nigeria because after exploiting such opportunities, the global image can be transformed into top global image (Hollinshead 2010, pp.233-262).
The opportunities can…… [Read More]
International egulation of Tourism in Antarctica
Since the mid-1980s, Antarctica has been an increasingly popular tourist destination, despite the relative danger of visiting the largest, least explored -- and arguably least understood -- continent on earth. Beginning with the 1959 treaty establishing Antarctica as an international zone free of claims of sovereignty by nation's that had been instrumental in establishing research stations there, there has been almost constant negotiation about how to administer regulations pertaining to the preservation of life forms on the continent, what those regulations should be, and what sanctions should be applied and by whom.
To understand the depths of the negotiations, and the potential for discord, it is necessary to understand what the continent offer the 65% of global nations that are party to the 1959 and all subsequent treaties. To understand the possible future of Antarctica, it is necessary to outline treaty attempts to minimize…… [Read More]
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…… [Read More]
The problem is that poverty is far too widespread to respond significantly to the isolated work of a few organizations or individuals. Instead, Ahmed suggests that the concepts of zakah and awqaf should be included in development schemes and poverty reduction strategies. The advantage of such inclusion will be the perpetuation of concepts that are significantly important to all Muslims. It is also likely to trigger a sense of solidarity among citizens, along with providing a structure for targeted charitable work. It will also provide a valuable structure by which to ensure that the goods received by means of zakah and awqaf reach their correct destinies. In this regard, the concepts of zakah and awqaf can be implemented to fund the work of organizations such as Islamic elief. The concepts can also be integrated with organizations such as the tariqa in order to increase the impact upon poverty relief throughout…… [Read More]
On the other hand, the International Rescue Committee focuses on promoting human rights as one of the core of every innovative programs carried out by the organization. This major focus on human rights through the restoration of safety, hope and dignity to millions of refugees is one of the major relations of this organization with the ISCOR major at San Diego University.
Finally, the third major relation of the organization with the ISCOR major is that it serves as an opportunity where graduates of the program can apply their knowledge in helping IRC to accomplish its mission. This is largely due to the fact that students completing the major are prepared for careers that relate to international security and conflict resolution. Since the International Rescue Committee hits the ground in places with conflicts across the globe, graduates of this program can be used to help provide a way from harm…… [Read More]
International Energy Law
International Energy Arbitration
This paper will examine the role of arbitration in the international energy sector over the past 50 years. Discussion is organized around the five decades leading up to the current state of affairs in the international energy sector. In each section, major arbitrations are identified and tied to the categorical intention of arbitrations of that period. For instance, arbitration awards that occurred during a period of substantive concession agreements -- termed the first generation of concession agreements by Kosheri (n.d.) -- include the Abu Dhabi award of 1951, the Qatar award of 1953, and the Aramco award of 1958.
The next period, which occurred roughly in the 1960s and 1970s, was characterized by arbitration awards that evidenced a climate of confrontation, during which host nations took the position of abstaining from participation in arbitration proceedings. These nations were unilaterally interested in bringing the earlier…… [Read More]
The objective of this work in writing is to examine what it means to 'keep the peace' in the present age and the world facing challenges and threats of unprecedented scope, scale and complexity. The question addressed in this research is that which asks where in such endeavors are the existence of international institutions and legal doctrines likely to suffice and where are international institutions and legal doctrines likely to fall short?
The ole of International Law in the Modern World
In the National Strategy for Homeland Security it is stated that "virtually every community in America is connected to the global transportation network by the seaports, airports, highways pipelines, railroads, and waterways that move people and goods into, within, and out of the Nation. We must therefore promote the efficient and reliable flow of people, goods and services across borders, while preventing terrorists from using transportation conveyances…… [Read More]
Competitive strategy is the bedrock on which companies base business decisions to reach their targets and achieve profitability. Formulating and implementing strategies in international business is much more complicated and difficult task than doing so in home or familiar markets. Competitive strategy deals with the development of abilities by a firm to keep ahead of competitors in the fields in which it operates. Firms develop competitive edge in global markets by possessing certain assets, abilities or characteristics. The primary elements of competitive advantage are the critical offer, the significant operating factors and the firm's strategic resources. (ennett and lythe, 2002) Corporate strategies and international marketing strategies are linked closely and have a bearing on business performance. (rown, 1994)
While some companies focus on a single source of competitive advantage, it is common for many firms to opt for a combination of options to be flexible and attain the…… [Read More]
Only a few decades ago, China was a struggling economy. It is much newer in the free market economy system as compared to the already established economical giants, given the country's communist history. China, a country with an extremely high population, put its resources to its best possible advantage and that was something which contributed towards the country's rapid growth. China has one of the cheapest labor and energy and power resources available for its production. As a result, the industries can achieve economies of scale and thus can cut down on their cost of production. As a result, China enjoys a greater absolute advantage over its competitors. Importers around the world have realized the fact that importing goods from China is relatively much cheaper as compared to imports from other developed economies. These cheaper imports allow them a greater profit margin. Moreover, given the fragile economic conditions and declining…… [Read More]
And Article 25 of the Charter enjoins all members to "... accept and carry out the decisions of the Security Council (Turner)."
On the other hand, leading lawyers contended that ritain would violate international law if it also used armed force against Iraq like the U.S. (Waugh 2002). Two leading barristers Rabinder Singh QC and Alison MacDonald said that the use of force against Iraq would be justified only if its leaders directly attacked ritain or its allies or an attack was imminent. They added that the attack should not be one that could be averted except with the use of force. They required the UN Security Council to authorize the use of force in concrete and "clear terms." They believed that Security Council resolutions did not authorize such use of force against Iraq. The United Kingdom was not entitled to that last recourse. Another barrister said that the UK…… [Read More]
Politics and Lutheranism
The Reformation was as much a political phenomenon as it was a religious phenomenon. Although the Reformation was guided by common basic beliefs in the individual's capacity for salvation, it proceeded according to the political exigencies required in each country or principality it entered. The Reformation was highly flexible and succeeded for a number of reasons. First, there was no influential, well-heeled organization guiding Lutheranism as there was in Roman Catholicism. Second, Protestantism was less international and more local than Roman Catholicism, which was conducive for the development of local political power. Finally, Lutheran doctrines emphasized a more anti-authoritarian way of thinking which was to precede the Enlightenment.
Lutheranism in Germany
Lutheranism succeeded in Germany largely because of the region's political fragmentation, which offered no centralized authority to negotiate a peaceful sharing of power with the Catholic Church. (Gilbert) The centralized governments in Spain, France, and even…… [Read More]
e. Nutra Sweet). At the same time, they also had a number of failures, like when they company replaced the original formula for their soft drink with a new one. This led to a massive revolt among consumers, who did not want this product. Instead, they demanded something that could bring both of these elements together. At which point, Coke would begin utilizing the original formula, with the understanding that consumer tastes were very fickle. (Lamb 2008, pp. 255 -- 257)
This forced management to slow down on: how they are introducing new products to the market and concentrate on their core business model. During the 1990's this structure became challenging for Coke as: they had bottlers and distributors around the world (with no way to effectively collaborate on a host of different issues). This was problematic, because Pepsi was continuing to introduce products that were in demand. As they…… [Read More]
Other tools frequently used in this approach are positioning surveys and moving-average trend following trading rules. Fund managers regularly use these patterns to take informed decisions for short-term investments (Exchange ate Forecast, 2010).
Exchange rate risk affects both revenues and costs, which in turn affects a company's marketing, production, and financial decisions (Shapiro, n.d.). If a company's revenues are down then they might find themselves with less money to produce and market their product or service. If a company cannot produce or market their product or service they will probably not remain in business for very long. This is why it is so important to make financial decisions based upon a good model for forecasting exchange rates. A company's bottom line and ultimately their continued success rely heavily on their capability to have enough money to produce products and market them. A company that has no money to manufacture and…… [Read More]
" (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
The main objectives of the sustainable development are to: revive growth, change the quality of growth, satisfy the basic needs for jobs and subsidiary services, ensure a sustainable level of population, preserve the resources, reorient technology and control risk, consider both economy and environment in the decision making process, and reorient international economic relationships. (S. M. Lele, Sustainable Development" A Critical Review, p. 611)
Connections between the two
Harriss promotes the idea of disciplined economics and governance based on rules. Lele promotes the sustainable development, again a form of governance based on a strict set of rules. The idea at the basis of these two theories is practically the same: governance, economy and the entire human behavior should be based on a set of rules previously elaborated to protect the interests of the participants as well as the environment's.…… [Read More]
International Criminal Organizations
Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…… [Read More]
This is important, because establishing high standards for executives to follow will help to promote the company's long-term interests. The reason why, is because these standards are guiding officials about how they should be interacting with various governments. When you are holding staff accountable for their actions (through the various standards that have been implemented), this helps to improve the image of organization and increase its dominance in key areas. Where, this is establishing a tradition of following the basic cultural standards within a particular region. Yet, it is drawing a line when certain activities can become unacceptable. When you put these two elements together, they are highlighting how the code of conduct will serve as a way of helping to support the most ethical activities (from company executives around the globe). ("Microsoft Standards of usiness Conduct," 2010)
Does the company have any social programs in the country/countries where it…… [Read More]
Business communications are official and face-to-face meetings are always preferred to indirect communications.
At the specific level of negotiations, it is important to note that, during negotiations, only the seniors in the team will speak. The negotiation process is slow and advancements are made in an unhurried rhythm. The Chinese people are non-confrontational individuals and they will avoid saying "No." They will, instead, promise to think about the proposition, see about it and so on.
In China, the negotiations do not focus on specific and measurable goals, but their emphasis falls on assessing the negotiation partner and seeing whether the relationship can be further developed. Since the Chinese are calculated people, decision making will often take a lot of time, until the locals are convinced of their future actions. The American counterparts are advised to always remain calm, or they will lose "face" and irremediably damage the relationship. The foreigners…… [Read More]
This plan is focused on financial stability and profitability, through the reduction of operational costs. In this business strategy, outsourcing plays a crucial role.
Dunai, M., 2012, Hungarian town suffers as Nokia announces big layoffs, euters, http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/08/us-hungary-nokia-idUSTE8171OU20120208 last accessed on March 21, 2012
Haikio, M., 2002, Nokia: the inside story, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273659839
Layard, ., Nickell, S., Eichorst, W., Zimmermann, K.F., 2011, Combating unemployment, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199609780
Louis, P.J., Nokia restructuring and issues with outsourcing strategy, Venture Outsource, http://www.ventureoutsource.com/contract-manufacturing/product-market-segments/cell-phones-handsets/nokia-restructuring-and-issues-with-outsourcing-strategy last accessed on March 21, 2012
aby, M., 2012, Nokia announces more major layoffs, TG Daily, http://www.tgdaily.com/mobility-brief/61315-nokia-announces-more-major-layoffs last accessed on March 21, 2012
ugman, a.M., 2007, Multinational enterprises from engineering markets, Berlin oundtable
ugman, a.M., 2009, the Oxford handbook of international business, 2nd edition, Oxford Handbooks Online, ISBN 0199234256
2011, Foreign minister lobbying in Helsinki to keep Nokia in Hungary, Budapest Business Journal, http://www.bbj.hu/politics/foreign-minister-lobbying-in-helsinki-to-keep-nokia-in-hungary-nepszabadsag_61055 last accessed on…… [Read More]
Thirdly, an advantage of the TO treaty is that it protects individual privacy when it comes to the "processing and dissemination of personal data and the protection of confidentiality of individual records and accounts" (www.wto.org). That issue came up because consumer advocate Ralph Nader was quoted as saying, "Particularly in the area of Internet privacy protections, the TO is forcing governments to forego sovereign privacy protections deemed to be overly restrictive to international trade" (www.wto.org). The TO's answer to that the trade deal signed by 123 nations "has had nothing whatever to do with internet privacy" and indeed a safeguard is built into the General Exceptions in Article XIV regarding processing and dissemination of personal data, as mentioned at the top of this paragraph.
The fourth advantage of international trade under the auspices of the TO is that deals signed cannot force any country to move towards the privatization…… [Read More]
This also helps indicate the U.S. is indeed a nation and a nation with conflicting goals and ideals for many.
It is interesting that Heywood notes that in nations, there is a growing trend against nationalism and socialism toward religious fundamentalism. This is very clear in the Middle East, but it also seems to be taking place in the U.S. Just last week the national news reported there are a group of disgruntled Republicans who do not like the way the party is becoming more "liberal," and want to form a third, ultra-conservative, Christian Republican party. This seems to fly in the face of the Constitution, which clearly separates church and state, but it also seems to be a natural progression in nationalism as Heywood sees it.
Thus, the United States is indeed a nation; it fits the definition of several forms of nationalism that Heywood discusses. Just like states,…… [Read More]
Home to the world's tenth largest economy and second largest population, India defies swift generalization. It includes a vast range of developmental situations, cultures, languages, and climates. The country remains largely rural, with just 26% of its people living in cities. Yet in 1995 it had over 30 cities of one million or more residents, including three of the world's 20 largest cities -- Bombay, Calcutta, and Delhi -- according to United Nations estimates (The Anguish of India, 1997).
Currently Indian labor laws, regulations, and workforce standards are very outdated. India is plagued with corruption. India has been ranked 9th in a list of 75 countries where dishonest practices are common, which is indeed an uncertain distinction. The corruptions, delays, bureaucratic red tape, and archaic labor laws are ingrained in India's business culture. These pitfalls have deterred foreign investors from investing in India (Stokes, 2003).
From the…… [Read More]
The combination of the factors is showing how the Ukraine is the ideal environment for GE to construct this kind of plant. ("Ukraine's Solar Energy Industry")
Evidence of this can be seen with Activ Solar. This Australian-based firm; is the owner of one of the largest solar power plants in all of Europe. At the same time, they have tremendous operations producing components for the facility. This is allowing the firm to reduce their costs and become one of the largest players (for alternative energy). In the case of GE, this is an ideal location that will help the company to establish itself inside the sector. ("Ukraine's Solar Energy Industry")
The Ukraine vs. The Philippines Political Situation
In contrast to the Philippines, the government has been slow to respond in dealing with challenges such as improving infrastructure. At the same time, they are ineffective in collecting tax revenues and using…… [Read More]
During the inter-war years, Nazism strengthened its populist support by emphasizing its nationalist ideology, thus drawing on the German traditions of the 19th century and gaining strength from the disillusion that had set in after the defeat in World War I. Hitler's policies for Germany included the resurgence of a Greater Germany, by instilling the German people with a renewed sense of purpose in order to inspire, "the miracle of Germany's emergence as a nation" (Berwick, 20). This rejuvenated nation would also include Austria and the German-speaking people who had been lost to Poland and Czechoslovakia in 1919. Before 1933, Hitler played on the unjustness of the Versailles Treaty and, between 1933 and 1939 repeatedly claimed that he was reasserting the national rights of Germany, which included the publicly popular issue of territorial claims (Payne, 1995). Therefore, the reoccupation of the hineland in 1936, the occupation of…… [Read More]
The Machiavellian Characteristics of President George . Bush
George . Bush has followed in his fathers' footsteps, becoming the 43rd President of the U.S., holding office between 2001 and 2009. He is a president that held power during a notable period, with the 9/11 attacks occurring only a year into his presidency. Like any U.S. president, there will be a number of controversial issues associated with his presidency, including the way action was taken in Iraq. In hindsight it may be argued that President Bush was acting in a very Machiavellian manner, aligned with Machiavelli's ideal Prince.
The alignment between the prince and Bush may not be surprising when it is realized that both a principle adviser to the president; Karl Rove, as well as Republic strategists and friend, Lee Atwater where both avid fans of Machiavelli (Phillips 147). However, to argue the likeness requires an examination of examples…… [Read More]
' (Adams, 1982) Local agencies helped the magistrate, remedied public mores, and also inspected the conduct of the "Hyangni" and served as power base for the local "yangbans. "Yangbans" were dispatched to the province from the capital. Yangbans -- constituted of the class of advantaged / privileged civil and military servicemen. Yangins constituted of middle-level bureaucrats, peasants and merchants, whose children were allowed to sit the exam for governance service. "Chungins" -- were technical personnel and professional specialists composed of the side children of 'Yangbans"
Leonid (2011) points out that 'The literati composed of the dominant social class in Choson Korea. Most of them were the "Yangbans" the members of the two orders of officialdom who served as civil or military officials.' Since it was this yangbans who directed the government, economy and culture of Choson Korea, it may be designated a Yangban society as opposed to the aristocratic society…… [Read More]